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1.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 64-69, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012305

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the incidence, treatment, and survival outcomes of Swyer syndrome with gonadal non-dysgerminoma malignant germ cell tumor (MGCT-NDG). Methods: A retrospective study was performed on Swyer syndrome patients with MGCT-NDG between January 2011 and December 2022 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital to investigate their characteristics and outcomes. Results: A total of 15 patients (4.9%, 15/307) with Swyer syndrome were identified in 307 MGCT-NDG patients. The average age at diagnosis of MGCT-NDG and Swyer syndrome were (16.8±6.7) and (16.7±6.6) years, respectively. Six cases were preoperatively diagnosed as Swyer syndrome, of which 4 cases received bilateral gonadectomy with or without hysterectomy, while the other 2 cases underwent removal of gonadal tumor and unilateral gonadectomy with hysterectomy, respectively. Of the 9 patients postoperatively diagnosed as Swyer syndrome, unilateral gonadectomy, removal of gonadal tumor, and unilateral gonadectomy with hysterectomy were performed in 6 patients, 2 patients, and 1 patient, respectively. Mixed malignant germ cell tumor (MGCT;10 cases), yolk sac tumor (4 cases), and immature teratoma (1 case) were the pathological subtypes, in the descending order. There were International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage Ⅰ in 6 cases, stage Ⅱ in 3 cases, stage Ⅲ in 5 cases, and stage Ⅳ in 1 case, respectively. Eleven patients received reoperation for residual gonadectomy after a average delay of (7.9±6.2) months, including 8 MGCT-NDG patients and 1 gonadoblastoma patient, no tumor involved was seen in the remaining gonads in the other 2 cases. Ten patients experienced at least one recurrence, with a median event free survival of 9 months (5, 30 months), of which 2 patients received surgery only at the time of initial treatment. All patients with recurrence received surgery and combined with postoperative chemotherapy. After a median follow-up of 25 months (15, 42 months), 10 patients were disease-free, 3 patients died of the tumor, 1 died of side effects of leukemia chemotherapy, and 1 survived with disease. Conclusion: The incidence rate of Swyer syndrome in patients with MGCT-NDG is about 4.9%; timely diagnosis and bilateral gonadectomy should be emphasized to reduce the risk of reoperation and second carcinogenesis in this population.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XY/surgery , Gonadoblastoma/surgery , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/surgery , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology
2.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(4): 291-296, Diciembre 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1518709

ABSTRACT

Los tumores de células germinales (TCGs) se forman a partir de células embrionarias y generalmente se presentan en pacientes de entre 11 y 30 años de edad. Los TCG pue-den presentarse como tumores extragonadales, siendo el mediastino anterior el sitio más común en el 50 a 70% de los casos. Presentamos a un paciente masculino de 21 años con un tumor sólido mediastinal de 17 x 15 cm que, de acuerdo a la tomografía de tórax (TC), ocupaba toda la cavidad torácica izquierda desplazando el corazón ha-cia la cavidad torácica derecha. El estudio patológico fue reportado por el patólogo co-mo un TCG.


Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are formed from embryonic cells and usually occur in patients between age 11 and 30 years. GCT can present as extra-gonadal tumors, with the an-terior mediastinum being the most common site in 50 to 70% of cases. We present a 21-year-old male patient with a solid mediastinal tumor of 17 x 15 cm that, according to the chest tomography (CT), it was occupying the entire left thoracic cavity moving the heart towards the right thoracic cavity. The pathological study was reported by the pathologist as a GCT tumor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Teratoma/diagnosis , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/surgery , Mediastinal Neoplasms/surgery , Biopsy , Tomography , Biomarkers, Tumor
3.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 347-352, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985678

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features and possible mechanisms of burned-out testicular germ cell tumors. Methods: The clinical and imaging data, histology and immunophenotypic characteristics of three cases of burned-out testicular germ cell tumors diagnosed at the Ruijin Hospital, Medical College of the Shanghai Jiaotong University, from 2016 to 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The relevant literature was reviewed. Results: The mean age of the three patients was 32 years. Case 1 had an elevated preoperative alpha-fetoprotein level (810.18 μg/L) and underwent "radical pancreaticoduodenectomy and retroperitoneal lesion resection" for a retroperitoneal mass. Postoperative pathology showed embryonal carcinoma, which needed to exclude gonadal metastasis. Color Doppler ultrasound showed a solid mass of the right testis, with hypoechoic lesion and scattered calcification in some areas. Case 2 was a "right supraclavicular lymph node biopsy specimen." Chest X-ray showed multiple metastases in both lungs. The biopsy showed metastatic embryonic carcinoma and bilateral testicular color Doppler ultrasound revealed abnormal calcifications in the right testicle. Case 3 showed a cystic mass of the right testis with calcification and solid areas. All 3 patients underwent radical right orchiectomy. Grossly, borders of the testicular scar areas were well defined. Cross sectioning of the tumors showed a gray-brown cut surface and single focus or multiple foci of the tumor. The tumor maximum diameter was 0.6-1.5 cm. Microscopically, lymphocytes, plasma cells infiltration, tubular hyalinization, clustered vascular hyperplasia and hemosiderin laden macrophages were found in the scar. Atrophic and sclerotic seminiferous tubules, proliferation of clustered Leydig cells and small or coarse granular calcifications in seminiferous tubules were present around the scar. Seminoma and germ cell neoplasia in situ were seen in case 1, germ cell neoplasia in situ was seen in case 2 and germ cells with atypical hyperplasia were seen in case 3. Immunohistochemistry showed that embryonic carcinoma expressed SALL4, CKpan(AE1/AE3) and CD30, seminoma and germ cell tumor in situ expressed OCT3/4, SALL4 and CD117, and spermatogenic cells with atypical hyperplasia expressed CD99 and SALL4. The Ki-67 positive index was about 20%, while OCT3/4 and CD117 were both negative. Conclusions: Burned-out testicular germ cell tumors are rare. The possibility of gonad testicular metastasis should be considered first for extragonadal germ cell tumor. If fibrous scar is found in testis, it must be determined whether it is a burned-out testicular germ cell tumor. The burned-out mechanisms may be related to the microenvironment of tumor immune-mediated and local ischemic injury.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Seminoma/secondary , Cicatrix/pathology , Hyperplasia , Retrospective Studies , China , Testicular Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/surgery , Calcinosis , Carcinoma , Tumor Microenvironment
4.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 33(3): [273-280], 2023.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1531959

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El teratoma quístico maduro es un tipo de tumor derivado de las células germinales que aparece en pacientes en edad fértil. La edad más frecuente de aparición de este tipo de tumores es entre los 20 y40 años.Caso clínico: Se presenta el caso de una paciente adolescente de 18 años con masa abdominal gigante de crecimiento abrupto cuya presentación fue atípica dado el tamaño de esta, el cual se manifestó con dolor abdominal agudo.Tratamiento: Se realiza resección de la masa la cual confirma el diagnóstico histopatológico de teratoma quístico maduro.Conclusión: Este tipo de patologías rara vez se presentan con un crecimiento tan exagerado como el caso de la paciente en mención, y la resolución quirúrgica sigue siendo el gold estándar en cuanto al tratamiento.Palabras clave:DeCS: Teratoma, Células germinativas embrionarias, Adolescente, Neoplasias


Introduction: Mature cystic teratoma is a type of tumor derived from germ cells that appears in patients of childbearing age. The most common age at which this type of tumor appearsis 20 to40.Clinical case: The case of an 18-year-old adolescent patient with a giant abdominal mass of abrupt growth is presented, whose presentation was atypical given its size, which manifested with acute abdominal pain Treatment: Amass resection confirmedthehistopathological diagnosis of mature cystic ter-atoma.Conclusion: This type of pathology rarely presents with growth as exaggerated as in the case of the patient mentioned. Surgicalresolution continues to be the gold standard in terms of treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Teratoma , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Ovary
5.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(1): 166-173, 20221230. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415994

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El retroperitoneo es una estructura que se extiende desde el diafragma hasta la pelvis, está delimitado adelante por el peritoneo parietal, atrás y a los lados por la fascia transversalis y se divide en 9 compartimientos. Se pueden encontrar lesiones primarias o secundarias, cuya evolución clínica varía desde un curso indolente hasta rápidamente progresivo, tanto local como a distancia. Su enfoque, desde el hallazgo hasta el tratamiento, es fundamental para el desenlace oncológico. Objetivo. Analizar la evaluación, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de las masas retroperitoneales halladas incidentalmente y brindar un algoritmo de manejo. Métodos. Se hizo búsqueda en bases de datos como PubMed y MedicalKey de literatura referentes a tumores retroperitoneales, su diagnóstico y enfoque terapéutico, con el fin de presentar una revisión sobre el abordaje de las masas retroperitoneales y dar nuestras opiniones. Resultados. Se revisaron 43 referencias bibliográficas internacionales y nacionales, y se seleccionaron 20 de ellas, de donde se obtuvieron datos actualizados, recomendaciones de guías internacionales y experiencias nacionales, con lo cual se estructuró este manuscrito. Conclusiones. Las masas retroperitoneales abarcan un espectro de patologías que establecen un reto diagnóstico por su origen embriológico, localización y baja frecuencia. El diagnostico histológico es de vital importancia desde el inicio, para conocer la evolución natural de la enfermedad, y el manejo multidisciplinario en centros de referencia es fundamental para impactar en los desenlaces oncológicos. Existen variadas modalidades terapéuticas, como quimioterapia, radioterapia y resección quirúrgica con estándares oncológicos


Introduction. The retroperitoneum is an structure that extends from the diaphragm to the pelvis, bounded anteriorly by the parietal peritoneum, posteriorly and laterally by the transversalis fascia, and it is divided into 9 compartments. We can find primary or secondary lesions whose clinical evolution varies from an indolent course to a rapidly progressive one, both local and distant. Its approach from discovery to diagnosis and treatment is essential for the oncological outcomes. Objective. To analyze the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of incidental retroperitoneal masses according to their origin and to provide a management algorithm. Methods. An updated literature search was carried out in databases such as PubMed and Medical Key on retroperitoneal tumors, therapeutic approach and diagnosis, obtaining national and international information to carry out a review article on the approach to retroperitoneal masses.Results. Forty-three international and national bibliographic references were reviewed, based on 20 updated data, recommendations from international guidelines and national experiences were obtained, with which a review and opinion manuscript was structured.Conclusions. Retroperitoneal masses cover a spectrum of pathologies that establish a diagnostic challenge due to their embryological origin, location and low frequency. Histological diagnosis is of vital importance from the beginning to know the natural evolution of the disease and multidisciplinary management in reference centers is essential to impact oncological outcomes. There are many therapeutic modalities from chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical resection with oncological standards


Subject(s)
Humans , Peritoneum , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Incidental Findings , Sarcoma , Surgical Oncology , Lymphoma , Neoplasms
7.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 405-410, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936330

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the inhibitory effect of RSL3 on the proliferation, invasion and migration of cisplatinresistant testicular cancer cells (I-10/DDP) and the effect of carbenoxolone on the activity of RSL3 against testicular cancer.@*METHODS@#MTT assay was used to evaluate the survival rate of I-10/DDP cells following treatment with RSL3 (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32 μmol/L) alone or in combination with carbenoxolone (100 μmol/L) or after treatment with Fer-1 (2 μmol/L), RSL3 (4 μmol/L), RSL3+Fer-1, RSL3+carbenoxolone (100 μmol/L), or RSL3+Fer-1+carbenoxolone. Colony formation assay was used to assess the proliferation ability of the treated cells; wounding-healing assay and Transwell assay were used to assess the invasion and migration ability of the cells. The expression of GPX4 was detected using Western blotting, the levels of lipid ROS were detected using C11 BODIPY 581/591 fluorescent probe, and the levels of Fe2+ were determined with FerroOrange fluorescent probe.@*RESULTS@#RSL3 dose-dependently decreased the survival rate of I-10/DDP cells, and the combined treatment with 2, 4, or 8 μmol/L RSL3 with carbenoxolone, as compared with RSL3 treatment alone, resulted in significant reduction of the cell survival rate. The combination with carbenoxolone significantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of RSL3 on colony formation, wound healing rate (P=0.005), invasion and migration of the cells (P < 0.001). Fer-1 obviously attenuated the inhibitory effects of RSL3 alone and its combination with carbenoxolone on I-10/DDP cells (P < 0.01). RSL3 treatment significantly decreased GPX4 expression (P=0.001) and increased lipid ROS level (P=0.001) and Fe2+ level in the cells, and these effects were further enhanced by the combined treatment with carbenoxolone (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Carbenoxolone enhances the inhibitory effect of RSL3 on the proliferation, invasion and migration of cisplatin-resistant testicular cancer cells by promoting RSL3-induced ferroptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Carbenoxolone/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cisplatin/pharmacology , Ferroptosis , Fluorescent Dyes/pharmacology , Lipids , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Reactive Oxygen Species , Testicular Neoplasms
8.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 222-226, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936138

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize and analyze the clinical characteristics of children with basal ganglia germinoma and to improve the level of early clinical diagnosis.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of children diagnosed with basal ganglia germinoma admitted to the Pediatric Surgery Ward of Peking University First Hospital from January 2013 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the clinical characteristics of children with basal ganglia germinoma.@*RESULTS@#A total of 30 patients were included in the study, 28 were male, 2 were female, the mean age at onset was (9.7±2.2) years, the median disease duration was 7 months, 27 had unilateral disease, and 3 had bilateral disease. The clinical manifestations were decreased limb muscle strength, cognitive function disorders, polydipsia, precocious puberty, intracranial hypertension, dysphonia and swallowing dysfunction. The serum and cerebrospinal fluid tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were normal in the 30 patients, and the serum and cerebrospinal fluid tumor marker β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) were normal in 8 patients.The serum β-HCG was normal in 11 patients but the cerebrospinal fluid β-HCG was slightly elevated, and the serum and cerebrospinal fluid β-HCG were slightly elevated in 11 patients. A total of 33 lesions with irregular shapes were found by imaging examination, including 15 (45.5%) patchy lesions, 10 (30.3%) patchy lesions, and 8 (24.2%) round-like high-density lesions. Tumors showed obvious high-density shadows on computed tomography (CT) scan. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the tumors showed low or isointensity on T1WI and isointensity on T2WI, accompanied by mild peritumoral edema, hemispheric atrophy, cerebral peduncle atrophy, calcification, cystic degeneration, ventricular dilatation and wallerian degeneration. On contrast-enhanced scans, the tumor showed no enhancement or heterogeneous enhancement.@*CONCLUSION@#The main age of onset of germ cell tumors in the basal ganglia in children is about 10 years old, and males are absolutely dominant. The clinical features and imaging manifestations have certain characteristics. With both combined, the early diagnosis of germ cell tumors in the basal ganglia can be improved.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Atrophy/pathology , Basal Ganglia/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human , Germinoma/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Retrospective Studies
9.
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies ; : 97-102, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-962074

ABSTRACT

@#We report a case of a 24-year-old Filipino male who complained of general weakness, polydipsia, weight loss, bitemporal headaches, loss of libido and behavioral changes. Endocrine work-up revealed neurogenic diabetes insipidus and panhypopituitarism. Brain MRI showed multiple intracranial tumors in the left frontal lobe, pineal and suprasellar region with moderate non-communicating hydrocephalus. Intracranial mass biopsy with ventriculo-peritoneal shunting was done. Histopathology of the mass and CSF revealed a germinoma. He underwent chemoradiotherapy while on maintenance hormone replacement.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Germinoma , Hypopituitarism , Diabetes Insipidus
10.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 407-412, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935554

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate immunohistochemical patterns of CXorf67 and H3K27me3 proteins in central nervous system germ cell tumors (GCTs) and to assess their values in both diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Methods: A total of 370 cases of central nervous system GCTs were collected from 2013 to 2020 at Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. The expression of CXorf67, H3K27me3 and commonly-used GCT markers including OCT4, PLAP, CD117, D2-40, and CD30 by immunohistochemistry (EnVision method) was examined in different subtypes of central nervous system GCTs. The sensitivity and specificity of each marker were compared by contingency table and area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Of the 370 cases there were 282 males and 88 females with a mean age of 19 years and a median age of 17 years (range, 2-57 years). Among the GCTs with germinoma, the proportions of male patients and the patients with GCT located in sellar region were both higher than those of GCTs without germinoma (P<0.05), respectively. CXorf67 was present in the nuclei of germinoma and normal germ cells, but not in other subtypes of GCT. H3K27me3 was negative in germinoma, but positive in the nuclei of surrounding normal cells and GCTs other than germinoma. In the 283 GCTs with germinoma components, the expression rate of CXorf67 was 90.5% (256/283), but no cases were positive for H3K27me3. There was also an inverse correlation between them (r2=-0.831, P<0.01). The expression rates of PLAP, OCT4, CD117 and D2-40 were 81.2% (231/283), 89.4% (253/283), 73.9% (209/283) and 88.3% (250/283), respectively. In 63 mixed GCTs with germinoma components, the expression rate of CXorf67 was 84.1% (53/63), while all cases were negative for H3K27me3. The expression rates of PLAP, OCT4, CD117 and D2-40 were 79.4% (50/63), 79.4% (50/63), 66.7% (42/63) and 87.3% (55/63), respectively. The 6 markers with largest area under ROC curve in ranking order were H3K27me3, CXorf67, D2-40, OCT4, PLAP and CD117 (P<0.05). Conclusions: CXorf67 and H3K27me3 have high sensitivity and high specificity in diagnosing germinoma. There is a significant inverse correlation between them. Therefore, they can both be used as new specific immunohistochemical markers for the diagnosis of GCTs.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Central Nervous System/pathology , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/metabolism , China , Germinoma/pathology , Histones , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/diagnosis , Oncogene Proteins , Transcription Factors/metabolism
11.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 201-206, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928532

ABSTRACT

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a new form of ultrasound (US) that can dynamically display microvessels in a highly sensitive manner. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of CEUS for characterizing testicular lesions in comparison with conventional US. Forty-seven patients with testicular lesions were enrolled. The histopathology results revealed that 31 cases were neoplastic (11 cases of seminomas, 8 nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, 8 lymphomas, 2 Leydig cell tumors, and 2 nonspecific tumors), and 16 cases were nonneoplastic (8 cases of infarctions, 3 epidermoid cysts, and 5 inflammation). The indicators of shallow lobulated morphology and cystic-solid echogenicity on conventional US were suggestive of germ cell tumors. More indicators on CEUS were found to be useful for characterizing testicular lesions. All the neoplastic lesions showed hyperenhancement on CEUS. Moreover, germ cell tumors presented with heterogeneous enhancement (73.7%, 14/19), a twisted blood vessel pattern, rapid wash-in and wash-out, and peripheral rim hyperenhancement signs. Lymphoma was characterized by nonbranching linear vessel patterns (87.5%, 7/8), rapid wash-in and slow wash-out. In nonneoplastic lesions, infarction and epidermoid cysts showed no enhancement, and abscesses were observed with marginal irregular enhancement. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CEUS for differentiating between neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions were 100%, 93.8%, and 97.9%, respectively, and these values were higher than those for conventional US (90.3%, 62.5%, and 80.9%, respectively). CEUS can sensitively reflect the microvascular perfusion in testicular lesions and offers high accuracy for characterizing them.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Contrast Media , Diagnosis, Differential , Epidermal Cyst , Lymphoma , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/diagnostic imaging , Sensitivity and Specificity , Testicular Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods
12.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 25(2): 79-92, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376831

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los tumores de células germinales (TCG) son las neoplasias malignas más comunes y afectan especialmente a hombres jóvenes de 15 a 35 años de edad. Los pacientes con estadios 2 y 3 que recaen ofrecen un gran reto para el tratamiento inicial de la primera recaída. La terapia óptima para estos pacientes depende de su tratamiento inicial y está pobremente definida. Las opciones incluyen regímenes de segunda línea de quimioterapia a dosis convencionales que combinan cisplatino e ifosfamida, con vinblastina, etopósido o paclitaxel, o quimioterapia de altas dosis con soporte de células madre. En vista de que todavía no hay evidencia concluyente en los ensayos clínicos, las indicaciones para el uso de quimioterapia de altas dosis permanecen poco claras y se basan en estudios fundamentalmente retrospectivos. El tratamiento en la segunda recaída debe individualizarse según el paciente y el tratamiento previo. La resección quirúrgica de masas residuales luego de la quimioterapia es un elemento clave para una terapia exitosa en pacientes con marcadores tumorales negativos. Actualmente, en Venezuela los pacientes que presentan recaídas deben recibir tratamiento con cualquiera de los regímenes establecidos que se utilizan a dosis convencionales en segunda línea. En algunos casos, los pacientes deben recibir tratamiento en centros de oncología con un manejo multidisciplinario que permita el acceso a tratamiento con altas dosis de quimioterapia y a cirujanos oncólogos expertos en esta patología.


Abstract Germ cell tumors (GCT) are the most common malignant neoplasms affecting young men aged 15 to 35 years. Patients with previous stage 2 and 3 who relapse offer a great challenge to the Medical team. The optimal therapy for these patients with recurrent disease is still poorly defined. Options include second-line chemotherapy regimens at conventional doses which combine cisplatin and ifosfamide, with vinblastine, etoposide or paclitaxel, or alternatively high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support. As there is still no conclusive evidence from clinical trials, the indications for the use of high-dose chemotherapy remain unclear. Most of the present literature is based in retrospective studies. Second relapse treatment options should be individualized according to the patient and his previous treatment. Surgical resection of residual masses in patients with negative markers after chemotherapy is a key element for successful therapy. Currently, patients in Venezuela who have relapses should receive treatment with any of the established regimens that are used at conventional doses in the second line, however in some cases they should receive treatment in an oncology center with a multidisciplinary team having access to treatment with high dose chemotherapy and to oncologist surgeons who are experts in this area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Therapeutics , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Dosage , Germ Cells
13.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 25(2): 93-102, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376832

ABSTRACT

Resumen El mieloma múltiple (MM) es una neoplasia originada de células B, secundaria a diversas mutaciones post-germinales y cuya característica es el desarrollo de una clona de células plasmáticas que secretan un subtipo específico de inmunoglobulina conocido como el componente monoclonal. Dentro de las manifestaciones clínicas más comunes se encuentran tanto la anemia, la enfermedad renal y las lesiones óseas, pero cada vez son más los casos que muestran al diagnóstico manifestaciones clínicas atípicas que pueden influir con el pronóstico y con la calidad de vida. Debido a que el tratamiento moderno del MM es altamente prometedor, es necesario identificar aquellas condiciones clínicas que limitan la eficacia terapéutica.


Abstract Germ cell tumors (GCT) are the most common malignant neoplasms affecting young men aged 15 to 35 years. Patients with Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell neoplasm secondary to various post-germline mutations, characterized by the development of a clone of plasma cells that secrete a specific subtype of immunoglobulin known as the monoclonal component. Anemia, kidney disease, and bone lesions are among the most common clinical manifestations. However, cases showing atypical clinical manifestations that can influence prognosis and quality of life are becoming increasingly frequent. Given that modern MM treatment is highly promising, it is necessary to identify those clinical conditions that limit therapeutic efficacy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnosis , Anemia , Multiple Myeloma , Signs and Symptoms , Therapeutics , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 495-502, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154505

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Testicular cancer is considered a rare disease affecting approximately 1% to 2% of the male population. This neoplasm has a cure rate of over 95%; as a result, a major concern is the future of fertility of carriers from this disease. There are several histological subtypes of testicular tumors; however, the Testicular Germ Cell Tumors (TGCTs), comprising both seminoma and non-seminoma tumors, are considered the main subtypes of testicular neoplasms. TGCT are characterized by being a solid tumor that mostly affects young men aged between 15 and 40 years old. While TGCT subtypes may have an invasive potential, seminoma subtype does not affect other cells rather than germ cells, while non-seminomas have more invasive properties and can achieve somatic cells; thus, having a more aggressive nature. This research intends to review the literature regarding information about sperm parameters, correlating the data found in those studies to the subfertility and infertility of patients with TCGTs. Furthermore, it will also correlate the data to the non-seminoma and seminoma histological subtypes from pre- and post-cancer therapy. PubMed databases were used. Searched keywords included: seminoma AND non-seminoma; male infertility; germ cell tumor; chemotherapy AND radiotherapy. Only articles published in English were considered. Current studies demonstrate that both TGCT subtypes promote deleterious effects on semen quality resulting in decreased sperm concentration, declined sperm total motility and an increase in the morphology alterations. However, findings suggest that the non-seminoma subtype effects are more pronounced and deleterious. More studies will be necessary to clarify the behavior of seminoma and non-seminoma tumors implicating the reproductive health of male patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Testicular Neoplasms/therapy , Seminoma , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/therapy , Spermatozoa , Semen Analysis
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): e149-e152, abril 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1152046

ABSTRACT

Los tumores ováricos, a diferencia de lo que sucede en la edad adulta, son infrecuentes en la población pediátrica. Predomina la estirpe germinal, con altas tasas de supervivencia. El objetivo de este estudio es presentar la epidemiología, clínica, diagnóstico y tratamiento de las pacientes de 0-15 años con diagnóstico, entre 2007 y 2017, de tumor ovárico en nuestro centro. Fueron 8 los casos encontrados de 171 tumores diagnosticados (el 4,7 %), con edad media de presentación de 12,5 años. Predominaban, al momento del debut, alteraciones menstruales, dolor abdominal y aumento de perímetro abdominal. Fueron de tipo germinal 6/8, y el teratoma maduro fue el más frecuente. Todas se diagnosticaron con ecografía abdominal, y se confirmó el diagnóstico en 7/8 con resonancia magnética. Se intervinieron todos los casos; predominó la salpingo-ooforectomía, y una paciente precisó quimioterapia adyuvante. La supervivencia libre de enfermedad fue del 100 %.


Unlike adults, ovarian tumors are infrequent in the pediatric population, predominating the germ line at this age, with high survival rates. The objective is to present the epidemiological, clinical, diagnosis and therapeutic characteristics of 0 to 15-year-old patients diagnosed with ovarian tumor in our center between 2007 and 2017.Eight cases out of 171 diagnosed tumors (4.7 %) were found, with a mean age of presentation of 12.5 years. At the moment of diagnosis, menstrual disturbances, abdominal pain and an increase in abdominal circumference predominated. Six out of eight were germ cell tumors, being the mature teratoma the most frequent one. All cases were diagnosed with abdominal ultrasound scan, confirmed in 7/8 cases with magnetic resonance imaging. All cases underwent surgery, predominating salpingo-oophorectomy with one patient requiring adjuvant chemotherapy. Disease-free survival was 100 %.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Ovarian Neoplasms/surgery , Biomarkers, Tumor , Retrospective Studies , Salpingo-oophorectomy
17.
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 30(2): 112-116, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1411115

ABSTRACT

Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio, fue describir las complicaciones intraoperatorias y postoperatorias, así como la necesidad de cirugías concomitantes en la linfadenectomía retroperitoneal postquimioterapia en un centro de referencia de manejo de cáncer. Métodos Se recolectaron datos de una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes con diagnóstico de tumor germinal de origen testicular que hubiesen recibido quimioterapia y en quienes se documentó tumor residual retroperitoneal y fueron sometidos a LRP-PC durante 12 años en un centro de referencia de manejo de cáncer. Resultados Se practicó LRP-PC a 64 pacientes. La edad promedio al momento de la cirugía fue 28,1 años (18-47 años). El tamaño promedio de la masa retroperitoneal post quimioterapia fue 6,7 (1­28 cm). La estancia hospitalaria promedio fue 7,9 días (rango 1-99 días), la tasa de cirugías adicionales fue del 20%. La tasa de complicaciones mayores fue de 7,8%. Tener seminoma en la histología testicular inicial se asoció con un mayor sangrado y el tamaño de la masa retroperitoneal residual se asoció con la necesidad de cirugías concomitantes. Conclusiones La LRP-PC es una cirugía de alto nivel de complejidad que se asocia a complicaciones mayores y a la necesidad de cirugías concomitantes. Esta cohorte de pacientes muestra desenlaces similares a los descritos en la literatura, recalcando el hecho de que esta cirugía, debería ser realizada en centros de referencia de manejo del cáncer.


Objective The purpose was to describe complications and concomitant surgeries in PC-RPLND in a Referal cancer center. Methods Data were collected from a retrospective cohort of patients diagnosed with a germ cell tumor of testicular origin who had received chemotherapy and they were diagnosed with retroperitoneal residual tumor and underwent PC-RPLND in a single cancer referral center during 12 years. Results PC-RPLND was performed in 64 patients. The mean age at moment of surgery was 28.1 years (18-47 years). The mean size of the retroperitoneal residual mass was 6.7 (1 - 28 cm). The average hospital stay was 7.9 days (range 1-99 day), the rate of additional surgeries was 20%. The major complication rate was 7.8%. Seminoma histology in testicular tumor was associated with increased bleeding; the size of the residual retroperitoneal mass was associated with the need of concomitant surgeries. Conclusion PC-RPLND is a complex surgery that is associated with major complications and the need of concomitant surgeries. This research shows similar outcomes previously described in the literature highlighting the fact that this surgery should be performed in reference cancer treatment centers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Intraoperative Complications , Lymph Node Excision , Therapeutics , Neoplasm, Residual , Drug Therapy , Histology , Length of Stay
18.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 152-162, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878332

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common cancer among men aged 15 to 39 years. Previous studies have considered factors related to TGCT survival rate and race/ethnicity, but histological type of the diagnosed cancer has not yet been thoroughly assessed.@*Methods@#The data came from 42,854 eligible patients from 1992 to 2015 in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results 18. Frequencies and column percent by seminoma and nonseminoma subtypes were determined for each covariates. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to assess the impact of multiple factors on post-diagnostic mortality of TGCT.@*Results@#Black males were diagnosed at a later stage, more commonly with local or distant metastases. The incidence of TGCT in black non-seminoma tumors increased most significantly. The difference in survival rates between different ethnic and histological subtypes, overall survival (OS) in patients with non-seminoma was significantly worse than in patients with seminoma. The most important quantitative predictor of death was the stage at the time of diagnosis, and older diagnostic age is also important factor affecting mortality.@*Conclusion@#Histological type of testicular germ cell tumor is an important factor in determining the prognosis of testicular cancer in males of different ethnic groups.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Health Status Disparities , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/pathology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SEER Program/statistics & numerical data , Seminoma/pathology , Survival Rate/trends , Testicular Neoplasms/pathology , United States/ethnology
19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(5): 725-740, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134221

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate whether components of Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome (TDS) affect testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) prognosis and oncological outcomes. According to the hypothesis called TDS; undescended testis, hypospadias, testicular cancer and spermatogenic disorders share the same risk factors and have a combined fetal origin. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the stages and oncological outcomes of 69 patients who underwent radical orchiectomy between January 2010 and December 2014 due to TGCT in our department. The presence of undescended testis, hypospadias and semen parameters disorders were recorded according to anamnesis of patients. Results: Among 69 patients with TGCT, only 16 (23.1%) had TDS. Significantly higher rate of TDS (36.1% vs. 9.1%) was observed at the advanced stages of TGCT(p=0.008). In the TDS group, the rates of local recurrence (50% vs. 11.3%, p<0.001), distant metastasis (93.6% vs. 3.8%, p<0.001) and cancer-spesific mortality (87.5% vs. 3.8%, p<0.001) were found significantly higher than those without TDS. The predicted time for recurrence-free survival (13.70±5.13 vs. 100.96±2.83 months, p<0.001) metastasis-free survival (13.12±4.21 vs. 102.79±2.21 months, p <0.001) and cancer-specific survival (13.68±5.38 vs. 102.80±2.19 months, p<0.001) were also statistically lower in this group. Conclusions: According to our preliminary results, there is an apparent relationship between TDS and tumor prognosis. Even if the components of TDS alone did not contain poor prognostic features for TGCT, the presence of TDS was found as the most important independent predictive factor for oncological outcomes in both seminomas and nonseminomas as well as all patients with TGCT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Testicular Diseases/etiology , Testicular Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/therapy , Prognosis , Testis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
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