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1.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 29(3): 174-180, 04-oct-2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1357966

ABSTRACT

Introducción: los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC), y en específico los que tienen tratamiento renal sustitutivo (TRS), se ven afectados en su ciclo circadiano y en su calidad del sueño. Objetivo: evaluar la calidad del sueño de los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica que acuden al servicio de Nefrología de una unidad médica de segundo nivel de atención. Metodología: estudio comparativo en pacientes con ERC del servicio de Nefrología, clasificados en tres grupos, dos de ellos en terapia de reemplazo renal (diálisis peritoneal y hemodiálisis) y uno sin terapia de reemplazo renal (prediálisis). Para la calidad del sueño se utilizó la escala de Pittsburgh, se incluyeron datos sociodemográficos y parámetros bioquímicos. Los datos se analizaron median- te comparación de frecuencias con Chi cuadrada, medias con t de Student y ANOVA de un factor. Resultados: se formaron tres grupos: hemodiálisis (n = 75), diálisis peritoneal (n = 58) y prediálisis (n = 71). La edad media fue de 53.5 años; la calidad subjetiva del sueño fue buena en el 48% del total y en el 54.9% de los pacientes en prediálisis (p < 0.05). Al aplicar la escala de Pittsburgh, el 80.4% del total y el 84.5% de los pacientes en diálisis reportaron una calidad de sueño mala. De las siete dimensiones evaluadas, dos fueron diferentes en los tres grupos (p < 0.05). Conclusiones: la percepción del paciente sobre la calidad del sueño habitualmente se sobreestima, lo que indica una adaptación a un sueño ineficiente. Debido a las características de estos pacientes es importante mantener un control de sus parámetros bioquímicos, que también tienen un impacto en la calidad del sueño.


Introduction: In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and specifically with renal replacement therapy (RRT), their circadian cycle and consequently their sleep quality are affected. Objective: To evaluate the quality of sleep in patients with chronic kidney disease attends at the nephrology service. Methods: Comparative study in patients with chronic kidney disease from the nephrology service classified into three groups, two of them had renal replacement therapy (peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis) and one without renal replacement therapy (predialysis). For the quality of sleep we used the Pittsburgh Scale, sociodemographic data and biochemical parameters were included. Comparison of frequencies with chi-square, means with Student's t and Anova of one factor. Results: Three groups were formed: hemodialysis (n = 75), peritoneal dialysis (n = 58) and predialysis (n = 71). The mean age was 53.5 years; the subjective quality of sleep was "good" in 48.0% of the total and in 54.9% of predialysis patients (p <0.05). When applying the Pittsburgh scale, 80.4% of the total and 84.5 of the dialysis patients reported a "poor" quality of sleep. Of the seven dimensions evaluated, two were different in the three groups (p < 0.05) Conclusions: The patient's perception of the quality of sleep is regularly overestimated, which indicates an adaptation to this dream habit. Due to the characteristics of these patients, it is important to keep a check on their biochemical parameters, which also have an impact on the quality of sleep.


Subject(s)
Humans , Secondary Care , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Peritoneal Dialysis , Mexico , Nephrology
2.
Rev. colomb. nefrol. (En línea) ; 7(supl.2): 70-88, jul.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251580

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: los pacientes con trasplante renal y COVID-19 tienen alto riesgo de complicaciones y mortalidad dado que con mayor frecuencia presentan compromiso respiratorio. Hasta el momento, en Colombia no existen protocolos establecidos sobre el manejo de la inmunosupresión de base ni sobre estrategias de tratamiento en esta población, por lo que es necesario establecer recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia disponible y en el consenso de expertos para que sean aplicadas a nivel local. Objetivo: desarrollar mediante un consenso de expertos y una revisión de la literatura una serie de recomendaciones para diagnosticar y prevenir el contagio de SARS-CoV-2 en pacientes con trasplante renal, así como para darles un manejo adecuado. Materiales y métodos: se formularon una serie de preguntas sobre infección por SARS-CoV-2 en trasplante renal con énfasis en comportamiento clínico, frecuencia de la infección, prevención, diagnóstico, manejo de la inmunosupresión y tratamiento, a partir de las cuales se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura en las bases de datos PubMed y EMBASE y en los portales web de algunas sociedades científicas y se consultó a un grupo de especialistas en nefrología y cirugía. La discusión de las preguntas, las respuestas y lo encontrado en la literatura se realizó entre el 23 de abril y el 10 de mayo de 2020. Resultados: se realizó un panel de discusión donde los expertos discutieron y evaluaron la calidad de la evidencia para emitir una recomendación final sobre cada punto evaluado. Asimismo, se realizó un consolidado de las principales series de casos de infección por SARS-CoV2 en población con trasplante renal y sus desenlaces clínicos publicados hasta el momento. Conclusiones: se establecieron unas recomendaciones para la prevención, el diagnóstico y el manejo de pacientes con trasplante renal y COVID-19, las cuales hacen énfasis en el manejo inmunosupresor de base y resaltan la importancia de las interacciones farmacológicas de los tratamientos disponibles para el SARS-CoV-2 con la terapia inmunosupresora. Igualmente se dan recomendaciones para realizar trasplantes de forma segura durante la pandemia.


Abstract Introduction: Kidney transplant patients are a high-risk population for complications and mortality associated with SARS CoV2 infection. Different reports in the literature have shown a higher frequency of respiratory compromise and mortality, currently don't exist recommendations with an adequate level of evidence regarding the management of base immunosuppression and treatment strategies in this population, for which reason it is necessary from the national scene, build recommendations based on the available evidence and consensus of experts, to be applied at the local level. Objective: To develop, by means of an expert consensus and a review of the available literature, recommendations for the prevention, diagnosis and management of transplant patients with SARS Cov2 infection. And give recommendations to continue with the organ procurement and transplant activity in the scenario of the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods: Questions were asked about SARS Cov2 infection in kidney transplantation, with emphasis on clinical behavior, frequency of infection, prevention, diagnosis, management of immunosuppression and treatment. A search of the literature in Pubmed, Embase and scientific societies was performed to answer each of the questions. The discussion of the answers to each of the questions according to the available evidence and the possibility of adapting them to local practice was carried out by consensus method and panel of experts. Nephrology and transplant surgery specialists from transplant groups in the country participated in the consensus. Results: A panel of experts was held to discuss the questions and answers found in the literature between April 23, 2020 and May 10, 2020, for each question a panel discussion was held where the total of experts discussed and Evaluates the quality of the evidence to issue a final recommendation on each evaluated point. A consolidation of the main series of cases of SARS-CoV2 infection in the kidney transplant population and the clinical outcomes was carried out up to the moment of publication. Conclusions: According to what is found in the literature, recommendations are made for the prevention, diagnosis and management of patients with kidney transplantation and SARS-CoV2 infection, emphasizing behavior with respect to basic immunosuppressive management, and highlighting the importance of the pharmacological interactions of the available treatments for SARS-CoV2 with immunosuppressive therapy, recommendations are also given to implement the procupara and transplant activity safely during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Kidney Transplantation , COVID-19 , Patients , Colombia , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Nephrology
3.
Rev. colomb. nefrol. (En línea) ; 7(supl.2): 50-69, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251579

ABSTRACT

resumen está disponible en el texto completo


Abstract Introduction: The numbers of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pediatric population are low so far. There is limited information about the behavior of SARS-CoV-2 in a pediatric patient with chronic kidney disease. Objective: To formulate informed recommendations to the prevention, diagnosis, and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pediatric patients with kidney disease or acute kidney injury associated with COVID-19 in Colombia. Methodology: A rapid systematic review was performed in Embase and Pubmed databases and scientific societies, to answer questions prioritized by clinical experts in pediatric nephrology. The quality of the evidence was evaluated with validated tools according to the type of study. The preliminary recommendations were consulted by an expert group. The agreement was defined when approval was obtained from at least 70% of the experts consulted. Results: A response was obtained from ' 9 experts in pediatric nephrology in Colombia, who declared the conflict of interest before the consultation. The range of agreement for the recommendations ranged from 78.9% to '00%. The recommendations did not require a second consultation. Conclusion: The evidence-based recommendations for the management of a patient with kidney disease and COVID-19 in the Colombian context are presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pediatrics , COVID-19 , Patients , Societies, Scientific , Colombia , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Acute Kidney Injury , Nephrology
5.
Rev. colomb. nefrol. (En línea) ; 7(2): 78-84, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251567

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC). Una opción de tratamiento cuando estas infecciones son recurrentes es la vacunación bacteriana sublingual. Objetivo: determinar la respuesta a la vacunación bacteriana sublingual en pacientes nefrológicos con ITU recurrente. Materiales y métodos: estudio cuasi experimental en el que se evaluó la evolución en 15 meses de los pacientes con ITU recurrente que asistieron a consulta externa de nefrología. Tras recibir tratamiento antibiótico según antibiograma para cada ITU, los participantes tomaron un ciclo de la vacuna sublingual bacteriana Uromune® durante tres meses. Se recogieron datos sociodemográficos y sobre factores de riesgo asociados, análisis de sangre y orina, episodios de ITU en los seis meses previos y posteriores, microorganismos causantes, tratamiento antibiótico concomitante, respuesta al tratamiento y resolución de la ITU. Resultados: se incluyeron 26 pacientes (80,8 % mujeres) con una media de edad de 61,9±18,4 años, de los cuales el 46,2 % tenía diabetes y el 47,7 %, afectación de la función renal. La media de ITU fue 3,62±1,77 (rango: 1 -7) antes de la vacuna y de 1,69±1,77 (rango: 0-5) después. Se recogieron 184 urocultivos: 74,9 % positivos, 16,9 % negativos y 8,2 % contaminados. Las bacterias más frecuentes fueron Escherichia coli (55,4 %), Enterococcus faecalis (6 %) y Enterobacter cloacae (2,7 %). El 50 % de los participan- tes presentó síndrome miccional, que se asoció inversamente con la edad (p<0,05). El 26,9 % no volvió a tener ITU y el 73,1 % tuvo menos episodios. Los pacientes con ERC avanzada (estadios IV-V) respondieron peor a la vacuna (92,9 % vs 50 %, p=0,025). Conclusiones: la vacunación bacteriana sublingual es una buena opción de tratamiento para la ITU recurrente de pacientes con ERC, siendo más eficaz en los que presentan mejor función renal.


Abstract Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in patients with chronic kidney disease. A treatment option in recurrent UTI is sublingual bacterial vaccination. The objective of this study was to determine the response to vaccination in nephrologic patients with recurrent UTI. Method: Quasi-experimental study before-after (15 months) in patients with recurrent UTI from the outpatient nephrology consultation. After receiving antibiotic treatment for each UTI, patients took one cycle of the sublingual bacterial vaccine Uromune? for three months. Sociodemographic data, associated risk factors, analysis, UTI in the previous and subsequent six months, microorganisms, concomitant antibiotic treatment, response to treatment and resolution of UTI were collected. Results: Twenty-six patients (80.8% female) of 61.9 ±18.4 years, 46.2% with diabetes and 47.7% with impaired renal function were included. The episodes of UTI were 3.62 ±1.77 (1-7) before and 1.69 ± 1.77 (0-5) after vaccination. In total, 184 urine cultures were collected: 74.9% positive, 16.9% negative and 8.2% contaminated. The most frequent bacteria were Escherichia coli (55.4%), Enterococcus faecalis (6%) and Enterobacter cloacae (2.7%). Fifty percent had voiding syndrome, which was inversely associated with age (p < 0.05); 26.9% did not have a UTI again and 73.1% had fewer episodes. Patients with advanced chronic disease (stages 4-5) reponded worse to the vaccine (92.9% vs 50%, p =0.025). Conclusions: Sublingual bacterial vaccination is a good treatment option in recurrent UTI of nephrologic patients, being more effective in those with better renal function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bacterial Vaccines , Patients , Spain , Urinary Tract Infections , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Nephrology
7.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 324-329, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126168

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El recién nacido prematuro se enfrenta a las condiciones extrauterinas con sistemas aún inmaduros, tanto anatómica como fisiológicamente. El riñón termina de desarrollarse a finales del tercer trimes tre del embarazo, por lo que está especialmente expuesto a alterar su desarrollo normal en caso de nacer en forma prematura. Esta situación puede condicionar, entre otras consecuencias, una menor masa renal funcional y cambios microvasculares que representan un riesgo elevado de hipertensión arterial y daño renal crónico en el largo plazo. En el presente artículo se analiza la evidencia existente actual sobre estos riesgos en los prematuros y se ofrece un esquema de seguimiento de estos niños desde el punto de vista nefrológico.


Abstract: The premature newborn faces extrauterine conditions with some systems still immature, both ana tomically and physiologically. The kidney finishes developing at the end of the third trimester of pregnancy, so it is especially exposed to alter its normal development if preterm birth occurs. This si tuation may condition, among other consequences, a lower functional renal mass and microvascular changes comprising a high risk of chronic kidney disease in the long term and arterial hypertension. This article analyzes the current evidence on these risks in premature infants and offers a nephrology follow-up scheme of these children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/etiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/therapy , Infant, Premature, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Premature, Diseases/etiology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/physiopathology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/therapy , Risk , Aftercare/methods , Kidney/growth & development , Kidney/embryology , Kidney/physiopathology , Nephrology/methods
8.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(2): 281-288, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149787

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La infección del tracto urinario (ITU) es una de las infecciones bacterianas mas frecuentes en la edad pediátrica, pero su diagnóstico y manejo se pueden ver complicados por lo inespecífico de sus sín tomas y signos de presentación, la dificultad en la interpretación de los exámenes, especialmente en niños mas pequeños, y por un pronóstico respecto a daño renal muchas veces incierto. En los últimos años, se ha evidenciado una modificación significativa en el enfoque diagnostico y terapéutico de esta patología, surgiendo la necesidad de actualizar las recomendaciones previas. El propósito de esta re vision es contribuir a reducir la variabilidad de la práctica clínica en el manejo de ITU en la población pediátrica, mejorando la detección y manejo de la patología estructural y otros factores de riesgo de daño renal, evitando acciones innecesarias en aquellos niños con bajo riesgo. En esta primera parte, se presentan las recomendaciones en cuanto a diagnóstico y manejo de la ITU en pediatría. En la segunda parte se detalla su estudio, prevención y seguimiento.


Abstract: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most frequent bacterial infection in pediatrics. However, its diagnosis and management can be complicated due to the nonspecific clinical presentation, the difficulty of exams interpretation, especially in younger children, and an uncertain prognosis regar ding renal damage. In recent years, significant worldwide change has come in treatment, diagnosis, and images studies, we have decided to update the current recommendations on UTI management published by the Pediatric Nephrology branch of Chilean Pediatrics Society in previous years. The purpose of these recommendations is to reduce the variability of clinical practice in management of UTI in our pediatric population, favoring diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in the most ap propriate way, improving detection and management of structural pathology and other risk factors of renal damage, avoiding unnecessary actions in children with low risk. This first part includes diag nosis and treatment recommendations of urinary tract infection in pediatric age. In the second part the study, prevention and monitoring of urinary tract in pediatric age is detailed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/therapy , Pediatrics , Societies, Medical , Urinary Tract Infections/physiopathology , Urinary Tract Infections/pathology , Chile , Hospitalization , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Nephrology
9.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 19: e50245, 20200000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1120805

ABSTRACT

Objective:to understand the perceptions of nurses specializing in nephrology regarding the skills needed to care for people with acute kidney injury. Method:qualitative study carried out with six nephrology nurses, using the focus group as a technique and the guiding question "Talk about your perceptions regarding the skills needed by nurses who care for people with acute renal failure". Audios were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and submitted to content analysis. Results: three categories emerged: pathophysiological knowledge of Acute Kidney Injury as a prevention and care strategy in pre-dialysis; operationalization and management of machines during dialysis therapy and difficulties in operationalizing care with transference of the responsibility to provide care for nursing technicians.Conclusion: knowledge about pathophysiology of acute kidney injury, skill in handling machines, intervention in complications, accurate analysis of exams, care with nutritional aspects and handling of catheters are the main skills required for operational care. However, the fragility of the legislation to this public makes it difficult to operate care safely.


Objetivo: compreender as percepções de enfermeiros especialistas em nefrologia quanto às competências necessárias para o cuidado a pessoas com injúria renal aguda. Método: estudo qualitativo, realizado com seis enfermeiros especialistas em nefrologia, tendo como técnica o grupo focal,com a questão norteadora:fale sobre suas percepções quanto às competências necessárias ao enfermeiro que cuida de pessoas com insuficiência renal aguda. Os áudios foram gravados, transcritos na íntegra e submetidos à análise de conteúdo. Resultados: emergiram três categorias: conhecimento fisiopatológico da lesão renal aguda como estratégia de prevenção e cuidados na pré-diálise; operacionalização e gerenciamento de máquinas durante a terapia dialítica e dificuldades para operacionalização do cuidado com transferência de responsabilidade de cuidados aos técnicos em enfermagem. Conclusão: conhecimento fisiopatológico da injúria renal aguda, habilidade no manuseio de máquinas, intervenção nas intercorrências, atenção acurada aos exames, cuidados com aspectos nutricionais e manejo de cateteres são as principais competências necessárias para operacionalização do cuidado. No entanto, a fragilidade da legislação a este público dificulta a operacionalização do cuidado com segurança.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Nursing , Acute Kidney Injury , Nephrology , Medical Examination , Renal Dialysis , Nutritional Sciences , Catheters , Intensive Care Units , Kidney Diseases
10.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053534

ABSTRACT

Aims: To investigate the arm and hand function in hemodialysis patients. Methods: Upper limb function using validated questionnaires such as Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH), Cochin and Boston were applied to 57 chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis and 60 healthy controls. Epidemiological data, data on pain and paresthesia in the upper limb and handgrip strength were obtained. Results: The three questionnaires showed worse performance of upper limb function in chronic renal failure patients than controls: DASH questionnaire with P = 0.05; Cochin questionnaire with P = 0.0004 and Boston questionnaire with P = 0.03. The questionnaire scores were affected by presence of pain (P = 0.05 for DASH and < 0.0001 for Boston questionnaires) and paresthesia (DASH with P = 0.003; Cochin with P = 0.01 and Boston questionnaire with P < 0.0001). Handgrip strength was lower in hemodialysis patients when compared with controls (P = 0.02) but did not affect the performance of any of the studied questionnaires. Conclusions: Upper limb function is impaired in hemodialysis patients and the main associations found were with pain and paresthesia.


Objetivos: Investigar a função do braço e da mão em pacientes em hemodiálise. Métodos: A função dos membros superiores foi investigada utilizando-se questionários validados, como Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH), Cochin e Boston, sendo aplicada a 57 pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica em hemodiálise e 60 controles saudáveis. Foram obtidos dados epidemiológicos tais como dor e parestesia no membro superior e força de preensão manual. Resultados: Os três questionários apresentaram pior desempenho da função do membro superior em pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica do que os controles: questionário DASH com P = 0,05; questionário de Cochin com P = 0,0004 e questionário de Boston com P = 0,03. Os escores do questionário foram afetados pela presença de dor (P = 0,05 para DASH e <0,0001 para questionários de Boston) e parestesia (DASH com P = 0,003; Cochin com P = 0,01 e Boston com P <0,0001). A força de preensão manual foi menor nos pacientes em hemodiálise quando comparados aos controles (P = 0,02), mas não afetou o desempenho de nenhum dos questionários estudados. Conclusões: A função do membro superior é prejudicada em pacientes em hemodiálise e as principais associações encontradas foram com dor e parestesia.


Subject(s)
Renal Dialysis , Pain , Paresthesia , Arteriovenous Fistula , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Kidney Diseases , Medicine , Nephrology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811152

ABSTRACT

The safety of metformin use for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and advanced kidney disease is controversial, and more recent guidelines have suggested that metformin be used cautiously in this group until more definitive evidence concerning its safety is available. The Korean Diabetes Association and the Korean Society of Nephrology have agreed on consensus statements concerning metformin use for patients with T2DM and renal dysfunction, particularly when these patients undergo imaging studies using iodinated contrast media (ICM). Metformin can be used safely when the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is ≥45 mL/min/1.73 m². If the eGFR is between 30 and 44 mL/min/1.73 m², metformin treatment should not be started. If metformin is already in use, a daily dose of ≤1,000 mg is recommended. Metformin is contraindicated when the eGFR is <30 mL/min/1.73 m². Renal function should be evaluated prior to any ICM-related procedures. During procedures involving intravenous administration of ICM, metformin should be discontinued starting the day of the procedures and up to 48 hours post-procedures if the eGFR is <60 mL/min/1.73 m².


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Consensus , Contrast Media , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Kidney Diseases , Metformin , Nephrology , Renal Insufficiency , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
12.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 539-549, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056608

ABSTRACT

Abstract According to data from the last census of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology (SBN), the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Brazilian hemodialysis units (HU) is 3.3%, about three times higher than what is reported for the Brazilian general population. Often, professionals working in HU are faced with clinical situations that require rapid HCV diagnosis in order to avoid horizontal transmission within the units. On the other hand, thanks to the development of new antiviral drugs, the cure of patients with HCV, both in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease and the disease eradication, appear to be very feasible objectives to be achieved in the near future . In this scenario, SBN and the Brazilian Society of Hepatology present in this review article a proposal to approach HCV within HUs.


Resumo De acordo com os dados do último censo da Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia (SBN), a prevalência de portadores do vírus da hepatite C (HCV) nas unidades de hemodiálise (UH) no Brasil é de 3,3%, cerca de três vezes maior do que é observado na população geral brasileira. Muitas vezes, os profissionais que trabalham nas UH deparam-se com situações clínicas que demandam rápido diagnóstico do HCV, a fim de evitar uma transmissão horizontal dentro das unidades. Por outro lado, a cura dos pacientes portadores do HCV, tanto na população geral como na portadora de doença renal crônica e a erradicação da doença, em virtude do desenvolvimento de novas drogas antivirais, parecem ser objetivos bastante factíveis, a ser alcançados em futuro próximo. Nesse cenário, a SBN e a Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia apresentam neste artigo de revisão uma proposta de abordagem do HCV dentro das UH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , RNA Viruses/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Prevalence , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/genetics , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Nephrology/organization & administration , Nephrology/statistics & numerical data
13.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 462-471, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056610

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) has an incidence rate of 5-6% among intensive care unit (ICU) patients and sepsis is the most frequent etiology. Aims: To assess patients in the ICU that developed AKI, AKI on chronic kidney disease (CKD), and/or sepsis, and identify the risk factors and outcomes of these diseases. Methods: A prospective observational cohort quantitative study that included patients who stayed in the ICU > 48 hours and had not been on dialysis previously was carried out. Results: 302 patients were included and divided into: no sepsis and no AKI (nsnAKI), sepsis alone (S), septic AKI (sAKI), non-septic AKI (nsAKI), septic AKI on CKD (sAKI/CKD), and non-septic AKI on CKD (nsAKI/CKD). It was observed that 94% of the patients developed some degree of AKI. Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) stage 3 was predominant in the septic groups (p = 0.018). Nephrologist follow-up in the non-septic patients was only 23% vs. 54% in the septic groups (p < 0.001). Dialysis was performed in 8% of the non-septic and 37% of the septic groups (p < 0.001). Mechanical ventilation (MV) requirement was higher in the septic groups (p < 0.001). Mortality was 38 and 39% in the sAKI and sAKI/CKD groups vs 16% and 0% in the nsAKI and nsAKI/CKD groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Patients with sAKI and sAKI/CKD had worse prognosis than those with nsAKI and nsAKI/CKD. The nephrologist was not contacted in a large number of AKI cases, except for KDIGO stage 3, which directly influenced mortality rates. The urine output was considerably impaired, ICU stay was longer, use of MV and mortality were higher when kidney injury was combined with sepsis.


Resumo A Lesão Renal Aguda (LRA), cuja etiologia mais frequente é sepse, tem incidência de 5-6% na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Objetivo: Avaliar pacientes que permaneceram mais de 48 horas na UTI e desenvolveram LRA ou Doença Renal Crônica agudizada (DRCag) e/ou sepse; identificar fatores associados e causas que possam afetar a evolução desses pacientes. Método: Estudo prospectivo, observacional, coorte e quantitativo dos pacientes em UTI entre maio a dezembro de 2013 com sepse e LRA. Excluídos pacientes < 48 horas e/ou dialíticos prévios. Resultados: Dos 1156 pacientes admitidos, 302 foram incluídos e divididos em grupos: sem sepse e sem LRA (SSSLRA), apenas sepse (S), LRA séptica (LRAs), LRA não séptica (LRAns), DRCag séptica (DRCags), DRCag não séptica (DRCagns). Foi verificado que 94% apresentaram algum grau de lesão renal; Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 3 foi predominante nos grupos sépticos (p = 0.018); o nefrologista foi chamado apenas em 23% dos pacientes não sépticos vs. 54% dos sépticos (p < 0.001); houve necessidade de diálise em 8% dos não sépticos vs. 37% dos sépticos (p < 0.001); necessidade de Ventilação Mecânica (VM) em 61% da LRAns versus 90% na LRAs (p < 0.001). A mortalidade foi 38% e 39% na LRAs e DRCags vs. 16% e 0% na LRAns e DRCagns, respectivamente (p < 0.001). Conclusão: LRAs e DRCags têm pior prognóstico que a não séptica. O nefrologista ainda não é solicitado em grande parte dos casos com influência direta na mortalidade (p < 0.001), o débito urinário é consideravelmente prejudicado; o tempo de permanência na UTI, necessidade de VM e mortalidade são maiores quando há associação da sepse e LRA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Sepsis/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/microbiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Mortality/trends , Renal Dialysis/methods , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Nephrology/statistics & numerical data
14.
Rev. colomb. nefrol. (En línea) ; 6(2): 138-151, jul.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1093038

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) en los adultos mayores es altamente prevalente y se asocia a múltiples factores de riesgo. Objetivo: identificar pacientes adultos mayores con ERC que acuden a la consulta ambulatoria de nefrología en el Centro Integral de Salud Comunitaria (CSIC) Chacaltaya, El Alto, Bolivia, en el período comprendido entre septiembre y diciembre de 2018. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal realizado en consulta ambulatoria de nefrología en el CISC Chacaltaya, El Alto, Bolivia. La muestra fue de 203 pacientes. Se analizaron las variables edad, sexo, estado civil, ocupación laboral, antecedentes patológicos personales, clasificación de la ERC. Se utilizó la fórmula Modifcation of Diet in Renal Disease abreviada para determinar el grado de la enfermedad. Se utilizó la estadística descriptiva (frecuencias absolutas y relativas, prueba Chi-cuadrado) y tuvo en cuenta el consentimiento informado. Resultados: prevalece el estadio 2 de la enfermedad, con 44,3 %, seguido del estadio 3a, con 21,7 %, fue más prevalente en el grupo de edad de 70-79 años y más en las mujeres que en los hombres. Los factores de riesgo que se relacionan con la enfermedad renal crónica en nuestro estudio fueron: edad, sexo femenino, diabetes mellitus, malnutrición por exceso, proteinuria y anemia. Conclusiones: La ERC presenta una alta prevalencia en la población mayor de 60 años, su diagnóstico precoz tiene un papel importante en el abordaje integral de la misma en el nivel primario de salud.


Abstract Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in older adults is highly prevalent and is associated with multiple risk factors. Objective: To identify elderly patients with CKD who attend the nephrology outpatient clinic at the Comprehensive Community Health Center (CSIC) Chacaltaya, El Alto, Bolivia, in the period between September and December 2018. Materials and methods: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study performed in an outpatient nephrology clinic in CISC Chacaltaya, El Alto, Bolivia. The universe was 203 patients. The following variables were analyzed: age, sex, marital status, occupation, personal pathological background, classification of CKD. The formula Modification of Diet in Renal Disease was abbreviated to determine the degree of the disease. To give an exit, descriptive statistics were used (absolute and relative frequencies, chi-square test). Informed consent was taken into account. Results: Stage 2 of the disease prevails, with 44.3%, followed by stage 3a, with 21.7%; it was more prevalent in the age group of 7079 years and more in women than in men. The risk factors that are related to chronic kidney disease in our study were age, female gender, diabetes mellitus and malnutrition by excess, proteinuria and anemia. Conclusions: CKD presents a high prevalence in the population over 60 years of age; its early diagnosis plays an important role in its integral approach at the primary health level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Morbidity , Colombia , Nephrology
15.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 423-426, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040256

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Vascular access and renal biopsy are common procedures in nephrology. In this study, two artisanal simulators of very low cost and excelent image quality are (prented) presented to guide, by ultrasound, the venous access and renal biopsy. Methods: The simulators are constructed using chicken breast slices, Penrose drain, plastic milk shake straw and pig kidney. Results: Both simulators enable immediate identification of the anatomical structures of interest, vessels and kidney, and enable spatial orientation and hand-eye coordination, essential for the development of the necessary skills to safely carry out invasive procedures. Conclusion: The simulators described, were extremely useful for simulating venous access and renal biopsy guided by ultrasonography, enabling training to reduce the failure rate in punctures and the potential complications associated with the described procedures.


RESUMO Introdução: O acesso vascular e a biópsia renal são procedimentos comuns na prática nefrológica. Neste estudo, são apresentados dois simuladores artesanais de baixo custo e excelente qualidade de imagem para guiar, ultrassonograficamente, o acesso venoso e a biópsia renal. Métodos: Os simuladores são construídos utilizando fatias de peito de frango, dreno de Penrose, canudo plástico milk shake e rim de porco. Resultados: Ambos os simuladores permitem a identificação imediata das estruturas anatômicas de interesse, vasos e rim, e possibilitam a orientação espacial e coordenação olho-mão, essenciais para o desenvolvimento das habilidades necessárias para realizar seguramente procedimentos invasivos. Conclusão: Os simuladores descritos, extremamente úteis para as simulações do acesso venoso e a biópsia renal guiados por ultrassonografia, possibilitam o treinamento objetivando a redução do insucesso das punções e das complicações potenciais associadas aos procedimentos descritos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ultrasonography/methods , Simulation Training/methods , Nephrologists/education , Kidney/pathology , Nephrology/education , Swine , Blood Vessels , Punctures , Chickens , Clinical Competence , Muscle, Skeletal , Image-Guided Biopsy
16.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(3): 303-307, jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003708

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el efecto nefroprotector del extracto de camu camu en un modelo de nefrotoxicidad inducida por la gentamicina. Estudio de tipo experimental formado por 50 ratas Sprague Dawley que se dividieron aleatoriamente en cinco grupos de estudio: Al grupo control se le administró la solución salina, al grupo gentamicina se le indujo la nefrotoxicidad y a los grupos experimentales 1, 2 y 3 se les protegió con el extracto alcohólico de camu camu a diferentes dosis. La actividad nefroprotectora se evaluó por la cuantificación de la creatinina sérica, el peso y análisis histopatológico de los riñones. Los resultados evidenciaron una disminución significativa del nivel de creatinina en los grupos protegidos con el extracto alcohólico de camu camu con respecto al grupo gentamicina (p<0,05). Los grupos que recibieron camu camu presentaron un aumento gradual del peso de los riñones en una relación directa a la dosis del extracto (p<0,05). El análisis histológico evidenció pérdida epitelial, infiltrado inflamatorio intenso y congestión vascular en el grupo gentamicina, mientras que los grupos que recibieron camu camu con el extracto disminuyeron la gravedad del daño. Se concluye que el extracto de camu camu presentó una actividad nefroprotectora significativa en un modelo de nefrotoxicidad inducida por gentamicina.


ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the nephroprotective effect of camu camu extract on a gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity model. The study design was experimental using 50 Sprague Dawley rats randomly allocated into 1 of 5 five groups: a control group that was administered a saline solution, a gentamicin group in which nephrotoxicity was induced and experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 that were provided different doses of Camu Camu alcoholic extract. Nephroprotective activity was evaluated via quantification of seric creatinine, histopathological analysis and weighing of the kidneys. Results showed a significant decrease in creatinine levels between the group administered camu camu alcoholic extract and the gentamicin group (p<0.05). Groups who received camu camu presented a gradual increase in kidneys weight which corresponded directly to the extract dose (p<0.05). The histopathological analysis showed epithelial loss, intense inflammatory infiltrate and vascular congestion in the gentamicin group, while the groups who received the extract had a lower level of damage. Camu Camu extract provided a significant nephroprotective activity on a gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ascorbic Acid , Rats , Plant Extracts , Gentamicins , Nephrology , Epidemiology, Experimental
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(3): 441-445, Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003045

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: We analyzed the distribution and frequency of glomerular diseases in patients biopsied between 1992 and 2016 in centers that make up the AMICEN (Minas Gerais Association of Nephrology Centers). METHODS: We analyzed the biopsy reports of patients from 9 AMICEN nephrology centers. We took note of their age, gender, ultrasound use, post-biopsy resting time, whether the kidney was native or a graft, number of glomeruli and indication for the biopsy. The kidney biopsy findings were broken down into four categories: glomerular and non-glomerular diseases, normal kidneys and insufficient material for analysis. Those patients diagnosed with glomerular diseases were further divided into having primary or secondary glomerular diseases. RESULTS: We obtained 582 biopsy reports. The median age was 38 years (1 to 85). The number of glomeruli varied between 0 and 70 (median = 13.0). In total, 97.8% of the biopsies were ultrasound guided. The main indication was nephrotic syndrome (36.9%), followed by hematuria-proteinuria association (16.2%). Primary glomerular diseases proved to be the most frequent (75.3%), followed by secondary diseases (24.7%). Among the primary glomerular diseases, FSGS was found at a higher frequency (28.8%), while among the secondary diseases, SLE was the most prevalent (42.4%). Regarding prevalence findings, those for both primary and secondary diseases were similar to those found in the large Brazilian registries published thus far. CONCLUSION: Glomerular disease registries are an important tool to identify the prevalence of such disease in regions of interest and can serve as an instrument to guide public policy decisions concerning the prevention of terminal kidney diseases.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: Analisamos a distribuição e frequência de doenças glomerulares de pacientes biopsiados entre 1992 e 2016 em centros que compõem a Amicen (Associação de Minas Gerais de Nefrologia). MÉTODOS: Analisamos os relatórios de biópsia de pacientes de nove centros de nefrologia da Amicen. Observamos idade, gênero, uso de ultrassom, tempo de descanso pós-biópsia, se o rim era nativo ou um enxerto, número de glomérulos e indicação para a biópsia. Os achados da biópsia do rim foram divididos em quatro categorias: doenças glomerulares e não glomerulares, rins normais e material insuficiente para análise. Os pacientes diagnosticados com doenças glomerulares foram ainda divididos em doenças glomerulares primárias ou secundárias. RESULTADOS: Obtivemos 582 relatórios de biópsia. A idade mediana foi de 38 anos (1 a 85). O número de glomérulos variou entre zero e 70 (mediana = 13,0). No total, 97,8% das biópsias foram guiadas por ultrassom. A principal indicação foi síndrome nefrótica (36,9%), seguida de associação hematúria-proteinúria (16,2%). As doenças glomerulares primárias revelaram-se as mais frequentes (75,3%), seguidas de doenças secundárias (24,7%). Entre as doenças glomerulares primárias, o FSGS foi encontrado em maior frequência (28,8%), enquanto nas doenças secundárias, o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico foi o mais prevalente (42,4%). Quanto aos achados de prevalência, aqueles para doenças primárias e secundárias foram semelhantes aos encontrados nos grandes registros brasileiros publicados até o momento. CONCLUSÃO: Os registros de doenças glomerulares são uma ferramenta importante para identificar a prevalência dessas doenças em regiões de interesse e pode servir como um instrumento para orientar decisões de políticas públicas relativas à prevenção de doenças renais terminais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Glomerulonephritis/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Biopsy , Brazil/epidemiology , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glomerulonephritis/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Kidney Glomerulus/pathology , Middle Aged , Nephrology/statistics & numerical data
20.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. 111 p. tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1096343

ABSTRACT

A Doença Renal Crônica é caracterizada por uma perda progressiva, e irreversível, da função glomerular, tubular e endócrina dos rins. Considerada uma das mais graves de todas as doenças crônicas em função dos agravos, danos físicos, psicológicos e consequências para a vida cotidiana das pessoas influenciando no seu autocuidado. É incurável, não apresenta medicamentos específicos para o tratamento, exigindo autocuidado para promoção da saúde, redução dos danos e retardar a progressão da doença. Objetivo geral: analisar a relação do autocuidado na promoção da saúde nas narrativas de vida de pessoas com doença renal crônica. Objetivos específicos: Identificar nas narrativas de vida das pessoas com doença renal crônica como entendem e desenvolvem o autocuidado; Descrever as associações do autocuidado na promoção da saúde nos modos de enfrentamento da doença renal crônica. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, descritivo, guiado pelo método de narrativa de vida, desenvolvido em um hospital universitário do Rio de Janeiro no período de agosto a outubro de 2019, com quatorze pessoas em tratamento conservador por doença renal crônica. Os critérios de inclusão foram: Maiores de 18 anos, sem distinção de sexo, crença religiosa e etnia, no estágio 3 e 4 da doença renal crônica, em tratamento conservador. E os critérios de exclusão foram: pessoas com doença renal crônica em outros estágios da doença, os que apresentavam alteração do nível de consciência, pessoas com adoecimento psíquico e dificuldade de responder as questões. O projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética da Plataforma Brasil sob o Protocolo n° 03769518.8.0000.5282. A técnica de produção de dados foi a entrevista, gravada em um aplicativo para smartphone e transcrita na íntegra. O processo analítico empregado foi a análise temática, orientada por Bertaux. Da organização dos dados emergiram duas categorias intituladas: A descoberta da doença e a necessidade de autocuidado; Os enfrentamentos das pessoas com doença renal crônica para o autocuidado. A caracterização dos participantes demonstrou que a maioria dos participantes são do sexo feminino, seis se autodeclaram pardos e seis brancos, com idade entre 21 e 73 anos, sendo oito deles considerados adultos jovens, a maioria com nivel superior completo, apresentam alteração no peso corpóreo e possuem como patologia de base a hipertensão e diabetes. O estudo evidenciou que o diagnóstico da doença renal crônica foi confirmado para cada participante de maneira distinta, em consultas de rotina, aleatoriamente, ou de outra patologia em tratamento, todos com evolução para o agravamento da doença com muitas demandas de autocuidado, por conta do desconhecimento do processo-saúde, adoecimento, perda de energia na busca de tratamento, demora, acesso para assistencia a saúde e agravos à condição clínica. Sobre os mecanismos de enfrentamento a família, apareceu com papel primordial para o enfrentamento da doenças e como o apoio necessário para realizar atividades de autocuidado referentes a mudança de habitos alimentares e atividade física. Desse modo conclui-se que o método foi capaz de evidenciar a relação do autocuidado na promoção da saúde, apresentando experiências e situações vivenciadas pelos participantes no enfrentamento do adoecimento. O enfermeiro tem papel primordial na elaboração de práticas criativas para o autocuidado e o Modelo de Promoção da Saúde de Nola Pender é uma possibilidade para influenciar os mecanismos para o autocuidado.


Chronic Kidney Disease is characterized by a progressive, irreversible loss of the glomerular, tubular and endocrine functions of the kidneys. It is regarded as one of the most serious of all chronic diseases due to the aggravated injuries, as well as the physical and psychological damage and the consequences for the persons' daily routine influencing self-care. There is no cure, nor specific medications for treatment, thus requiring self-care to promote health, reduce harm and slow down the evolution of the disease. The general aim is to analyze how self-care is related to health promotion in the life histories of persons with chronic kidney disease. And the specific aims are as follows: To identify, in the life histories of persons with chronic kidney disease, how they understand and develop self-care; To describe the associations of self-care when promoting health in the means to cope with chronic kidney disease. This is a qualitative an descriptive study, oriented by the life history approach, developed in a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro from August to October 2019, with 14 subjects undergoing conservative therapy for chronic kidney disease. The inclusion criteria were the following: Subjects must be over 18 years old, regardless of gender, religious belief or ethnicity, at stage-3 and stage-4 of chronic kidney disease undergoing conservative therapy. And the exclusion criteria were: subjects with chronic kidney disease in other stages of the disease, those with altered level of consciousness, people with mental illness and difficulty to answer the questions. The project was approved by the Plataforma Brasil Ethics Committee under Registry No. 03769518.8.0000.5282. The data production technique was the interview, recorded using a smartphone application and fully transcribed. After transcription of the interviews and data organization, the analytical process used was the thematic analysis based on Bertaux. Two categories emerged from the data organization, namely: The discovery of the disease and the need for self-care; The coping of persons with chronic kidney disease for self-care. The characterization of respondents showed that most of them are female, 6 self-described as being pardos (brown) and 6 white, aged between 21 and 73 years; eight of them were considered young adults, most of them with superior education level complete, displaying changes in body weight. and hypertension and diabetes as underlying pathology. The study showed that the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease was confirmed differently for each respondent, in routine medical appointments, on a random basis, or from other pathology undergoing treatment, all of which evolving to the aggravation of the disease with several self-care requirements, due to the respondents being unaware of the health process, illness, loss of energy when searching for treatment, delay, lack of access to health care and aggravation of the clinical conditions. Concerning coping mechanisms, the family had the key role to cope with the diseases and the necessary support to carry out self-care activities related to changes in eating habits and physical activity. Thus, we conclude that the life history approach was able to highlight the relationship of self-care when promoting health by presenting experiences and situations experienced by respondents when coping with the illness. The nurse has a key role in the development of creative practices for self-care and Nola Pender's Health Promotion Model is a possibility to influence the self-care mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Self Care , Nursing , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/nursing , Nephrology Nursing , Health Promotion , Kidney , Nephrology
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