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2.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 49(1): 53-56, 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1152170

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el absceso epidural posterolateral y la compresión radicular es una rara complicación del absceso retrofaríngeo (ARF). Se realizó el reporte de un caso con esta complicación extremadamente rara. Método: reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura (estudios radiológicos, historia y hallazgos clínicos). Se firmó consentimiento del paciente para la publicación. Resultados: paciente de 33 años remitido a nivel terciario de atención con un cuadro clínico de cervicalgia, odinofagia y fiebre. La tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) y la resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) mostraron una colección retrofaríngea con compromiso epidural en el espacio medular cervical; en el examen físico se encontró odinofagia, cervicalgia, fiebre y pérdida de la fuerza muscular en el miembro superior derecho. El paciente fue llevado a manejo quirúrgico por otorrinolaringología y ortopedia para el drenaje de la colección; además, se le administró antibioticoterapia con cefepime y clindamicina por 21 días con buenos resultados; se consideró que el origen del absceso era idiopático. Conclusiones: el absceso epidural y la compresión radicular secundarias a un ARF es una rara y potencialmente mortal complicación de esta patología, con secuelas importantes en el paciente que la padece, que requiere un manejo médico-quirúrgico. En nuestro caso el manejo fue interdisciplinario, ya que integró otorrinolaringología, ortopedia, infectología y fisioterapia, lo que resultó en una evolución satisfactoria del paciente.


Introduction: posterolateral epidural abscess and radicular compression is a rare complication of retropharyngeal abscess (RFA), a case report with this extremely rare complication was made. Method: case report and review of the literature (radiological studies, clinical history, clinical findings) patient's consent was signed for the publication. Results: a 33-year-old patient referred at the tertiary care level with a clinical picture of cervicalgia, odynophagia and fever; CT and MRI showed retropharyngeal collection with epidural involvement in the cord cervical space, physical examination, odynophagia, cervicalgia, fever and loss of muscle strength in the right upper limb. Led to surgical management by ENT and orthopedics column for drainage of the collection; antibiotic therapy with cefepime, clindamycin for 21 days with good results; It was considered of idiopathic origin. Conclusions: epidural abscess and root compression secondary to an RFA is a rare and potentially fatal complication of this pathology with important sequelae in the patient, which requires medical-surgical management, in our case the management was integrated interdisciplinary otolaryngology, orthopedics, infectology, physiotherapy , with satisfactory evolution in the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Spinal Cord , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Retropharyngeal Abscess/complications , Epidural Abscess/etiology , Nerve Compression Syndromes/etiology , Staphylococcal Infections/therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnostic imaging , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Retropharyngeal Abscess/therapy , Retropharyngeal Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Epidural Abscess/therapy , Epidural Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Nerve Compression Syndromes/therapy , Nerve Compression Syndromes/diagnostic imaging
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1555-1559, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134477

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: During routine dissection of a left upper limb of a 68-year-old male human cadaver, an unusual muscle was observed originating from the radius and flexor retinaculum, and continued in the hypothenar region with the muscle belly of the abductor digiti minimi. We checked that it was an accessory abductor digiti minimi (ADM). Its muscular belly was in close relation to the median and ulnar nerves. We review the literature regarding such muscle variations and discuss the potential for compression of the median and ulnar nerves. Although the accessory ADM is usually asymptomatic and only rarely results in nerve compression, it should be taken into account by surgeons when establishing a differential diagnosis in the compression neuropathies of the median and ulnar nerves. An ultrasound scanning can help establish the differential diagnosis.


RESUMEN: Durante la disección de rutina de un miembro superior izquierdo de un cadáver humano masculino de 68 años, se observó un músculo inusual que se originaba en el radio y el retináculo flexor del carpo, y continuuaba en la región hipotenar con el vientre muscular del abductor digiti minimi manus. Verificamos que se trataba del músculo abductor digiti minimi accessorius (ADMA). Su vientre muscular se encontraba en estrecha relación con los nervios mediano y ulnar. Revisamos la literatura sobre variaciones musculares y discutimos la potencial compresión de los nervios mediano y ulnar. Aunque el ADMA suele ser asintomático y rara vez produce compresión nerviosa, los cirujanos deben tenerlo en cuenta al establecer un diagnóstico diferencial en las neuropatías de compresión de los nervios mediano y ulnar. Una ecografía puede ayudar a establecer el diagnóstico diferencial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/abnormalities , Nerve Compression Syndromes/etiology , Ulnar Nerve , Cadaver , Risk Factors , Ulnar Nerve Compression Syndromes/etiology , Median Neuropathy/etiology , Median Nerve
4.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 36(2): 34-43, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344612

ABSTRACT

Pain located in the lateral aspect of the elbow is a common cause of consultation in the trauma consultation. The most common cause is "lateral epicondylitis," however there are several differential diagnoses that may require different management. There is a case of radial tunnel syndrome secondary to extrinsic compression, with an emphasis on its diagnosis and surgical technique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome/diagnosis , Radial Neuropathy/surgery , Radial Neuropathy/diagnosis , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Radial Nerve , Synovial Cyst/surgery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Combined Modality Therapy , Elbow , Elbow Joint , Pain Management , Injections, Intra-Articular , Neurologic Examination/methods
5.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(5): 557-563, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144210

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To perform an anatomical study of the location of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve in relation to the structures of the knee. Methods An anatomical study was performed by dissection of 18 humans knees (9 right and 9 left knees). After exposure of the infrapatellar branch and its direct and indirect branches, they were then measured. We adopted a quadrant in the medial region of the knee delimited by two transversal planes as a parameter of the study. Results In 17 of the 18 knees (94.4%) studied, a single infrapatellar branch was observed. The infrapatellar branch emerged as fibers of the womb of the sartorius muscle in 17 of the 18 knees (94.4%). In relation to the branch, we observed that in 100% of the knees the infrapatellar branch had at least one primary branch, resulting in a superior branch and an inferior branch. In 9 limbs (50% of the cases) this branch occurred outside the proposed quadrant, and, in the remaining limbs, it occurred within the quadrant. Conclusion The infrapatellar saphenous nerve branch was found in all dissected knees, and, in 94.4% of the cases, it was of the penetrating type; in 100% of the cases, it originated two primary direct branches. The direct and indirect branches presented great variability regarding their path.


Resumo Objetivo Realizar um estudo anatômico da localização do ramo infrapatelar do nervo safeno em relação às estruturas do joelho. Métodos Estudo anatômico realizado por meio de dissecação de 18 joelhos (9 direitos e 9 esquerdos). Após a exposição do ramo infrapatelar e de seus ramos diretos e indiretos, seguiram-se as medidas deles. Como parâmetro do estudo, adotamos um quadrante na região medial do joelho delimitado por dois planos transversais. Resultados Em 17 dos 18 joelhos estudados (94,4%), observou-se um único ramo infrapatelar. O ramo infrapatelar emergia por entre as fibras do ventre do músculo sartório em 17 dos 18 joelhos (94,4%). Em relação à ramificação, observamos que em 100% dos joelhos o ramo infrapatelar apresentava pelo menos uma ramificação primária, resultando num ramo superior e em outro inferior. Em 9 membros (50% dos casos), esta ramificação ocorria fora do quadrante proposto, e, no restante, dentro do quadrante. Conclusão O ramo infrapatelar do nervo safeno foi encontrado em todos os joelhos dissecados e, em 94,4% dos casos, ele era do tipo penetrante; em 100% dos casos, ele originava 2 ramos diretos primários. Seus ramos diretos e indiretos apresentaram grande variabilidade quanto ao trajeto.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , Knee/innervation , Nerve Compression Syndromes
6.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(2): e2020153, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131804

ABSTRACT

Compressive syndromes of peripheral nerves both in the upper and lower limbs are part of daily clinical practice; however, the etiological diagnosis can be challenging and impact on the outcome of the patient. We report five cases with rare etiologies of nerve entrapments: one in the lower limb and four in the upper limbs with the final diagnosis made only during the operation. The patients evolved without post-operative complications and had good outcomes. This series includes the first report of sciatic compression by a lipoma in the popliteal fossa, two lipomas one with compression of infraclavicular brachial plexus and another with compressing the posterior interosseous nerve, and two reports of vascular lesions due to blunt traumas, which are also uncommon. This series adds to the literature more hypotheses of differential diagnoses in nerve entrapments, which is fundamental to surgical decisions and pre-operative planning—and perhaps most importantly prevents wrong diagnosis of idiopathic compressions, which would lead to a completely wrong approach and unfavorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sciatic Neuropathy/diagnosis , Nerve Compression Syndromes/diagnosis , Radial Nerve , Ulnar Nerve , Aneurysm , Lipoma
7.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(1): 27-32, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092685

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The purpose of the present study was to analyze the structures in the radial tunnel that can cause posterior interosseous nerve entrapment. Methods A total of 30 members of 15 adult cadavers prepared by intra-arterial injection of a 10% solution of glycerol and formalin were dissected. All were male, belonging to the laboratory of anatomy of this institution. Results The branch for the supinator muscle originated from the posterior interosseous nerve in all limbs. We identified the Frohse arcade with a well-developed fibrous constitution in 22 of the 30 dissected limbs (73%) and of muscular constitution in 8 (27%). The distal margin of the supinator muscle presented fibrous consistency in 7 of the 30 limbs (23.5%) and muscular appearance in 23 (76.5%). In the proximal margin of the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle, we identified the fibrous arch in 18 limbs (60%); in 9 (30%) we noticed the arcade of muscular constitution; in 3 (10%) there was only the radial insertion, so that it did not form the arcade. Conclusion The Frohse arcade and the arcade formed by the origins of the extensor carpi radialis brevis are normal anatomical structures in adult cadavers. However, from the clinical point of view, these structures have the potential to cause entrapment of the posterior interosseous nerve.


Resumo Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar as estruturas contidas no túnel radial que podem causar neuropatia compressiva do nervo interósseo posterior. Métodos Foram dissecados 30 membros de 15 cadáveres adultos, preparados por injeção intra-arterial de uma solução de glicerina e formol a 10%. Todos do sexo masculino, pertencentes ao laboratório de anatomia desta instituição. Resultados O ramo para o músculo supinador originou-se do nervo interósseo posterior em todos os membros. Identificamos a arcada de Frohse com uma constituição fibrosa bem desenvolvida em 22 dos 30 membros dissecados (73%) e de constituição muscular em 8 (23%) A margem distal do músculo supinador apresentou consistência fibrosa em 7 dos 30 membros (23,5%) e uma aparência muscular em 23 (76,5%). Na margem proximal do músculo extensor radial curto do carpo, identificamos a arcada fibrosa em 18 membros (60%); em 9 (30%), notamos a arcada de constituição muscular; e em três (10%) havia apenas a inserção radial, de maneira que não formava a arcada. Conclusão A arcada de Frohse e a arcada formada pelas origens do músculo extensor radial curto do carpo são estruturas anatômicas normais em cadáveres adultos. No entanto, sob o ponto de vista clínico, essas estruturas têm potencial para causar a compressão do nervo interósseo posterior.


Subject(s)
Radial Nerve , Cadaver , Radial Neuropathy , Anatomy , Nerve Compression Syndromes
8.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(4): e2020209, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131865

ABSTRACT

The median artery is usually a transient vessel during the embryonic period. However, this artery can persist in adult life as the persistent median artery. This paper aims to describe this relevant anatomical variation for surgeons, review the literature and discuss its clinical implications. A routine dissection was performed in the upper left limb of a male adult cadaver of approximately 50-60 years of age, embalmed in formalin 10%. The persistent median artery was identified emerging as a terminal branch of the common interosseous artery with a path along the ulnar side of the median nerve. In the wrist, the persistent median artery passed through the carpal tunnel, deep in the transverse carpal ligament. The dissection in the palmar region revealed no anastomosis with the ulnar artery forming the superficial palmar arch. The common digital arteries emerged from the ulnar artery and the persistent median artery. Such variation has clinical and surgical relevance in approaching carpal tunnel syndrome and other clinical disorders in the wrist.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Upper Extremity/anatomy & histology , Dissection , Biological Variation, Individual , Nerve Compression Syndromes
9.
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 84(4): 427-433, dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1057067

ABSTRACT

La compresión mecánica de un nervio periférico en dos sitios diferentes a lo largo de su trayecto se define como síndrome de doble compresión. Esta enfermedad se basa en la teoría de la mayor susceptibilidad que tendría un nervio a nivel distal cuando este también se encuentra comprimido, en forma asintomática, a nivel proximal, debido a una alteración en el flujo axonal. Si bien la descompresión del túnel carpiano es una cirugía con resultados previsibles, hay pacientes operados por síndrome del túnel carpiano que no mejoran después de una cirugía, como cabría esperar. Si se excluye de este análisis a las comorbilidades, como diabetes, casos avanzados con atrofia muscular o descompresiones insuficientes, muchos de estos fracasos terapéuticos podrían estar fundamentados por el escaso diagnóstico de un segundo sitio de compresión concomitante. No obstante, existe gran controversia alrededor del síndrome de doble compresión que involucra no solo a su existencia, sino también a su incidencia y fisiopatología. El objetivo de esta publicación es presentar una revisión bibliográfica crítica del síndrome de doble compresión centrada en el compromiso del nervio mediano tanto en la muñeca como en el codo.


Double crush syndrome is the mechanical compression of a peripheral nerve at two different sites and is based on the hypothesis that a nerve that has been compressed at a distal site is especially susceptible to also be compressed, asymptomatically, at a more proximal site. While carpal tunnel release is a surgical procedure with predictable results, some patients do not improve as expected after surgery. If comorbidities such as diabetes, advanced cases presenting with muscle atrophy or incomplete decompressions are excluded from the analysis, many of these treatment failures could be explained by a second concomitant compression site, which is often underdiagnosed. The very existence of double crush syndrome is highly questioned, but also its incidence and pathophysiology. The objective of our paper is to perform a critical review of the literature available on double crush syndrome involving mainly the median nerve in the wrist and the elbow.


Subject(s)
Arm , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Median Neuropathy , Median Nerve , Nerve Compression Syndromes
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1527-1533, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040165

ABSTRACT

En órganos dañados, el ácido láctico (AL) modifica la respuesta inmune innata e inflamatoria, induciendo una menor expresión de citoquinas pro-inflamatorias, que provocan, la modulación del reclutamiento de células inmunes. El daño por compresión del nervio isquiático (NI) desencadena una respuesta inflamatoria y un aumento exponencial del infiltrado inflamatorio de células inmunes, produciendo la destrucción de axones y pérdida funcional del nervio. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el efecto agudo de la inyección de AL, sobre la proporción de células inmunes en la fase inflamatoria temprana, en el sitio de lesión del NI post compresión. Para ello, se utilizaron 15 ratas machos Sprague Dawley adultas, en tres grupos de compresión nerviosa. Un grupo control, un grupo control negativo con placebo (100 µL PBS) y un grupo experimental con inyección de 100 µL de AL [20mM]. Al tercer día los NI se analizaron histológicamente y se estableció la proporción de células inmunes en el sitio de lesión. Los resultados muestran que la inyección intraneural de AL provoca una disminución en el porcentaje de linfocitos y un aumento en el porcentaje de macrófagos. Este es el primer trabajo de inyección intraneural de AL y demuestra el efecto modulador del AL sobre las células inmunes en el sistema nervioso periférico.


In damaged organs, lactic acid (LA) modifies the innate and inflammatory immune response, inducing a lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which provoke the modulation of immune cell recruitment. Damage by compression of the sciatic nerve (SN) triggers an inflammatory response and an exponential increase in the inflammatory infiltrate of immune cells, producing the destruction of axons and functional loss of the nerve. The objective of this study is to evaluate the acute effect of the injection of LA, on the proportion of immune cells in the early inflammatory phase, in the site of SN post-compression injury. For this, 15 adult Sprague Dawley rats were used in three groups of nervous compression. A control group, a negative control group with placebo (100 mL PBS) and an experimental group with injection of 100 mL of LA [20mM]. On the third day, the SNs were histologically analyzed and the proportion of immune cells at the injury site was established. The results show that the intraneural injection of LA causes a decrease in the percentage of lymphocytes and an increase in the percentage of macrophages. This is the first work of intraneural injection of LA and demonstrates the modulating effect of LA on immune cells in the peripheral nervous system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sciatic Nerve/drug effects , Sciatic Nerve/immunology , Lactic Acid/pharmacology , Nerve Compression Syndromes/pathology , Sciatic Nerve/pathology , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Lactic Acid/administration & dosage , Inflammation/immunology , Macrophages/drug effects
11.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 84-86, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738810

ABSTRACT

Entrapment neuropathies of the peripheral nervous system are frequently encountered due to anatomical variations. Median nerve is the most vulnerable nerve to undergo entrapment neuropathies. The clinical complications are mostly manifested by median nerve impingement in forearm and wrist areas. Median nerve entrapment could also occur at the arm, due to the presence of ligament of Struthers. Here we report a rare case of proximal entrapment of median nerve and brachial artery in the arm by an abnormally formed musculo-fascial tunnel. The tunnel was formed by the muscle fibers of brachialis and medial intermuscular septum in the lower part of arm. Due to this, the median nerve coursed deep, below the tunnel and continued distally into the forearm, underneath the pronator teres muscle and hence did not appear as a content of cubital fossa. The present entrapment of neurovascular structures in the tunnel might lead to pronator syndromes or other neurovascular compression syndromes.


Subject(s)
Arm , Brachial Artery , Forearm , Ligaments , Median Nerve , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Peripheral Nervous System , Wrist
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719397

ABSTRACT

Meralgia paresthetica (MP) is a neuropathic pain caused by the entrapment of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN). There have been reports of MP following various surgeries; however, it has not yet been reported after hemorrhoid surgery. We report a case of bilateral MP after hemorrhoid surgery in a jack-knife position. The patient presented with pain, tightness, and a tingling sensation in the anterolateral aspect of both thighs. Ultrasonography-guided LFCN block was used for diagnosis and treatment, along with conservative management for 20 days with oral medication. One month later, the patient's symptoms had resolved completely. MP due to the jack-knife position may occur postoperatively in patients with predisposing risk factors such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, despite adequate padding and a shorter operating time.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Femoral Neuropathy , Hemorrhoidectomy , Hemorrhoids , Humans , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Neuralgia , Obesity , Prone Position , Risk Factors , Sensation , Thigh
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762804

ABSTRACT

Forearm fractures are common injuries in childhood. Median nerve entrapment is a rare complication of forearm fractures, but several cases have been reported in the literature. This case report discusses the diagnosis and management of median nerve entrapment in a 13-year-old male who presented acutely with a both-bone forearm fracture and numbness in the median nerve distribution. Following the delayed diagnosis, surgical exploration revealed complete nerve entrapment and a nerve graft was performed.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Bony Callus , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnosis , Forearm Injuries , Forearm , Fractures, Bone , Humans , Hypesthesia , Male , Median Nerve , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Transplants
14.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 262-268, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762237

ABSTRACT

The knowledge about detailed morphology and relation of saphenous nerve is important to obtain successful saphenous nerve regional blocks to achieve pre- and post-operative anesthesia and analgesia, nerve entrapment treatments and to avoid damage of saphenous nerve during knee and ankle surgeries. The literature describing detailed morphology of saphenous nerve is very limited. We dissected 42 formalin fixed well embalmed cadaveric lower limbs to explore detailed anatomy, relation and mode of termination of saphenous nerve and measured the distances from the nearby palpable bony landmarks. The average distance of origin of saphenous nerve from inguinal crease was 7.89±1.42 cm, the distance from upper end of medial border of patella to saphenous nerve at that level was 8.11±0.85 cm, distance from tibial tuberosity was 7.53±0.98 cm and from midpoint of anterior border of medial malleolus was 0.45±0.14 cm. Saphenous nerve provided two infrapatellar branches at the level of mid to lower limit of patellar ligament in 90% cases. It was in close contact or adhered to great saphenous vein across the lower 2/3rd of leg lying either anterior, posterior or deep to the vein. The saphenous nerve terminated by bifurcating proximal to medial malleolus in majority of cases though no obvious bifurcation was observed in 9.52% cases. The detailed morphology, relations and the distances from palpable bony landmarks may be helpful for clinicians to achieve successful saphenous nerve block and to avoid saphenous nerve damage and related complications during orthopedic procedures.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia and Analgesia , Ankle , Cadaver , Deception , Formaldehyde , Knee , Leg , Lower Extremity , Nerve Block , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Orthopedic Procedures , Patella , Patellar Ligament , Saphenous Vein , Veins
15.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 115-119, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762222

ABSTRACT

Ossification of the mamillo-accessory ligament (MAL) is a misunderstood phenomenon; however, many have posited that it can result in nerve entrapment of the medial branch of the dorsal ramus causing zygapophyseal joint related low back pain. The MAL has been studied anatomically by few, yet the data indicate possible associations between ossification of this ligament and spondylosis. It has been proposed that mechanical stress upon the lumbar spine may also lead to progressive ossification of the MAL into a bony foramen.


Subject(s)
Ligaments , Low Back Pain , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Spine , Spondylosis , Stress, Mechanical , Zygapophyseal Joint
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759968

ABSTRACT

Thoracic outlet syndrome is a relatively well known disease. Other than trauma, this disease is mostly caused by anatomical structures that cause vascular or neural compression. The cause of thoracic outlet syndrome is diverse; however, there are only few reports of thoracic outlet syndrome caused by lipoma in the pectoralis minor space. We report a case of compression of the lower trunk of brachial plexus in which a large lipoma that developed in the pectoral minor space grew into the subclavicular space, along with a review of literature.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus , Lipoma , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
17.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 53(5): 575-581, Sept.-Oct. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977894

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The goal of this study was to describe anatomical variations and clinical implications of anterior interosseous nerve. In complete anterior interosseous nerve palsy, the patient is unable to flex the distal phalanx of the thumb and index finger; in incomplete anterior interosseous nerve palsy, there is less axonal damage, and either the thumb or the index finger are affected. Methods: This study was based on the dissection of 50 limbs of 25 cadavers, 22 were male and three, female. Age ranged from 28 to 77 years, 14 were white and 11 were non-white; 18 were prepared by intra-arterial injection of a solution of 10% glycerol and formaldehyde, and seven were freshly dissected cadavers. Results: The anterior interosseous nerve arose from the median nerve, an average of 5.2 cm distal to the intercondylar line. In 29 limbs, it originated from the nerve fascicles of the posterior region of the median nerve and in 21 limbs, of the posterolateral fascicles. In 41 limbs, the anterior interosseous nerve positioned between the humeral and ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle. In two limbs, anterior interosseous nerve duplication was observed. In all members, it was observed that the anterior interosseous nerve arose from the median nerve proximal to the arch of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle. In 24 limbs, the branches of the anterior interosseous nerve occurred proximal to the arch and in 26, distal to it. Conclusion: The fibrous arches formed by the humeral and ulnar heads of the pronator teres muscle, the fibrous arch of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, and the Gantzer muscle (when hypertrophied and positioned anterior to the anterior interosseous nerve), can compress the nerve against deep structures, altering its normal course, by narrowing its space, causing alterations longus and flexor digitorum profundus muscles.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar as relações anatômicas e as variações do nervo interósseo anterior e suas implicações clínicas. A paralisia completa do nervo interósseo anterior resulta na incapacidade de fletir as falanges distal do polegar e indicador; na incompleta, ocorre menor dano axonal e apenas o polegar ou o indicador são afetados. Método: Este estudo baseou-se na dissecção de 50 membros de 25 cadáveres, 22 eram do sexo masculino e três do feminino. A idade variou entre 28 e 77 anos, 14 da etnia branca e 11 não branca; 18 foram preparados por injeção intra-arterial de uma solução de glicerina e formol a 10% e sete foram dissecados a fresco. Resultados: O nervo interósseo anterior originou-se do nervo mediano em média de 5,2 cm distal à linha intercondilar. Em 29 membros, originou-se dos fascículos nervosos da região posterior do nervo mediano e em 21 membros, dos fascículos posterolaterais. Em 41 membros, o nervo interósseo anterior posicionava-se entre as cabeças umeral e ulnar do músculo pronador redondo. Em dois membros, observou-se a duplicação do nervo interósseo anterior. Em todos os membros, registramos que o nervo interósseo anterior se desprendia do nervo mediano proximalmente à arcada do músculo flexor superficial dos dedos. Em 24 antebraços a ramificação do nervo interósseo anterior ocorreu proximalmente à arcada do músculo flexor superficial dos dedos em 26, distalmente. Conclusão: As bandas fibrosas formadas pelas cabeças umeral e ulnar do músculo pronador redondo, a arcada fibrosa do músculo flexor superficial dos dedos e o músculo de Gantzer, quando hipertrofiado e posicionado anteriormente ao nervo interósseo anterior, podem comprimir o nervo contra estruturas profundas, alterar seu curso normal, por estreitar o espaço de sua passagem, causar alterações no músculo flexor longo do polegar e no flexor profundo dos dedos da mão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pronation , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Median Nerve , Nerve Compression Syndromes
18.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 53(1): 75-81, Jan.-Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899247

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the anatomic variations of the bicipital aponeurosis (BA) (lacertus fibrosus) and its implications for the compression of the median nerve, which is positioned medially to the brachial artery, passing under the bicipital aponeurosis. Methods: Sixty upper limbs of 30 cadavers were dissected, 26 of which were male and four, female; of the total, 15 had been previously preserved in formalin and glycerine and 15 were dissected fresh in the Laboratory of Anatomy. Results: In 55 limbs, short and long heads of the biceps muscle contributed to the formation of the BA, and the most significant contribution was always from the short head. In three limbs, only the short head contributed to the formation of the BA. In two limbs, the BA was absent. The length of the bicipital aponeurosis from its origin to its insertion ranged from 4.5 to 6.2 cm and its width, from 0.5 to 2.6 cm. In 42 limbs, the BA was thickened; of these, in 27 it was resting directly on the median nerve, and in 17 a high insertion of the humeral head of the pronator teres muscle was found, and the muscle was interposed between the BA and the median nerve. Conclusion: These results suggest that a thickened BA may be a potential factor for nerve compression, by narrowing the space through which the median nerve passes.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar as variações anatômicas da aponeurose bicipital (lacertus fibrosus) e suas implicações na compressão do nervo mediano, que passa sob a aponeurose bicipital (AB) e se posiciona medialmente à artéria braquial. Método: Foram dissecados 60 membros superiores de 30 cadáveres adultos, 26 do sexo masculino e quatro do feminino; 15 haviam sido previamente preservados em formol e glicerina e 15 foram dissecados a fresco no Laboratório de Anatomia. Resultados: Em 55 membros, a AB recebia contribuição das cabeças curta e longa do musculo bíceps braquial, a contribuição mais significativa foi sempre da cabeça curta. Em três membros recebia contribuição exclusiva da cabeça curta. Em dois membros, a AB estava ausente. O comprimento da AB desde sua origem até sua inserção variou entre 4,5 e 6,2 cm e sua largura entre 0,5 e 2,6 cm. Em 42 membros, a AB apresentava-se espessada, em 27 apoiava-se diretamente sobre o nervo mediano e em 17 havia inserção alta da cabeça umeral do músculo pronador redondo, de forma que o músculo ficava interposto entre a AB e o nervo mediano. Conclusão: Esses resultados sugerem que a AB espessada pode ser um dos fatores potenciais da compressão nervosa, por estreitar o espaço no qual passa o nervo mediano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cadaver , Musculoskeletal Abnormalities , Nerve Compression Syndromes
19.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 720-725, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739272

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study (level of evidence=3). PURPOSE: We examine the relationship between residual symptoms after discectomy for lumbar disc herniation and peripheral nerve (PN) neuropathy. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Patients may report persistent or recurrent symptoms after lumbar disc herniation surgery; others fail to respond to a variety of treatments. Some PN neuropathies elicit symptoms similar to those of lumbar spine disease. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data for 13 patients treated for persistent (n=2) or recurrent (n=11) low back pain (LBP) and/or leg pain after primary lumbar discectomy. RESULTS: Lumbar re-operation was required for four patients (three with recurrent lumbar disc herniation and one with lumbar canal stenosis). Superior cluneal nerve (SCN) entrapment neuropathy (EN) was noted in 12 patients; SCN block improved the symptoms for eight of these patients. In total, nine patients underwent PN surgery (SCN-EN, n=4; peroneal nerve EN, n=3; tarsal tunnel syndrome, n=1). Their symptoms improved significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant PN disease should be considered for patients with failed back surgery syndrome manifesting as persistent or recurrent LBP.


Subject(s)
Diskectomy , Failed Back Surgery Syndrome , Humans , Leg , Low Back Pain , Lumbosacral Region , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Peripheral Nerves , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Peroneal Nerve , Retrospective Studies , Spine , Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766630

ABSTRACT

Superior oblique myokymia (SOM) is a rare disorder characterized by unilateral paroxysmal oscillopsia or diplopia. Recent studies revealed that SOM can be associated with neuro-vascular cross compression (NVCC) of the trunk of the trochlear nerve. Although it frequently occurs without any underlying systemic disease or concurrent neurologic sign, we need to consider this NVCC especially in cases with persistent disturbing symptoms. Hereby, we present two cases of SOM whose neuroimaging studies suggest NVCCs and, discuss recent update of the pathomechanism of SOM.


Subject(s)
Diplopia , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Neuroimaging , Neurologic Manifestations , Trochlear Nerve , Trochlear Nerve Diseases
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