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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) and neuromuscular monitoring in anesthetic management are integral for endotracheal intubation, better visualization of the surgical field, and prevention of residual neuromuscular blockade and pulmonary complications. Sugammadex is a drug that reduces risk of residual neuromuscular blockade, with more rapid recovery compared to anticholinesterase. The purpose of this study was to investigate current usage status of NMBAs and antagonist with neuromuscular monitoring, among anesthesiologists in Korea.METHODS: Anesthesiologists working in Korea were invited to participate in an online survey via email January 2–February 28, 2018. The questionnaire consisted of 45 items, including preferred NMBAs, antagonists, neuromuscular monitoring, and complications related to the use sugammadex. A total of 174 responses were analyzed.RESULTS: Rocuronium was a commonly used NMBA for endotracheal intubation (98%) of hospitals, and maintenance of anesthesia (83.3%) in of hospitals. Sugammadex, pyridostigmine, and neostigmine were used in 89.1%, 87.9%, and 45.4% of hospitals. Neuromuscular monitoring was employed in 79.3% of hospitals; however only 39.7% of hospitals used neuromuscular monitoring before antagonist administration. Usual dosage range of sugammadex was 2.1–4 mg/kg in 35.1% of hospitals, within 2 mg/kg in 34.5% of hospitals, and 1 vial regardless of body weight in 22.4% of hospitals. Sugammadex-related complications were encountered by 14.9% of respondents.CONCLUSIONS: This survey indicates several minor problems associated with the use of antagonists and neuromuscular monitoring. However, most anesthesiologists appear to have appropriate information regarding the usage of NMBAs and sugammadex.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Body Weight , Delayed Emergence from Anesthesia , Electronic Mail , Intubation, Intratracheal , Korea , Neostigmine , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Neuromuscular Monitoring , Pyridostigmine Bromide , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765626

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVES: We report a case of Ogilvie's syndrome following posterior decompression surgery in a spinal stenosis patient who presented with acute abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: Ogilvie's syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal disease that can easily be mistaken for postoperative ileus, and is also known as acute colonic pseudo-obstruction. Early recognition and diagnosis enable treatment prior to bowel perforation and requisite abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An 82-year-old woman presented with 6 months of worsening back pain with walking intolerance due to weakness in both legs. She had hypertension, asthma, and Cushing syndrome without bowel or bladder symptoms. Further workup demonstrated the presence of central spinal stenosis on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient underwent an L2-3 laminectomy and posterior decompression. Surgery was uneventful. RESULTS: The patient presented with acute abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting on postoperative day 1. The patient was initially diagnosed with adynamic ileus and treated conservatively with bowel rest, reduction in narcotic dosage, and a regimen of stool softeners, laxatives, and enemas. Despite this treatment, her clinical course failed to improve, and she demonstrated significant colonic distension radiographically. Intravenous neostigmine was administered as a bolus with a rapid and dramatic response. CONCLUSION: Ogilvie's syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis of postoperative ileus in patients developing prolonged unexplained abdominal distension and pain after lumbar spinal surgery. Early diagnosis and initiation of conservative management can prevent major morbidity and mortality due to bowel ischemia and perforation.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Asthma , Back Pain , Colon , Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction , Cushing Syndrome , Decompression , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Early Diagnosis , Enema , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Ileus , Ischemia , Laminectomy , Laxatives , Leg , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mortality , Nausea , Neostigmine , Spinal Stenosis , Urinary Bladder , Vomiting , Walking
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715028

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the time from the injection of muscle relaxants to the first spontaneous respiration between sugammadex and conventional reversal for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: This study was retrospectively conducted on patients who were diagnosed with gallbladder stone (N802) between January 2014 and April 2017. The data were collected from the electronic medical records of a total of 186 patients (84 patients in the neostigmine group and 102 patients in the sugammadex group). RESULTS: The time required for the first spontaneous respiration in the sugammadex group was shorter than that in the neostigmine group (3.6 min vs 4.9 min; p < 0.05). After the injection of intermediate muscle relaxants, the comparison of heart rate and mean arterial pressure in the sugammadex and neostigmine groups revealed that the heart rate in the neostigmine group was higher than in the sugammadex group after 5 min (p < 0.05). The mean arterial pressure in the neostigmine group was higher than in the sugammadex group after 10 min (p < 0.05). A significant adverse effect of tachycardia was observed in the neostigmine group (p < 0.05), but the frequency of rescue antiemetic in the sugammadex group was significantly higher than in the neostigmine group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In this study, the unwanted effect of neostigmine group was tachycardia; therefore, in the case of patients with hemodynamic instability, sugammadex is recommended. At 12 hours after the injection of sugammadex to patients, more antiemetics were required than in the neostigmine group; therefore, more research should be conducted on postoperative nausea and vomiting.


Subject(s)
Antiemetics , Arterial Pressure , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Electronic Health Records , Gallbladder , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics , Humans , Neostigmine , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Respiration , Retrospective Studies , Tachycardia
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sugammadex rapidly reverses deep neuromuscular blockade, but owing to cost, questions remain about its optimal utilization. After the unrestricted introduction of sugammadex at Emory University Hospital, we hypothesized that reductions would be demonstrated in the primary outcome of post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) mechanical ventilation (MV) and secondary outcomes of PACU length of stay (LOS) and emergence time (surgery end to anesthesia end time in the PACU). METHODS: This retrospective observational study included patients undergoing general anesthesia over a 12-month period. Using multiple variable penalized logistic regression in a one-group before-and-after design, we compared the categorized rates of PACU MV to examine the effect of sugammadex introduction following a post-hoc chart review to ascertain the reason for postoperative MV. Additionally, multiple variable linear regression was used to assess for differences in PACU LOS and emergence time within a propensity-matched set of patients receiving neostigmine or sugammadex. RESULTS: In total, 7,217 surgical cases met the inclusion criteria: 3,798 before and 3,419 after sugammadex introduction. The incidence of PACU MV was 2.3% before and 1.8% after (P = 0.118) sugammadex introduction. PACU MV due to residual neuromuscular blockade (rNMB) decreased from 0.63% to 0.20% (P = 0.005). Ventilation because of other causes was unchanged. PACU LOS and emergence time were unchanged in the propensity-matched set of 1,444 patients. CONCLUSIONS: rNMB was an important contributor to PACU MV utilization and its incidence significantly decreased after sugammadex introduction. The selected efficiency measures may not have been sufficiently granular to identify improvements following introduction.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Delayed Emergence from Anesthesia , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Neostigmine , Neuromuscular Blockade , Observational Study , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Ventilation
5.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(6): 592-599, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897790

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Evaluate the incidence of postoperative residual curarization (PORC) in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) after the use of protocol and absence of intraoperative acceleromyography (AMG). Methods Randomized clinical trial with 122 patients allocated into two groups (protocol and control). Protocol group received initial and additional doses of rocuronium (0.6 mg·kg-1 and 10 mg, respectively); the use of rocuronium was avoided in the final 45 min; blockade reversal with neostigmine (50 µg·kg-1); time ≥15 min between reversion and extubation. Control: initial and additional doses of rocuronium, blockade reversal, neostigmine dose, and extubation time, all at the discretion of the anesthesiologist. AMG was used in the PACU and PORC considered at T4/T1 ratio <1.0. Results The incidence of PORC was lower in protocol group than in control group (25% vs. 45.2%, p = 0.02). In control group, total dose of rocuronium was higher in patients with PORC than without PORC (0.43 vs. 0.35 mg·kg-1·h-1, p = 0.03) and the time interval between the last administration of rocuronium and neostigmine was lower (75.0 vs. 101.0 min, p < 0.01). In protocol group, there was no difference regarding the analyzed parameters (with PORC vs. without PORC). Considering the entire study population and the presence or absence of PORC, total dose of rocuronium was higher in patients with PORC (0.42 vs. 0.31 mg·kg-1·h-1, p = 0.01), while the time interval between the last administration of rocuronium and neostigmine was lower (72.5 vs. 99.0 min, p ≤ 0.01). Conclusion The proposed systematization reduced PORC incidence in PACU in the absence of intraoperative AMG.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliou-se a incidência de curarização residual pós-operatória (CRPO) na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica (SRPA) após emprego de protocolo e ausência de aceleromiografia (AMG) intraoperatória. Métodos Ensaio clínico, aleatório, com 122 pacientes, distribuídas em dois grupos: protocolo e controle. Protocolo: dose inicial e adicionais de rocurônio foram de 0,6 mg.kg-1 e 10 mg, respectivamente; evitou-se o uso de rocurônio nos 45 minutos finais; reversão do bloqueio com neostigmina (50 µg.kg-1); tempo ≥ 15 minutos entre reversão e extubação. Controle: doses inicial e adicional de rocurônio, reversão do bloqueio, dose de neostigmina e momento da extubação decididos pelo anestesiologista. Foi usada AMG na SRPA e considerado CRPO razão T4/T1 < 1,0. Resultados A incidência de CRPO foi menor no grupo protocolo em relação ao controle (25% vs. 45,2%; p = 0,02). No grupo controle, a dose total de rocurônio foi maior em pacientes com CRPO em relação àqueles sem CRPO (0,43 vs. 0,35 mg.kg-1.h-1; p = 0,03) e o intervalo entre a última administração de rocurônio e a neostigmina foi menor (75,0 vs. 101,0 min; p < 0,01). No grupo protocolo não houve diferença dos parâmetros analisados (com CRPO vs. sem CRPO). Considerando toda a população de estudo e a presença ou não de CRPO, a dose total de rocurônio foi maior em pacientes com CRPO (0,42 vs. 0,31 mg.kg-1.h-1; p = 0,01), enquanto o intervalo entre a última administração de rocurônio e a neostigmina foi menor (72,5 vs. 99,0 min; p ≤ 0,01). Conclusão A sistematização proposta reduziu a incidência de CRPO na SRPA na ausência de AMG intraoperatória.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Delayed Emergence from Anesthesia/diagnosis , Delayed Emergence from Anesthesia/epidemiology , Anesthesia, General , Clinical Protocols , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Incidence , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/therapeutic use , Neuromuscular Blockade , Rocuronium/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Myography , Neostigmine/therapeutic use
6.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(5): 443-449, Sept-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897751

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives Reductions in diaphragm activity are associated with the postoperative development of atelectasis. Neostigmine reversal is also associated with increased atelectasis. We assessed the effects of neostigmine, sugammadex, and spontaneous reversal on regional lung ventilation and airway flow. Methods Six Sprague-Dawley rats were paralysed with rocuronium and mechanically ventilated until recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.5. We administered neostigmine (0.06 mg.kg-1), sugammadex (15 mg.kg-1), or saline (n = 2 per group). Computed tomography scans were obtained during the breathing cycle. Three-dimensional models of lung lobes were generated using functional respiratory imaging technology, and lobar volumes were calculated during the breathing cycle. The diaphragmatic surface was segmented for the end-expiratory and end-inspiratory scans. The total change in volume was reported by the lung volume change from the end-expiratory scan to the end-inspiratory scan. Chest wall movement was defined as the lung volume change minus the volume change that resulted from diaphragm excursion. Results The two rats that received neostigmine exhibited a smaller relative contribution of diaphragm movement to the total change in lung volume compared with the two rats that received sugammadex or saline (chest wall contribution (%): 26.69 and 25.55 for neostigmine; -2.77 and 15.98 for sugammadex; 18.82 and 10.30 for saline). Conclusion This pilot study in rats demonstrated an increased relative contribution of chest wall expansion after neostigmine compared with sugammadex or saline. This smaller relative contribution of diaphragm movement may be explained by a neostigmine-induced decrease in phrenic nerve activity or by remaining occupied acetylcholine receptors after neostigmine.


Resumo Objetivos As reduções da atividade do diafragma estão associadas ao desenvolvimento de atelectasia no período pós-operatório. A reversão com neostigmina também está associada ao aumento de atelectasia. Avaliamos os efeitos de neostigmina, sugamadex e da reversão espontânea sobre a ventilação pulmonar regional e o fluxo aéreo. Métodos Seis ratos Sprague-Dawley foram paralisados com rocurônio e mecanicamente ventilados até a recuperação da sequência de quatro estímulos atingir relação 0,5. Administramos neostigmina (0,06 mg.kg-1), sugamadex (15 mg.kg-1) ou solução salina (n = 2 por grupo). As tomografias foram feitas durante o ciclo respiratório. Modelos tridimensionais dos lobos pulmonares foram gerados com a tecnologia de imagem funcional respiratória e os volumes lobares foram calculados durante o ciclo respiratório. A superfície diafragmática foi segmentada para as varreduras expiratória final e inspiratória final. A alteração total no volume foi relatada pela alteração do volume pulmonar da varredura expiratória final para a varredura inspiratória final. O movimento da parede torácica foi definido como a variação do volume pulmonar menos a alteração no volume resultante da excursão do diafragma. Resultados Os dois ratos que receberam neostigmina apresentaram uma contribuição relativa menor do movimento do diafragma para a alteração total do volume pulmonar em comparação com os dois ratos que receberam sugamadex ou solução salina (contribuição da parede torácica (%): 26,69 e 25,55 para neostigmina; -2,77 e 15,98 para sugamadex; 18,82 e 10,30 para solução salina). Conclusão Este estudo piloto com ratos demonstrou uma contribuição relativa aumentada de expansão da parede torácica após neostigmina em comparação com sugamadex ou solução salina. Essa contribuição relativa menor de movimento do diafragma pode ser explicada por uma redução induzida por neostigmina na atividade do nervo frênico ou por receptores de acetilcolina permanecerem ocupados após a administração de neostigmina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Respiration/drug effects , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Neuromuscular Blockade , Sugammadex/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Neostigmine/pharmacology , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Random Allocation , Pilot Projects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Lung/physiology
7.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(2): 147-152, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843369

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: The aim of our study is to compare the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine, used for neuromuscular blockage antagonism, on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Methods: Our study was completed with 98 ASA I-II risk patients undergoing endotracheal intubation under general anesthesia. At the end of the surgery patients were randomly divided into two groups given 2 mg kg-1 sugammadex (Group S) or 50 µg kg-1 neostigmine plus 0.2 mg kg-1 atropine (Group N). Monitoring and recording times were set as 1 hour postoperative and from 1-6, 6-12, and 12-24 hours. The anti-emetic amounts administered were recorded. Results: In the first hour postoperative 13 patients in Group N (27%) and 4 in Group S (8%) were observed to have nausea and/or vomiting and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0016). During the 24 hours of monitoring there was no significant difference in the incidence and severity of PONV (p > 0.05), however the number of patients given ondansetron for PONV treatment in Group N was statistically significantly higher than the number in Group S (16 in Group N, 6 in Group S, p < 0.011). Conclusions: At the end of our study comparing neostigmine with sugammadex for neuromuscular blockage antagonism, we found use of sugammadex had lower incidence of PONV in the postoperative 1st hour and less anti-emetic use in 24 hours of monitoring.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O objetivo de nosso estudo foi comparar os efeitos de sugamadex e neostigmina, usados para o antagonismo do bloqueio neuromuscular em náusea e vômito no pós-operatório (NVPO). Métodos: O estudo foi concluído com 98 pacientes de risco ASA I-II, submetidos à intubação traqueal sob anestesia geral. Ao final da cirurgia, os pacientes foram aleatoriamente divididos em dois grupos que receberam 2 mg kg-1 de sugamadex (Grupo A) ou 50 µg kg-1 de neostigmina mais 0,2 mg kg-1 de atropina (Grupo N). Os tempos de monitoração e registro foram definidos como uma hora de pós-operatório e de 1-6, 6-12 e 12-24 horas. As quantidades administradas de antieméticos foram registradas. Resultados: Na primeira hora de pós-operatório, 13 pacientes do Grupo N (27%) e 4 do Grupo S (8%) apresentaram náusea e/ou vômito e a diferença foi estatisticamente significativa (p = 0,0016). Não houve diferença significativa na incidência e gravidade de NVPO (p > 0,05) durante as 24 horas de monitoração, porém o número de pacientes que receberam ondansetron para o tratamento de NVPO no Grupo N foi estatística e significativamente maior que o número de pacientes no Grupo S (16 e 6, respectivamente, p < 0,011). Conclusões: Ao final do estudo quando comparamos neostigmina com sugamadex para o antagonismo do bloqueio neuromuscular descobrimos que sugamadex apresentou menor incidência de NVPO na primeira hora de pós-operatório e consumo menor de antiemético em 24 horas de monitoração.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/prevention & control , Sugammadex/therapeutic use , Neostigmine/therapeutic use , Single-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Middle Aged
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-648621

ABSTRACT

Paralytic ileus is a common complication in critically ill patients, and can affect all parts of the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of paralytic ileus that improved after neostigmine administration. An 80-year-old man was transferred to the intensive care unit after a diagnosis of severe colitis due to Clostridium difficile infection while under conservative treatment for paralytic ileus . The patient's colitis resolved but the ileus did not. This prompted neostigmine administration, resulting in remarkable improvements in the abdominal physical examination and radiographic images. Bowel movements recovered, oral feeding was restarted, and the patient was transferred back to the general ward.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Clostridioides difficile , Colitis , Critical Illness , Diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Ileus , Intensive Care Units , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction , Neostigmine , Patients' Rooms , Physical Examination
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56580

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the present study, we evaluated the validity of intravenous neostigmine administration combined with alternate prism cover test (APCT) measurement as a confirmatory diagnostic method for confusing cases of myasthenia gravis with ocular involvement. METHODS: Neostigmine was administered intravenously in 26 suspicious myasthenic diplopia patients under electrocardiographic monitoring. Distance deviation at primary position was evaluated with APCT at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after intravenous injection of neostigmine. Margin reflex distance was also evaluated at each time point. RESULTS: Seven of 26 patients were diagnosed as myasthenic diplopia based on a positive neostigmine test. Among these patients, 6 had strabismus at the primary position and 5 patients had ptosis. In patients who showed positive results, all 6 patients showed improvement of strabismus. However, ptosis was not improved in 1 patient. The improvement of strabismus and ptosis reached a peak at 10 to 15 minutes after neostigmine administration. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous neostigmine administration combined with APCT is a rapid, objective and safe method in hard-to-diagnose cases of myasthenia gravis with ocular involvement. When performing the neostigmine test for myasthenia gravis with ocular involvement, not only the lid position but also strabismus should be evaluated quantitatively to avoid a false negative results.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Diplopia , Electrocardiography , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Methods , Myasthenia Gravis , Neostigmine , Reflex , Strabismus
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: After exclusion of structural diseases, chronic constipation may be associated with normal or slow transit or rectal evacuation disorders. We evaluated: (1) clinical features and anorectal function, (2) difference of regional colonic transit according to the presence or absence of evacuation disorders, and (3) association of colonic transit with gender in patients with objectively slow colonic transit. METHODS: We reviewed electronic medical records of 1553 patients with constipation seen by one gastroenterologist from 1994–2015 at a tertiary medical center. We identified patients with slow colonic transit using scintigraphy. Evacuation disorders were identified on clinical examination or anorectal manometry. Colonic compliance and tone were measured in 29 patients. Statistical analysis was by the Mann-Whitney rank sum test. RESULTS: Of the 207 patients (155 females, mean age 41.3 ± 15.3 [SD] years), 113 had evacuation disorders (ED+ve) and 94 did not (ED−ve). There were no significant differences in colonic transit or gastric emptying between ED+ve or ED−ve; similarly, colonic compliance, tone and responses to neostigmine were not different in ED+ve and ED−ve. Conversely, there were significant differences by gender in patients with slow colonic transit: colonic transit, small bowel transit, and gastric emptying (all P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Delayed colonic transit does not exclude evacuation disorders in chronic constipation. In chronic constipation and objectively slow colonic transit, females had slower gastric, small bowel, and colonic transit than males.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease , Colon , Compliance , Constipation , Electronic Health Records , Female , Gastric Emptying , Gastrointestinal Transit , Humans , Male , Manometry , Neostigmine , Radionuclide Imaging , Rectal Diseases
11.
ARS med. (Santiago, En línea) ; 42(3): 26-30, 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1017243

ABSTRACT

El latrodectismo es un cuadro clínico causado por la mordedura de una araña del género Latrodectus spp., ampliamente distribuido en todo Chile continental. Generalmente las mordeduras se asocian a faenas agrícolas. El veneno del género Latrodectus contiene α-latrotoxina, una neurotoxina que actúa a nivel presináptico del sistema nervioso autónomo aumentando la liberación de acetilcolina. El cuadro clínico es inespecífico y hasta en un tercio de los casos ocurren síntomas sistémicos. El diagnóstico es clínico y depende del antecedente de la mordedura por una araña con un cuadro clínico compatible. El pronóstico es favorable: se reporta una letalidad entre 0 y 6 por ciento. El manejo es esencialmente sintomático, principalmente analgésico. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 62 años, proveniente de Santa Cruz, VI región, trabajador en una plantación de trigo. Consultapor dolor torácico asociado a mialgias generalizadas y diaforesis. Por sospecha de latrodectismo, se administra neostigmina con buena respuesta clínica.(AU)


Latrodectism is a clinical entity caused by the bite of a spider of the genus Latrodectus spp. widely distributed throughout continental Chile. Generally, bites are associated with agricultural activities. The venom of spiders of the genus Latrodectus contains α-latrotoxin, a neurotoxin that acts at the presynaptic level of the autonomic nervous system, this way increases the release of acetylcholine. The clinical manifestations are non-specific and systemic symptoms occur in up to one-third of the cases. The diagnosis is clinical and depends on the history of being bitten by a spider with a compatible clinical presentation. The prognosis is favorable: a lethality between 0 and 6 percent has been reported. The clinical management is essentially symptomatic, mainly analgesic. We present the case of a 62-year-old man from Santa Cruz, VI region, working in a wheat farm. He attends the emergency service with chest pain associated with generalized myalgias and diaphoresis. On suspicion of latrodectism, neostigmine is administered with goodclinical response. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Spider Bites , Cities , Neostigmine
12.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(4): 376-382, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787621

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objective: Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent. When compared with neostigmine, following sugammadex administration patients wake earlier and have shorter recovery times. In this study, we hypothesized that fast and clear awakening in patients undergoing general anesthesia has positive effects on cognitive functions in the early period after operation. Methods: Approved by the local ethical committee, 128 patients were enrolled in this randomized, prospective, controlled, double-blind study. Patients were allocated to either Sugammadex group (Group S) or the Neostigmine group (Group N). The primary outcome of the study was early postoperative cognitive recovery as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). After baseline assessment 12-24 h before the operation. After the operation, when the Modified Aldrete Recovery Score was ≥9 the MMSE and 1 h later the MoCA tests were repeated. Results: Although there was a reduction in MoCA and MMSE scores in both Group S and Group N between preoperative and postoperative scores, there was no statistically significant difference in the slopes (p > 0.05). The time to reach TOF 0.9 was 2.19 min in Group S and 6.47 min in Group N (p < 0.0001). Recovery time was 8.26 min in Group S and 16.93 min in Group N (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: We showed that the surgical procedure and/or accompanying anesthetic procedure may cause a temporary or permanent regression in cognitive function in the early postoperative period. However, better cognitive performance could not be proved in the Sugammadex compared to the Neostigmine.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivo: Sugamadex é o primeiro agente de ligação relaxante seletivo. Após a administração de sugamadex, os tempos de despertar e de recuperação dos pacientes são menores, em comparação com neostigmina. Neste estudo, a hipótese foi que um despertar mais rápido e claro dos pacientes submetidos à anestesia geral tem efeitos positivos sobre as funções cognitivas no pós-operatório imediato. Métodos: Após a aprovação do Comitê de Ética local, 128 pacientes foram incluídos neste estudo prospectivo, randômico, controlado e duplo-cego. Os pacientes foram designados para o grupo sugamadex (Grupo S) ou grupo neostigmina (Grupo N). O desfecho primário do estudo foi a recuperação cognitiva no pós-operatório imediato, de acordo com a mensuração da Avaliação de Montreal da Função Cognitiva (MoCA) e com o Mini Exame do Estado Mental (MMSE), após a avaliação inicial 12-24 h antes da operação. Após a operação, quando o escore de recuperação de Aldrete modificado era ≥ 9, o teste MMSE e, uma hora depois, o teste MoCA foram repetidos. Resultados: Embora tenha havido uma redução nos escores de MoCA e MMSE tanto no Grupo S quanto no Grupo N, entre os escores pré- e pós-operatório não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa nas reduções (p > 0,05). O tempo para atingir TOF 0,9 foi de 2,19 min no Grupo S e de 6,47 min no Grupo N (p < 0,0001). O tempo de recuperação foi de 8,26 min no Grupo S e de 16,93 min no Grupo N (p < 0,0001) Conclusão: Mostramos que o procedimento cirúrgico e/ou procedimento anestésico de acompanhamento pode causar uma regressão temporária ou permanente da função cognitiva no pós-operatório imediato. No entanto, um desempenho cognitivo melhor não pode ser provado no grupo sugamadex em comparação com o grupo neostigmina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Cognition/drug effects , gamma-Cyclodextrins/pharmacology , Postoperative Period , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Sugammadex , Anesthesia, General , Neostigmine/pharmacology
13.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(1): 55-62, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-773487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: residual paralysis following the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) without neuromuscular monitoring remains a clinical problem, even when NMBDs are used. This study surveys postoperative residual curarization and critical respiratory events in the recovery room, as well as the clinical approach to PORC of anesthesiologists in our institution. METHODS: This observational study included 415 patients who received general anesthesia with intermediate-acting NMBDs. Anesthesia was maintained by non-participating anesthesiologists who were blinded to the study. Neuromuscular monitoring was performed upon arrival in the recovery room. A CRE was defined as requiring airway support, peripheral oxygen saturation <90% and 90-93% despite receiving 3 L/min nasal O2, respiratory rate >20 breaths/min, accessory muscle usage, difficulty with swallowing or speaking, and requiring reintubation. The clinical approach of our anesthesiologists toward reversal agents was examined using an 8-question mini-survey shortly after the study. RESULTS: The incidence of PORC was 43% (n = 179) for TOFR <0.9, and 15% (n = 61) for TOFR <0.7. The incidence of TOFR <0.9 was significantly higher in women, in those with ASA physical status 3, and with anesthesia of short duration (p < 0.05). In addition, 66% (n = 272) of the 415 patients arriving at the recovery room had received neostigmine. A TOFR <0.9 was found in 46% (n = 126) of the patients receiving neostigmine. CONCLUSIONS: When routine objective neuromuscular monitoring is not available, PORC remains a clinical problem despite the use of NMBDs. The timing and optimal antagonism of the neuromuscular blockade, and routine objective neuromuscular monitoring is recommended to enhance patient safety.


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A paralisia residual após o uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares (BNMs) sem monitoração neuromuscular continua sendo um problema clínico, mesmo quando BNMs são usados. Este estudo pesquisou a curarização residual pós-operatória e os eventos respiratórios críticos em sala de recuperação, bem como a abordagem clínica da CRPO feita pelos anestesiologistas em nossa instituição. MÉTODOS: Este estudo observacional incluiu 415 pacientes que receberam anestesia geral com BNMs de ação intermediária. A manutenção da anestesia foi feita por anestesiologistas não participantes, "cegos" para o estudo. A monitoração neuromuscular foi realizada no momento da chegada à sala de recuperação. Um ERC foi definido como necessidade de suporte ventilatório; saturação periférica de oxigênio <90% e 90-93%, a despeito de receber 3 L/min de O2 via cânula nasal; frequência respiratória >20 bpm; uso de musculatura acessória; dificuldade de engolir ou falar e necessidade de reintubação. A abordagem clínica de nossos anestesiologistas, em relação aos agentes de reversão, foi avaliada usando um miniquestionário de oito perguntas logo após o estudo. RESULTADOS: A incidência de CRPO foi de 43% (n = 179) para a SQE <0 e 15% (n = 61) para a SQE <0,7. A incidência de SQE <0,9 foi significativamente maior em mulheres, pacientes com estado físico ASA III e com anestesia de curta duração (p < 0,05). Além disso, 66% (n = 272) dos 415 pacientes que chegam à sala de recuperação haviam recebido neostigmina. Uma SQE <0,9 foi encontrada em 46% (n = 126) dos pacientes que receberam neostigmina. CONCLUSÃO: Quando a monitoração neuromuscular objetiva de rotina não está disponível, a CRPO continua sendo um problema clínico, a despeito do uso de BNMs. O momento e o antagonismo ideais do bloqueio neuromuscular e a monitoração neuromuscular objetiva de rotina são recomendados para aumentar a segurança do paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Neuromuscular Blockade/methods , Delayed Emergence from Anesthesia/epidemiology , Neuromuscular Monitoring/methods , Neostigmine/administration & dosage , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Sex Factors , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Anesthesiologists/statistics & numerical data , Anesthesia, General/methods , Middle Aged
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1477-1482, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290050

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>The antagonistic actions of anticholinesterase drugs on non-depolarizing muscle relaxants are theoretically related to the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). However, till date the changes of AChE activity in the NMJ during sepsis have not been directly investigated. We aimed to investigate the effects of sepsis on the antagonistic actions of neostigmine on rocuronium (Roc) and the underlying changes of AChE activity in the NMJ in a rat model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 28 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to undergo a sham surgery (the sham group, n = 12) or CLP (the septic group, n = 16). After 24 h, the time-response curves of the antagonistic actions of 0.1 or 0.5 μmol/L of neostigmine on Roc (10 μmol/L)-depressed diaphragm twitch tension were measured. Meanwhile, the activity of AChE in the NMJ was detected using a modified Karnovsky and Roots method. The mRNA levels of the primary transcript and the type T transcript of AChE (AChET) in the diaphragm were determined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Four of 16 rats in the septic group died within 24 h. The time-response curves of both two concentrations of neostigmine in the septic group showed significant upward shifts from those in the sham group (P < 0.001 for 0.1 μmol/L; P = 0.009 for 0.5 μmol/L). Meanwhile, the average optical density of AChE in the NMJ in the septic group was significantly lower than that in the sham group (0.517 ± 0.045 vs. 1.047 ± 0.087, P < 0.001). The AChE and AChETmRNA expression levels in the septic group were significantly lower than those in the sham group (P = 0.002 for AChE; P = 0.001 for AChET).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Sepsis strengthened the antagonistic actions of neostigmine on Roc-depressed twitch tension of the diaphragm by inhibiting the activity of AChE in the NMJ. The reduced content of AChE might be one of the possible causes of the decreased AChE activity in the NMJ.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Metabolism , Androstanols , Pharmacology , Animals , Cecum , Wounds and Injuries , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Diaphragm , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Ligation , Male , Neostigmine , Pharmacology , Neuromuscular Junction , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents , Pharmacology , Punctures , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sepsis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The primary outcome of sugammadex reversal for rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block (NMB) is a train-of-four ratio (TOFR) of 0.9, not first twitch (T1) height. We investigated whether the recovery of TOFR or T1 differs based on the reversal of NMB with neostigmine or sugammadex. METHODS: The acceleromyographic responses from 0.6 mg/kg of rocuronium were monitored supramaximally in 80 patients after induction of anesthesia. The TOFR and T1 height were recorded, and saved in a personal computer using TOF-Watch SX Monitor software in all patients. Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups to receive either neostigmine 50 µg/kg with glycopyrrolate 10 µg/kg (neostigmine group, n = 40) or sugammadex 2.0 mg/kg (sugammadex group, n = 40). The primary objective was to determine the difference of recovery time between TOFR to 0.9 and T1 to 0.9 after sugammadex or neostigmine administration during moderate rocuronium-induced NMB. RESULTS: The recovery pattern of the TOFR 2 min after sugammadex administration was 1.0 or more, but that of T1 was less than 90% (T1 / control value) up to 6 min after drug was injected. The recovery pattern of TOFR and T1 was similar during the 20 min after reversal with neostigmine. CONCLUSIONS: If you have not performed the T1 monitoring, both TOFR and T1 should be considered to confirm suitable recovery during the 6 min after reversal with sugammadex during rocuronium-induced moderate NMB.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Depression , Glycopyrrolate , Humans , Microcomputers , Neostigmine , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Monitoring
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) are widely used to treat myasthenia gravis (MG). Although AChEIs are usually tolerated well, some MG patients suffer from side effects. Furthermore, a small proportion of MG patients show cholinergic hypersensitivity and cannot tolerate AChEIs. Because repetitive compound muscle action potentials (R-CMAPs) are an electrophysiologic feature of cholinergic neuromuscular hyperactivity, we investigated the clinical characteristics of MG patients with R-CMAPs to identify their clinical usefulness in therapeutic decision-making. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records and electrodiagnostic findings of MG patients who underwent electrodiagnostic studies and diagnostic neostigmine testing (NT). RESULTS: Among 71 MG patients, 9 could not tolerate oral pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and 17 experienced side effects of PB. R-CMAPs developed in 24 patients after NT. The highest daily dose of PB was lower in the patients with R-CMAPs (240 mg/day vs. 480 mg/day, p<0.001). The frequencies of PB intolerance and side effects were higher in the patients with R-CMAPs than in those without R-CMAPs [37.5% vs. 0% (p<0.001) and 45.8% vs. 12.8% (p=0.002), respectively]. The MG Foundation of America postintervention status did not differ significantly between MG patients with and without R-CMAPs, and the response to immunotherapy was also good in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Side effects of and intolerance to AChEIs are more common in MG patients with R-CMAPs than in those without R-CMAPs. AChEIs should be used carefully in MG patients with R-CMAPs. The presence of R-CMAPs after NT may be a good indicator of the risks of PB side effects and intolerance.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Action Potentials , Americas , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunotherapy , Myasthenia Gravis , Neostigmine , Pyridostigmine Bromide , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-204976

ABSTRACT

Neostigmine can successfully decompress patients with acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) who are unresponsive to conservative therapy. However, neostigmine is contraindicated in renal failure, so it is underused in ACPO patients with renal failure who would be otherwise appropriate candidates. We described the first successfully treated case of acute kidney injury (AKI) with neostigmine in a patient with ACPO. A 72-year-old man who underwent a coronary artery bypass graft surgery 11 days prior presented to the emergency room with abdominal distension, peripheral edema, and dyspnea on exertion. Plain abdominal radiographs and abdomen computed tomography scan showed diffuse colonic dilatation without obstruction. Serum creatinine level was increased five-fold over baseline. We diagnosed the patient as ACPO with AKI. With conservative treatment, renal function failed to improve because the ACPO was not corrected. Administration of neostigmine rapidly resolved ACPO and renal function, avoiding more invasive procedures such as colonoscopic decompression and hemodialysis. Neostigmine appears to be an effective and safe treatment option for ACPO patients with renal failure. Prospective large-scale studies should be carried out to determine the safety and efficacy of neostigmine in ACPO patients with renal failure.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Aged , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction/complications , Creatinine/blood , Humans , Male , Neostigmine/therapeutic use , Radiography, Abdominal
18.
Cambios rev. méd ; 14(25): 72-75, jun.2015. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008319

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en la actualidad el uso de la terapia electroconvulsiva (TEC) ha aumentado como alternativa terapéutica en varias patologías. El uso de TEC modifcado ayuda a disminuir los efectos fsiológicos y los efectos adversos del tratamiento; el objetivo del presente estudio es determinar la seguridad del uso de rocuronio en la terapia electroconvulsiva. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio prospectivo de una serie de casos en los que intervinieron 47 terapias electroconvulsivas, se usó como relajante neuromuscular rocuronio a dosis de 0.3 mg/ kg, el tiempo promedio para realizar la descarga eléctrica fue de 5 minutos. Se administra neostigmina y atropina como agente de reversión de la parálisis. Resultados: el análisis de los casos dan resultados descriptivos, el promedio de la relación TOF obtenido luego de 20 minutos del uso de neostigmina y atropina fue de 88.7%, lo que no asegura un retorno a la ventilación espontánea. Conclusiones: el uso de rocuronio en terapia electroconvulsiva es seguro siempre y cuando se lo convine con Sugamadex, ya que este garantiza una reversión del bloqueo neuromuscular confable y minimiza los posibles efectos adversos de los bloqueadores nueromusculares no despolarizantes.


Introduction: to relate a clinical case in OR of a pulmonary surgery for review the management of hypoxia in unipulmonar ventilation and with this realize that we could have catastrophic consequences. Clinic case: male patient, 46 years of age with a history of several episodes of hemoptysis underwent left upper lobectomy, presenting episode of intraoperative massive hemoptysis. Algorithm of hypoxia in one lung ventilation was followed nevertheless maintains prolonged hypoxia with important consequences of hypoxic encephalopathy. Conclusion: every anesthesiologist that have in OR a pulmonary surgery must have the knowledge of hypoxia in unipulmonar ventilation management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Atropine , Physiological Effects of Drugs , Electroconvulsive Therapy , Sugammadex , Rocuronium , Neostigmine , Paralysis , Seizures , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
19.
Anaesthesia, Pain and Intensive Care. 2015; 19 (2): 184-186
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166455

ABSTRACT

The management of an undetected pseudocholinesterase deficiency in a parturient who underwent urgent cesarean section has been presented. After rapid sequence induction with succinylcholine, rocuronium was used for maintenance of neuromuscular block. At the end of the operation neostigmine was given to antagonize the residual block. Upon persistent prolonged neuromuscular blockade sugammadex was administered. Probable reasons, drug interactions, the importance of suspecting pseudocholinesterase deficiency and the need of neuromuscular monitoring have been argued in this case report


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Neuromuscular Blockade , gamma-Cyclodextrins , Cesarean Section , Neostigmine , Butyrylcholinesterase/deficiency
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153542

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sugammadex is a novel neuromuscular reversal agent, but its associated hypersensitivity reaction and high cost have been obstacles to its widespread use. In the interest of reducing the necessary dosage of sugammadex, the reversal time of the combined use of sugammadex and neostigmine from moderate neuromuscular blockade were investigated. METHODS: The patients enrolled ranged in age from 18 to 65 years old with American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1 or 2. The subjects were randomly assigned into one of the four groups (Group S2, S1, SN, and N; n = 30 per group). The reversal agents of each groups were as follows: S2 - sugammadex 2 mg/kg, S1 - sugammadex 1 mg/kg, SN - sugammadex 1 mg/kg + neostigmine 50 microg/kg + glycopyrrolate 10 microg/kg, N - neostigmine 50 microg/kg + glycopyrrolate 10 microg/kg. The time to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio was checked in each group. RESULTS: The time to 90% recovery of TOF ratio was 182.6 +/- 88.9, 371.1 +/- 210.4, 204.3 +/- 103.2, 953.2 +/- 379.7 sec in group S2, S1, SN and N, respectively. Group SN showed a significantly shorter recovery time than did group S1 and N (P < 0.001). However, statistically significant differences between the S2 and SN groups were not be observed (P = 0.291). No hypersensitivity reactions occurred in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: For the reversal from rocuronium-induced moderate neuromuscular blockade, the combined use of sugammadex and neostigmine may be helpful to decrease the recovery time and can also reduce the required dosage of sugammadex. However, the increased incidence of systemic muscarinic side effects must be considered.


Subject(s)
Glycopyrrolate , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Incidence , Neostigmine , Neuromuscular Blockade
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