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1.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e300, July-Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280179

ABSTRACT

Abstract Post-dural puncture headache is a frequent complication in neuraxial approaches. It may result in disability, healthcare dissatisfaction and potentially serious complications. The traditional initial management includes general and analgesia measures with poor evidence. The treatment approach best supported by the literature is the epidural blood patch for which rates of up 70% improvement have been reported. Regional techniques have been recently described that may be helpful because they are less invasive than the epidural blood patch, under certain clinical circumstances. This article suggests an algorithm that uses such techniques for the management of this complication.


Resumen La cefalea pospunción dural es una complicación frecuente del abordaje del neuroeje. Puede producir incapacidad, insatisfacción con la atención en salud y complicaciones potencialmente graves. Tradicionalmente su manejo inicial incluye medidas generales y de analgesia las cuales tienen baja evidencia. La medida para su tratamiento, con mejor soporte en la literatura, es la realización de parche hemático, el cual informa tazas de mejoría hasta del 70 %. Recientemente se han descrito técnicas regionales, que pueden resultar útiles por ser menos invasivas que el parche hemático, en ciertos contextos clínicos. En este artículo se propone un algoritmo que permite incorporar dichas técnicas al manejo de esta complicación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Therapeutics , Blood Patch, Epidural , Post-Dural Puncture Headache , Headache , Analgesia , Nerve Block , Delivery of Health Care , Anesthesia, Conduction
2.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(2): e501, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251503

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Neuropathic pain is present in up to 40 % of all cancer patients. A considerable number of patients fail to achieve enough pain relief with conventional treatment, which is why therapeutic alternatives such as spinal cord stimulation should be considered. Case description and results This is the case of a female patient with chronic neuropathic pain secondary to a partial femoral nerve injury sustained during resection and lymph node dissection surgery with curative intent for a large stage II cell squamous cell carcinoma T2N0M0, localized in the right popliteal fossa. The patient presented with difficult to manage chronic neuropathic pain, despite receiving multiple oral analgesics and nerve blocks. A medullary neurostimulator was implanted that relieved the patient's pain intensity in up to 80%, in addition to improved function and quality of life. Conclusions Spinal cord stimulation is considered an effective neuromodulatory intervention which has shown satisfactory results in the treatment of various types of refractory chronic pain in cancer patients, including neuropathic pain.


Resumen Introducción El dolor neuropático está presente hasta en el 40 % de los pacientes con cáncer. Un número considerable de pacientes no logran un alivio suficiente del dolor con el tratamiento convencional, por lo cual deben considerarse alternativas terapéuticas como la estimulación de la médula espinal. Descripción del caso y resultados Caso de una paciente con dolor neuropático crónico secundario a lesión parcial de nervio femoral durante cirugía de resección y vaciamiento ganglionar con objetivos curativos de carcinoma escamocelular de célula grande T2N0M0 estadio II, localizado en la fosa poplítea derecha, quien cursó con dolor neuropático crónico de difícil manejo a pesar de recibir múltiples analgésicos orales y bloqueos nerviosos. Se implantó un neuroestimulador medular con lo cual se logró un alivio hasta del 80 % en intensidad de dolor de la paciente, además de una mejoría de su funcionalidad y calidad de vida. Conclusiones La estimulación de la médula espinal se considera una intervención neuromoduladora eficaz, que ha demostrado resultados satisfactorios para tratar diversas formas de dolor crónico refractario en los pacientes con cáncer, incluido el dolor neuropático.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chronic Pain , Pain Management , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasms , Quality of Life , Therapeutics , Cells , Femoral Nerve , Analgesics , Nerve Block , Neuralgia
3.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 10(1): 262, abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147578

ABSTRACT

El bloqueo del nervio peri prostático con lidocaína, proporciona un buen alivio del dolor en la realización de la biopsia prostática guiada por ultrasonido, pero el dolor post-procedimiento, puede llegar a ser significativo, la adición del supositorio de diclofenac, podría proporcionar alivio adicional. Se asignaron al azar pacientes en 2 grupos el grupo 1 bloqueo con lidocaína del plexo peri prostático + supositorio de diclofenac sódico y el grupo 2 bloqueo con lidocaína del plexo peri prostático + supositorio de placebo, realizando biopsia doble sextante, el dolor a varios intervalos después del procedimiento se registró en una escala visual análoga (EVA) de 0 a 10. Los 2 grupos fueron similares en cuanto a edad, volumen de próstata, antígeno prostático específico, diagnóstico histopatológico. Los pacientes que recibieron diclofenac tuvieron puntajes de dolor significativamente más bajos que los que recibieron placebo (2 frente a 3,35) p 0,02. La administración rectal de diclofenac antes de la realización de la biopsia de próstata es un procedimiento simple que alivia significativamente el dolor experimentado sin aumento en la morbilidad(AU)


The peri-prostatic nerve block with lidocaine, provides good pain relief in performing ultrasoundguided prostate biopsy, but the postprocedure pain can be significant, the addition of diclofenac suppository, could provide additional relief. Patients were randomly assigned in 2 groups to group 1 blockade with lidocaine of the prostatic peri plexus + suppository of diclofenac sodium and group 2 blockade with lidocaine of the prostatic peri plexus + placebo suppository, performing double sextant biopsy, pain at several intervals after the procedure was recorded on a visual analog scale (EVA) from 0 to 10. Thee 2 groups were similar in terms of age, prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen, histopathological diagnosis. Patients who received diclofenac had pain scores significantly lower than those who received placebo (2 vs. 3.35) p 0.02. Rectal administration of diclofenac before performing a prostate biopsy is a simple procedure that relieves significantly pain experienced without increased morbidity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostate/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Diclofenac/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Nerve Block/methods , Placebos/therapeutic use , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Administration, Rectal , Prospective Studies , Pain Management/methods , Image-Guided Biopsy , Anesthesia, Local
4.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(1): e301, Jan.-Mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149795

ABSTRACT

Abstract Complications in airway management remain a common cause of anesthesia-associated mortality. When a patient is considered with anticipated difficult airway, the management depends on several variables, however, at present, the standard of management continues to be the patient awake approach. In scenarios of acute upper airway obstruction, the only way to guarantee adequate ventilation is to obtain a translaryngeal or transtracheal access, for which, it is necessary to use local anesthesia and grade I / II sedation, avoiding loss of spontaneous ventilation. For this purpose, we propose ultrasound-guided superior laryngeal nerve block, in order to standardize an ultrasound landmark that is reproduceable, with a high success rate, which allows limiting complications related to regional anatomic techniques and thus facilitating the securing of the airway in these patients.


Resumen Las complicaciones en el manejo de la vía aérea siguen siendo una causa frecuente de mortalidad relacionada con anestesia. Cuando un paciente se considera con vía aérea difícil anticipada, el manejo depende de diversas variables, sin embargo, en la actualidad, el estándar de manejo sigue siendo el abordaje con paciente despierto. En escenarios de obstrucción aguda de la vía aérea superior, la única forma de garantizar una adecuada ventilación es obtener un acceso translaríngeo o transtraqueal, para lo cual, es necesario el uso de anestesia local y de sedación grado I/II evitando la pérdida de ventilación espontánea. Con este propósito, planteamos el bloqueo del nervio laríngeo superior guiado por ultrasonografía, con el fin de estandarizar una referencia ecográfica reproducible, con alto índice de éxito, la cual permita limitar complicaciones relacionadas con las técnicas regionales anatómicas y así facilitar el aseguramiento de la vía aérea en estos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ultrasonography , Anesthesia, Local , Laryngeal Nerves , Nerve Block , Airway Obstruction , Anesthesiologists , Intubation
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The present study aimed to explore the innervation of the anterior hard palatine and its relationship with individual development stage. Specifically, the effects of anesthesia on patients of different ages were observed, and neurodevelopment in the maxillofacial region was invesitgated. References that are helpful in selecting local anesthesia were provided.@*METHODS@#A total of 182 patients with mixed dentition were randomly divided into the nasopalatine nerve block and greater palatine nerve block groups. Then, 219 patients with permanent dentition were divided into an adolescent group (13-18 years old) and adult group (over 19 years old), all of whom underwent bilateral greater palatine nerve block. Palatal mucosal pain sensation was tested pre- and post-anesthesia with Von Frey hairs.@*RESULTS@#Among the children with mixed dentition, bilateral greater palatine nerve block tended to result in better anesthetic effects than nasopalatine nerve block (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The sensation of the anterior hard palatine seems mainly dominated by the greater palatine nerve until mixed dentition and gradually shifted to the nasopalatine nerve in conjunction with maxillary development and tooth replacement. Hence, the innervation of the anterior hard palatine induce a secondary development during the development of the maxilla.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Dentition, Mixed , Humans , Maxilla , Maxillary Nerve , Nerve Block , Palate , Palate, Hard , Young Adult
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877550

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical effect between electroacupuncture (EA) at Neima point and Neiguan (PC 6) and epidural nerve block for preemptive analgesia in patients undergoing thoracic surgery.@*METHODS@#Sixty patients with elective radical esophagectomy were randomly divided into a group A, a group B and a control group, 20 cases in each group. The patients in the group A were treated with injection of 20 mL 0.375% ropivacaine at epidural space 30 min before anesthesia induction, followed by normal anesthesia during operation; the patients in the group B were treated with 30 min EA at bilateral Neima point and Neiguan (PC 6) before anesthesia induction, followed by normal anesthesia during operation; the patients in the control group were treated with general anesthesia alone. Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia was applied for all the patients. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded at the following time points: before acupuncture/epidural puncture (T@*RESULTS@#The MAP at T@*CONCLUSION@#The preemptive analgesia of EA at Neima point and Neiguan (PC 6) and epidural nerve block could both provide effective perioperative analgesia for thoracic surgery. The EA could better maintain intraoperative hemodynamics and has less physiological disturbance.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Electroacupuncture , Epidural Space , Humans , Nerve Block , Thoracic Surgery
7.
Clinics ; 76: e2170, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153959

ABSTRACT

The practice of regional anesthesia is in a state of progressive evolution, mainly due to the advent of ultrasound as an anesthesiologist's instrument. Alternative techniques for postoperative analgesia of abdominal surgeries, such as transversus abdominis plane block, oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block, rectus abdominis muscle sheath block, ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve block, and quadratus lumborum plane block, have proven useful, with good analgesic efficacy, especially when neuroaxial techniques (spinal anesthesia or epidural anesthesia) are not possible. This review discusses such blockades in detail, including the anatomical principles, indications, techniques, and potential complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abdominal Wall/surgery , Abdominal Wall/diagnostic imaging , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative , Abdominal Muscles/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Interventional
8.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021275, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249035

ABSTRACT

Introduction Cervical erector spinae plane block (ESPB) provides postoperative pain relief when administered at the level of first thoracic costotransverse junction (CTJ) for surgeries on the proximal shoulder and cervical spine. We propose to describe the spread of 20 ml radiocontrast - dye solution administered at this level from caudad to cephalad direction in a fresh frozen cadaveric model through imaging and cross-sections. Methods An observational study with four thoracic to cervical ESP blocks at the level of first thoracic CTJ level on two fresh cadavers (total 4 specimens) was conducted using 20 ml of radiocontrast- methylene blue combination (10 ml through the needle and 10 ml through the catheter). Both cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scan. An anatomist and radiologist, respectively, analyzed cross-sections of cadavers and CT contrasted images. Results The spread was assessed in axial, sagittal, and coronal at the levels of C4, C5, C6, C7and T1. The medial limit was articular processes in both cadavers. The lateral limits were the outer border of the middle scalene muscle in cadaver 1 and posterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle in cadaver 2. Contrast spread was visualized on the superior and anterior aspect of anterior scalene muscle in cadaver 2. An epidural spread was observed at the level of C5-6 and C6-7 in axial and coronal planes in cadaver 1. Conclusions The cervical ESPB administered at the first thoracic CTJ with injections directed cephalad has a consistent action on the dorsal spinal nerves of thoracic and cervical area, and spreads in the paravertebral space dorsal to the ventral cervical roots.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Nerve Block , Cadaver , Ultrasonography , Dissection
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879440

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided selective nerve branch blockage in the treatment of lumbar spinal nerve posterior branch syndrome.@*METHODS@#A total of 40 patients with lumbar spinal nerve posterior branch syndrome treated by Pain Clinic from May 2017 to December 2018 were selected. According to the method used in locating site for nerve blockage, the patients were divided into ultrasound-guided group and anatomical positioning group, with 20 cases in each group. In anatomical positioning group, there were 7 males and 13 females, aged (63.42±7.71) years old, weighted (63.65±10.72) kg, numerical rating scale (NRS) was (6.61±1.52) scores, course of disease was (16.55±4.68) months. Pain sites:4 cases at L@*RESULTS@#There were no statistically significant differences in gender, age, weight, NRS, course of disease and pain segment distribution between two groups (@*CONCLUSION@#Comparedwith anatomicalpositioning, ultrasound-guided selective nerve branch block for the treatment of posterior branch of the lumbar spinal cord syndrome can reduce the number of treatments and maintain a longer therapeutic effect, but it is also necessary to pay attention to the time of each treatment to avoid dizziness and other adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Lumbosacral Region , Male , Middle Aged , Nerve Block , Spinal Nerves/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Interventional
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1549-1554, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134476

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Hip joint chronic pain can severely compromise patients' life quality. Peripheral nerve blocks play an important role as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The aim of this work is to study the anatomy of the nerve to quadratus femoris (NQF) in view of the possibility of its percutaneous selective block. Forty-three gluteal cadaveric regions fixed in formaldehyde solution were dissected. The quadratus femoris, the obturator internus and superior and inferior gemellus were freed from their lateral insertion, exposing thus the posterior aspect of the hip joint. The NQF was identified, and the horizontal distance to the posterior edge of the greater trochanter at its upper, middle and lower thirds was registered. The number of the articular branches of the NQF was identified. Likewise, the horizontal distance to the posterior edge of the greater trochanter and the longitudinal distance to the line through the distal end of the posterior edge of the greater trochanter were measured. The distance between the NQF and the greater trochanter posterior edge at upper, middle and lower thirds was 46 mm, 41 mm and 35 mm, respectively. In most cases (85 %) the NQF presented one or two articular branches. The longitudinal distances between the line through the distal end of the posterior edge of the greater trochanter and the origin of the first, second and third articular branches of the NQF were 14.7 mm (-19.4 - 40), 16.4 mm (-9.3-42) and 27 mm (0-46), respectively. The distances to the posterior edge of the greater trochanter were 43.1 mm (16.3-66), 37.7 mm (6.5-53) and 39.8 mm (26-52), for the first, second and third articular branches, respectively. In conclusion, the articular branches of the nerve to quadratus femoris have a constant and predictable distribution. Our findings allow for generating a coordinate system for the selective block of the NQF by way of percutaneous techniques.


RESUMEN: El dolor crónico de la articulación coxal puede comprometer severamente la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Los bloqueos nerviosos periféricos juegan un papel importante como procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la anatomía del nervio del músculo cuadrado femoral (NCF) en vista de la posibilidad de su bloqueo selectivo percutáneo. Se utilizaron 22 cadáveres fijados en solución de formaldehído. Fueron disecadas en total 43 regiones glúteas. Los músculos cuadrado femoral, obturador interno y los gemelos superior e inferior fueron liberados de su inserción lateral, exponiendo así la cara posterior de la articulación coxal. Se identificó el NCF y se registró la distancia horizontal al margen posterior del trocánter mayor en sus tercios superior, medio e inferior. Se identificó el número de ramas articulares del NQF. Asimismo, se midió la distancia horizontal al margen posterior del trocánter mayor y la distancia longitudinal a la línea que pasa por el extremo distal del margen posterior del trocánter mayor. La distancia entre el NCF y el margen posterior del trocánter mayor en los tercios superior, medio e inferior fue de 46 mm, 41 mm y 35 mm, respectivamente. En la mayoría de los casos (85 %) el NCF presentó una o dos ramas articulares. Las distancias longitudinales entre la línea que pasa por el extremo distal del margen posterior del trocánter mayor y el origen de la primera, segunda y tercera ramas articulares del NQF fueron 14,7 mm (-19,4 - 40), 16,4 mm (-9,3-42) y 27 mm (0-46), respectivamente. Las distancias al margen posterior del trocánter mayor fueron 43,1 mm (16,3-66), 37,7 mm (6,5-53) y 39,8 mm (26-52), para la primera, segunda y tercera ramas articulares, respectivamente. En conclusión, las ramas articulares del nervio al cuadrado femoral tienen una distribución constante y predecible. Nuestros hallazgos permiten generar un sistema de coordenadas para el bloqueo selectivo del NCF por medio de técnicas percutáneas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Peripheral Nerves/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Hip Joint/innervation , Nerve Block/methods , Cadaver
11.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(4): e204, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1144315

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The use of ultrasound in regional anesthesia has become a standard technique to improve nerve block accuracy and reduce associated complications. The literature reports a good correlation between the distance from the skin to the dura mater or the ligamentum flavum measured on ultrasound and the conventional technique of "loss of resistance". Latin American populations have not been included in the studies conducted so far but, because of differences in physical build, it is important to determine whether this correlation is maintained in the various populations. This paper offers new information about the role of ultrasound in determining the distance to the ligamentum flavum and recognizing the proximity of the dura mater to avoid accidental puncture of this structure in Latin American populations. Objective: To determine correlation and concordance in estimating the distance from the skin to the epidural space between the loss of resistance technique and ultrasound measurement. Methodology: Observational study conducted in 52 pediatric patients who received general anesthesia plus epidural analgesia for acute perioperative pain management between July 2014 and November 2015 to assess correlation and concordance between loss of resistance and ultrasound measurement of distance to the epidural space. Results: There is a correlation between distances measured using the two techniques, which appears to be higher as patient age increases. As for concordance, the study found that 0.43 cm should be added to the ultrasound measurement to achieve agreement with the distance obtained using the loss of resistance technique; however, the interval between the two measurements is 1.15 cm. Conclusions: A correlation was found between the measurement taken from the skin to the epidural space using ultrasound and the measurement obtained with the traditional needle puncture and loss of resistance technique. Although concordance was not as expected and the distance measured with ultrasound may be smaller than the real measurement with the needle, ultrasound offers good guidance regarding proximity to the epidural space.


Resumen Introducción: El uso del ultrasonido en la anestesia regional se ha convertido en una técnica estándar para mejorar la precisión de los bloqueos nerviosos y disminuir las complicaciones relacionadas con dicha anestesia. La literatura informa que hay una buena correlación entre la distancia entre la duramadre o el ligamento amarillo y la piel según el ultrasonido y la técnica convencional de "pérdida de resistencia". Los estudios realizados hasta ahora no han incluido población latinoamericana y, debido a las diferencias en la contextura física, es importante determinar si esta correlación se mantiene en varias poblaciones. Con este trabajo se aporta nueva información sobre la utilidad del ultrasonido para determinar la distancia al ligamento amarillo y advertir la cercanía de la duramadre con el fin de evitar la punción accidental de esta estructura en población latina. Objetivo: Determinar la correlación y concordancia en la estimación de la distancia de la piel al espacio epidural entre la técnica de pérdida de resistencia y la medición por ultrasonido. Metodología: Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional en 52 pacientes pediátricos, que recibieron anestesia general más analgesia epidural para manejo del dolor agudo perioperatorio entre julio de 2014 y noviembre de 2015. Se evaluó la correlación y la concordancia de la distancia medida al espacio epidural entre la técnica de pérdida de resistencia y la distancia por ultrasonido. Resultados: Existe una correlación entre la distancia obtenida mediante las dos técnicas de medición que parece aumentar a medida que aumenta la edad de los pacientes. En cuanto a la concordancia se encontró que a la medida tomada por ultrasonido se le debería sumar 0,43 cm para que concuerde con la distancia tomada por pérdida de resistencia; no obstante, el intervalo entre ambas medidas es de 1,15 cm. Conclusiones: Encontramos una correlación entre la medida tomada desde la piel hasta el espacio epidural por ultrasonido y la tomada por la técnica tradicional de punción con aguja y pérdida de resistencia. Aunque la concordancia que hallamos no fue la esperada, y la medición del ultrasonido puede ser menor a la medición real encontrada con la aguja, es una buena guía para advertir la cercanía del espacio epidural.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Analgesia, Epidural , Pediatrics , Skin , Ultrasonics , Ultrasonography , Epidural Space , Anesthesia, General , Nerve Block
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1659-1665, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1131552

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar o bloqueio sensitivo e motor da administração peridural de 0,2mL/kg de duas concentrações de ropivacaína em comparação à lidocaína em cães. Utilizaram-se 24 cães, distribuídos em quatro grupos: NaCl a 0,9% (GS), lidocaína a 2% (GL), ropivacaína a 0,5% (GR5) e ropivacaína a 0,75% (GR7,5). Avaliaram-se a presença de movimentação espontânea, deambulação, sensibilidade superficial e profunda nos momentos cinco, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 e 300 minutos após peridural. O retorno à movimentação espontânea foi semelhante entre GL (42,50 ± 6,12) e GR7,5 (69,2 ± 58,9). O tempo para deambulação foi mais prolongado em GR7,5 (107,5 ± 79,3) que em GS (9,2 ± 3,8) e em GR5 (32,5 ± 20,9). O retorno da sensibilidade profunda foi maior em GR 7,5 (152,5 ± 89,2) que em GS (5,8 ± 2,0), GR5 (46,7 ± 46,3) e GL (52,5 ± 20,7). O tempo de retorno da sensibilidade superficial foi maior em GR7,5 (205,0 ± 129,3) que em GS (7,5 ± 2,7), GL (72,5 ± 19,9) e GR5 (97,5 ± 55,1). Apesar do retorno precoce da movimentação, ropivacaína 0,75% está relacionada a tempo prolongado de recuperação da função muscular e bloqueio sensitivo mais prolongado que lidocaína e ropivacaína 0,5%.(AU)


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensory and motor blockade of epidural 0.5% and 0.75% Ropivacaine or Lidocaine in dogs. Twenty-four dogs were distributed in four groups: 0.9% NaCl (GS), 2% lidocaine (GL), 0.5% ropivacaine (GR5) and 0.75% ropivacaine (GR7.5). Spontaneous movement, ability to walk, superficial, and deep pain response were assessed 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 300 minutes after epidural. Time to return to spontaneous movement was similar between GL (42.50 ± 6.12) and GR7.5 (69.2 ± 58.9). Time to return to ambulation was longer in GR7.5 (107.5 ± 79.3) than in GS (9.2 ± 3.8) and GR5 (32.5 ± 20.9). Time to recover deep sensitivity was longer in GR 7.5 (152.5 ± 89.2) than in GS (5.8 ± 2.0), GR5 (46.7 ± 46.3) and GL (52.5 ± 20.7). Time to return superficial sensitivity was longer in GR7.5 (205.0 ± 129.3) when compared to GS (7.5 ± 2.7), GL (72.5 ± 19.9) and GR5 (97.5 ± 55.1). Despite the early return of spontaneous movement, 0.75% ropivacaine is related to longer periods for muscle function recovery and longer sensory block than lidocaine and 0.5% ropivacaine.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Neuromuscular Blockade/veterinary , Ropivacaine/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Epidural/veterinary , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/veterinary , Anesthetics, Local/analysis
13.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(2): e589, mayo.-ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126361

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de labio es el tumor más frecuente de la cavidad oral que afecta, sobre todo, el labio inferior. La braquiterapia es un tratamiento único eficaz en estadios tempranos y como terapia adyuvante a la cirugía en estadios avanzados. Esta técnica es un proceso doloroso por lo que para su realización se han empleado sedaciones profundas, infiltraciones intramusculares de anestésico local y técnicas de anestesia regional, entre otras. Objetivo: Presentar una técnica anestésica diferente y poco descrita como alternativa para disminuir el dolor de la intervención. Presentación del caso: Paciente con carcinoma de labio programado para braquiterapia. Se realiza bloqueo del nervio mentoniano de manera bilateral para el tratamiento en labio inferior. Conclusiones: Este tipo de bloqueo, por su sencillez y eficacia, es una alternativa útil a la sedación profunda para la realización de braquiterapia en el labio inferior(AU)


Introduction: Lip cancer is the most frequent tumor of the oral cavity that affects, above all, the lower lip. Brachytherapy is a unique treatment which is effective in early stages and, as adjuvant therapy to surgery, it is also effective in advanced stages. This technique is a painful process, a reason why deep sedation, intramuscular infiltrations of local anesthetic, and regional anesthesia techniques, among others, have been used. Objective: To present a different and scarcely described anesthetic technique as an alternative to reduce the pain of this intervention. Case presentation: Patient with lip carcinoma scheduled for brachytherapy. Bilateral mental nerve block is performed in the lower lip. Conclusions: This type of block, due to its simplicity and effectiveness, is a useful alternative to deep sedation for brachytherapy in the lower lip(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Lip Neoplasms/surgery , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Brachytherapy/methods
14.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(2): e594, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126354

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La evidencia demuestra que un inadecuado alivio del dolor preoperatorio tiene consecuencias fisiológicas y psicológicas nocivas en los pacientes, aumenta la morbilidad y la mortalidad. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia del bloqueo femoral modificado en los pacientes con el diagnóstico de fractura de cadera. Método: Se realizó un estudio cuasiexperimental en el Hospital Universitario Manuel Ascunce Domenech de la provincia Camagüey, en el periodo correspondiente de enero 2016 hasta enero 2018. Se constituyó el universo con 639 pacientes programados de urgencia y electivo con el diagnóstico de fractura de cadera, a través de un muestreo aleatorio simple de manera automática con el Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Versión 21 para Windows, error aceptable y nivel de confianza del 95 por ciento. Se conformó la muestra por 295 pacientes. Resultados: La mayor parte de los pacientes intervenidos por fractura de cadera están por encima de la quinta década de la vida. Se diagnosticó la fractura extracapsular en 174 pacientes, en la evaluación del dolor a través del Cuestionario de dolor de McGill se constata dolor terrible de 4 con intervalo de confianza (2,00912-6,23110) antes del bloqueo y analgesia después del bloqueo de 1 con intervalo de confianza (0,73102 - 1,48209). Conclusiones: El bloqueo femoral modificado proporcionó analgesia en la totalidad de los casos(AU)


Introduction: Evidence shows that inadequate control of preoperative pain has harmful physiological and psychological consequences in patients, and increases morbidity and mortality. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of modified femoral block in patients with a diagnosis of hip fracture. Method: A quasi-experimental study was carried out at Manuel Ascunce Domenech University Hospital in Camagüey Province, from January 2016 to January 2018. The study population was made up of 639 emergency and elective surgical patients with the diagnosis of hip fracture of hip, through simple random sampling automatically with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21 for Windows, acceptable error and 95% confidence level. The sample was made up of 295 patients. Results: Most of the patients operated on for hip fracture are above their fifth decade of life. Extracapsular fracture was diagnosed in 174 patients. Regarding pain evaluation through McGill's Pain Questionnaire, terrible pain of 4 was perceived, with confidence interval (2.00912-6.23110) before block; and also analgesia of 1 after blockage, with confidence interval (0.73102-1.48209). Conclusions: The modified femoral block provided analgesia in all cases(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pain Measurement/drug effects , Hip Fractures/diagnosis , Hip Fractures/therapy , Nerve Block/methods , Perioperative Care/methods , Preoperative Period , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
15.
Medwave ; 20(6): e7950, 31-07-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119716

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este artículo es revisar las características del SARS-CoV-2, los aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de COVID-19 y las implicaciones que tienen para los anestesiólogos al realizar procedimientos generadores de aerosoles. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed, Scopus, SciELO y Web of Science hasta el 9 de abril de 2020, utilizando las palabras: "COVID-19 or COVID19 or SARS-CoV-2 and anesthesiology or anesthesia". Se incluyeron 48 artículos con información sobre el manejo del paciente en el perioperatorio o en la unidad de cuidados intensivos ante la sospecha o confirmación de infección por SARS-CoV-2. En general, se recomienda el aplazamiento de las cirugías electivas por no más de seis a ocho semanas, de acuerdo a las condiciones clínicas de los pacientes. En el caso de cirugías de urgencia o emergencia, se revisan tópicos del sistema de protección personal así como las estrategias recomendadas para la realización de los procedimientos.


The purpose of this article is to review the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, the clinical-epidemiological aspects of COVID-19, and the implications anesthesiologists when performing aerosol-generating procedures. A search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science databases was performed until April 9, 2020, using the words: "COVID-19 or COVID19 or SARS-CoV-2 and anesthesiology or anesthesia". Forty-eight articles with information on the management of the patient in the perioperative period or the intensive care unit when suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. In general, the postponement of elective surgeries for no more than 6 to 8 weeks, depending on the clinical condition of the patients is recommended. In the case of urgent or emergency surgeries, we review the use of personal protection gear, as well as the recommended strategies for carrying out the procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anesthesiology/standards , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/standards , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures , Aerosols , Pandemics , Symptom Assessment/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/standards , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods , Anesthesia, General/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Anesthesiology/organization & administration , Nerve Block/methods
16.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(2): 78-84, Jan.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115560

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Pain control in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a determining factor in the patient's rehabilitation process. With conventional peripheral blocking techniques for the posterior compartment, foot drop, and distal motor deficit have been reported. The infiltration between popliteal artery and capsule of the knee (IPACK) block is a promising emerging analgesic technique. Objective: To describe analgesic control, opioid consumption, and mobility of patients scheduled for TKA using IPACK block as adjunct analgesic to the femoral block. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study over a 6-month period in adults taken to TKA. Sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, laterality, postoperative pain, and opioid consumption, patient and surgeon satisfaction (Likert), postoperative nausea and vomiting, and walk in the first 24hours, were evaluated and reported with a descriptive analysis. Results: Twenty-seven patients taken to TKA received an IPACK block. The pain score remained in a mild level during the 48 hours of evaluation. In 73% of the cases, an opioid rescue dose was not required; 81% of the patients managed to walk in the first 24 hours. Conclusion: The IPACK block, combined with femoral block and neuraxial anesthesia, turn out to be an excellent analgesic strategy for TKA, achieving adequate pain management, prompt rehabilitation, and early ambulation of the patient.


Resumen Introducción: El control del dolor en artroplastia total de rodilla (ATR) es determinante en el proceso de rehabilitación del paciente. Con las técnicas convencionales de bloqueo periférico para el compartimiento posterior se ha reportado pie caído y déficit motor distal. Por lo anterior, se decidió evaluar en una cohorte las cualidades analgésicas del bloqueo IPACK como una técnica emergente prometedora. Objetivo: Describir el control analgésico, consumo de opioides y movilidad de pacientes programados para ATR usando bloqueo IPACK como adyuvante analgésico al bloqueo femoral. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte prospectivo, en adultos llevados a ATR, durante 6 meses. Se evaluaron las características sociodemográficas, antropométricas, lateralidad, dolor postopera torio y consumo de opioides, satisfacción del paciente y del cirujano, náuseas y vómito postoperatorio, caminata en las primeras 48 h. Se informar los resultados de forma descriptiva. Resultados: En total, 27 pacientes a quienes se les realizó ATR obtuvieron bloqueo IPACK. La puntuación del dolor se mantuvo en una escala leve en un rango de 1-3 durante las 48 horas de seguimiento. En el 73% de los casos no se requirió una dosis de opioide de rescate. El 81% de los pacientes logró caminar en las primeras 24 horas. Conclusión: El IPACK, combinado con el bloqueo femoral y la anestesia neuroaxial, resultan ser una excelente estrategia analgésica para logar un adecuado control del dolor en ATR, pronta rehabilitación y deambulación temprana del paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Femoral Artery , Knee , Nerve Block , Arthroplasty , Orthopedic Procedures/rehabilitation , Analgesia
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 435-443, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056459

ABSTRACT

To accurately localize the centers of intramuscular nerve dense regions (CINDRs) of rotator cuff muscles. Twenty adult cadavers were used. The curves on skin connecting the superior angle of scapula with the acromion, and with the inferior angle of scapula were designed as the horizontal (H) and longitudinal (L) reference lines, respectively. One side of the rotator cuff muscles were removed and subjected to Sihler's staining to show intramuscular nerve dense regions, and the contralateral muscles' CINDRs were labeled with barium sulfate and scanned by computed tomography (to determine body surface projection points (P)). The intersection of the longitudinal line from point P to line H, and that of the horizontal line from point P to line L, were recorded as PH and PL, respectively. The projection of CINDRs on the anterior body surface across the saggital plane was defined as P' and the line connecting P to P' was recorded as Line PP'. Percentage positions of CINDRs of PH and PL on lines H and L, and the depths on line PP' were determined under the Syngo system. Two, four, one, and one CINDRs were identified in supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles, respectively. The positions of PH of these CINDRs on the H-line are as follows: supraspinatus, 25.43 % and 26.59 %; infraspinatus, 53.85 %, 34.63 %, 35.96 % and 58.17 %; teres minor, 74.50 %; and subscapularis, 20.33 %. The PL on the L-line: supraspinatus, 11.09 % and 14.83 %; infraspinatus, 21.59 %, 27.93 %, 48.55 % and 57.52 %; teres minor, 68.28 %; and subscapularis, 52.82 %. The depth on line PP': supraspinatus, 24.83 % and 25.40 %; infraspinatus, 21.55 %, 16.10 %, 10.01 % and 8.14 %; teres minor, 13.27 %; and subscapularis, 22.88 %. The identification of these CINDRs should provide the optimal target position for injecting botulinum toxin A to treat rotator cuff muscles spasticity accompanied by shoulder pain and to improve the efficiency and efficacy of blocking target localization.


Con el objetivo de localizar con precisión los centros de las regiones densas del nervio intramuscular (CRDNI) de los músculos del manguito rotador, se utilizaron veinte cadáveres adultos. Las curvas en la piel que conectan el ángulo superior de la escápula con el acromion y con el ángulo inferior de la escápula se determinaron como líneas de referencia horizontales (H) y longitudinales (L), respectivamente. Se extrajo de un lado los músculos del manguito rotador y se sometió a la tinción de Sihler para mostrar regiones densas de nervios intramusculares, y los CRDNI de los músculos contralaterales se marcaron con sulfato de bario y se escanearon mediante tomografía computarizada (para determinar los puntos de proyección de la superficie corporal (P)). La intersección de la línea longitudinal desde el punto P a la línea H, y de la línea horizontal desde el punto P a la línea L, se registraron como PH y PL, respectivamente. La proyección de CRDNI en la superficie del cuerpo anterior a través del plano sagital se definió como P 'y la línea que conecta P a P' se registró como Línea PP '. Las posiciones porcentuales de los CRDNI de PH y PL en las líneas H y L, y las profundidades en la línea PP 'se determinaron bajo el sistema Syngo. Se identificaron dos, cuatro, uno y un CINDR en los músculos supraespinoso, infraespinoso, redondo menor y subescapular, respectivamente. Las posiciones de PH de estos CRDNI en la línea H son las siguientes: supraespinoso, 25,43 % y 26.59 %; infraspinatus, 53,85 %, 34,63 %, 35,96 % y 58,17 %; redondo menor, 74,50 %; y subescapular, 20,33 %. El PL en la línea L: supraespinoso, 11.09 % y 14.83 %; infraspinatus, 21,59 %, 27,93 %, 48,55 % y 57,52 %; redondo menor, 68.28 %; y subescapular, 52,82 %. La profundidad en la línea PP ': supraespinoso, 24,83 % y 25,40 %; infraspinatus, 21,55 %, 16,10 %, 10,01 % y 8,14 %; redondo menor, 13.27 %; y subescapularis, 22,88 %. La identificación de estos CRDNI debería proporcionar la posición objetivo óptima para inyectar la toxina botulínica A para tratar la espasticidad de los músculos del manguito rotador acompañada de dolor en el hombro y para mejorar la eficiencia y la eficacia del bloqueo de la localización del objetivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Peripheral Nerves/anatomy & histology , Rotator Cuff/innervation , Botulinum Toxins, Type A , Nerve Block , Cadaver , Anatomic Landmarks , Muscle Spasticity
18.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(1): e546, ene.-abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093130

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El bloqueo terapéutico de ganglio estrellado es un procedimiento para aliviar dolores crónicos de miembros superiores, cabeza y cuello. Actualmente se realiza con anestésicos locales más adyuvantes; pero en Cuba sólo se usan anestésicos locales para este bloqueo. Objetivo: Cotejar información reciente sobre la pertinencia del uso de anestésicos locales con adyuvantes, para estimular la actualización de su práctica nacional acorde a las rutinas y los resultados de esta pericia en el contexto internacional. Métodos: Se revisaron más de 150 informes científicos en línea, referentes a esta técnica a nivel mundial, respecto al uso de drogas y resultados terapéuticos, en bases de datos en inglés, español y portugués. Desarrollo: El bloqueo anestésico precisa conocimientos de farmacología y habilidades prácticas para efectuarlo. La necesidad de anestésicos locales y adyuvantes varía, y depende del paciente y tipo de bloqueo. Para tratar el dolor crónico se usan también opioides, solos y con anestésicos locales. Se publican además beneficios razonables con el uso de ketamina y esteroides en combinación con anestésicos locales. Conclusión: Los resultados terapéuticos más intensos y duraderos que se obtienen al aplicar anestésico local más adyuvante, sugieren actualizar estas prácticas a nivel nacional(AU)


Introduction: The therapeutic block of the stellate ganglion is a procedure for relieving chronic pain of the upper limbs, head, and neck. It is currently performed with more adjuvant local anesthetics, but in Cuba only local anesthetics are used for this block. Objective: To compare recent information about the relevance of using local anesthetics with adjuvants to stimulate the updating of their practice nationally, according to the routines and the outcomes of this expertise in the international setting. Methods: More than 150 scientific reports were reviewed online, referring to this technique worldwide, regarding drug use and therapeutic outcomes, in databases in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. Development: The anesthetic block requires knowledge about pharmacology and practical skills to perform it. The need for local anesthetics and adjuvants varies, and depends on the patient and type of block. Opioids are also used to treat chronic pain, alone or with local anesthetics. Reasonable benefits are also published regarding the use of ketamine and steroids in combination with local anesthetics. Conclusion: The most intense and lasting therapeutic outcomes obtained by applying more adjuvant local anesthetic suggest updating these practices nationally(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/therapeutic use , Nerve Block/methods , Stellate Ganglion
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(1): e8645, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055484

ABSTRACT

Data about the feasibility and safety of thoracoscopic surgery under non-intubated anesthesia and regional block are limited. In this prospective study, 57 consecutive patients scheduled for thoracoscopic surgery were enrolled. Patients were sedated with dexmedetomidine and anesthetized with propofol and remifentanil. Ropivacaine was used for intercostal nerve and paravertebral block. Lidocaine was used for vagal block. The primary outcomes were mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation, and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (ETCO2) at T0 (pre-anesthesia), T1 (immediately after laryngeal mask/nasopharyngeal airway placement), T2 (immediately after skin incision), T3 (10 min after opening the chest), T4 (end of surgery), and T5 (immediately after laryngeal mask/nasopharyngeal airway removal). One patient required conversion to intubation, 15 developed intraoperative hypotension, and two had hypoxemia. MAP at T0 and T5 was higher than at T1-T4; MAP at T3 was lower (P<0.05 vs other time points). HR at T0 and T5 was higher (P<0.05 vs other time points). ETCO2 at T2 and T3 was higher (P<0.05 vs other time points). Arterial pH, PCO2, and lactic acid at T1 differed from values at T0 and T2 (P<0.05). The Quality of Recovery-15 (QoR-15) score at 24 h was lower (P<0.05). One patient experienced dysphoria during recovery. Thoracoscopic surgery with regional block under direct thoracoscopic vision is a feasible and safe alternative to conventional surgery under general anesthesia, intubation, and one-lung ventilation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Thoracoscopy/methods , Laryngeal Masks , Anesthesia, General/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Propofol/administration & dosage , Feasibility Studies , Prospective Studies , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Remifentanil/administration & dosage , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Rate/physiology
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828291

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of femoral and sciatic nerve block in total knee replacement of elderly patients under general anesthesia.@*METHODS@#From July 2017 to July 2019, 60 patients with unilateral total knee replacement were selected, including 35 males and 25 females; aged 66 to 74(70.2±10.3) years;BMI 18 to 25 (21.3 ± 3.5) kg /m;course 2 to 3 (1.2±0.3) days. The patients were divided into general anesthesia group (G group) 30 cases and general anesthesia plus nerve block group(GNB group) 30 cases. In GNB group, the femoral nerve sciatic nerve block was guided by ultrasound before anesthesia induction, 20 to 25 ml was injected into the femoral nerve puncture point with 0.5% ropivacaine, 15 to 20 ml was injected into the sciaticnerve puncture point, and the total volume was no more than 40 ml. Postoperative intravenous analgesia (PCIA) was performed in two groups. The dosage of propofol and remifentanil was recorded. Forty-eight hours after operation, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and postoperative farsightedness were recorded. When VAS>3, tramadol 2 mg / kg was injected intravenously, and the additional times of tramadol were recorded. Forty-eight hours after operation, patients' satisfaction score was used to record the length of stay.@*RESULTS@#Compared with group G, the dosage of propofol and remifentanil decreased, the incidence of PONV and the number of additional tramadol decreased, and the patients' satisfaction increased (0.05). The ROM and HSS scores of two groups after treatment were higher than those before treatment (0.05). The ROM and HSS scores of the GNB group after treatment were higher than those of the G group (<0.05), and the VAS scores were lower than those of the G group (<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The application of femoral sciatic nerve block in total knee replacement under general anesthesia in elderly patients has good postoperative analgesic effect, and can reduce the dosage of general anesthesia, reduce PONV, and increase patient satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anesthesia, General , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Female , Femoral Nerve , Humans , Male , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative , Sciatic Nerve
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