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Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 305-315, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439603


Abstract Background and objectives: Anesthesiologists and hospitals are increasingly confronted with costs associated with the complications of Peripheral Nerve Blocks (PNB) procedures. The objective of our study was to identify the incidence of the main adverse events associated with regional anesthesia, particularly during anesthetic PNB, and to evaluate the associated healthcare and social costs. Methods: According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a systematic search on EMBASE and PubMed with the following search strategy: (‟regional anesthesia" OR ‟nerve block") AND (‟complications" OR ‟nerve lesion" OR ‟nerve damage" OR ‟nerve injury"). Studies on patients undergoing a regional anesthesia procedure other than spinal or epidural were included. Targeted data of the selected studies were extracted and further analyzed. Results: Literature search revealed 487 articles, 21 of which met the criteria to be included in our analysis. Ten of them were included in the qualitative and 11 articles in the quantitative synthesis. The analysis of costs included data from four studies and 2,034 claims over 51,242 cases. The median claim consisted in 39,524 dollars in the United States and 22,750 pounds in the United Kingdom. The analysis of incidence included data from seven studies involving 424,169 patients with an overall estimated incidence of 137/10,000. Conclusion: Despite limitations, we proposed a simple model of cost calculation. We found that, despite the relatively low incidence of adverse events following PNB, their associated costs were relevant and should be carefully considered by healthcare managers and decision makers.

Humans , Anesthesia, Conduction/adverse effects , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Nerve Block/methods , United States , Financial Stress
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 344-346, May-June 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439620


Abstract Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) is a congenital condition characterized by micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate that presents with airway obstruction and developmental delay with or without other congenital anomalies. These patients' anesthesia management is challenging because of difficult ventilation and intubation. Regional anesthesia methods should be considered for these patients on a case-by-case basis. This report presents primary use of regional anesthesia for circumcision of a 9-year-old boy with PRS.

Humans , Male , Child , Pierre Robin Syndrome/surgery , Pierre Robin Syndrome/complications , Cleft Palate/surgery , Cleft Palate/complications , Airway Obstruction/surgery , Pudendal Nerve , Anesthesia, Conduction/adverse effects , Nerve Block/adverse effects
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(1): 112-114, Jan.-Feb. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420639


Abstract The subscapularis plane block is an effective approach to anesthetize axillary and upper subscapular nerves. There have been no reports regarding brachial plexus paralysis as a potential complication to date. Described here is a case of median nerve palsy following ultrasound-guided subscapularis plane block for awake frozen shoulder manipulation that was performed on a 52-year-old female diagnosed with adhesive capsulitis. The patient could not flex digits two and three, and ipsilateral inner palm numbness occurred shortly after the block commenced, with complete resolution in the next two hours. The local anesthetics spillage towards brachial plexus with possible partial paralysis should always be expected after subscapularis plane block.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Brachial Plexus Block/adverse effects , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Paralysis , Rotator Cuff , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Anesthetics, Local/adverse effects , Median Nerve
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(1): 72-77, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420640


Abstract Introduction Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the common surgical intervention for benign biliary diseases. Postoperative pain after LC remains as an important problem, with two components: somatic and visceral. Trocar entry incisions lead to somatic pain, while peritoneal distension with diaphragm irritation leads to visceral pain. Following its description by Forero et al., the erector spinae plane (ESP) block acquired considerable popularity among clinicians. This led to the use of ESP block for postoperative pain management for various operations. Materials and methods This study was conducted between January and June 2019. Patients aged between 18 and 65 years with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-II, scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. All the patients received bilateral or unilateral ESP block at the T8 level preoperatively according to their groups. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in terms NRS scores either at rest or while coughing at any time interval except for postoperative 6th hour (p = 0.023). Morphine consumption was similar between the groups but was significantly lower in group B at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.044 and p = 0.022, respectively). Twelve patients in group A and three patients in group B had shoulder pain and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.011). Discussion In conclusion, bilateral ESP block provided more effective analgesia than unilateral ESP block in patients undergoing elective LC. Bilateral ESP block reduced the amount of opioid consumption and the incidence of postoperative shoulder pain.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic/adverse effects , Analgesia , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative/ethnology , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Shoulder Pain , Analgesics, Opioid , Anesthetics, Local
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(1): 59-70, 29/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362228


Objective The aim of the present study was to describe and evaluate the initial and the long-term clinical outcome of internal neurolysis (IN) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) without neurovascular compression (NVC). Methods A total of 170 patients diagnosed with TN were treated by posterior fossa exploration, during the period between April 2012 and October 2019. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A (50 patients)was treated by IN and Group B (120 patients) received microvascular decompression (MVD). Surgical outcomes and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Pain intensity was assessed by the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain intensity score and BNI facial numbness score. Pain recurrence was statistically evaluated with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results Pain was completely relieved in 44 patients (88%) who underwent IN (group A); 3 (6%) experienced occasional pain but did not require medication (BNI 2). In group B, 113 (94%) experienced immediate pain relief after MVD. The median duration of follow-ups was 4 years (6 months to 7.5 years). In Group A, there was a meantime recurrence of 27 months in 3 patients (6%). The recurrence in Group B was of 5.8% during the follow-up period. There were no statistically significant differences in the surgical outcomes between the two groups. All patients with IN experienced some degree of numbness, 88% of the cases resolved in 6 months, on average. Conclusion Internal neurolysis is an effective, safe and durable treatment option for trigeminal neuralgia when NVC is absent.

Humans , Male , Female , Trigeminal Neuralgia/surgery , Trigeminal Neuralgia/physiopathology , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications , Pain Measurement , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Microvascular Decompression Surgery/methods , Observational Study , Nerve Block/methods , Nerve Compression Syndromes/epidemiology
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 443-447, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137201


Abstract Background: There are various approaches to perform an ultrasound guided Quadratus Lumborum Block (QLB). The lateral, posterior, anterior or trans muscular and subcostal paramedian are the various approaches described for performing a QLB. Each of these blocks are aimed to achieve a maximum spread with high volume and low concentration of local anesthetics. Case report: In this novel approach a curvilinear ultrasound probe was used with the patient lying in supine position. The probe was placed longitudinally in the mid axillary line to visualize Quadratus Lumborum Muscle (QLM) in the coronal plane. The needle was then introduced from cranial to caudal direction and catheters were inserted in the Anterior Thoracolumbar Fascia (ATLF) up to a distance of 4-5 cm in 24 patients for an anterior approach to acetabulum fractures. The needle tip and the Local Anesthetic (LA) spread was visible in all patients. All patients except 4 had excellent perioperative pain relief considering stable hemodynamics and VAS 2-3/10 for the first 48 hours. All patients received 1 g intravenous paracetamol each 8 hours. VAS in postoperative period was 2-3/10, in 20/24 patients. In the postoperative period, 4 patients complained of persistent pain, requiring intravenous fentanyl boluses and multimodal analgesia. Mean VAS score was 2.87 from 0-12 hours, 3.14 from 12-24 hours and 3.35 from 24-48 hours. There were no block-related complications in any patient. Conclusion: The supine midaxillary coronal approach to anterior QLB is an effective and feasible approach to QLB which can be performed in supine position.

Resumo Justificativa: Existem várias abordagens para a realização do Bloqueio do Quadrado Lombar (BQL) guiado por ultrassom. Diversas abordagens são descritas para a realização do BQL: paramediana lateral, posterior, anterior ou transmuscular e subcostal, todas com o objetivo de obter a máxima dispersão da solução injetada, usando-se alto volume e baixa concentração de anestésico local. Relato de caso: Nesta nova abordagem, a sonda de ultrassom curvilínea foi usada com o paciente em decúbito dorsal. A sonda foi posicionada longitudinalmente na linha axilar média para visualizar o Músculo Quadrado Lombar (MQL) no plano coronal. A agulha foi introduzida na direção cranial-caudal, e foram inseridos cateteres na Fáscia Toracolombar Anterior (FTLA) até uma distância de 4-5 cm, em 24 pacientes a serem submetidos à correção de fratura do acetábulo pela via anterior. O bisel da agulha e a dispersão do Anestésico Local (AL) eram visíveis em todos os pacientes. Os 24 pacientes, com exceção de quatro, apresentaram excelente analgesia perioperatória, baseando-se na estabilidade hemodinâmica e nos escores EVA de 2-3/10 nas primeiras 48 horas. Todos os pacientes receberam 1 g de paracetamol intravenoso a cada 8 horas. O escore EVA no período pós-operatório foi de 2-3/10, em 20 dos 24 pacientes. No período pós-operatório, quatro pacientes apresentaram queixa de dor persistente, necessitando de bolus de fentanil por via intravenosa e analgesia multimodal. O escore médio da EVA no pós-operatório foi 2,87 entre 0-12 horas; 3,14 entre 12-24 horas e 3,35 entre 24-48 horas pós-operatórias. Não houve complicações relacionadas ao bloqueio em nenhum paciente. Conclusão: A abordagem supina axilar média coronal para BQL anterior é eficaz e viável para BQL, e pode ser realizada com os pacientes em decúbito dorsal.

Humans , Male , Female , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods , Time Factors , Supine Position , Abdominal Muscles , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Acetabulum/surgery , Acetabulum/injuries , Acetaminophen/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Nerve Block/adverse effects
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 398-418, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137194


Abstract The purpose of the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology (SBA)'s Regional Anesthesia Safety Recommendations Update is to provide new guidelines based on the current relevant clinical aspects related to safety in regional anesthesia and analgesia. The goal of the present article is to provide a broad overview of the current knowledge regarding pre-procedure asepsis and antisepsis, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment of infectious complications resulting from anesthetic techniques. It also aims to shed light on the use of reprocessed materials in regional anesthesia practice to establish the effects of aseptic handling of vials and ampoules, and to show cost-effectiveness in the preparation of solutions to be administered continuously in regional blockades. Electronic databases were searched between January 2011 (final date of the literature search for the past SBA recommendations for safety in regional anesthesia) and September 2019. A total of 712 publications were found, 201 of which were included for further analysis, and 82 new publications were added into the review. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to assess the quality of each study and to classify the strength of evidence. The present review was prepared by members of the SBA Technical Standards Committee.

Resumo O propósito desta atualização das Recomendações da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (SBA) para Segurança em Anestesia Regional foi apresentar novas diretrizes com base na relevância e atualidade clínica nos aspectos de segurança relacionados a analgesia e anestesia regional. Este artigo visa prover uma visão ampla sobre o conhecimento atual no tocante a assepsia e antissepsia pré-procedimento, fatores de risco, diagnóstico e tratamento das complicações infecciosas decorrentes das técnicas anestésicas. Também visa esclarecer sobre o uso de materiais reprocessados na prática da anestesia regional, estabelecer as implicações no manejo asséptico de frascos e ampolas e elucidar sobre a relação custo-efetividade no preparo de soluções a serem administradas continuamente em bloqueios regionais. As bases de dados eletrônicas foram pesquisadas entre Janeiro de 2011 (final da pesquisa de literatura das diretrizes anteriores da SBA sobre segurança em anestesia regional) e Setembro de 2019. Um total de 712 artigos foram encontrados, dos quais 201 foram incluídos para análise posterior e 82 novos estudos foram acrescentados nesta revisão. O sistema de Avaliação, Desenvolvimento e Avaliação da Classificação das Recomendações (GRADE) foi utilizado para avaliar a qualidade do estudo individual e classificar a força da evidência. Esta revisão foi elaborada por membros da Comissão de Normas Técnicas da SBA.

Humans , Infections/etiology , Anesthesia, Conduction/adverse effects , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Brazil , Risk Factors , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Nerve Block/methods
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(3): 202-208, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137174


Abstract Background and objectives: The lumbar plexus block (LPB) is a key technique for lower limb surgery. All approaches to the LPB involve a number of complications. We hypothesized that Chayen's approach, which involves a more caudal and more lateral needle entry point than the major techniques described in the literature, would be associated with a lower rate of epidural spread. Method: We reviewed the electronic medical records and chart of all adult patients who underwent orthopedic surgery for Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) and hip hemiarthroplasty due to osteoarthritis and femoral neck fracture with LPB and Sciatic Nerve Block (SNB) between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2017, in our institute. The LPB was performed according to Chayen's technique using a mixture of mepivacaine and levobupivacaine (total volume, 25 mL) and a SNB by the parasacral approach. The sensory and motor block was evaluated bilaterally during intraoperative and postoperative period. Results: A total number of 700 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I to IV who underwent LPB met the inclusion criteria. The LPB and SNB was successfully performed in all patients. Epidural spread was reported in a single patient (0.14%;p < 0.05), accounting for an 8.30% reduction compared with the other approaches described in the literature. No other complications were recorded. Conclusions: This retrospective study indicates that more caudal and more lateral approach to the LPB, such as the Chayen's approach, is characterized by a lower epidural spread than the other approach to the LPB.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O bloqueio do plexo lombar (BPL) é uma técnica fundamental para a cirurgia de membros inferiores. Todas as abordagens do BPL são associadas a uma série de complicações. Nossa hipótese foi de que a abordagem de Chayen, que envolve um ponto de entrada da agulha mais caudal e mais lateral do que as principais técnicas descritas na literatura, estaria associada a menor incidência de dispersão peridural. Método: Revisamos os prontuários médicos eletrônicos e em papel de todos os pacientes adultos submetidos à artroplastia total do quadril (ATQ) e hemiartroplastia do quadril devido a osteoartrite ou fratura do colo do fêmur empregando-se BPL associado ao bloqueio do nervo ciático (BNC), entre 1 de janeiro de 2002 e 31 de dezembro de 2017 em nossa instituição. Realizamos o BPL usando a técnica de Chayen e uma mistura de mepivacaína e levobupivacaína (volume total de 25 mL) e o BNC pela abordagem parassacral. Testes sensorial e motor bilaterais foram realizados no intra e pós-operatório. Resultados: Os critérios de inclusão foram obedecidos pelo total de 700 pacientes classe ASA I a IV submetidos ao BPL. Os BPL e BNC foram realizados com sucesso em todos os pacientes. A dispersão peridural foi relatada em um único paciente (0,14%; p < 0,05), representando uma redução de 8,30% quando comparada às outras abordagens descritas na literatura. Nenhuma outra complicação foi registrada. Conclusões: Este estudo retrospectivo indica que a abordagem mais caudal e mais lateral do BPL, como a técnica de Chayen, é caracterizada por menor dispersão peridural do que outras abordagens do BPL.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sciatic Nerve , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Hemiarthroplasty , Hip Joint/surgery , Lumbosacral Plexus , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Nerve Block/methods , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Epidural Space , Middle Aged
Rev. chil. anest ; 49(1): 177-182, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1510443


BACKGROUND: Regional anesthesia techniques can have adverse effects, like peripheral nerve injuries. This can affect the practitioner on the choice of techniques when offering multimodal analgesia. CASE REPORT: We present the case of an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair on a patient with no comorbidities who presented peripheral nerve injury during post-op. Initially thought to have occurred as a consequence of the anesthetic technique, further study of the patient revealed the injuries to have been produced by the arthroscopic surgery. CONCLUSION: There are multiple factors that influence the possibility of peripheral nerve injury associated with nerve blocks. They can be grouped as related to the patient, the anesthetic technique or the surgical technique, the latter being the most relevant. If a patient manifests signs of peripheral nerve injury high-resolution magnetic resonance of the neural tissue must be performed immediately. Sensory nerve conduction study and electromyography must be performed 4 weeks after by an expert neurologist.

INTRODUCCIÓN: La anestesia regional puede producir como efecto adverso lesiones de nervios periféricos, lo que puede hacer desistir al anestesiólogo de realizar técnicas que mejoran la analgesia multimodal. CASO CLÍNICO: Se presenta el caso de un paciente sin comorbilidades que se operó de reparación artroscópica del manguito rotador y presentó daño neurológico postoperatorio. Inicialmente se sospechó que el daño había sido producido durante la técnica anestésica, sin embargo, el estudio adecuado demostró que el daño se relacionaba con la técnica quirúrgica. CONCLUSIÓN: Existen factores que influyen en la posibilidad de daño neurológico asociado a bloqueos de nervios periféricos que pueden ser propios del paciente, de la técnica anestésica o quirúrgicos, siendo estos últimos los más relevantes. En un paciente con clínica compatible debe realizarse resonancia magnética del tejido neural de alta resolución de forma inmediata; estudio de conducción neural sensitiva y electromiografía a las 4 semanas de evolución por un neurólogo experto.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brachial Plexus Neuritis/etiology , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/etiology , Anesthesia, Conduction/adverse effects , Arthroscopy/adverse effects , Brachial Plexus Neuritis/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/prevention & control , Anesthesia, Local/adverse effects , Nerve Block/adverse effects
Rev. chil. anest ; 49(1): 183-186, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1510447


Local anesthetics are drugs widely used to perform peripheral nerve blocks. Signs and symptoms of toxicity may vary from mild to severe, including neuro and cardiotoxicity, with seizures and cardiac arrest. We present the case of an 85-year-old patient in total left knee replacement plan due to tibial saucer fracture, where systemic toxicity was observed by local anesthetics (LAST) after performing a femoral nerve block guided by neurostimulation and ultrasound with a solution of 20 ml of 0.525% ropivacaine + 0.6% lidocaine. As a positive data, the patient presented severe hypoalbuminemia

Los anestésicos locales son fármacos ampliamente utilizados para realizar bloqueos nerviosos periféricos. Los signos y síntomas de toxicidad pueden variar de leves a severos, incluidas la neuro y cardiotoxicidad, con convulsiones y paro cardíaco. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 85 años de edad en plan de reemplazo total de rodilla izquierda debido a fractura de platillo tibial, donde se observó toxicidad sistémica por anestésicos locales (LAST por su sigla en inglés) después de realizar un bloqueo del nervio femoral guiado por neuroestimulación y ultrasonido con una solución de 20 ml de ropivacaína al 0,525% + lidocaína al 0,6%. Su único antecedente médico era presentar hipoalbuminemia severa.

Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Hypoalbuminemia/complications , Anesthetics, Local/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/adverse effects
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(6): 587-593, nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057466


Abstract Background and objectives: To investigate, describe, and assess the phenomenon of "rebound pain" as a clinically relevant problem in anesthetic practice. Content: The phenomenon of "rebound pain" has been demonstrated and described as a very severe pain, which occurs after a peripheral nerve block resolution with the recovery of sensitivity. The incidence of rebound pain is unknown. Usually, it occurs between 12 and 24 hours after surgery and, adversely affecting sleep quality. It is not yet possible to establish a mechanism as a definitive cause or trigger factor of rebound pain. Studies suggest that rebound pain is a side effect of peripheral nerve blocks, despite their effectiveness in pain control. Currently, the extent and clinical significance of rebound pain cannot be well determined due to the lack of large prospective studies. Conclusion: Rebound pain assessment should always be considered in clinical practice, as it is not a rare side effect of peripheral nerve blocks. There are still many challenging questions to be answered about rebound pain, so large prospective studies are needed to address the issue. For prevention, the use of peripheral nerve block techniques that avoid nerve damage and adequate perioperative analgesia associated with patient education on the early administration of analgesics, even during the period of analgesia provided by peripheral nerve block, is recommended. A better understanding of the "rebound pain" phenomenon, its pathophysiology, associated risk factors, and long-term consequences may help in developing more effective preventive strategies.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Investigar, descrever e avaliar o fenômeno da "dor rebote" como um problema clinicamente relevante na prática anestésica. Conteúdo: O fenômeno da "dor rebote" foi demonstrado e descrito como uma dor muito intensa que ocorre após a resolução do bloqueio de nervo periférico com o retorno da sensibilidade. A incidência de dor rebote é desconhecida. Normalmente ela ocorre entre 12 a 24 horas após a cirurgia e afeta negativamente a qualidade do sono. Ainda não é possível estabelecer um mecanismo como causa definitiva ou fator desencadeante da dor rebote. Estudos sugerem que a dor rebote seja um efeito colateral dos bloqueios de nervos periféricos, apesar destes terem eficácia no controle álgico. Atualmente, a extensão e a significância clínica da dor rebote não podem ser bem determinadas, devido à falta de grandes estudos prospectivos. Conclusão: A avaliação da dor rebote deve ser sempre considerada na prática clínica, pois não é um efeito colateral raro dos bloqueios de nervo periféricos. Ainda existem muitas questões desafiadoras a serem respondidas sobre a dor rebote, portanto fazem-se necessários amplos estudos prospectivos sobre a temática. Para a sua prevenção recomenda-se o uso de técnicas de bloqueio de nervo periférico que evitem a lesão do nervo e uma adequada analgesia perioperatória associada à orientação do paciente sobre a administração precoce de analgésicos mesmo na vigência da analgesia proporcionada pelo bloqueio de nervo periférico. A melhor compreensão do fenômeno "dor rebote", sua fisiopatologia, seus fatores de risco associados e suas consequências em longo prazo poderá ajudar na elaboração de estratégias preventivas mais eficazes.

Humans , Pain/etiology , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Pain/physiopathology , Pain/epidemiology , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain Measurement/methods , Patient Education as Topic , Risk Factors , Nerve Block/methods
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(1): 7-12, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977416


Abstract Introduction: Lumbar epidural block is an effective and routinely used technique for labor pain relief, and the combined spinal-epidural block has the benefit of using lower doses of local anesthetics and rapid onset of analgesia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of two anesthetic techniques: combined spinal-epidural block and continuous epidural block in pregnant women for labor analgesia. Methods: Eighty patients, ASA II and III, with cephalic presentation and cervical dilation between 5 and 6 cm, undergoing labor analgesia, allocated in two groups according to the anesthetic technique: combined spinal-epidural (GI) and continuous epidural (GII). Pain severity before the blockade, time to complete analgesia, degree of motor blockade, time to full cervical dilation, duration of the second stage of labor, pain severity during the 1st and 2nd stage of labor, type of delivery, use of oxytocin during labor, maternal cardiocirculatory and respiratory parameters and adverse events, and neonatal repercussions were recorded. Results: At the time of anesthesia, pain severity was similar in both groups. Pain relief was faster in GI (4.5 ± 1.5 min) when compared to GII (11.6 ± 4.6 min) p = 0.01; pain scores in the first and second stages of delivery were lower in GI (0.9 ± 0.3 and 1.8 ± 0.7, respectively) when compared to GII (1.9 ± 0.6 and 2.2 ± 0.5, respectively), with p = 0.01 only in the first stage of labor; there was need for local anesthetics supplementation in GII; there were more frequent spontaneous deliveries in GI (80% of patients) than in GII (50%) (p = 0.045) and more frequent use of instrumental (p = 0.03) in GII (12 patients) compared to GI (4 patients); the frequency of cesarean deliveries was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in Group II than in Group I, with 4 cases in GI and 8 cases in GII; absence of maternal cardiocirculatory and respiratory changes and neonatal repercussions; more frequent pruritus in GI (10 patients) and (0 patients in GII) (p = 0.02). Conclusion: The combined blockade proved to be effective with better quality of analgesia and greater comfort for pregnant women, constituting a good option for the practice of obstetric analgesia.

Resumo Introdução: O bloqueio peridural lombar constitui técnica eficaz e rotineiramente empregada para alívio da dor do parto e o bloqueio combinado raquiperidural tem como benefícios o emprego de doses menores de anestésicos locais e rápido início de analgesia. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar comparativamente a eficácia e a segurança de duas técnicas anestésicas: bloqueio combinado raquiperidural e peridural contínua em grávidas submetidas à analgesia de parto. Método: Oitenta gestantes, ASA 2 e 3, apresentação cefálica e dilatação cervical entre cinco e seis centímetros, submetidas à analgesia de parto, distribuídas em dois grupos de acordo com a técnica anestésica: técnica combinada raquiperidural (GI) e peridural contínua (GII). Avaliaram-se: intensidade de dor antes do bloqueio; tempo para completa analgesia; grau do bloqueio motor; tempo para dilatação cervical total; duração do 2° estágio do trabalho de parto; intensidade de dor durante o 1° e o 2° estágio do trabalho de parto; tipo de parto; uso de ocitocina durante trabalho de parto; parâmetros cardiocirculatórios, respiratórios e eventos adversos maternos; repercussões neonatais. Resultados: No momento da anestesia a intensidade de dor era semelhante em ambos os grupos. O alívio da dor foi mais rápido no GI (4,5 ± 1,5 min) quando comparado com o GII (11,6 ± 4,6 min) p = 0,01; os escores de dor no primeiro e segundo estágios de parto foram menores no GI (0,9 ± 0,3) e (1,8 ± 0,7) quando comparados com o GII (1,9 ± 0,6) e (2,2 ± 0,5) com p = 0,01 somente no primeiro estágio de trabalho de parto; houve necessidade de complementação com anestésicos locais no GII; partos espontâneos mais frequentes em GI (80% das pacientes) do que em GII (50%) p = 0,045 e instrumentais mais frequentes (p = 0,03) em GII (12 pacientes) quando comparadas com o GI (quatro pacientes); a frequência de partos cesáreos foi significativamente maior (p = 0,02) no Grupo II do que no Grupo I, quatro casos no GI e oito no GII; ausência de alterações cardiocirculatórias e respiratórias maternas e repercussões neonatais; prurido mais frequente no GI (10 pacientes) e (0 paciente no GII) p = 0,02. Conclusão: O bloqueio combinado mostrou-se eficaz com melhor qualidade de analgesia e maior conforto às gestantes, constitui boa opção para a prática de analgesia obstétrica.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Analgesia, Epidural/adverse effects , Analgesia, Obstetrical/methods , Double-Blind Method , Analgesia, Obstetrical/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Combined Modality Therapy , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Nerve Block/methods
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(6): e20192269, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057180


RESUMO Convencionalmente, a associação de anestésicos locais com vasoconstritores é evitada em extremidades pelo risco de isquemia. Entretanto, estudos recentes sugerem haver segurança no uso de vasoconstritor em extremidades. Procuramos, assim, avaliar a efetividade e segurança do uso de vasoconstritores combinados com anestésicos locais no bloqueio de nervos digitais em comparação ao uso de anestésicos plenos, através de uma revisão sistemática com metanálise de ensaios clínicos randomizados. Pesquisamos, até maio de 2019, nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, ScienceDirect, Scopus, e literatura cinzenta, sem restrições de data ou idioma, os descritores: bloqueio digital, vasoconstritor e isquemia. Foram incluídos ensaios clínicos randomizados nos quais houve a utilização de anestésicos locais associados ou não a vasoconstritores em bloqueios digitais. Nas variáveis primárias foram analisadas a ocorrência de complicações isquêmicas e a duração da anestesia, e nas variáveis secundárias foram observadas necessidade de reaplicação anestésica, de controle de sangramento e latência. Dez estudos foram incluídos nesta revisão. Não foi observada a ocorrência de isquemia, independente do uso ou não de vasoconstritores. O uso de vasoconstritores na concentração de 1:100.000 ou menor esteve associado a maior duração da anestesia (P<0,00001), menor necessidade de reaplicação anestésica (P=0,02), menor necessidade de controle de sangramento (P=0,00006) e menor latência (P<0,00001). Pudemos concluir que uso de vasoconstritores associados a anestésicos locais no bloqueio digital mostrou-se uma técnica segura e efetiva.

ABSTRACT Conventionally, the association of local anesthetics with vasoconstrictors is avoided at extremities due to the risk of ischemia. However, recent studies suggest that there is safety in the use of vasoconstrictors at extremities. Thus, we sought to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of vasoconstrictor use combined with local anesthetics in digital nerve block compared to the use of anesthetics without vasoconstrictors, through a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Until May 2019 we searched MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, ScienceDirect, Scopus,, and gray literature databases, without date or language restrictions. The keywords were the following: digital block, vasoconstrictor, and ischemia. We included randomized clinical trials in which there was the use of local anesthetics with associated or not with vasoconstrictors in digital blocks. In the primary variables, the occurrence of ischemic complications and the duration of anesthesia were analysed; in the secondary variables, the need for anesthetic reapplication, bleeding control, and latency were observed. Ten studies were included in this review. The occurrence of ischemia was not observed, regardless of the use of vasoconstrictors or not. The use of vasoconstrictors at a concentration of 1:100,000 or less was associated with longer anesthesia duration (P<0.00001), lower need for anesthetic reapplication (P=0.02), lower need for bleeding control (P=0.00006), and lower latency (P<0.00001). We could conclude that the use of vasoconstrictors associated with local anesthetics in digital block proved to be a safe and effective technique.

Humans , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods , Vasoconstrictor Agents/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Local/adverse effects , Nerve Block/adverse effects
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(6): 657-660, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977396


Abstract Background and objectives: Bilateral quadratus lumborum block has been described for major abdominal procedures when sepsis is present, because risks associated to epidural are considered elevated. In an open aortic surgery, a single-shot bilateral quadratus lumborum block type 1 may be an alternative to thoracic epidural block for post-operative analgesia in a patient having an increased cumulative risk for thoracic epidural hematoma. Case report: A 56-year-old female patient presenting controlled hypertension, chronic renal disease stage 3b, dyslipidemia and a platelet count of 102,000/µl, and taking aspirin, was scheduled for bilateral aortoiliac endarterectomy. She was submitted to a sole general anesthesia plus, at end of the surgery, a bilateral quadratus lumborum block type 1 for post-operative analgesia with 20 mL of ropivacaine 0.5%, per side, before extubation. Immediately after post anesthesia care unit admission, patient developed moderate hypotension (dopamine infusion was needed during 18 h), concomitantly with a rapid reduction in the pain scores. Low numeric rating scale and opioid consumption were noted, particularly in the first 24 h post-operatively. Conclusions: Quadratus lumborum block was an effective analgesic technique for open aortic surgery in this case, although hypotension associated to bilateral quadratus lumborum block type 1 may occur. Associated sympathetic block probably related to the bilateral paravertebral extension of the block, may contribute for post-operative hypotension associated to reperfusion-ischemia syndrome in a patient that had long-lasting intraoperative aortic cross-clamping. The use of high concentration of local anesthetic to obtain longer duration of action of a single-shot quadratus lumborum block to avoid thoracic epidural or bilateral quadratus lumborum block catheterization should be used judiciously.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O bloqueio bilateral do quadrado lombar foi descrito para procedimentos abdominais de grande porte quando há presença de sepse, uma vez que os riscos associados à peridural são considerados altos. Em uma cirurgia aórtica aberta, um único bloqueio bilateral do quadrado lombar tipo 1 (QL tipo 1) pode ser uma opção ao bloqueio peridural torácico para analgesia pós-operatória em paciente com risco cumulativo aumentado de hematoma epidural torácico. Relato de caso: Paciente feminina de 56 anos, portadora de hipertensão arterial controlada, doença renal crônica (estágio 3 b), dislipidemia, plaquetopenia de 102.000/µl e tomava aspirina, estava programada para endarterectomia aortoilíaca bilateral. A paciente foi submetida à anestesia geral e, no fim da cirurgia, a bloqueio do quadrado lombar tipo 1 bilateralmente para analgesia pós-operatória com 20 mL de ropivacaína a 0,5%, para cada lado, antes da extubação. Imediatamente após a internação na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica, a paciente evoluiu com hipotensão moderada (necessidade de infusão de dopamina durante 18 horas), concomitante à rápida redução dos escores de dor. Escore numérico para dor baixo e consumo de opioides foram observados, especialmente nas primeiras 24 horas de pós-operatório. Conclusões: O bloqueio do quadrado lombar foi uma técnica analgésica eficaz nesse caso de cirurgia aórtica aberta, embora a hipotensão associada ao bloqueio bilateral do quadrado lombar possa ocorrer. O bloqueio simpático associado, causado pelo bloqueio do QL tipo 1, provavelmente relacionado à extensão paravertebral bilateral do bloqueio, pode contribuir para a hipotensão pós-operatória associada à síndrome de isquemia-reperfusão em paciente submetido a pinçamento aórtico intraoperatório de longa duração. Alta concentração de anestésico local para prolongar a ação de uma injeção única no bloqueio do quadrado lombar, com o objetivo de evitar cateterização de ambas as anestesias peridural e do quadrado lombar bilateral, deve ser usada de modo criterioso.

Humans , Female , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Analgesia/methods , Hypotension/etiology , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Abdominal Muscles , Middle Aged , Nerve Block/methods
Dolor ; 26(67): 28-32, jul. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096622


Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica sobre inyección subdural en la técnica peridural lumbar. se analizan los aspectos anatómicos, se describen las diferentes formas de presentación y su imagen radiológica, se discuten los criterios diagnósticos, los posibles efectos de la inyección en dicho espacio y la conducta a tomar, una vez detectada la complicación.

A bibliographic review about lumbar epidural subdural injection is done. the anatomic aspects, the different forms of presentation, and the radiological image are described. the diagnostic criteria, the effects of injection in this space and the management of the complication are discussed.

Humans , Subdural Space/anatomy & histology , Injections, Epidural/adverse effects , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Injections, Epidural/methods , Nerve Block/methods
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(1): 86-93, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-773485


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The manufacture of minimally traumatic needles and synthesis of pharmacological adjuncts with safe and effective action on inhibitory and neuromodulatory synapses distributed along the nociceptive pathways were crucial for a new expansion phase of spinal anesthesia. The objectives of this paper are present our clinical experience with 1330 lumbar spinal anesthesia performed with purposeful nociceptive blockade of the thoracic and cervical spinal nerves corresponding to dermatomes C4 or C3; warn about the method pathophysiological risks, and emphasize preventive standards for the safe application of the technique. CONTENT: Review of the historical background and anatomical spinal anesthesia with cervical levels of analgesia. Description of the technique used in our institution; population anesthetized; and surgery performed with the described method. Critical exposition of the physiological, pathophysiological, and clinical effects occurred and registered during anesthesia-surgery and postoperative period. CONCLUSION: Spinal anesthesia with nociceptive blockade to dermatome C4, or C3, is an effective option for surgery on somatic structures distal to the metamer of the third cervical spinal nerve, lasting no more than four or five hours. The method safety depends on the unrestricted respect for the essential rules of proper anesthesia.

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A fabricação de agulhas minimamente traumáticas e a síntese de coadjuvantes farmacológicos com ação efetiva e segura nas sinapses inibitórias e neuromoduladoras distribuídas ao longo das vias nociceptivas foram determinantes para uma nova fase de expansão da anestesia subaracnoidea. Os objetivos deste artigo são: apresentar a experiência clínica dos autores com a realização de 1.330 Raquianestesias lombares com bloqueio nociceptivo proposital dos nervos espinhais torácicos e cervicais até os dermátomos correspondentes a C4 ou C3; alertar sobre os riscos fisiopatológicos do método e enfatizar as normas preventivas para a realização da técnica com segurança. CONTEÚDO: Revisão dos fundamentos históricos e anatomofuncionais da anestesia subaracnoidea com níveis cervicais de analgesia. Descrição da técnica utilizada em nossa instituição; da população anestesiada e das cirurgias realizadas com o método descrito. Exposição crítica dos efeitos fisiológicos, clínicos e fisiopatológicos ocorridos e registrados durante o ato anestésico-cirúrgico e no período pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: A Raquianestesia com bloqueio nociceptivo até o dermátomo de C4, ou de C3 é uma opção efetiva para cirurgias sobre estruturas somáticas distais ao metâmero do terceiro nervo espinhal cervical com duração não superior a 4 ou 5 horas. A segurança do método depende do respeito irrestrito às regras essenciais da correta prática anestésica.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods , Thoracic Nerves , Cervical Plexus , Retrospective Studies , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Lumbar Vertebrae , Middle Aged , Nerve Block/adverse effects
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(1): 63-71, Jan.-Feb. 2016. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-773483


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Review of various techniques for digital blocks with local anesthetic, with or without epinephrine. CONTENTS: Description of various procedures and comparison of results reported in the literature, mainly on latency and quality of anesthesia, details on vasoconstrictor effect of epinephrine, intraoperative bleeding, necessity of tourniquet use, duration of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia, blood flow and digital SpO2 behavior, local and systemic complications, and also approaches and drugs to be used in certain situations of ischemia. CONCLUSIONS: The advantages of adding epinephrine to the anesthetic solution are minor when compared to the risks of the procedure, and it seems dangerous to use a vasoconstrictor in the fingers, unless the safety of the technique and the possibility of discarding the tourniquet are definitely proven.

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Revisão das diversas técnicas para bloqueios em dedos de mãos, com anestésico local associado ou não à epinefrina. CONTEÚDO: São descritos os procedimentos usados e comparados os resultados obtidos na literatura, principalmente em relação a: latência e qualidade da anestesia, detalhes sobre o efeito vasoconstritor da epinefrina, sangramento intraoperatório, necessidade ou não do uso de torniquete, duração da anestesia e da analgesia pós-operatórias, comportamento do fluxo arterial e da SpO2 digitais, complicações locais e sistêmicas e, ainda, condutas e medicamentos a serem usados em determinadas situações de isquemia. CONCLUSÕES: As vantagens da inclusão de epinefrina na solução anestésica são de pouca importância quando comparadas aos riscos do procedimento e parece perigoso usar o vasoconstritor em dedos de mão, a não ser que fiquem definitivamente comprovadas a inocuidade da técnica e a possibilidade do descarte do torniquete.

Humans , Epinephrine/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods , Tourniquets/statistics & numerical data , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Vasoconstrictor Agents/adverse effects , Epinephrine/adverse effects , Blood Loss, Surgical , Fingers , Anesthetics, Local/adverse effects , Nerve Block/adverse effects
Rev. ADM ; 72(6): 290-298, nov.-dic. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-786686


El fracaso anestésico en odontología es un tema de constante investigación, ya que se presenta con frecuencia a la hora de realizar bloqueos del nervio alveolar inferior (BNAI) y en pacientes con pulpitis irreversible o procesos infecciosos. Son múltiples las causas que se han asociado al fracaso, entre las que destacan: factores anatómicos, bioquímicos, fisiológicos, patológicos, psicológicos, operatorios y aquellos relacionados con la solución anestésica per se. Una buena anestesia es un punto crítico a lograr en cualquier tratamiento dental y por eso se han propuesto diversas estrategias clínicas y farmacológicas como uso de técnicas suplementarias, utilización de dispositivos y coadyuvantes anestésicos, empleo de soluciones anestésicas distintas, modifi cación de los anestésicos, utilización de premedicación analgésica e incluso la aplicación local de analgésicos y otro tipo de fármacos; todo con el fin de compensar y tratar de disminuir el fracaso anestésico

Failures in anesthesia in dental practice are a topic of ongoing research due to the fact that these occur frequently when performing an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in patients with irreversible pulpitis or infectious processes. Multiple causes have been associated with this problem, including anatomical, biochemical and physiological, patho-logical, psychological, and operative factors, as well as issues related to the anesthetic solution itself. Good anesthesia is critical in any dental treatment that involves pain, which is why various clinical and pharmacological strategies have been proposed in order to decrease the likelihood of anesthetic failure (such as the use of supplementary techniques, devices and aids, alternative anesthetic solutions, changing anesthetics, analgesic premedication, and even the local application of analgesics and other drugs).

Humans , Anesthesia, Dental/adverse effects , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Mandibular Nerve , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Drug Interactions , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
Int. j. morphol ; 32(3): 786-788, Sept. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728267


The anesthetic technique through the greater palatine canal seeks to block the maxillary nerve in the pterygopalatine fossa and anesthetize a large area, including the pulp and periodontium of the arch in question. After applying this technique in a patient, it failed to obtain the expected result. The patient began to experience dizziness, nausea, vomiting and the sensation of fluid in the ear. She was evaluated in both the emergency room of the Hospital Parroquial de San Bernardo and at a private clinic without accurate diagnosis. Only symptomatic treatment was provided. The next day she was discharged with reduced symptoms, which disappeared completely during the day. We propose the hypothesis of a diffusion of the anesthetic solution into the middle and inner ear through the auditory tube. This diffusion would explain the vestibular symptoms and the absence of anesthesia in the expected areas. We carried out an anatomic correlation in cadavers, following the path of a needle from the palatal mucosa to the pharyngeal opening of auditory tube. We conclude that the vertiginous syndrome could be due to an incorrect application of the technique, with the needle entering the auditory tube and spreading the anesthetic solution into the middle ear.

La técnica anestésica vía canal palatino mayor tiene como objetivo abordar al nervio maxilar en la fosa pterigopalatina, anestesiando un gran territorio, incluyendo la pulpa y periodonto de la hemiarcada correspondiente. Después de haber aplicado esta técnica en una paciente y no obteniendo el resultado esperado, esta comenzó a experimentar vértigo, náuseas, sensación de líquido en el oído y vómitos. Fue evaluada en el servicio de urgencias del Hospital Parroquial de San Bernardo y en una Clínica Privada, sin lograr un diagnóstico preciso y realizando solo un tratamiento sintomático. Al día siguiente fue dada de alta con baja sintomatología, la cual desapareció totalmente durante el día. Se propone la hipótesis de una difusión del anestésico hacia el oído medio e interno mediante el tubo auditivo. Esto explicaría por un lado la sintomatología vestibular y por otro la ausencia de anestesia en los dientes y territorios esperados. Además se realizó una correlación anatómica en cadáveres, utilizando 8 hemicabezas conservadas y siguiendo el posible trayecto de la aguja desde la mucosa palatina hasta el orificio faríngeo de la tuba auditiva. Se concluyó que el síndrome vertiginoso experimentado por la paciente se pudo deber a una técnica fallida al nervio maxilar vía canal palatino mayor con ingreso de la aguja al tubo auditivo, difundiendo el anestésico hacia el oído medio.

Humans , Female , Vertigo/chemically induced , Palate, Hard/anatomy & histology , Anesthesia, Dental/adverse effects , Maxillary Nerve/anatomy & histology , Anesthesia, Dental/methods , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Nerve Block/methods