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Rio de Janeiro; INCA; 2021.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1151453
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(5/6): 460-471, sept.-dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224142


Siendo el cáncer la segunda causa de muerte en el mundo, las metástasis óseas son su tercera localización más frecuente, junto con la columna vertebral, ocupando el 65% de ellas. Lo anterior, sumado a una población envejeciendo y un abismante progreso en los tratamientos de quimio, radio y hormonoterapia, junto con técnicas quirúrgicas cada vez menos invasivas exige abordar este tema. Se realiza una revisión narrativa, con la literatura actual y consensos internacionales en el área, describiendo los factores que generan las metástasis vertebrales, sus síntomas de alarma (dolor y compromiso neurológico), métodos de estudio y diagnóstico (Rx, TAC, RMN, cintigrama óseo, Pet CT, biopsia) y método de clasificación de la compresión medular. Además, se revisan diferentes tipos de puntuación para la toma de decisión quirúrgica y se exponen las técnicas más modernas de tratamiento combinado de cirugía separación más radioterapia esterotáctica que ofrecen menor invasión al paciente con mejores resultados de control local de la enfermedad.

Being cancer the second cause of death in the world, bone metastases are its third most frequent location, along with the spine, occupying 65% of them. The aforementioned, added to an aging population and an abysmal progress in the treatments of Chemo, Radio and Hormone therapy, together with increasingly less invasive surgical techniques requires addressing this issue. A narrative review is carried out, with current literature and international consensus in the area, describing the factors that generate vertebral metastases, their alarm symptoms (pain and neurological compromise), study and diagnostic methods (Rx, CT Scan, MRI, Bone Scan, PET CT, needle Biopsy) and method of classification of spinal compression. In addition, different types of punctuation for surgical decision making are revised and the newer combine treatment with less invasive surgery plus Sterotactic High dose radiation is presented as the todaýs gold standard for the best local control for the Metastatic Spine Disease.

Humans , Spinal Neoplasms/secondary , Spinal Neoplasms/therapy , Spinal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/pathology
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 1029-1038, Dec. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1155045


Although neoplasms are commonly reported in domestic hamsters, retrospective studies approaching spontaneous tumors with data regarding epidemiological findings are scarce. The present study aimed to describe the epidemiological and pathological findings of 40 cases of tumors in domestic hamsters diagnosed in a veterinary pathology laboratory in Southern Brazil from 2002 to 2019. Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) was the most commonly affected species (16/40), followed by Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus, 11/40) and Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus, 4/40). Among the cases, 57.5% were females (23/40), while 42.5% were males (17/40). The affected hamsters' median age was of 14-months old, with an age range of 8- to 36-months old. Twenty-four cases were assessed as anatomopathological samples (biopsies), while 16 were composed of carcasses submitted to postmortem examination, and, therefore, the neoplasm was related to the cause of death. The integumentary system was frequently affected (60%, 24/40), followed by the female reproductive tract (22.5%, 9/40), hematopoietic system (10%, 4/40), digestive tract (5%, 2/40), and endocrine system (2.5%, 1/40). The most frequent neoplasm was squamous cell carcinoma (35%, 14/40), mostly on the lip/nasal region (50%, 7/14). Other tumors included fibrosarcoma (10%, 4/40), lymphoma (10%, 4/40), mammary cystadenoma (10%, 4/40), apocrine sweat gland adenoma (7.5%, 3/40), hemangiosarcoma (5%, 2/40), leiomyosarcoma (5%, 2/40), and granulosa ovarian cell tumor (5%, 2/40). The five remaining cases occurred individually and were composed of hepatoid gland adenoma, solid thyroid carcinoma, cutaneous melanoma, ovarian teratoma, and cutaneous trichoblastoma. Neoplasms were identified as an important cause of death and major reason to perform biopsy in domestic hamsters in Southern Brazil.(AU)

Embora neoplasmas em hamsters domésticos sejam comumente relatados, estudos retrospectivos abordando neoplasias espontâneas e os dados epidemiológicos associados são escassos. O presente estudo teve o objetivo de descrever os principais achados epidemiológicos e patológicos de 40 casos de tumores em hamsters domésticos diagnosticados em um laboratório de patologia veterinária do Sul do Brasil de 2002 a 2019. A principal espécie acometida foi o hamster chinês (Cricetulus griseus, 16/40), seguido por hamster anão russo siberiano (Phodopus sungorus, 11/40) e hamster sírio (Mesocricetus auratus, 4/40). As fêmeas corresponderam a 57,5% dos casos (23/40), enquanto os machos representaram 42,5% (17/40). Foram afetados roedores com uma faixa etária de 8 a 36 meses de idade, e uma mediana de 14 meses. Do total de casos, 24 foram exames anatomopatológicos (biopsias) e 16 casos foram examinados através de necropsia e, portanto, relacionados com a causa da morte dos animais. O sistema tegumentar foi o mais frequentemente acometido (60%; 24/40), seguido pelo trato reprodutivo (22,5%; 9/40), sistema hematopoietico (10%; 4/40), trato digestório (5%; 2/40) e sistema endócrino (2,5%; 1/40). A neoplasia mais frequentemente diagnosticada foi o carcinoma de células escamosas (35%; 14/40), localizado principalmente em região labionasal (50%; 7/14). Outros tumores incluíram fibrossarcoma (10%; 4/40), linfoma (10%; 4/40), adenoma cístico de glândula mamária (10%; 4/40), adenoma de glândula sudorípara (7,5%; 3/40), hemangiossarcoma (5%; 2/40), leiomiossarcoma (5%; 2/40) e tumor de células da granulosa (5%; 2/40). Os outros cinco casos remanescentes ocorreram individualmente e eram compostos por adenoma de glândula hepatoide, carcinoma sólido de tireoide, melanoma cutâneo, teratoma ovariano e tricoblastoma cutâneo. Neoplasmas foram identificados como importantes causas de morte ou razões para realização de biopsia em hamsters domésticos no Sul do Brasil.(AU)

Animals , Rodentia/abnormalities , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Fibrosarcoma , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/epidemiology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18915, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285515


The objective of the study was to evaluate different types of cancer and its chemotherapy in various ethnic groups of Pakistan. Ethnic groups includes, Pukhtoons, Punjabis, Sindhis, Muhajirs, Siraikis, Memoons, Hazaras, Hindkos, Baltis, Gilgitis, Kashmiris, and Afghanis. The data was collected from well reputed hospitals located in the different provinces of Pakistan. The collected data was taken from 15 hospitals where around 8500 patients visited during 2010 to 2017. From the visited patients, 8356 were analyzed for their ethnicity, age and sex while, 144 patients (male 77 and female 67) were excluded from analysis due to incomplete information or loss of follow-up. Among 8356 patients, 3762 were male (45%) whereas, 4594 were female (55%). The chemotherapy was carried out as per National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines (NCCN- guidelines). The most common five prevalent cancer among these ethnic groups were Head and Neck, Blood, Respiratory, Genito-urinary and Breast cancer. The most common cancer in female was breast cancer while, head and neck cancer was more prevalent in male. It can be concluded that the prevalence of cancer in Pakistan is very alarming, which may be due to lack of awareness, illiteracy, lack of national cancer control programs, and economics issues.

Humans , Male , Female , Pakistan/ethnology , Ethnic Groups/classification , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Drug Therapy/instrumentation , Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/physiopathology , Control/classification , Head and Neck Neoplasms/physiopathology
Protein & Cell ; (12): 881-893, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880884


Cytokines are secreted by various cell types and act as critical mediators in many physiological processes, including immune response and tumor progression. Cytokines production is precisely and timely regulated by multiple mechanisms at different levels, ranging from transcriptional to post-transcriptional and posttranslational processes. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 induced protein 1 (MCPIP1), a potent immunosuppressive protein, was first described as a transcription factor in monocytes treated with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and subsequently found to possess intrinsic RNase and deubiquitinase activities. MCPIP1 tightly regulates cytokines expression via various functions. Furthermore, cytokines such as interleukin 1 beta (IL-1B) and MCP-1 and inflammatory cytokines inducer lipopolysaccharide (LPS) strongly induce MCPIP1 expression. Mutually regulated MCPIP1 and cytokines form a complicated network in the tumor environment. In this review, we summarize how MCPIP1 and cytokines reciprocally interact and elucidate the effect of the network formed by these components in cancer-related immunity with aim of exploring potential clinical benefits of their mutual regulation.

Chemokine CCL2/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Neoplasm Proteins/immunology , Neoplasms/pathology , Ribonucleases/immunology , Transcription Factors/immunology
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 32(4): e740, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099100


RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar la concordancia entre el diagnóstico clínico inicial y el histopatológico de tumores palpebrales malignos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo de pacientes portadores de diferentes tumores palpebrales, atendidos en el Servicio de Cirugía Plástica Ocular del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", en el periodo comprendido de enero a diciembre del año 2016, en el que se describieron las características clínicas y anatomopatológicas, y la concordancia entre ambos diagnósticos. Resultados: Predominó el grupo de 60-79 años de edad (46,1 por ciento), el sexo femenino (51,7 por ciento) y el color de piel blanco (92,6 por ciento) . Las lesiones se presentaron fundamentalmente en el párpado inferior (77,0 por ciento) y las telangectasias constituyeron el signo de malignidad más consistente (56,8 por ciento), con predominio del carcinoma basocelular, seguido del carcinoma espinocelular (81,4 por ciento y 15,2 por ciento, respectivamente). La concordancia entre el diagnóstico clínico y el histopatológico fue de 69,2 por ciento para el carcinoma basocelular; 9,7 por ciento para el espinocelular y 30 por ciento para el sebáceo (índice de Kappa de 0,338; 0,262 y 0,357, respectivamente). Conclusiones: Existe la mayor concordancia entre diagnóstico clínico e histopatológico en el carcinoma basocelular; no así en el resto de los tumores estudiados(AU)

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the concordance between the initial and histopathological clinical diagnosis of malignant palpebral tumors. Methods: An observational, descriptive and retrospective study of patients with different eyelid tumors was performed. The patients were treated in the Ocular Plastic Surgery Service of Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology, in the period from January to December of 2016, during which the clinical and pathological characteristics were described, together with the concordance between both diagnoses. Results: The age group of 60-79 years predominated (46.1 percent), as it was with the female sex (51.7 percent) and the white skin color (92.6 percent). The lesions occurred mainly in the lower eyelid (77.0 percent) and telangiectasia constituted the most consistent sign of malignancy (56.8 percent), with a predominance of basal cell carcinoma, followed by spinocellular carcinoma (81.4 percent and 15, 2 percent, respectively). The concordance between the clinical and histopathological diagnosis was 69.2 percent for basal cell carcinoma; 9.7 percent for the spinocellular carcinoma; and 30 percent for the sebaceous carcinoma (Kappa index of 0.388, 0.262 and 0.357, respectively). Conclusions: There is the greatest concordance between the clinical and histopathological diagnosis in basal cell carcinoma, but not in the rest of the tumors studied(AU)

Humans , Female , Aged , Eyelid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/pathology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(10): 3857-3866, Oct. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039468


Resumo As estimativas das reais magnitudes da mortalidade no Nordeste têm enfrentado importantes entraves devido ao subregistro e aos problemas na qualidade das informações sobre as causas básicas de óbito. Teve-se como objetivo avaliar o impacto da redistribuição dos óbitos corrigidos pela Pesquisa de Busca Ativa e de códigos garbage nas taxas de mortalidade dos principais cânceres de idosos dos estados do Nordeste. Utilizou-se o método de Ledermann para redistribuir os óbitos. O número de óbitos antes e após a correção apresentou uma variação expressiva, com destaque para o câncer de mama cuja variação foi de 53,5%. Com os dados corrigidos, idosos com 80 anos ou mais apresentaram uma taxa de mortalidade por câncer de próstata 18 vezes maior que os de 60 a 64 anos. Foram observados níveis mais elevados de mortes por câncer de próstata para homens e câncer de mama para as mulheres em todos os estados do Nordeste. O câncer da traqueia, brônquios e pulmões e o câncer de estômago resultaram em níveis de distribuição diferentes segundo sexo, com taxas mais elevadas nos homens que nas mulheres. A correção dos dados de óbitos significou importantes acréscimos na quantidade de óbitos registrados. A metodologia adotada neste trabalho é de simples aplicação, factível de uso pelos gestores dos sistemas de informação.

Abstract Estimates of the true magnitude of mortality in the Brazilian northeast has been fraught with major obstacles due to underreporting and problems with the quality of information on the basic causes of death. The scope of this study was to evaluate the impact of the redistribution of deaths corrected by Active Search Research and Garbage codes on the mortality rates of the major types of cancer among the elderly in the northeastern states. The Ledermann method was used to reallocate the deaths. The number of deaths before and after the correction revealed a significant variation, especially the figures for breast cancer where the variation was 53.5%. With corrected data, the elderly aged 80 years or older had a prostate cancer death rate which was 18 times higher than those aged 60 to 64 years. Higher levels of prostate cancer deaths among men, and breast cancer among women, were observed in all of the northeastern states. Tracheal, bronchial, lung and stomach cancer resulted in different levels of distribution according to gender, with higher rates among men than among women. Correction of death data resulted in significant increases in the number of recorded deaths. The methodology adopted in this work was the simple application of feasible factual data by the information system managers.

Neoplasms/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/epidemiology
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 35(1): 16-20, Ene-Jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1120633


El carcinoma de células renales (CCR) es la lesión sólida más frecuente en el riñón y representa aproximadamente el 90% de los tumores renales malignos. Hay un predominio 1,5:1 de varones sobre las mujeres y su incidencia máxima tiene lugar entre los 60 y 70 años de edad. Este tipo de cáncer representa el 2%-3% de todos los cánceres y su incidencia máxima ocurre en los países occidentales. Se reporta un caso poco frecuente de CCR en una paciente femenina de 35 años de edad con una hematuria total, sin dolor, de 2 días de duración. El TAC abdomino-pélvico reveló una lesión ocupante de espacio de 15 x 12 x 10 cm aproximadamente, de aspecto neoproliferativo, con características heterogéneas de hipo e hiperdensidad, de 40 uH, neovascularización y realce al contraste, que compromete cáliz medio e inferior de riñón izquierdo, extensivo hasta pelvis renal. Se practicó nefrectomía radical izquierda. El estudio histopatológico reporta un carcinoma de células claras bien diferenciado de bajo grado, con márgenes libres y ganglios linfáticos sin MT. Paciente quien evoluciona satisfactoriamente en planificación de terapia adyuvante. Por el hecho de ser una presentación en un adulto joven, lo ideal es que el urólogo este en la capacidad de realizar el diagnóstico a la brevedad posible(AU)

Renal cell cancer (RCC) is the most common solid lesion in the kidney and accounts for approximately 90% of malignant renal tumors. There is a 1.5:1 male predominance and the highest incidence occurs between 60 and 70 years of age. RCC represents 2%-3% of all cancers and its highest incidence occurs in western countries. We report a rare case of a female patient of 35 years of age who has had pain free hematuria for two days. A contrasted abdominal/pelvic CT revealed a lesion of approximately 15 x 12 x 10 cm with neoproliferative appearance and heterogeneous features of hypo and hyperdensity of 40 uH, with neovascularization and contrast enhancement, compromising the middle and lower calyx of the left kidney extensive to renal pelvis. A left radical nephrectomy was performed. Histopathological study revealed a well-differentiated low grade clear cell carcinoma, with free margins and lymph nodes without metastasis. The patient has a satisfactory evolution and is awaiting adjuvant treatment. Due to the fact that the patient is a young adult, the urologist should be able to make the diagnosis as soon as possible(AU)

Humans , Female , Adult , Diagnostic Imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Tract , Neoplasms/pathology , Nephrectomy
J. Health NPEPS ; 4(1): 16-30, jan.-jun. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-999639


Objetivo: determinar la relación de calidad de vida y capacidades de autocuidado en pacientes adultos con cáncer. Método: estudio correlacional, analítico, no probabilístico por conveniencia con una muestra constituida por 51 pacientes adultos diagnosticados con cáncer que aceptarón participar en el estudio mediante un consentimiento informado. Se aplicó una cédula de datos sociodemográficos y dos instrumentos: Calidad de Vida WHOQOL-BREF y Capacidad de Agencia de Autocuidado. Resultados: la edad promedio fue de 50.32 años, predomino el género femenino (60%), los tipos de cáncer con mayor prevalencia fueron: cáncer de mama (20%), de próstata (16%) y linfoma no hodking (12%), otros tipos (52%). El 80% estuvo en estadio III TNM, con respecto a calidad de vida, el 74% fue mala; la capacidad de autocuidado reporta que el 82% manifiesta autocuidados suficientes. Existe una correlación positiva y moderada entre calidad de vida y capacidad de autocuidado. Conclusión: el cáncer afecta más a mujeres predominando el de mama. Se encontró relación entre calidad de vida y capacidad de autocuidado, es decir, que a mayores capacidades de autocuidado mejor calidad de vida en los pacientes con câncer.(AU)

Objective: to determine the relationship of quality of life and self-care capacities in adult patients with cancer. Method: correlational, analytical, non-probabilistic convenience study with a sample constituted by 51 adult patients diagnosed with cancer who agreed to participate in the study through informed consent. A sociodemographic data card and two instruments were applied: Quality of Life WHOQOL-BREF and Capacity of Self-care Agency. Results: the average age was 50.32 years, the female gender predominated (60%) and the types of cancer with the highest prevalence were: breast cancer (20%), prostate cancer (16%) and non-hodking lymphoma (12%), other types (52%). 80% were in stage III TNM and in relation to quality of life, 74% was bad; self-care capacity reports that 82% show sufficient selfcare. There is a positive and moderate correlation between quality of life and ability to self-care. Conclusion: cancer affects more women and the predominant type is the breast cancer. A relationship was found between quality of life and ability to selfcare, that is, the greater self-care capacities are the better quality of life in cancer patients is.(AU)

Objetivo: determinar a relação entre qualidade de vida e capacidade de autocuidado em pacientes adultos com câncer. Método: estudo correlacional, analítico, não probabilístico por conveniência com uma amostra constituída por 51 pacientes adultos com diagnóstico de câncer, que aceitaram participar do estudo por meio de consentimento informado. Aplicou-se uma cédula de dados sociodemográficos e dois instrumentos: Qualidade de Vida WHOQOL-BREF e Capacidade de Autocuidado. Resultados: a idade média foi de 50,32 anos, do sexo feminino predominantemente (60%), os tipos de cáncer com maior prevalencia foram: mama (20%), de próstata (16%) e linfoma não-Hodgkin (12%), outros tipos (52%). 80% estavam em estágio III TNM, com relação à qualidade de vida, 74% era ruim; a capacidade de autocuidado reporta que 82% manifestam autocuidados suficiente. Existe correlação positiva e moderada entre qualidade de vida e capacidade de autocuidado. Conclusão: o câncer afeta mais mulheres, predominando o câncer de mama. Encontrou-se relação entre qualidade de vida e capacidade de autocuidado, ou seja, maior capacidade de autocuidado reflete em melhor qualidade de vida em pacientes oncológicos.(AU)

Humans , Quality of Life , Self Care , Activities of Daily Living , Neoplasms/pathology , Analytical Epidemiology , Correlation of Data
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 56(3): e150213, out. 2019. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1046928


Trichoblastoma is characterized as a benign cutaneous neoplasm that originates in the trichoblastic epithelium of the hair bulb. The present report describes the case of a 4-year-old cross breed neutered male cat that had a history of a slow, freely movable, ulcerated, slow growing, solitary cutaneous nodule located on the left scapular region. Histopathological evaluation showed neoplastic cells arranged in cohesive nests or palisades with eosinophilic and scant cytoplasm. Based on the microscopic findings, a diagnosis of trabecular trichoblastoma was made. The treatment of choice consisted of total surgical excision of the mass with safe surgical margins. Tumor recurrence was not observed.(AU)

O Tricoblastoma se caracteriza como uma neoplasia benigna cutânea que tem origem no epitélio tricoblástico do bulbo piloso. O presente relato descreve o caso de felino macho, sem raça definida (SRD), com histórico de nódulo solitário de crescimento lento, não aderido e ulcerado, localizado na região escapular esquerda. A histopatologia evidenciou células neoplásicas organizadas em ninhos coesos, em paliçadas com citoplasma eosinofílico e escasso, os achados foram compatíveis com a descrição de tricoblastoma trabecular. O tratamento de eleição consistiu na exérese cirúrgica total da massa com ampla margem de segurança e recidivas não foram observadas(AU)

Cats/anatomy & histology , Cats/abnormalities , Neoplasms/pathology
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(9): 1808-1817, set. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-976520


Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar os casos de mastocitomas cutâneos em cães atendidos no Hospital Veterinário Governador Laudo Natel da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV) Unesp Câmpus Jaboticabal, no período de 2005 a 2015, além de avaliar a ocorrência dessa neoplasia em relação à raça, sexo e idade; determinar as regiões corpóreas mais acometidas e as características neoplásicas observadas, assim como, os métodos de diagnóstico mais utilizados no setor, estabelecer os principais graus histológicos diagnosticados e os tratamentos preconizados, verificar alterações de tamanho em relação aos linfonodos, à taxa de recidiva, metástase e possíveis associações entre as variáveis consideradas. Foram avaliados 192 prontuários clínicos de pacientes e observou-se que os cães sem raça definida (SRD) (n=46, 23,96%) foram os mais acometidos, seguidos por cães da raça Boxer (n=40, 20,83%) e Pit bull (n=27, 14,06%). A maioria dos cães eram fêmeas (n=107, 55,7%), e com idade de 7 a 11 anos (n=120, 62,5%). Do total, 32 pacientes apresentaram (16,7%) tumores localizados em membro pélvico, seguidos por nódulos em membro torácico (10,4%, n=20). Sessenta e cinco animais possuíam nódulos ulcerados (33,9%), sendo 96 nódulos de consistência firme (50%). Setenta e seis animais apresentavam múltiplos nódulos (39,6%) e aqueles acima de três centímetros perfaziam 39,1% da amostra (n=75). O método mais utilizado para o diagnóstico foi a punção aspirativa por agulha fina associado à histopatologia (HT), totalizando 39,8% dos nódulos (n=66), seguido pela HT com 37,3% (n=62). Em relação às variáveis histológicas, 18 pacientes apresentaram grau I (11,8%), 112 com grau II (73,7%) e 22 com grau III (14,5%) de acordo com Patnaik et al. (1984). Segundo a classificação de Kiupel et al. (2011), 37 casos foram classificados como de alto grau (35,2%) e 68 como sendo de baixo grau (64,8%). Foi observada associação estatística quando se avaliou a presença de nódulos solitários/múltiplos e o grau histológico, segundo Patnaik et al. (1984) (p=0,008) e Kiupel et al. (2011) (p=0,004), sendo que nódulos com piores características prognósticas eram mais frequentes nos animais diagnosticados com múltiplos nódulos, independente da classificação histológica empregada. Também foi observada a associação entre a presença de nódulos múltiplos com estadio II ou IV (p<0,001) e com a presença de recidiva (p=0,001). Em relação à classificação histológica de Kiupel et al. (2011) foi possível observar associação estatística entre o grau histológico e o tamanho do tumor (p=0,001), a consistência (p=0,028) e a velocidade de crescimento do nódulo (p<0,001); aumento de linfonodo (p<0,001) e o tratamento empregado (p=0,002). Nódulos com tamanho superior a três centímetros (56,8%, n=21) e de crescimento rápido (52,9%, n=36%), eram mais frequentes nos tumores de alto grau. Aumento de linfonodo (80,6%, n=25) e tratamento quimioterápico (83,3%, n=5) também estavam associados a pacientes com alto grau histológico. Em relação à classificação de Patnaik et al. (1984), as variáveis raça e sexo diferiram proporcionalmente entre os grupos histológicos (p=0,008 e 0,040 respectivamente), sendo que o aumento do linfonodo e o crescimento rápido do tumor também tiveram associação com o grau histológico (p=0,002 e 0,001). Quase a metade dos pacientes (47,4%) foi submetidas ao tratamento cirúrgico e quimioterápico (n=91), sendo que em 31,3% (n=60) dos pacientes realizou-se apenas o procedimento cirúrgico. Sessenta e um animais (31,8%) apresentaram aumento de tamanho em linfonodos regionais (31,8%), sendo que 71,9% dos nódulos avaliados tiveram crescimento rápido. O tempo de evolução clínica do tumor foi menor ou igual a um ano, em 158 pacientes (82,3%), seguido por 25 pacientes (13%) com evolução de 1 a 2 anos. Foram observados 66 casos (40,5%) de recidiva e 16 (8,3%) de metástase à distância. Com este estudo, pode-se concluir que cães sem raça definida são os mais acometidos pelo mastocitoma cutâneo, na região de Jaboticabal, seguido por cães da raça Boxer, com idade variando entre 7 e 11 anos, não sendo observada predileção sexual; os nódulos encontrados eram predominantemente não ulcerados, solitários e menores que três centímetros; a maioria dos pacientes apresentou mastocitoma grau II, segundo Patnaik et al. (1984) e baixo grau segundo Kiupel et al. (2011); não se observou recidiva, em sua maioria, nem metástase em linfonodos e/ou a distância; o diagnóstico mais utilizado foi a punção aspirativa por agulha fina associada à histopatologia; a localização dos nódulos era mais prevalente nos membros pélvicos e torácicos, seguido por cabeça e pescoço. A consistência dos nódulos era de apresentação firme ou macia; e a metade dos pacientes foi submetida ao procedimento cirúrgico associado à quimioterapia antineoplásica.(AU)

This study analyzed the cases of cutaneous mastocytomas in dogs seen at the Governador Laudo Natel Veterinary Hospital of the College of Agrarian and Veterinary Sciences (FCAV), Unesp, in Jaboticabal, from 2005 to 2015. The objective was to determine the occurrence of this neoplasm regarding breed, sex, and age, the most affected body parts and observed neoplastic characteristics; the most widely used diagnosis methods, the main histological grades and recommended treatments, to evaluate size changes in relation to lymph nodes, recurrence rate, metastasis and to verify possible associations between the evaluated variables. The clinical files of 192 patients were evaluated. The most affected dogs were of mixed breed (n=46, 23.96%), followed by Boxer (n=40, 20.83%) and Pitbull (n=27, 14.06%). Most of the dogs were females (n=107, 55.7%), aged between 7 and 11 years old (n=120, 62.5%). Thirty-two patients had (16.7%) tumors located in the pelvic limb, followed by thoracic limbs (10.4% n=20). Sixty-five animals had ulcerated nodules (33.9%), of which 96 had firm consistency (50%). Seventy-six animals had multiple nodules (39.6%), and 39.1% of the sample (n=75) had nodules larger than three centimeters. The most used diagnosis method was fine needle aspiration together with histopathology (HT), totaling 39.8% of nodules (n=66), followed by HT in 37.3% of the patients (n=62). Regarding the histological variables, 18 patients had grade I (11.8%), 112 grade II (73.7%), and 22 grade III (14.5%) classified according to Patnaik et al. (1984). According to the classification of Kiupel et al. (2011) 37 cases were classified as high grade (35.2%) and 68 as low grade (64.8%). Statistical association was observed when the presence of solitary/multiple nodules and the histological grade were evaluated according to Patnaik et al. (1984) (P=0.008) and Kiupel et al. (2011) (P=0.004). The nodules with worse prognostic feature were more frequent in animals diagnosed with multiple nodules, regardless of the histological classification used. The presence of multiple nodules in stage II or IV (p<0.001) and recurrence of the disease (p=0.001) was also observed. Regarding the histological classification of Kiupel et al. (2011), there was a statistical association between histological grade and tumor size (p=0.001), consistency (p=0.028) and nodule growth rate (p<0.001), lymph node enlargement (p<0.001) and the treatment used (p=0.002). Nodules larger than three centimeters (56.8% n=21) and fast growing (52.9% n=36%) were more frequent in high-grade tumors. Lymph node enlargement (80.6% n=25) and chemotherapeutic treatment (83.3% n=5) were also associated with patients with this histological grade. According to the classification of Patnaik et al. (1984), breed and sex differed proportionally between the histological groups (p=0.008 and 0.040 respectively), and lymph node enlargement and rapid tumor growth were also associated with histological grade (p=0.002 and 0.001). Almost half of the patients (47.4%) underwent surgical and chemotherapeutic treatment (n=91) while only surgical procedure was performed in 31.3% (n=60) of the patients. Sixty-one animals (31.8%) had enlarged regional lymph nodes (31.8%), and 71.9% of the nodes evaluated had rapid growth. The clinical evolution time of the tumor was less than or equal to one year in 158 patients (82.3%), followed by 1 to 2 years in 25 patients (13%). There were 66 cases (40.5%) of recurrence and 16 (8.3%) of distant metastasis. With this study, it can be concluded that dogs with mixed breed are the most affected by cutaneous mastocytoma in Jaboticabal city, followed by Boxer dogs, with ages varying between 7 and 11 years, with no sexual predisposition observed. It was also concluded that nodules were predominantly non-ulcerated, solitary and smaller than 3 centimeters, that the majority of patients presented grade II mastocytoma according to Patnaik et al. (1984) and low grade according to Kiupel et al. (2011), not being observed in most of them recurrence, lymph node or distance metastasis. The most commonly used diagnosis was fine-needle aspiration associated with histopathology, and in relation to location, nodules were found predominantly in pelvic and thoracic limbs, followed by head and neck. The consistency of the nodules was both firm and soft, and half of the patients underwent the associated surgical procedure of antineoplastic chemotherapy.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Dogs/abnormalities , Mastocytoma, Skin/pathology , Medical Oncology , Neoplasms/pathology
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(7): 1405-1411, July 2018. tab, graf, mapas
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-976448


Os neoplasmas cutâneos em cães apresentam elevada e relevante prevalência em todo o Brasil. Sendo assim, objetivou-se determinar a frequência e algumas características epidemiológicas dos neoplasmas cutâneos em cães diagnosticados no Laboratório de Patologia da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (LPV-UFMT), Cuiabá, entre os anos de 2007 a 2014. Foram revisados os protocolos de necropsias e biopsias do LPV-UFMT, de cães com neoplasmas cutâneos. Dados referentes à idade, sexo, raça dos cães afetados, localização anatômica, tamanho, diagnóstico histomorfológico e comportamento biológico foram coletados e analisados através de uma análise estatística descritiva. Adicionalmente o teste χ2, foi utilizado para associações entre comportamento biológico e tamanho da massa. Dos 3566 exames realizados, 656 (18,4%) foram diagnosticados como tumores cutâneos sendo cães adultos e idosos das raças Pit Bull, Boxer e Poodle os mais acometidos. Dentre os 11 padrões morfológicos mais diagnosticados o mastocitoma, carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE) e os tumores de origem vascular foram os mais frequentemente relatados. Em relação ao sítio anatômico, a cabeça foi a mais acometida. A maioria dos tumores benignos apresentaram menos de 1cm de diâmetro e os malignos de 3 a 5cm. O aumento de neoplasmas em adultos e idosos pode estar relacionado ao somatório de danos causados por agentes carcinogênicos e o comprometimento imunológico.(AU)

Canine cutaneous neoplasms present high and relevant prevalence throughout Brazil. Here we determine the frequency and epidemiological characteristics of canine cutaneous neoplasms in dogs diagnosed at the Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (LPV-UFMT), Cuiabá, from 2007 to 2014. The necropsy and biopsy protocols from canine cutaneous neoplasms diagnosed at the LPV-UFMT were reviewed. Data regarding age, sex, breed of affected dogs, anatomical location, size, histomorphological diagnosis and biological behavior of the tumors were evaluated through a descriptive statistical analysis. In addition, the χ2 test was used for associations between biological behavior and mass size. Of the 3566 examinations performed, 656 (18.4%) were diagnosed as cutaneous tumors being adult and old dogs of Pit Bull, Boxer and Poodle races most affected. Among the diagnoses, 11 morphological patterns were the most prevalent, being mastocytoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and tumors of vascular origin most frequently reported. In relation to the anatomical site, the head was the most affected. Most of the benign tumors were less than 1cm in diameter and the malignant were 3 to 5cm. The increase of neoplasms in adults and old age dogs may be associated to the sum of damage caused by carcinogenic agents and the immunological impairment.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Dogs/abnormalities , Neoplasms/classification , Neoplasms/pathology
Rev. inf. cient ; 97(6): i:1149-f:1159, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006716


Introducción: el cáncer en Cuba se considera un problema de salud nacional por ocupar la segunda causa de muerte del país, y el objetivo primordial de nuestro sistema de salud es prolongar en cantidad y calidad la vida del hombre. Objetivo: valorar el comportamiento de los tumores malignos y la calidad de los diagnósticos pre mortem. Método: se realizó un estudio en necropsias realizadas de forma consecutiva en el Hospital General Docente "Dr. Agostinho Neto" de Guantánamo en el período comprendido desde el último trimestre de 1993 hasta diciembre de 1999. De un total de 5359 necropsias, en 926 se diagnosticaron tumores malignos como causa básica de muerte, lo que constituyó nuestro universo de estudio. Se utilizaron los criterios de la OMS para causas de muerte, se analizaron las causas básica y directa de muerte, seleccionadas sobre la base de una correlación clínico-patológica, incluyendo, algún trastorno funcional o alteración bioquímica como causa directa de muerte. Resultados: entre los diez primeros sitios de origen, el pulmón ocupó el primer lugar, con la cuarta parte de los casos, y la próstata como segunda causa de enfermar y morir por cáncer. Como causa básica de muerte el tumor maligno representa el 89,8 por ciento, mientras que la bronconeumonía, el tromboembolismo pulmonar y el estadio terminal representaron más de la mitad de los fallecidos, en lo que la bronconeumonía, por sí sola, afecto a más de la tercera parte. Se observó un elevado porcentaje de discrepancias diagnósticas al evaluar cada caso individualmente. Conclusiones: el grupo de edades con más afectados fue el de 65-74 años, con predominio del sexo masculino. Los tumores malignos de mayor incidencia fueron los de pulmón, próstata y cuello uterino. La bronconeumonía fue la causa directa de muerte más frecuente. Existió menor porcentaje de discrepancia diagnóstica clínico-patológica para la causa básica de muerte, no así para la causa directa de muerte(AU)

Introduction: cancer in Cuba is considered a national health problem because it occupies the second cause of death in the country, and the primary objective of our health system is to prolong the quantity and quality of human life. Objective: to assess the behavior of malignant tumors and the quality of pre-mortem diagnoses. Method: a study was carried out in necropsies performed consecutively in the Teaching General Hospital "Dr. Agostinho Neto "from Guantánamo, in the period from the last quarter of 1993 to December 1999. Of a total of 5359 necropsies, in 926 malignant tumors were diagnosed as the basic cause of death, which constituted our universe of study. The WHO criteria for causes of death were used, the basic and direct causes of death were analyzed, selected on the basis of a clinical-pathological correlation, including, some functional disorder or biochemical alteration as a direct cause of death. Results: among the first ten sites of origin, the lung occupied the first place, with a quarter of the cases, and the prostate as the second cause of getting sick and dying from cancer. As a basic cause of death, the malignant tumor represents 89.8 percent, while bronchopneumonia, pulmonary thromboembolism and terminal stage represented more than half of the deceased, in which bronchopneumonia, by itself, affected more than the third part. A high percentage of diagnostic discrepancies was observed when evaluating each case individually. Conclusions: the most affected age group was 65-74 years old, with a predominance of males. The malignant tumors with the highest incidence were those of the lung, prostate and cervix. Bronchopneumonia was the most frequent direct cause of death. There was a lower percentage of clinical-pathological diagnostic discrepancy for the basic cause of death, but not for the direct cause of death(AU)

Introdução: o câncer em Cuba é considerado um problema nacional de saúde porque ocupa a segunda causa de morte no país, e o objetivo primordial de nosso sistema de saúde é prolongar a quantidade e a qualidade da vida humana. Objetivo: avaliar o comportamento dos tumores malignos e a qualidade dos diagnósticos pre-mortem. Método: foi realizado um estudo em necropsias realizadas consecutivamente no Hospital Geral de Ensino "Dr. Agostinho Neto "Guantánamo, no período desde o último trimestre de 1993 até dezembro de 1999. De um total de 5359 necropsias, 926 malignidades como causa básica de morte foram diagnosticados, o que constituiu o nosso universo de estudo. Que foram usados para critérios causas de morte, causas básicas, directos de morte, seleccionados com base numa correlação clínico-patológico, incluindo qualquer desordem funcional ou alteração bioquímica como uma causa directa da morte analisados. Resultados: entre os primeiros dez locais de origem, o pulmão ocupou o primeiro lugar, com um quarto dos casos, e a próstata como a segunda causa de adoecer e morrer de câncer. Subjacente a causa da morte como tumor maligno respondendo por 89,8 por cento, enquanto broncopneumonia, embolia pulmonar e terminais representaram mais de metade dos mortos no que broncopneumonia, sozinho, afetou mais a terceira parte. Uma alta porcentagem de discrepâncias diagnósticas foi observada ao avaliar cada caso individualmente. Conclusões: a faixa etária mais acometida foi de 65 a 74 anos, com predomínio do sexo masculino. Os tumores malignos com maior incidência foram os do pulmão, próstata e colo do útero. A broncopneumonia foi a causa direta mais frequente de morte. Houve uma menor porcentagem de discrepância diagnóstica clínico-patológica para a causa básica da morte, mas não para a causa direta da norte(AU)

Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/pathology , Autopsy
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e813s, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974953


Cell cycle control genes are frequently mutated in cancer cells, which usually display higher rates of proliferation than normal cells. Dysregulated mitosis leads to genomic instability, which contributes to tumor progression and aggressiveness. Many drugs that disrupt mitosis have been studied because they induce cell cycle arrest and tumor cell death. These antitumor compounds are referred to as antimitotics. Vinca alkaloids and taxanes are natural products that target microtubules and inhibit mitosis, and their derivatives are among the most commonly used drugs in cancer therapy worldwide. However, severe adverse effects such as neuropathies are frequently observed during treatment with microtubule-targeting agents. Many efforts have been directed at developing improved antimitotics with increased specificity and decreased likelihood of inducing side effects. These new drugs generally target specific components of mitotic regulation that are mainly or exclusively expressed during cell division, such as kinases, motor proteins and multiprotein complexes. Such small molecules are now in preclinical studies and clinical trials, and many are products or derivatives from natural sources. In this review, we focused on the most promising targets for the development of antimitotics and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of these targets. We also highlighted the novel natural antimitotic agents under investigation by our research group, including combretastatins, withanolides and pterocarpans, which show the potential to circumvent the main issues in antimitotic therapy.

Humans , Biological Products/chemistry , Antimitotic Agents/chemistry , Drug Development/methods , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/pharmacology , Antimitotic Agents/pharmacology , Mitosis/drug effects , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e536s, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952833


The effects of randomness, an unavoidable feature of intracellular environments, are observed at higher hierarchical levels of living matter organization, such as cells, tissues, and organisms. Additionally, the many compounds interacting as a well-orchestrated network of reactions increase the difficulties of assessing these systems using only experiments. This limitation indicates that elucidation of the dynamics of biological systems is a complex task that will benefit from the establishment of principles to help describe, categorize, and predict the behavior of these systems. The theoretical machinery already available, or ones to be discovered to help solve biological problems, might play an important role in these processes. Here, we demonstrate the application of theoretical tools by discussing some biological problems that we have approached mathematically: fluctuations in gene expression and cell proliferation in the context of loss of contact inhibition. We discuss the methods that have been employed to provide the reader with a biologically motivated phenomenological perspective of the use of theoretical methods. Finally, we end this review with a discussion of new research perspectives motivated by our results.

Humans , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Stochastic Processes , Models, Biological , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/pathology
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e530s, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952828


Eicosanoids are 20-carbon bioactive lipids derived from the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which can modulate various biological processes including cell proliferation, adhesion and migration, angiogenesis, vascular permeability and inflammatory responses. In recent years, studies have shown the importance of eicosanoids in the control of physiological and pathological processes associated with several diseases, including cancer. The polyunsaturated fatty acid predominantly metabolized to generate 2-series eicosanoids is arachidonic acid, which is the major n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid found in animal fat and in the occidental diet. The three main pathways responsible for metabolizing arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids to generate eicosanoids are the cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and P450 epoxygenase pathways. Inflammation plays a decisive role in various stages of tumor development including initiation, promotion, invasion and metastasis. This review will focus on studies that have investigated the role of prostanoids and lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids in the development and progression of different tumors, highlighting the findings that may provide insights into how these eicosanoids can influence cell proliferation, cell migration and the inflammatory process. A better understanding of the complex role played by eicosanoids in both tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment may provide new markers for diagnostic and prognostic purposes and identify new therapeutic strategies in cancer treatment.

Humans , Animals , Eicosanoids/physiology , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/metabolism , Inflammation/enzymology , Neoplasms/pathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic/etiology , Eicosanoids/pharmacology , Prostaglandins , Arachidonic Acid/metabolism , Neoplasms/enzymology , Neoplasms/drug therapy
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e656s, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952821


OBJECTIVES: Cancer in young adults represents a great challenge, both biologically and socially, and understanding the unique characteristics of neoplasms in this age group is important to improving care. We aimed to evaluate the most common carcinomas and their characteristics, such as histological type and clinical stage, in young adults in the largest cancer hospital in Latin America. METHODS: The hospital registry was consulted for the period between 2008 and 2014. Young adults were defined as individuals aged 18 to 39 years, and older adults were defined as individuals aged 40 years and older. Differences between age groups were assessed through chi-square tests. RESULTS: Of the 39,389 patients included, 3,821 (9.7%) were young adults. Among the young adults, the most frequent cancer types were the following: breast, lymph node, colorectal, thyroid, testicle, hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial, uterine cervix, brain, soft tissue and stomach; these sites accounted for 74.5% of the observed tumors. Breast, colorectal and stomach cancers were more frequently diagnosed at advanced stages in young adults than in older adults (p<0.001). The most common histological types were infiltrating ductal carcinoma (86.12%) for breast cancer, adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified (45.35%) for colorectal cancer, squamous cell carcinoma not otherwise specified (65.26%) for uterine cervix cancer, signet ring cell adenocarcinomas (49.32%) for stomach cancer and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified (50.79%) for lung cancer. CONCLUSION: Young adults are diagnosed with cancer at more advanced stages, indicating that health professionals should be aware of cancer incidence in this age group. It is necessary to develop a better understanding of cancer in young adults and to implement dedicated health care strategies for these patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Age Factors , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasms/classification , Neoplasms/pathology
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2921-2929, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886856


ABSTRACT Biochemical markers produced by the affected organ or body in response to disease have gained high clinical value due to assess disease development and being excellent predictors of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to analyze different biochemical markers in critically cancer patients and to determine which of them can be used as predictors of mortality. This is a prospective, cross-sectional study conducted at a University Hospital in Porto Alegre - RS. Screening was done to include patients in the study. Serum biochemical markers obtained in the first 24 hours of Intensive Care Unit hospitalization were analyzed. A second review of medical records occurred after three months objected to identify death or Unit discharged. A sample of 130 individuals was obtained (control group n = 65, study group n = 65). In the multivariate model, serum magnesium values ​​OR = 3.97 (1.17; 13.5), presence of neoplasia OR = 2.68 (95% CI 1.13; 6.37) and absence of sepsis OR = 0.31 (95% CI 0.12; 0.79) were robust predictors of mortality. The association of solid tumors, sepsis presence and alteration in serum magnesium levels resulted in an increased chance of mortality in critically ill patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Critical Illness/mortality , Neoplasms/mortality , Prognosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/blood