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1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(2): e00107521, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360287

ABSTRACT

This study aims to analyze inequalities in the incidence, mortality, and survival of the main types of cancer in women according to the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). The study was conducted in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 2010 to 2014, and used data from the Population-based Cancer Registry and the Mortality Information System. Incidence and mortality rates standardized by age and 5-year survival estimates were calculated according to the social vulnerability strata (SVS), based on the São Paulo Social Vulnerability Index. Three SVS were delimited, with SVS1 being the lowest level of vulnerability and SVS3 being the highest. Rate ratios and the concentration index were calculated. The significance level was 5%. Women in SVS1 had a higher risk of breast cancer (0.46; 95%CI: 0.41; 0.51), colorectal cancer (0.56; 95%CI: 0.47; 0.68), and thyroid cancer (0.32; 95%CI: 0.26; 0.40), whereas women from SVS3 had a higher risk of cervical cancer (2.32; 95%CI: 1.63; 3.29). Women from SVS1 had higher mortality rates for breast (0.69; 95%CI: 0.53; 0.88) and colorectal cancer (0.69; 95%CI: 0.59; 0.80) and women from SVS3 had higher rates for cervical (2.35; 95%CI: 1.57; 3.52) and stomach cancer (1.43; 95%CI: 1.06; 1.91). Women of highest social vulnerability had lower survival rates for all types of cancer. The observed inequalities differed according to the location of the cancer and the analyzed indicator. Inequalities between incidence, mortality, and survival tend to revert and the latter is always unfavorable to the segment of highest vulnerability, indicating the existence of inequality in access to early diagnosis and timely treatment.


O estudo teve como objetivo analisar desigualdades na incidência, mortalidade e sobrevida de câncer em mulheres de acordo com o Índice de Vulnerabilidade Social (IVS). O estudo foi realizado em Campinas, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, no período de 2010 a 2014 e usou dados do Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional (RCBP) e do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade (SIM). Foram calculadas as taxas de incidência e mortalidade padronizadas por idade e estimativas de sobrevida em cinco anos de acordo com estratos de vulnerabilidade social. Foram demarcados três estratos com base no IVS de São Paulo, onde o estrato 1 representava o nível de menor vulnerabilidade e o estrato 3 o de maior vulnerabilidade. Foram calculadas razões de taxas e índice de concentração, com nível de significância de 5%. Foram encontrados riscos mais elevados de câncer de mama (0,46; IC95%: 0,41; 0,51), colorretal (0,56; IC95%: 0,47; 0,68) e tireoide (0,32; IC95%: 0,26; 0,40) em mulheres do estrato 1 e de colo uterino em mulheres do estrato 3 (2,32; IC95%: 1,63; 3,29). Mulheres do estrato 1 tiveram taxas mais elevadas de câncer de mama (0,69; IC95%: 0,53; 0,88) e colorretal (0,69; IC95%: 0,59; 0,80), e mulheres do estrato 3 tiveram taxas mais elevadas de câncer do colo uterino (2,35; IC95%: 1,57; 3,52) e estômago (1,43; IC95%: 1,06; 1,91). Para todos os tipos de câncer, a sobrevida era mais baixa em mulheres do estrato de maior vulnerabilidade social. As desigualdades observadas mostraram diferenças de acordo com a localização do tumor e o indicador utilizado. Além disso, há uma tendência de inverter as desigualdades entre incidência, mortalidade e sobrevida, onde a sobrevida sempre é desfavorável para o estrato de maior vulnerabilidade, indicando a existência de desigualdades em acesso ao diagnóstico precoce e tratamento precoce.


El objetivo fue analizar las inequidades en la incidencia, mortalidad y supervivencia de los principales tipos de cáncer en mujeres, según el Índice de Vulnerabilidad Social (IVS). El estudio se llevó a cabo en Campinas, estado de São Paulo, Brasil, durante el período 2010-2014, y se usaron datos del Registro de Cáncer de Base Poblacional (RCBP) y el Sistema de Información de Mortalidad (SIM). Las tasas de incidencia y mortalidad estandarizadas por edad, así como las estimaciones de supervivencia durante cinco años, se calcularon según los estratos de vulnerabilidad social (SVS). Se delimitaron tres SVS, basados en el IVS de São Paulo, con SVS1 siendo el nivel más bajo de vulnerabilidad y SVS3 siendo el nivel más alto de vulnerabilidad. Se calcularon los cocientes de tasas y el índice de concentración. El nivel de significancia fue 5%. Se encontró un riesgo más alto de cáncer de la mama (0,46; IC95%: 0,41; 0,51), colorrectal (0,56; IC95%: 0,47; 0,68), y tiroides (0,32; IC95%: 0,26; 0,40) en mujeres de SVS1, y cáncer cervical en mujeres de SVS3 (2,32; IC95%: 1,63; 3,29). Respecto a la mortalidad, las mujeres de SVS1 tuvieron tasas más altas en cáncer de la mama (0,69; IC95%: 0,53; 0,88) y colorrectal (0,69; IC95%: 0,59; 0,80) y las mujeres de SVS3 tuvieron tasas más altas en cáncer cervical (2,35; IC95%: 1,57; 3,52) y estómago (1,43; IC95%: 1,06; 1,91). Para todos los tipos de cáncer, las tasas de supervivencia fueron más bajas en mujeres del estrato social con más alta vulnerabilidad social. Las inequidades sociales observadas difirieron según la localización del cáncer y el indicador analizado, y no hubo una tendencia para revertir las inequidades entre incidencia, mortalidad y supervivencia, las últimas siempre fueron desfavorables para el segmento de más alta vulnerabilidad, indicando la existencia de desigualdad en el acceso a un diagnóstico temprano y un tratamiento oportuno.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Cities
2.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(4): 583-591, out.-dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357189

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a incidência cumulativa de falência aguda de órgão e internamento em unidade de terapia intensiva em pacientes oncológicos. Métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectivo de pacientes oncológicos adultos em tratamento sistêmico antineoplásico, internados de forma não programada. Resultados: Entre agosto de 2018 e fevereiro de 2019, 10.392 pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento sistêmico antineoplásico, sendo que 358 necessitaram de internamento hospitalar não programado e foram elegíveis para inclusão; por fim, 258 desses pacientes foram incluídos. A média de idade foi de 60,9 anos, e 50,9% eram do sexo masculino; 17,9% dos pacientes tinham câncer hematológico. O risco acumulado de falência de órgãos foi de 39,6% (IC95% 35 - 44) e o risco de internamento na unidade de terapia intensiva em pacientes com falência aguda de órgão foi de 15,0% (IC95% 12 - 18). À admissão em internamento, 62,1% dos pacientes foram considerados não elegíveis para terapia de substituição artificial de órgãos. O tempo mediano de seguimento foi de 9,5 meses. A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 17,5%, na unidade de terapia intensiva de 58,8%. A mediana de sobrevivência da coorte foi de 134 dias (IC95% 106 - 162). Na análise multivariada, a falência aguda de órgão se associou com a mortalidade aos 6 meses após a alta (hazard ratio: 1,6; IC95% 1,2 - 2,2). Conclusão: O risco de falência aguda de órgão em pacientes oncológicos admitidos para tratamento hospitalar não programado durante o tratamento sistémico foi de 39,6% e o risco de internamento em unidade de terapia intensiva foi de 15,0%. A falência aguda de órgão em pacientes oncológicos foi um fator de prognóstico independente para maior mortalidade intra-hospitalar e menor sobrevivência aos 6 meses após a alta.


ABSTRACT Objective: To ascertain the cumulative incidence of acute organ failure and intensive care unit admission in cancer patients. Methods: This was a single-center prospective cohort study of adult cancer patients admitted for unscheduled inpatient care while on systemic cancer treatment. Results: Between August 2018 and February 2019, 10,392 patients were on systemic treatment, 358 had unscheduled inpatient care and were eligible for inclusion, and 285 were included. The mean age was 60.9 years, 50.9% were male, and 17.9% of patients had hematologic cancers. The cumulative risk of acute organ failure was 39.6% (95%CI: 35 - 44), and that of intensive care unit admission among patients with acute organ failure was 15.0% (95%CI: 12 - 18). On admission, 62.1% of patients were considered not eligible for artificial organ replacement therapy. The median follow-up time was 9.5 months. Inpatient mortality was 17.5%, with an intensive care unit mortality rate of 58.8% and a median cohort survival of 134 days (95%CI: 106 - 162). In multivariate analysis, acute organ failure was associated with 6-month postdischarge mortality (HR 1.6; 95%CI: 1.2 - 2.2). Conclusion: The risk of acute organ failure in cancer patients admitted for unscheduled inpatient care while on systemic treatment was 39.6%, and the risk of intensive care unit admission was 15.0%. Acute organ failure in cancer patients was an independent poor prognostic factor for inpatient hospital mortality and 6-month survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aftercare , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 783-791, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally, but its burden is not uniform. GLOBOCAN 2020 has newly updated the estimates of cancer burden. This study summarizes the most recent changing profiles of cancer burden worldwide and in China and compares the cancer data of China with those of other regions.@*METHODS@#We conducted a descriptive secondary analysis of the GLOBOCAN 2020 data. To depict the changing global profile of the leading cancer types in 2020 compared with 2018, we extracted the numbers of cases and deaths in 2018 from GLOBOCAN 2018. We also obtained cancer incidence and mortality from the 2015 National Cancer Registry Report in China when sorting the leading cancer types by new cases and deaths. For the leading cancer types according to sex in China, we summarized the estimated numbers of incidence and mortality, and calculated China's percentage of the global new cases and deaths.@*RESULTS@#Breast cancer displaced lung cancer to become the most leading diagnosed cancer worldwide in 2020. Lung, liver, stomach, breast, and colon cancers were the top five leading causes of cancer-related death, among which liver cancer changed from the third-highest cancer mortality in 2018 to the second-highest in 2020. China accounted for 24% of newly diagnosed cases and 30% of the cancer-related deaths worldwide in 2020. Among the 185 countries included in the database, China's age-standardized incidence rate (204.8 per 100,000) ranked 65th and the age-standardized mortality rate (129.4 per 100,000) ranked 13th. The two rates were above the global average. Lung cancer remained the most common cancer type and the leading cause of cancer death in China. However, breast cancer became the most frequent cancer type among women if the incidence was stratified by sex. Incidences of colorectal cancer and breast cancer increased rapidly. The leading causes of cancer death varied minimally in ranking from 2015 to 2020 in China. Gastrointestinal cancers, including stomach, colorectal, liver, and esophageal cancers, contributed to a massive burden of cancer for both sexes.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The burden of breast cancer is increasing globally. China is undergoing cancer transition with an increasing burden of lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, and breast cancers. The mortality rate of cancer in China is high. Comprehensive strategies are urgently needed to target China's changing profiles of the cancer burden.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Incidence , Liver Neoplasms , Male , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Registries
5.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 34: eAPE00583, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1278063

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (QVRS) de pacientes oncológicos antes e três meses após o início do tratamento quimioterápico. Métodos: Tratou-se de um estudo de coorte prospectivo, exploratório. Foi utilizado um instrumento para caracterização sociodemográfi ca e clínica dos pacientes e outro para avaliação da QVRS denominado EORTC QLQ-C30, sendo este constituído por três escalas: funcionalidade, sintomas e saúde global. Participaram 79 indivíduos atendidos em um ambulatório para realização de quimioterapia. Testes estatísticos foram realizados para comparar o efeito do tratamento quimioterápico em relação à qualidade de vida. Resultados: O instrumento EORTC QLQ-C30 indicou adequada confi abilidade nos dois momentos de avaliação. No que tange à escala de funcionalidade, as funções física e cognitiva apresentaram melhora; e a função emocional, piora após três meses do tratamento. A escala de sintomas revelou piora, após três meses do início da quimioterapia, no que diz respeito aos sintomas de fadiga, náusea, dispneia, perda de apetite e diarreia. Conclusão: Neste estudo, os domínios mais afetados, após três meses de tratamento quimioterápico, estavam relacionados às funções da escala funcional e dos sintomas, portanto, intervenções multiprofi ssionais devem ser implementadas a esta população visando ao controle de tais variáveis.


Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) de pacientes oncológicos antes del inicio del tratamiento de quimioterapia y tres meses después. Métodos: Se trató de un estudio de cohorte prospectivo, exploratorio. Fue utilizado un instrumento para la caracterización sociodemográfica y clínica de los pacientes y otro para la evaluación de la CVRS denominado EORTC QLQ-C30, que está compuesto por tres escalas: funcionalidad, síntomas y salud global. Participaron 70 individuos atendidos en consultorios externos para la realización de quimioterapia. Se realizaron pruebas estadísticas para comparar el efecto del tratamiento de quimioterapia con relación a la calidad de vida. Resultados: El instrumento EORTC QLQ-C30 indicó fiabilidad adecuada en los dos momentos de evaluación. En lo que atañe a la escala de funcionalidad, la función física y la cognitiva presentaron mejora, y la función emocional empeoró después de tres meses de tratamiento. La escala de síntomas reveló empeoramiento, luego de tres meses del inicio de la quimioterapia, en lo que se refiere a los síntomas de fatiga, náuseas, disnea, pérdida de apetito y diarrea. Conclusión: En este estudio, los dominios más afectados luego de tres meses de tratamiento de quimioterapia se relacionaron con funciones de la escala funcional y de los síntomas; por lo tanto, intervenciones multiprofesionales deben ser implementadas en esta población con el objetivo de controlar dichas variables.


Abstract Objective: To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with cancer before and three months after starting chemotherapy treatment. Methods: This is a prospective and exploratory cohort study. An instrument was used for sociodemographic and clinical characterization of patients and another for assessing HRQoL called EORTC QLQ-C30. This instrument consists of functional, symptom, and global health status scales. Seventy-nine individuals attended at an outpatient clinic for chemotherapy. Statistical tests were performed to compare side effects of chemotherapy treatment on quality of life. Results: The EORTC QLQ-C30 indicated adequate reliability in two assessment moments. Concerning the functional scale, physical functioning and cognitive functioning improved, and emotional functioning worsened after three months of treatment. The symptom scale worsened three months after starting chemotherapy with respect to the symptoms of fatigue, nausea, dyspnea, appetite loss, and diarrhea. Conclusion: The most affected domains, after three months of chemotherapy treatment, were related to functional and symptom scales' functioning; therefore, multidisciplinary interventions should be implemented for this population in order to control such variables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Patient Care Team , Activities of Daily Living , Interviews as Topic , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Evaluation Studies as Topic
6.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(2): e-05864, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222997

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O perfil sociodemográfico constitui fator de vulnerabilidade para o desenvolvimento de neoplasias em geral, podendo comprometer as ações de prevenção, dificultar o diagnóstico precoce e/ou acesso à terapêutica adequada, ocasionando reflexos negativos no prognóstico e na qualidade de vida dos pacientes. O cuidado domiciliar tem seu planejamento iniciado no ambiente hospitalar, cuja família/cuidador recebe orientações acerca do enfrentamento da doença e, sobretudo, da prevenção de complicações relacionadas com o estado patológico. Objetivo: Caracterizar o perfil sociodemográfico e clínico de pacientes com câncer cadastrados do programa da visita domiciliar de um hospital da rede pública. Método: Estudo transversal, quantitativo, retrospectivo e descritivo, cujos dados foram extraídos da análise de 274 prontuários de pacientes oncológicos cadastrados no serviço de visita domiciliar do hospital, no período de 2010 a 2017. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo feminino na faixa etária de 60 a 80 anos, com média de estudo de quatro a sete anos e residentes na cidade de Belém. O câncer geniturinário foi o mais frequente e classificado no estágio IV. Por fim, a maior parte dos pacientes apresentava dor, fazendo o uso de analgésicos de ampla potência. Conclusão: Torna-se importante conhecer o perfil clínico e sociodemográfico dos pacientes, para melhor planejamento e intervenção junto à equipe multidisciplinar, uma vez que a população no Estado do Pará tem um cenário de alta prevalência dos tipos de câncer que podem ser diagnosticados precocemente.


Introduction: The sociodemographic profile is a vulnerability factor for the development of neoplasms in general, which can compromise preventive actions, hinder early diagnosis and/or access to an appropriate therapeutic, causing negative effects on the prognosis and quality of life of patients. Home care planning initiates in the hospital environment, when the family/caregiver receives guidance about coping with the disease and, above all, preventing complications related to the pathological condition. Objective:To characterize the sociodemographic and clinical profile of cancer patients registered in the home visit program of a public hospital. Method: Cross--sectional, quantitative, retrospective, and descriptive study whose data were extracted from the analysis of 274 charts of cancer patients registered in the hospital's home visit service from 2010 to 2017. Results: Most of the patients were females in the age range from 60 to 80 years old, mean of 4 to7 years of formal education and living in the city of Belém. Stage IV genitourinary cancer was the most frequent. Finally, most patients had pain and were using wide-range potency analgesics. Conclusion: It is important to know the clinical and sociodemographic profile of the patients, in order to better planning and intervention together with the multidisciplinary team, since the population in the State of Pará has a scenario of high prevalence of types of cancer that can be diagnosed early.


Introducción: El perfil sociodemográfico es un factor de vulnerabilidad para el desarrollo de neoplasias en general, que puede comprometer acciones preventivas, dificultar el diagnóstico precoz y/o el acceso a la terapia adecuada, provocando efectos negativos sobre el pronóstico y la calidad de vida de los pacientes. La atención domiciliaria tiene su planificación iniciada en el ámbito hospitalario, en el que el familiar/cuidador recibe orientación sobre el afrontamiento de la enfermedad y, sobre todo, la prevención de complicaciones relacionadas con el estado patológico. Objetivo: Caracterizar el perfil sociodemográfico y clínico de los pacientes oncológicos registrados en el programa de visitas domiciliarias de un hospital público. Método:Estudio transversal, cuantitativo, retrospectivo y descriptivo, cuyos datos se extrajeron del análisis de 274 historias clínicas de pacientes oncológicos registrados en el servicio de visita domiciliaria del hospital de 2010 a 2017. Resultado: La mayoría de los pacientes eran del sexo masculino mujer de 60 a 80 años, con un estudio promedio de cuatro a siete años y residente en la ciudad de Belém, siendo el cáncer genitourinario el más frecuente clasificado en estadio IV. Finalmente, la mayoría de los pacientes experimentaron dolor al usar analgésicos de gran potencia. Conclusión: Es importante conocer el perfil clínico y sociodemográfico de los pacientes, para poder planificación e intervención mejor con el equipo multidisciplinario, ya que la población del Estado de Pará tiene un escenario de alta prevalencia de tipos de cáncer que pueden ser diagnosticado temprano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Palliative Care , Home Care Services , Cross-Sectional Studies , Neoplasms/epidemiology
7.
Clinics ; 76: e2280, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153951

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Strategic planning for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) care has dominated the agenda of medical services, which have been further restricted by the need for minimizing viral transmission. Risk is particularly relevant in relation to endoscopy procedures. This study aimed to describe a contingency plan for a tertiary academic cancer center, define a strategy to prioritize and postpone examinations, and evaluate the infection rate among healthcare workers (HCWs) in the endoscopy unit of the Cancer Institute of the State of São Paulo (ICESP). METHODS: We created a strategy to balance the risk of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and to mitigate the effects of postponing endoscopic procedures in oncological patients. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on all endoscopies between March and June 2020 compared with those during the same period in 2019 was carried out. All HCWs were interviewed to obtain clinical data and SARS-CoV-2 test results. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, there was a reduction of 55% in endoscopy cases in total. Colonoscopy was the most affected modality. The total infection rate among all HCWs was 38%. None of the senior digestive endoscopists had COVID-19. However, all bronchoscopists had been infected. One of three fellows had a serological diagnosis of COVID-19. Two-thirds of all nurses were infected, whereas half of all technicians were infected. CONCLUSIONS: In this pandemic scenario, all endoscopy services must prioritize the procedures that will be performed. It was possible to maintain some endoscopic procedures, including those meant to provide nutritional access, tissue diagnosis, and endoscopic resection. Personal protective equipment (PPE) seems effective in preventing transmission of COVID-19 from patients to digestive endoscopists. These measures can be useful in planning, even for pandemics in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Infection Control , Health Personnel , Endoscopy , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 1029-1038, Dec. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1155045

ABSTRACT

Although neoplasms are commonly reported in domestic hamsters, retrospective studies approaching spontaneous tumors with data regarding epidemiological findings are scarce. The present study aimed to describe the epidemiological and pathological findings of 40 cases of tumors in domestic hamsters diagnosed in a veterinary pathology laboratory in Southern Brazil from 2002 to 2019. Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) was the most commonly affected species (16/40), followed by Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus, 11/40) and Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus, 4/40). Among the cases, 57.5% were females (23/40), while 42.5% were males (17/40). The affected hamsters' median age was of 14-months old, with an age range of 8- to 36-months old. Twenty-four cases were assessed as anatomopathological samples (biopsies), while 16 were composed of carcasses submitted to postmortem examination, and, therefore, the neoplasm was related to the cause of death. The integumentary system was frequently affected (60%, 24/40), followed by the female reproductive tract (22.5%, 9/40), hematopoietic system (10%, 4/40), digestive tract (5%, 2/40), and endocrine system (2.5%, 1/40). The most frequent neoplasm was squamous cell carcinoma (35%, 14/40), mostly on the lip/nasal region (50%, 7/14). Other tumors included fibrosarcoma (10%, 4/40), lymphoma (10%, 4/40), mammary cystadenoma (10%, 4/40), apocrine sweat gland adenoma (7.5%, 3/40), hemangiosarcoma (5%, 2/40), leiomyosarcoma (5%, 2/40), and granulosa ovarian cell tumor (5%, 2/40). The five remaining cases occurred individually and were composed of hepatoid gland adenoma, solid thyroid carcinoma, cutaneous melanoma, ovarian teratoma, and cutaneous trichoblastoma. Neoplasms were identified as an important cause of death and major reason to perform biopsy in domestic hamsters in Southern Brazil.(AU)


Embora neoplasmas em hamsters domésticos sejam comumente relatados, estudos retrospectivos abordando neoplasias espontâneas e os dados epidemiológicos associados são escassos. O presente estudo teve o objetivo de descrever os principais achados epidemiológicos e patológicos de 40 casos de tumores em hamsters domésticos diagnosticados em um laboratório de patologia veterinária do Sul do Brasil de 2002 a 2019. A principal espécie acometida foi o hamster chinês (Cricetulus griseus, 16/40), seguido por hamster anão russo siberiano (Phodopus sungorus, 11/40) e hamster sírio (Mesocricetus auratus, 4/40). As fêmeas corresponderam a 57,5% dos casos (23/40), enquanto os machos representaram 42,5% (17/40). Foram afetados roedores com uma faixa etária de 8 a 36 meses de idade, e uma mediana de 14 meses. Do total de casos, 24 foram exames anatomopatológicos (biopsias) e 16 casos foram examinados através de necropsia e, portanto, relacionados com a causa da morte dos animais. O sistema tegumentar foi o mais frequentemente acometido (60%; 24/40), seguido pelo trato reprodutivo (22,5%; 9/40), sistema hematopoietico (10%; 4/40), trato digestório (5%; 2/40) e sistema endócrino (2,5%; 1/40). A neoplasia mais frequentemente diagnosticada foi o carcinoma de células escamosas (35%; 14/40), localizado principalmente em região labionasal (50%; 7/14). Outros tumores incluíram fibrossarcoma (10%; 4/40), linfoma (10%; 4/40), adenoma cístico de glândula mamária (10%; 4/40), adenoma de glândula sudorípara (7,5%; 3/40), hemangiossarcoma (5%; 2/40), leiomiossarcoma (5%; 2/40) e tumor de células da granulosa (5%; 2/40). Os outros cinco casos remanescentes ocorreram individualmente e eram compostos por adenoma de glândula hepatoide, carcinoma sólido de tireoide, melanoma cutâneo, teratoma ovariano e tricoblastoma cutâneo. Neoplasmas foram identificados como importantes causas de morte ou razões para realização de biopsia em hamsters domésticos no Sul do Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rodentia/abnormalities , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Fibrosarcoma , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/epidemiology
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2111-2118, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142316

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as principais doenças de felinos na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram revisados os protocolos de necropsia e das amostras biológicas de felinos encaminhados ao Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (LRD/UFPel), no período de 1978 a 2018. Nesse período foram recebidas 1633 amostras de felinos, sendo 363 (22%) entre os anos de 1978 e 1999 e 1270 (78%) entre os anos de 2000 e 2018. Com relação aos diagnósticos, 457 felinos (28%) apresentaram tumores benignos ou malignos, sendo os tegumentares e os mamários os mais frequentes. As doenças bacterianas, fúngicas, virais, parasitárias, sem agente definido e as intoxicações totalizaram 554 casos (33,9%), destacando-se a esporotricose, com 12,8% dos diagnósticos. Concluiu-se que, na região sul do RS, o encaminhamento de felinos para diagnóstico aumentou significativamente após o ano 2000, comprovando que a espécie passou a ter maior importância como animal de companhia. Concluiu-se, também, que as neoplasias têm papel relevante entre as doenças de felinos e que a esporotricose é uma das mais importantes zoonoses na região.(AU)


The goal of this paper was to identify the main disease affecting felines in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul. The necropsy protocols and feline biological materials submitted to the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory of the Veterinary College of the Federal University of Pelotas (LRD / UFPel) were reviewed, from 1978 to 2018. During this period 1633 feline samples were received, 363 (22%) between 1978 and 1999 and 1270 (78%) between 2000 and 2018. 59% of felines did not present a defined breed. As for diagnoses, 457 felines (28%) presented benign or malignant tumors, the most common being the integumentary and mammary tumors. Bacterial, fungal, viral, parasitic or undefined agent infections and intoxications were observed in 554 cases (33.9%), especially sporotrichosis with 12.8 % of the diagnoses. It was concluded that in southern RS the referral of cats for diagnosis increased significantly after the year 2000, proving that they became more significant as companion animals. It was also concluded that neoplasia play a relevant role among feline diseases, and that sporotrichosis is one of the most important zoonoses in the region.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology
11.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Impr.) ; 14(4): 274-281, 31-12-2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151614

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Idosos com 80 anos ou mais representam o segmento populacional com o maior crescimento proporcional em países emergentes. Investigações abordando a tendência de mortalidade por neoplasias malignas na população muito idosa no Brasil são escassas e incomuns. OBJETIVO: Descrever a tendência de óbitos por câncer na população muito idosa, por sexo e tipo, entre 2000 e 2017 no Brasil. METODOLOGIA: Estudo descritivo, tipo tendência, com uso de dados secundários do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde). As variáveis foram ano de óbito, sexo e sítio da neoplasia. Os cinco principais tipos de neoplasia foram determinados, e foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade e tendência específicas. A tendência foi determinada por modelo de regressão joinpoint Nos casos em que se identificaram um ou mais joinpoints, calculou-se a variação percentual anual média, do inglês average annual percent change (AAPC), por meio da média geométrica ponderada das variações percentuais anuais (APCs, do inglês annual percent change) na qual os pesos foram equivalentes aos comprimentos dos segmentos. Estimou-se a significância estatística a da APC/AAPC pelo cálculo dos seus respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%), considerando alfa de 0,05. RESULTADOS: Foi observada uma tendência crescente da taxa de mortalidade (AAPC = 1,50; IC95% 1,20 - 1,70), no sexo masculino (AAPC = 1,90; IC95% 1,70 - 2,10) e feminino (AAPC = 1,30; IC95% 1,00 - 1,50). Maiores taxas de mortalidade concentraram-se em homens. Os sítios de câncer que mais causaram mortes foram próstata (AAPC = 1,70; IC95% 1,10 - 2,30), em homens, e mama (AAPC = 1,90; IC95% 1,50 - 2,20), em mulheres, seguidos por bronquios e pulmões, estômago e cólon, todos com taxas crescentes ­ exceto estômago. CONCLUSÕES: Observaram-se taxas crescentes de neoplasias rastreáveis e/ou preveníveis, alertando sobre necessidade de medidas preventivas.


INTRODUCTION: Adults aged 80 and over represent the fastest growing segment of the population in emerging countries. Studies of cancer mortality trends in the oldest old population are scarce in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in cancer mortality in the Brazilian oldest old, by gender and cancer type, from 2000 to 2017. METHODS: This was a descriptive study with a time trend design, based on data from the Mortality Information System (of the Informatics Department of the Unified Health System). The variables analyzed were year of death, sex and cancer site. The five most common types of cancer were identified, and mortality rates and trends were calculated for each one. Trends were determined using joinpoint regression. In all cases where one or more joinpoints were statistically significant the average annual percent change (AAPC) was calculated based on the arithmetic mean of the annual percent change (APC), weighted by the length of each segment. The statistical significance of the APC and AAPC was estimated by calculating 95% confidence intervals (CI) with an alpha level of 0.05. RESULTS: Mortality rates increased over time (AAPC = 1.50; 95%CI, 1.20 - 1.70) in both males (AAPC = 1.90; 95%CI, 1.70 - 2.10) and females (AAPC = 1.30; 95%CI, 1.00 - 1.50). Men had higher mortality rates than women. The most common causes of cancer-related death were prostate cancer (AAPC = 1.70; 95%CI, 1.10 - 2.30) in men, and breast cancer (AAPC = 1.90; 95%CI, 1.50 - 2.20) in women, followed by cancers of the lung and bronchus, stomach and colon. All rates increased over time, except in the case of stomach cancer. CONCLUSION: The study revealed increasing mortality rates for screenable and/or preventable cancers, alerting to the need for preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Mortality/trends , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Health of the Elderly , Age Factors
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(10): 1402-1408, Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136165

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the demographic characteristics of cancer patients admitted to an emergency department and determine the relationship between the frequency of admission to the emergency department and oncological emergencies and their effect on mortality. METHODS: This observational, prospective, diagnostic accuracy study was performed in the ED of a tertiary care hospital. Patients over the age of 18 who were previously diagnosed with cancer and admitted to the emergency service for medical reasons were included in the study. We recorded baseline characteristics including age, gender, complaints, oncological diagnosis, metastasis status, cancer treatments received, the number of ED admissions, structural and metabolic oncological emergency diagnoses in the ED, discharge status, length of hospital stay, and mortality status. RESULTS: In our study, 1205 applications related to the oncological diagnosis of 261 patients were examined. 55.6% of the patients were male, and 44.4% were female. The most common metabolic oncological emergency was anemia (19.5%), and the most common structural oncological emergency was bone metastasis-fracture (4.6%.) The mean score of admission of patients to the emergency department was four times (min: 1 max: 29) during the study period. A total of 49.4% (n: 129) of the patients included in the study died during follow-up, and the median time of death was 13 days after the last ED admission. CONCLUSION: The palliation of patient symptoms in infusion centers that will be established in the palliative care center will contribute to the decrease in the frequency of use of emergency services.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo determinar as características demográficas dos pacientes com câncer admitidos no setor de emergência e determinar a relação entre a frequência de admissão no setor de emergência e emergências oncológicas e seus efeitos na mortalidade. MÉTODOS: Este estudo observacional, prospectivo e de precisão diagnóstica foi realizado no pronto-socorro de um hospital terciário. Pacientes com idade superior a 18 anos que foram previamente diagnosticados com câncer e admitidos no serviço de emergência por razões médicas foram incluídos no estudo. Registramos características basais, incluindo idade, sexo, queixas, diagnóstico oncológico, status de metástase, tratamentos de câncer recebidos, número de admissões ao DE, diagnósticos de emergência oncológicos estruturais e metabólicos no DE, status de alta, tempo de internação e estado de mortalidade. RESULTADOS: Em nosso estudo, foram examinadas 1205 aplicações relacionadas ao diagnóstico oncológico de 261 pacientes. 55,6% dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino e 44,4% eram do sexo feminino. A emergência oncológica metabólica mais comum foi anemia (19,5%) e a emergência oncológica estrutural mais comum foi fratura óssea causada por metástase (4,6%). A média de admissão dos pacientes no pronto-socorro foi de quatro vezes (min: 1 máx: 29) durante o período do estudo. Um total de 49,4% (n: 129) dos pacientes incluídos no estudo morreram durante o acompanhamento, e a mediana para o tempo de morte foi de 13 dias após a última admissão ao ED. CONCLUSÃO: A paliação dos sintomas de pacientes nos centros de infusão que serão estabelecidos nos centros de cuidados paliativos contribuirá para a diminuição da frequência de uso dos serviços de emergência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patient Admission , Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Length of Stay
13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(10): 1361-1365, Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136145

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate whether there has been a reduction in patient admission to a high-complexity cancer care center in Brasil during the COVID-19 pandemic, similar to what was reported in Europe. METHODS: We reviewed the cancer tracking database of the largest cancer center in southern Brasil and performed statistical tests to compare first-time appointments from the onset of the outbreak until the end of June to those of the equivalent period in 2019. RESULTS: We observed a dramatic reduction (-42%) in first-time appointments during the pandemic compared to the same period in the previous year (P <0.001). This reduction was observed among all medical specialties (P <0.001). CONCLUSION: The onset of COVID-19 was correlated with a reduction in admission to a high-complexity cancer care center in Brasil. Since a delay in diagnosis and treatment may influence prognosis, it is important that cancer centers and public health strategies reinforce care for non-COVID-19 patients to prevent potentially unnecessary deaths.


Subject(s)
Humans , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus
15.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 59(3): e919, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144437

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La incidencia de enfermedades oncológicas se incrementa cada día. Las terapias ablativas tumorales percutáneas guiadas por imagen constituyen una alternativa de tratamiento para pacientes sin criterio de resección quirúrgica. El objetivo del estudio es argumentar la necesidad del uso de las terapias ablativas tumorales percutáneas en Cuba mediante la revisión de su estado actual en el mundo. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica descriptiva, en bases de datos Google Escolar, MEDLINE (Pubmed) y SciELO. Se seleccionaron 31 artículos, que fueron útiles para actualizar la información. Con la ablación tumoral percutánea se intentó erradicar completamente todas las células malignas viables dentro del tumor. La ablación química, la térmica y otras no térmicas, son las más usadas. Este tratamiento ha demostrado ser efectivo y seguro. Debido su elevado costo, no ha sido posible su introducción en el país(AU)


ABSTRACT The incidence of oncological diseases increases every day. Image-guided percutaneous tumor ablative therapies are treatment alternatives for patients not eligible based on surgical resection criteria. The objective of the study is support the need for the use of percutaneous tumor ablative therapies in Cuba, by reviewing its current state in the world. A descriptive bibliographic review was carried out using the databases Google Scholar, MEDLINE (Pubmed) and SciELO, from which 31 articles were selected, useful to update the information. Percutaneous tumor ablation was performed in view of completely eradicating all viable malignant cells within the tumor. Chemical, thermal and other non-thermal ablations are the most used. This treatment has proven effective and safe. Due to its high cost, its introduction in the country has not been possible(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Review Literature as Topic , Ablation Techniques/methods , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Databases, Bibliographic
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(8): 3075-3086, Ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133120

ABSTRACT

Resumo Observações generalizadas de tendências temporais de mortalidade podem encobrir padrões específicos relevantes. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a tendência das taxas de mortalidade por câncer bucal e de orofaringe no Brasil, no período de 2000 a 2013, considerando as diferenças por sexo, sítio anatômico, faixa etária e raça/cor. Os dados sobre a mortalidade por câncer bucal e de orofaringe foram obtidos do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade. A tendência das taxas de mortalidade da série histórica, por estrato, foi estimada por regressão linear generalizada pelo método de Prais-Winsten. De 2000 a 2013, ocorreram 61.190 óbitos por essa doença (média de 3,50 óbitos/100 mil hab./ano). A tendência das taxas mostrou-se estacionária para homens e crescente para mulheres (1,31%/ano). Identificou-se padrão de crescimento para homens de 20-29 anos (2,92%/ano) e para homens pardos (20,36%/ano). Padrão de crescimento também foi identificado para mulheres brancas (2,70%/ano) e pardas (8,24%/ano). Conclui-se que a vigilância dessa condição deve considerar as diferenças sociodemográficas da população para um planejamento equânime das estratégias de cuidado, pois estas refletiram em padrões distintos de tendência das taxas mortalidade por câncer bucal e de orofaringe no Brasil.


Abstract Generalized observations of temporal trends in mortality could mask consistent specific patterns. This study aims to analyze the trend of oral and oropharyngeal cancer mortality rates in Brazil, from 2000 to 2013, considering the differences by gender, anatomical site, age group and ethnicity. Data on oral and oropharyngeal cancer mortality were retrieved from the Mortality Information System. The trend of historical series mortality rates by stratum was estimated through a generalized linear regression by the Prais-Winsten method. In total, 61,190 deaths from oral and oropharyngeal cancer were recorded in the 2000-2013 period (mean of coefficients: 3.50 deaths/100 thousand inhabitants/year). The trend of mortality rates was stable for males and increasing for females (1.31%/year). A growing pattern was identified for men aged 20-29 years (2.92%/year) and brown men (20.36%/year). The increasing pattern was also identified for white women (2.70%/year) and brown women (8.24%/year). We can conclude that surveillance of this condition should consider the sociodemographic differences of the population for equitable planning of care strategies because they reflected in different trends of oral and oropharyngeal cancer mortality rates in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Information Systems , Ethnic Groups , Linear Models , Mortality
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(5): 442-446, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287196

ABSTRACT

Resumen Aproximadamente uno de cada 10 pacientes que sufre un accidente cerebrovascular isquémico (ACVi) padece cáncer concomitantemente. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar características clínicoradiológicas del ACVi en pacientes con cáncer y compararlas con otros sin cáncer. Fue un estudio caso-control retrospectivo que incluyó pacientes con ACVi entre julio 2013 y septiembre 2018. Los casos tenían diagnóstico de cáncer y ACVi, y los controles solamente ACVi. Se comparó edad, sexo, factores de riesgo vascular, patrones radiológicos de lesiones, etiología y evolución clínica entre ambos grupos. Hubo 57 casos, 61% (n = 35) eran varones. La edad media fue 75 ± 11 años, sin diferencias en prevalencia de factores de riesgo vascular. En los casos hubo más pacientes con antecedentes de trombosis venosa profunda y/o tromboembolismo pulmonar (8% vs. 1%, p = 0.01). En 52 se conocía la presencia del cáncer antes del ACVi. El 91% se trató de tumores sólidos (n = 52) y en 54% el tumor no presentaba metástasis. El puntaje NIHSS promedio fue 3.8 ± 4 en los casos, y 9 ± 7 en los controles (p = 0.01). Las lesiones de pequeña arteria fueron menos frecuentes en los casos (2% vs. 26%, p = 0.001). Las lesiones de aspecto embólico fueron más comunes entre los casos (82% vs. 35%, p = 0.001). Aquellos con cáncer tuvieron menor NIHSS, menor frecuencia de lesiones de pequeña arteria, y mayor frecuencia de lesiones de aspecto embólico. La recurrencia a 90 días fue 3 veces mayor y la mortalidad 6 veces mayor en pacientes con cáncer (10% vs. 3%, y 18% vs. 3%. p = 0.08 y 0.001 respectivamente).


Abstract One in 10 patients with ischemic stroke has comorbid cancer. Our goal was to compare stroke patients with cancer against those without cancer in terms of clinical and radiological features, and the underlying mechanism. We conducted a retrospective case-control study in patients admitted with ischemic stroke between July 2013 and September 2018. Cases had a concomitant diagnosis of cancer and acute ischemic stroke, controls only of ischemic stroke. Age, gender, vascular risk factors (VRF), pattern of ischemic lesion in neuroimaging, etiology and clinical outcome were compared between groups. Fifty-seven cases were identified, 61% were male (n = 35), and mean age was 75 ± 11. Fiftytwo had known oncologic disease at the onset of stroke. Most of them had solid tumors (91%, n = 52), and 54% (n = 31) had a non-metastatic tumor at the time of stroke. Prevalence of common VRF between groups was not significantly different. Previous deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism were more frequent in the cancer cohort (8% vs. 1%, p = 0.01). The average NIHSS was 3.8 ± 4 in the cancer group and 9±7 in the control group (p = 0.01). Small artery disease as the etiology of stroke was significantly less common in the cancer group (2% vs. 26%, p = 0.001). Regarding neuroimaging, the embolic pattern was more frequent in patients with cancer (82% vs. 35%, p = 0.001). In these patients recurrence and mortality at 90 days was three and six times higher (10% vs. 3%, and 18% vs. 3%. p = 0.08 and 0.001, respectively).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/complications
18.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 24(2): 80-87, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144324

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir las características sociodemográficas y clínicas de los pacientes adultos con diagnóstico de cáncer atendidos en el Hospital Universitario San José (HUSJ) de Popayán, Colombia. Métodos: Estudio observacional con datos rutinarios de cáncer que incluyó pacientes mayores de 18 años atendidos entre 2012 y 2017 en los servicios de urgencias y hospitalización con diagnóstico de cáncer, según el Manual CIE 10 (Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades, décima versión) en el HUSJ. Se aplicó una estrategia de muestreo aleatorio simple con afijación proporcional por años y se analizaron de forma descriptiva y gráfica. Resultados: Se incluyeron 245 pacientes. El 51% de los cuales correspondió al género femenino y la mediana de edad fue de 64 años. El cáncer más frecuente en ambos sexos fue el de estómago, seguido por el cáncer de ovario y cérvix en mujeres y por el cáncer de próstata, de tejido sanguíneo y de médula ósea en hombres. Los tipos histológicos de cáncer registrados en la mayoría de los pacientes fueron los carcinomas y adenocarcinomas. En el 36,7% de los pacientes se documentó la presencia de metástasis. La mortalidad durante la última hospitalización fue del 20% y el 12% de los pacientes requirieron remisión a otro nivel de atención superior. Conclusión: Los resultados de este estudio muestran similitudes con el comportamiento de la enfermedad en el país, con excepción del cáncer ginecológico. Adicionalmente, aporta información valiosa tanto a nivel regional como a la institución y crea conciencia de la necesidad de la implementación y mantenimiento de registros hospitalarios de cáncer.


Abstract Objective: To describe the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of adult cancer patients who received treatment at the San José University Hospital (HUSJ) in Popayán, Colombia. Methods: Observational study with routine cancer data, which included patients aged over 18 years, who received treatment between 2012 and 2017 in the emergency and hospitalization departments, with cancer diagnosis according to the ICD Manual 10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases, tenth revision) in the HUSJ. It was applied a simple random sampling strategy, with proportional allocation by years, and they were analyzed descriptively and graphically. Results: 245 patients were included, 51% of which corresponded to female gender; median age, 64 years. The most frequent cancer in both sexes was stomach cancer, followed by ovary cancer and cervix cancer in women; and cancer of the prostate, blood tissue, and bone marrow in men. The histological types of cancer registered in most of the patients were carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. The presence of metastases was documented in 36.7% of the patients. The mortality during the last hospitalization was 20%; and 12% of patients required referral to another higher level of care. Conclusion: The results of this study show similarities with the behavior of the disease in the country, with the exception of gynecological cancer. Additionally, it provides valuable information both regionally and at institution level, as well as it raises awareness of the need for the implementation and maintenance of hospital cancer records.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Standard of Care , Hospitals, University , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology
19.
Rev. salud pública ; 22(3): e403, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150179

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Diseñar y analizar una experiencia de formación y organización transdisciplinaria sobre el cáncer, en la que expertos de múltiples disciplinas y actores con diferentes horizontes convergen en un diagnóstico y un panorama de intervención en múltiples escalas. Método Se diseñó e implementó un diplomado de 140 horas con más de 60 ponentes y 50 actores relevantes en torno al cáncer. Se llevó a cabo un taller transversal de 20 horas, usando como mediación las metodologías del diseño para la transición, que proponen estrategias para la construcción de diagnósticos e intervenciones en problemáticas complejas y conflictivas. Resultados Se logró construir un mapa de actores, preocupaciones, conflictos, causas-raíces, escenarios ideales y modelos potenciales de intervención con base en un trabajo colegiado. Se generaron recursos visuales que funcionan como mapas y estructuras donde se ubican los factores bioculturales que facilitan o impiden la efectiva implementación de estrategias de intervención. Las infografías y tablas funcionaron como mediaciones transdisciplinarias en tanto que posibilitaron que el espacio político (múltiples actores) fuera también un espacio pedagógico (múltiples epistemologías) situado en un contexto económico y ecológico concreto (interdependencia material de actores y ambientes). Conclusión Con la metodología del diseño para la transición se logró catalizar un trabajo transdisciplinario entre expertos y actores sociales en torno al cáncer. A través de las mediaciones visuales como mapas, infografías y tablas, se logró sintetizar y usar un diagnóstico compartido y avanzar así en intervenciones más incluyentes que reconozcan la complejidad biocultural de esta pandemia.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective Design and analyze a transdisciplinary training and organization experience on cancer, where experts from multiple disciplines and actors with different horizons converge on a diagnosis and intervention horizon on multiple scales. Method A 140-hour diploma course with more than 60 speakers and 50 relevant actors around cancer was designed and implemented. A 20-hour transversal workshop was developed, using the Design for Transition methods as mediation of collaborative strategies for the construction of diagnoses and interventions in complex and conflict situations. Results It was possible to build a series of maps with a common view of stakeholders, concerns, conflicts, root causes, ideal scenarios and potential models of intervention, based on diverse participant's input. The visual resources generated were able to function as guides and structures that made possible the identification of biocultural factors that facilitate or impede implementation of strategies and interventions. Infographic material functioned as transdisciplinary mediations that enabled a diverse political (multiple-actors) and pedagogical (multiple-epistemologies) space to act upon an economic and ecological context (material interdependence of actors and environments). Conclusion The Design for Transition methodology catalized transdisciplinary work by enabling cancer experts and social actors interactions. Through visual mediations such as maps, infographics and tables, it was possible to synthesize and use a shared diagnosis and thus advance towards more inclusive interventions that recognize the biocultural complexity of this pandemic.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Education , Pandemics , Health Policy , Health Promotion , Neoplasms/epidemiology
20.
Rev. salud pública ; 22(3): e184617, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115881

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Latinoamérica, al igual que el resto del mundo, se está enfrentando actualmente a las consecuencias del envejecimiento poblacional, entre las que se incluye el aumento en la incidencia de neoplasias malignas en adultos mayores, con un subsecuente incremento en la uso de servicios de salud oncológicos. La oncología geriátrica es una disciplina de reciente creación que suma principios geriátricos a los avances oncológicos para ofrecer un tratamiento individualizado a los adultos mayores con cáncer. Este abordaje multidisciplinario actualmente es recomendado en el cuidado oncológico rutinario en adultos mayores. En Latinoamérica existen varias iniciativas asistenciales de enseñanza e investigación en oncología geriátrica; sin embargo, el número de centros especializados y la disponibilidad de personal capacitado en el área es limitada en comparación con los recursos disponibles en países de ingresos altos. En este trabajo se describen recomendaciones internacionales para la implementación de los principios de la oncología geriátrica en la práctica clínica habitual, los centros y recursos con los que se cuenta en Latinoamérica y los retos a futuro para mejorar la atención multidisciplinaria de los adultos mayores con cáncer en la región.(AU)


ABSTRACT Latin America, like the rest of the world, is currently facing the consequences of population aging. Among these consequences is a rise in incidence in malignant neoplasms among older adults, with an anticipated increase in oncologic health service requirements in this population. Geriatric oncology is a recently created discipline which integrates geriatric principles into oncology care to offer older adults with cancer individualized treatments. This multidisciplinary approach is now recommended as part of routine oncology care by international associations. Although several geriatric oncology clinical, educational and research initiatives exist in Latin America, the number and availability of specialized facilities and personnel is limited in comparison to those in high-income regions. In this manuscript, we review international recommendations for the implementation of geriatric oncology principles into routine clinical practice, describe resources available for geriatric oncology in Latin America, and provide recommendations to improve multidisciplinary care for older adults with cancer in the region.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Cancer Care Facilities/organization & administration , Aging , Health Services for the Aged/organization & administration , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Incidence , Latin America/epidemiology
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