Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 204
Filter
1.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 14(3): 243-247, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133646

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a sporadic tauopathy that presents with a varied combination of motor, cognitive, and behavioral features, making its diagnosis difficult. CBD has high morbidity and poor prognosis, with no effective therapy at present. We searched the PubMed/MEDLINE database for articles published from 1990 to 2019, using the keywords "corticobasal degeneration" AND "treatment." The PRISMA method was adopted. Retrieved articles were characterized as having one of two methodological approaches: (1) studies aimed at primary tauopathy treatment and (2) symptomatic management. Review articles (based on CBD expert groups), case reports, case series, and pilot clinical trials were selected. Few attempts have been made to study drug options and drug efficacy in CBD systematically, and an effective treatment is not yet available. Treatment is symptomatic and based on similarity with other diseases due to the scarcity of studies specifically addressing CBD. CBD seems not to spark interest in more clinical trials for its low prevalence and reliability in clinical diagnosis.


RESUMO. A degeneração corticobasal (DCB) é uma tauopatia esporádica que se apresenta com uma combinação variada de características motoras, cognitivas e comportamentais, dificultando seu diagnóstico. O CBD tem alta morbidade e mau prognóstico, sem terapia efetiva no momento. Pesquisamos o banco de dados PubMed / MEDLINE para artigos publicados de 1990 a 2019, usando as palavras-chave "degeneração corticobasal" e "tratamento". O método PRISMA foi adotado. Os artigos recuperados foram caracterizados como tendo uma de duas abordagens metodológicas: (1) estudos voltados para o tratamento da tauopatia primária e (2) manejo sintomático. Artigos de revisão (baseados em grupos de especialistas em CBD), relatos de casos, séries de casos e ensaios clínicos piloto foram selecionados. Poucas tentativas foram feitas para estudar as opções de drogas e eficácia de drogas no CBD de forma sistemática, e um tratamento eficaz ainda não está disponível. O tratamento é sintomático e baseado na semelhança com outras doenças devido à escassez de estudos que abordem especificamente o CBD. O CBD parece não despertar o interesse em mais ensaios clínicos por sua baixa prevalência e confiabilidade no diagnóstico clínico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Therapeutics , Dopamine Agents , Dementia , Nerve Degeneration
2.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 267-275, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040018

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Riluzole (2-amino-6-trifluoromethoxy benzothiazole) is known as a neuroprotective, antioxidant, antiapoptotic agent. It may have beneficial effects on neuronal cell death due to cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Objective To evaluate the effect of riluzole on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in guinea pigs. Methods Twenty-four guinea pigs, studied in three groups, underwent auditory brainstem response evaluation using click and 8 kHz tone burst stimuli. Subsequently, 5 mg/kg of cisplatin were administered to all animals for 3 days intraperitoneally (i.p.) to induce ototoxicity. Half an hour prior to cisplatin, groups 1, 2 and 3 received 2 ml of saline i.p., 6 mg/kg of riluzole hydrochloride i.p., and 8 mg/kg of riluzole hydrochloride i.p., respectively, for 3 days. The auditory brainstem responses were repeated 24 hours after the last drug administration. The cochleae were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results After drug administiration, for 8,000 Hz stimulus, group 1 had significantly higher threshold shifts when compared with groups 2 (p < 0.05) and 3 (p < 0.05), and there was no significant difference in threshold shifts between groups 2 and 3 (p > 0.05). Transmission electron microscopy findings demonstrated the protective effect of riluzole on the hair cells and the stria vascularis, especially in the group treated with 8 mg/kg of riluzole hydrochloride. Conclusion We can say that riluzolemay have a protective effect on cisplatin- induced ototoxicity. However, additional studies are needed to confirm these results and the mechanisms of action of riluzole.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem/drug effects , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Riluzole/pharmacology , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/chemically induced , Auditory Threshold/drug effects , Stria Vascularis/drug effects , Stria Vascularis/pathology , Cochlear Nerve/drug effects , Cochlear Nerve/pathology , Riluzole/therapeutic use , Models, Animal , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Guinea Pigs , Hair Cells, Auditory/drug effects , Hair Cells, Auditory/pathology , Nerve Degeneration/chemically induced
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(3): e201900303, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989066

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate whether there is a relationship between renal artery vasospasm related low glomerular density or degeneration and neurogenic lung edema (NLE) following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: This study was conducted on 26 rabbits. A control group was formed of five animals, a SHAM group of 5 to which saline and a study group (n=16) injected with homologous blood into the sylvian cisterna. Numbers of degenerated axons of renal branches of vagal nerves, atrophic glomerulus numbers and NLE scores were recorded. Results: Important vagal degeneration, severe renal artery vasospasm, intrarenal hemorrhage and glomerular atrophy observed in high score NLE detected animals. The mean degenerated axon density of vagal nerves (n/mm2), atrophic glomerulus density (n/mm3) and NLE scores of control, SHAM and study groups were estimated as 2.40±1.82, 2.20±1.30, 1.80±1.10, 8.00±2.24, 8.80±2.39, 4.40±1.14 and 154.38±13.61, 34.69±2.68 and 12.19±1.97 consecutively. Degenerated vagal axon, atrophic glomerulus and NLE scores are higher in study group than other groups and the differences are statistically meaningful (p<0.001). Conclusion: Vagal complex degeneration based glomerular atrophy have important roles on NLE following SAH which has not been extensively mentioned in the literature.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Renal Artery , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Ischemia/complications , Kidney/blood supply , Nerve Degeneration/complications , Vagus Nerve/pathology , Vascular Diseases/complications , Disease Models, Animal
4.
Rev. bras. geriatr. gerontol. (Online) ; 22(4): e190024, 2019. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042301

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To describe genetic aspects and characteristics associated with premature aging in adults with Down syndrome. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out of 28 individuals with Down syndrome, aged between 20 and 54 years old (13 women and 15 men), in a university community genetics program, who were referred by philanthropic institutions which offers support to people with disabilities and their families. The genetic and functional data were recorded in anamnesis forms. RESULTS: Karyotype analysis revealed free trisomy 21, with only one hereditary case of translocation between chromosomes 15/21. In the sample group, functional difficulties were observed in locomotion, sedentary lifestyles, behavior disorders, memory loss and depression symptoms, as well as loss of autonomy at more advanced ages. Only three people had reading and writing skills and 16 had good social relationships and friend-making skills. CONCLUSION: The study confirms that premature aging in Down syndrome starts in adulthood, and therapeutic follow-up is recommended with the implementation of interventions to prevent deficits and stimulate cognition, and activities for quality of life.


OBJETIVO: Descrever aspectos genéticos e características de envelhecimento precoce na síndrome de Down. MÉTODO: Estudo descritivo transversal de 28 indivíduos com síndrome de Down, entre 20 e 54 anos de idade (13 mulheres e 15 homens), atendidos em programa universitário de genética comunitária por solicitação de instituições filantrópicas especializadas, que oferecem apoio a pessoas com deficiência e suas famílias. Os dados genéticos e funcionais foram registrados em ficha de anamnese. RESULTADO: A análise cariotípica mostrou trissomia 21 livre, com apenas um caso hereditário de translocação entre os cromossomos 15/21. Constataram-se dificuldades funcionais na locomoção, sedentarismo, desordens de conduta, perda de memória e depressão, assim como a perda de autonomia em idades mais avançadas. Apenas três pessoas tinham domínio da leitura e escrita e 16 apresentavam bom relacionamento social e habilidades de fazer amigos. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo realizado confirma que sinais de envelhecimento precoce na síndrome de Down podem ser verificados já na fase adulta, sendo recomendado o acompanhamento terapêutico com implantação de medidas de prevenção aos déficits, estimulo à cognição e atividades voltadas à qualidade de vida.


Subject(s)
Down Syndrome , Aging, Premature , Nerve Degeneration
5.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 278-285, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762235

ABSTRACT

The human nervus terminalis (terminal nerve) and the nerves to the vomeronasal organ (VNON) are both associated with the olfactory nerves and are of major interest to embryologists. However, there is still limited knowledge on their topographical anatomy in the nasal septum and on the number and distribution of ganglion cells along and near the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. We observed serial or semiserial sections of 30 fetuses at 7–18 weeks (crown rump length [CRL], 25–160 mm). Calretinin and S100 protein staining demonstrated not only the terminal nerve along the anterior edge of the perpendicular lamina of the ethmoid, but also the VNON along the posterior edge of the lamina. The terminal nerve was composed of 1–2 nerve bundles that passed through the anterior end of the cribriform plate, whereas the VNON consisted of 2–3 bundles behind the olfactory nerves. The terminal nerve ran along and crossed the posterior side of the nasal branch of the anterior ethmoidal nerve. Multiple clusters of small ganglion cells were found on the lateral surfaces of the ethmoid's crista galli, which are likely the origin of both the terminal nerve and VNON. The ganglions along the crista galli were ball-like and 15–20 µm in diameter and, ranged from 40–153 in unilateral number according to our counting at 21-µm-interval except for one specimen (480 neurons; CRL, 137 mm). An effect of nerve degeneration with increasing age seemed to be masked by a remarkable individual difference.


Subject(s)
Calbindin 2 , Ethmoid Bone , Fetus , Ganglion Cysts , Humans , Individuality , Masks , Nasal Septum , Nerve Degeneration , Neurons , Olfactory Nerve , Vomeronasal Organ
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18312, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039066

ABSTRACT

Beta-glucans (ßg), that have many useful effects on human health, are natural polysaccharides. Our aim in this study was to determine useful effect of ßg against oxidative and neuronal damage caused by global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in stroke imitated mice via surgical operation. A total of 40 mice divided into four equal groups randomly. The group 1 (sham operated) was kept as control. Bilateral carotid arteries of subjects in group 2 (I/R) and group 4 (I/ R + ßg) were clipped for 15 min, and the mice in group 4 (I/R + ßg) were treated with ßg (50 mg/kg/day), while the mice in group 2 (I/R) were treated with only vehicle for 10 days. The mice of group 3 (ßg) were treated with ßg for 10 days without carotid occlusion. Global cerebral I/R significantly increased oxidative stress and decreased members of anti-oxidant defense system. In addition, I/R caused histopathological damage in the brain tissue. However, ßg treatment ameliorated both oxidative and histopathological effects of I/R. Our present study showed that ßg treatment significantly ameliorated oxidative and histological damage in the brain tissue caused by cerebral I/R. Therefore, ßg treatment can be used as supportive care for ischemic stroke patients


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Oxidative Stress/physiology , beta-Glucans/analysis , Brain Ischemia/chemically induced , Nerve Degeneration
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 584-591, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954158

ABSTRACT

Among the neurodegenerative disorders, Parkinson disease (PD) is ranked as second most common. The pathological hallmark is selective degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the nigro-striatal regions of brain with appearance of the Lewy bodies. Present study explores the neuro-protective potential of polydatin in terms of amelioration of degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in nigro-striatal regions of brain and distorted neuromotor behavior in the rotenone model of Parkinson's disease. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups. Group A (control), Group B (rotenone treated) and Group C (rotenone+polydatin treated). Rotenone was administrated intraperitoneally (i.p) at a dose of 3 mg/kg/body weight while polydatin was given i.p. at a dose of 50 mg/ kg/body weight for four weeks. Then, animals were sacrificed; substantia nigra (SN) & striatum isolated from brain and five micron thick sections were prepared. Cresyl violet (CV), H&E and Immuno-histochemical staining using anti-TH antibody was done. Motor behavior was assessed weekly throughout the experiment using five different methods. Rotenone treated parkinsonian animals showed deterioration of motor behavior, weight loss, loss of dopaminergic neurons and diminished immune-reactivity in the sections from the nigrostriatal regions of these animals Polydatin+rotenone treatment showed contradicting effects to parkinsonism, with amelioration in weight loss, neuro-motor behavior, dopaminergic loss and immune-reactivity against dopaminergic neurons. Present study revealed a neuro-protective potential of polydatin in animal model of PD by ameliorating the neuro-motor abnormalities and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in nigrostriatal regions.


Entre los trastornos neurodegenerativos, la enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) se clasifica como la segunda más común. El sello patológico es la degeneración selectiva de las neuronas dopaminérgicas en las regiones nigro-estriatales del cerebro, con la aparición de los cuerpos de Lewy. El presente estudio explora el potencial de protección neuronal de la polidatina en términos de la mejora de la degeneración de las neuronas dopaminérgicas en las regiones nigro-estriatales del cerebro y el comportamiento neuromotor distorsionado en el modelo de rotenona de la enfermedad de Parkinson. Treinta y seis ratas macho Sprague Dawley se dividieron en tres grupos: Grupo A (control), Grupo B (tratado con rotenona) y Grupo C (tratamiento con rotenona + polidatina). La rotenona se administró por vía intraperitoneal (i.p.) a una dosis de 3 mg/kg/peso corporal, mientras que la polidatina se administró i.p. a una dosis de 50 mg/kg/ peso corporal durante cuatro semanas. Posteriormente, los animales fueron sacrificados. Se aislaron la substantia nigra (SN) y cuerpo estriado de los cerebros y se realizaron secciones de cinco micras de espesor. Se realizó una tinción de violeta de cresilo (CV), H&E y tinción inmunohistoquímica usando anticuerpo anti-TH. El comportamiento motriz se evaluó semanalmente durante todo el experimento utilizando cinco métodos diferentes. Los animales parkinsonianos tratados con rotenona mostraron deterioro del comportamiento motriz, pérdida de peso, pérdida de neuronas dopaminérgicas y disminución de la reactividad inmune en las secciones de las regiones nigroestriadas. El tratamiento con polidatina + rotenona mostró efectos contrarios al parkinsonismo, con mejoría en la pérdida de peso, en el comportamiento motor, en la pérdida dopaminérgica y en la reactividad inmune contra las neuronas dopaminérgicas. El presente estudio reveló un potencial de protección neuronal de la polidatina en el modelo animal de la EP al mejorar las anomalías neuro-motoras y la degeneración de las neuronas dopaminérgicas en las regiones nigroestriatales.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Stilbenes/administration & dosage , Glucosides/administration & dosage , Parkinson Disease/pathology , Rotenone/toxicity , Immunohistochemistry , Dopamine , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Neuroprotective Agents , Disease Models, Animal , Movement Disorders/prevention & control , Nerve Degeneration/prevention & control
8.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 88 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-969405

ABSTRACT

A Doença de Parkinson (DP) é um distúrbio neurodegenerativo, caracterizada em parte pela perda de neurônios dopaminérgicos da via nigroestriatal, originada na substância negra com projeções para o estriado, causando vários déficits motores. Atualmente, o tratamento mais utilizado é a administração de L-DOPA, um análogo da dopamina. Porém, essa droga apresenta eficácia limitada e induz diversos efeitos colaterais. A exploração dos efeitos neuroprotetores, proliferativos e neuroregenerativos da bradicinina (BK) em modelo animal de DP pode conduzir à substituição celular do tecido lesionado pela 6-hidroxidopamina (6-OHDA). De fato, a BK e seus receptores possuem um grande espectro de ações fisiológicas, estando classicamente envolvida no controle da homeostase cardiovascular e inflamação, além de exercer efeitos protetores em fisiopatologias do sistema nervoso, como em modelos de acidente vascular cerebral. Vários tipos celulares têm suas vias de sinalização associadas à ativação do receptor B2 de cininas (B2BKR). Trabalhos anteriores de nosso grupo mostraram que a BK está envolvida na diferenciação neural de células progenitoras neurais por um loop autócrino que resulta em ativação do B2BKR. Os resultados apresentados neste trabalho mostram a eficácia do tratamento com BK, um agonista de B2BKR, em animais submetidos à lesão da via nigro-estriatal induzida por 6-OHDA. Além disso, há uma recuperação comportamental e histológica desses animais quando tratados com Captopril®, um potencializador dos efeitos farmacológicos da BK, e com [Phe8Ψ(CH-NH)Arg9]-Bradicinina, agonista estável do receptor B2BKR. Assim, concluímos que a ativação de B2BKR pela BK desencadeiaum processo de neuroregeneração dopaminérgica de animais submetidos à lesão por 6-OHDA. Trabalhos recentes mostram que o receptor B2BKR desempenha um importante papel neuroprotetor em modelo animal da Doença de Alzheimer, o que corrobora nossos achados. Juntos, esses resultados contribuem para o estabelecimento da ação neuroprotetora e neurorregenerativa da BK no modelo de animal de neurodegeneração dopaminérgica, tornando-a uma excelente candidata para aplicação em terapias de reparo neuronal


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder partially characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons from the nigrostriatal pathway, originated in the substantia nigra with projections to the striatum, which causes several motor deficits. Currently, the most commonly used drug for PD treatment is levodopa. However, it has limited efficacy and induces several side effects. Elucidation of the neuroprotective, proliferative and neuroregenerative effects of bradykinin (BK) in animal models of PD can culminate in cellular replacement of the tissue damaged by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). In fact, BK and its receptor have several physiological effects, being classically involved in the control of cardiovascular homeostasis and inflammation. Besides, BK exerts protective effects on nervous system pathophysiology, as observed in stroke models. Several cell types have their signaling pathways associated with the B2 kinin receptor (B2BKR) activation. Previous work from our group showed that BK is involved in differentiation of neural progenitor cells by an autocrine loop that results in activation of B2BKR. The results presented in this thesis show the efficacy of treatment with BK, through B2BKR activation, in animals submitted to nigrostriatal pathway injury induced by 6-OH dopamine. Furthermore, behavioral and histological recoveries of these animals were observed when treated with Captopril®, a potentiator of BK pharmacological effects, and with [Phe8Ψ (CH-NH) Arg9] -BK, a stable agonist of the B2BKR receptor. Thus, we conclude that BK activation of B2BKR triggers neuroregenerative processes in animals submitted to 6- OHDA injury. Recent studies showed that the B2BKR receptor plays an important neuroprotective role in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease, which corroboratesour findings. Together, these results contribute to the establishment of the neuroprotective and neuroregenerative actions of BK - an excellent candidate for neural repair therapies


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Receptor, Bradykinin B2/analysis , Dopaminergic Neurons , Kinins/adverse effects , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Neurodegenerative Diseases/diagnosis , Nerve Degeneration/classification
9.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 270-282, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777057

ABSTRACT

In this study, the effects of Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC), a non-invasive physical treatment, on neuroinflammatory responses in a mouse model of parkinsonism induced by intoxication with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), were investigated in vivo. We found that the REAC tissue optimization treatment specific for neuro-regenerative purposes (REAC TO-RGN-N) attenuated the inflammatory picture evoked by MPTP-induced nigro-striatal damage in mice, decreasing the levels of pro-inflammatory molecules and increasing anti-inflammatory mediators. Besides, there was a significant reduction of both astrocyte and microglial activation in MPTP-treated mice exposed to REAC TO-RGN-N. These results indicated that REAC TO-RGN-N treatment modulates the pro-inflammatory responses and reduces neuronal damage in MPTP-induced parkinsonism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Corpus Striatum , Pathology , Electric Stimulation , Methods , Inflammation , Pathology , Male , Mice , Nerve Degeneration , Pathology , Nerve Regeneration , Physiology , Parkinsonian Disorders , Pathology
10.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(6): 691-696, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889319

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The use of mobile phones has become widespread in recent years. Although beneficial from the communication viewpoint, the electromagnetic fields generated by mobile phones may cause unwanted biological changes in the human body. Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of 2100 MHz Global System for Mobile communication (GSM-like) electromagnetic field, generated by an electromagnetic fields generator, on the auditory system of rats by using electrophysiological, histopathologic and immunohistochemical methods. Methods: Fourteen adult Wistar albino rats were included in the study. The rats were divided randomly into two groups of seven rats each. The study group was exposed continuously for 30 days to a 2100 MHz electromagnetic fields with a signal level (power) of 5.4 dBm (3.47 mW) to simulate the talk mode on a mobile phone. The control group was not exposed to the aforementioned electromagnetic fields. After 30 days, the Auditory Brainstem Responses of both groups were recorded and the rats were sacrificed. The cochlear nuclei were evaluated by histopathologic and immunohistochemical methods. Results: The Auditory Brainstem Responses records of the two groups did not differ significantly. The histopathologic analysis showed increased degeneration signs in the study group (p = 0.007). In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed increased apoptotic index in the study group compared to that in the control group (p = 0.002). Conclusion: The results support that long-term exposure to a GSM-like 2100 MHz electromagnetic fields causes an increase in neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the auditory system.


Resumo Introdução: O uso de telefones celulares tornou-se generalizado nos últimos anos. Embora benéfico do ponto de vista da comunicação, os campos eletromagnéticos gerados por celulares pode causar alterações biológicas indesejáveis no corpo humano. Objetivo: Nesse estudo, o objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos do campo eletromagnético na frequência de 2.100 MHz, similar à modulação do Sistema Global para Comunicações Móveis, produzido por um gerador de campo eletromagnético, sobre o sistema auditivo de ratos usando os métodos eletrofisiológico, histopatológico e imunohistoquímico. Método: Foram incluídos no estudo catorze adultos ratos albinos Wistar. Os ratos foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de sete animais cada. O grupo de estudo foi exposto continuamente por 30 dias a um campo eletromagnético em 2100 MHz com um nível de sinal (potência) de 5,4 dBm (3,47 miliwatts) para simular o modo de conversação em um celular. O grupo controle não foi exposto ao campo eletromagnético acima mencionado. Após 30 dias, o potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico de ambos os grupos foi gravado e os ratos foram sacrificados. Os núcleos cocleares foram avaliados pelos métodos histopatológico e imunohistoquímico. Resultados: Os registros do potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico dos dois grupos não diferiram significativamente. A análise histopatológica mostrou aumento dos sinais de degeneração no grupo de estudo (p = 0,007). Além disso, a análise imuno-histoquímica revelou aumento do índice de apoptose no grupo de estudo em comparação com o grupo controle (p = 0,002). Conclusão: Os resultados confirmam que a exposição a longo prazo a um campo eletromagnético em 2100 MHz similar à modulação do sistema global para comunicações móveis causa um aumento na degeneração neuronal e apoptose no sistema auditivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Radio Waves/adverse effects , Cochlear Nucleus/radiation effects , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Cell Phone , Electromagnetic Fields/adverse effects , Hearing/radiation effects , Reference Values , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Risk Factors , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem/radiation effects , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Cochlear Nucleus/pathology , Nerve Degeneration/etiology
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(5): 1181-1185, set.-out. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-877359

ABSTRACT

Um caso de abiotrofia cerebelar em um gato com 45 dias de idade foi diagnosticado no Laboratório de Patologia Animal, Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande. O animal apresentava, havia 15 dias, apatia, anorexia, desidratação, ataxia, hipermetria, espasticidade dos membros torácicos e pélvicos, tremores de intenção, nistagmo, opistótono, déficit proprioceptivo e ausência de resposta de ameaça. Clinicamente, havia a suspeita de hipoplasia cerebelar, e, devido ao prognóstico desfavorável, o animal foi eutanasiado. Na necropsia, não foram observadas alterações macroscópicas. Microscopicamente, as lesões estavam restritas ao cerebelo e caracterizavam-se por alterações neurodegenerativas e necróticas, com desaparecimento segmentar dos neurônios de Purkinje. Nessas áreas, também se verificaram espaços em branco, denominado aspecto de cesto vazio, resultantes da perda dos neurônios de Purkinje, além de raros esferoides axonais e proliferação dos astrócitos de Bergmann. Em algumas áreas, a camada granular estava hipocelular e havia moderada gliose multifocal na camada molecular. O diagnóstico de abiotrofia cerebelar foi realizado com base nos dados epidemiológicos, clínicos e, principalmente, pelas alterações histopatológicas dos neurônios de Purkinje características da doença.(AU)


The aim of this report was to describe a case of cerebellar abiotrophy in cat with 45-year-old diagnosed at the Animal Pathology Laboratory, Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande. The animal had presented 15-day apathy, anorexia, dehydration and neurological signs, characterized by ataxia, hypermetria, spasticity of fore and hindlimbs, intention tremor, nystagmus, opisthotonos, proprioceptive deficits, and absence of threat response. Clinically, cerebellar hypoplasia was suspected and the animal was euthanized due to poor prognosis. During necropsy, gross lesions were not observed. Microscopically the lesions were restricted to the cerebellum and were characterized by neurodegenerative and necrotic damage with segmental disappearance of the Purkinje cells. In these areas, there were also empty spaces, called the empty basket aspect, resulting from the loss of Purkinje cells, as well as rare axonal spheroids and proliferation of Bergmann's astrocytes. In some areas, the granular layer was hypocellular and there was moderate multifocal gliosis in the molecular layer. The diagnosis of cerebellar abiotrophy was based on epidemiological, clinical and mainly on histopathological changes in neurons of Purkinje disease characteristics.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Abiotrophia , Cerebellar Diseases/veterinary , Nerve Degeneration/veterinary , Purkinje Cells/pathology
12.
Rev. Kairós ; 20(2): 161-178, jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-884021

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do estudo foi identificar fatores associados ao perfil funcional de idosos portadores da doença de Parkinson, para correlacioná-los com a gravidade da doença e o tempo de diagnóstico em três grupos etários. Foram entrevistados 145 idosos, idade igual ou superior a 60 anos, em Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. O estadiamento revelou uma diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos G1 (60-69 anos) e G3 (80-89). A DP está acometendo cada vez mais a população, e fatores como baixa escolaridade e viuvez foram relacionados a déficits funcionais, levando-se à questão da fragilidade física e potenciais fatores para quedas. O grupo G3 (80-89 anos) foi o mais afetado funcionalmente e o tempo de diagnóstico não foi relacionado com a idade.


The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with the functional profile of elderly patients with Parkinson's disease, in order to correlate them with the severity of the disease and the time of diagnosis in three age groups. We interviewed 145 elderly people, aged 60 years or older, in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Staging revealed a statistically significant difference between the G1 (60-69 years) and G3 (80-89) groups. PD is increasingly affecting the population, and factors such as low schooling and widowhood were related to functional deficits, leading to the issue of physical frailty and potential factors for falls. The G3 group (80-89 years) was the most functionally affected and the time of diagnosis was not related to age.


El objetivo del estudio fue identificar factores asociados al perfil funcional de ancianos portadores de la enfermedad de Parkinson, para correlacionarlos con la gravedad de la enfermedad y el tiempo de diagnóstico en tres grupos de edad. Se entrevistaron a 145 ancianos, edad igual o superior a 60 años, en Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. La estadificación reveló una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos G1 (60-69 años) y G3 (80-89). La enfermedad está afectando cada vez más a la población, y factores como baja escolaridad y viudez se relacionan con déficit funcionales, llevándose a la cuestión de la fragilidad física y potenciales factores para caídas. El grupo G3 (80-89 años) fue el más afectado funcionalmente y el tiempo de diagnóstico no fue relacionado con la edad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Activities of Daily Living , Aging , Nerve Degeneration , Parkinson Disease
13.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 321-328, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146670

ABSTRACT

Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and cognitive dysfunction caused by expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat in exon 1 of huntingtin (HTT). In patients, the number of glutamine residues in polyQ tracts are over 35, and it is correlated with age of onset, severity, and disease progression. Expansion of polyQ increases the propensity for HTT protein aggregation, process known to be implicated in neurodegeneration. These pathological aggregates can be transmitted from neuron to another neuron, and this process may explain the pathological spreading of polyQ aggregates. Here, we developed an in vivo model for studying transmission of polyQ aggregates in a highly quantitative manner in real time. HTT exon 1 with expanded polyQ was fused with either N-terminal or C-terminal fragments of Venus fluorescence protein and expressed in pharyngeal muscles and associated neurons, respectively, of C. elegans. Transmission of polyQ proteins was detected using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). Mutant polyQ (Q97) was transmitted much more efficiently than wild type polyQ (Q25) and forms numerous inclusion bodies as well. The transmission of Q97 was gradually increased with aging of animal. The animals with polyQ transmission exhibited degenerative phenotypes, such as nerve degeneration, impaired pharyngeal pumping behavior, and reduced life span. The C. elegans model presented here would be a useful in vivo model system for the study of polyQ aggregate propagation and might be applied to the screening of genetic and chemical modifiers of the propagation.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Aging , Animals , Complement System Proteins , Disease Progression , Exons , Fluorescence , Glutamine , Humans , Huntington Disease , Inclusion Bodies , Mass Screening , Nerve Degeneration , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Pharyngeal Muscles , Phenotype , Venus
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38705

ABSTRACT

Excessive activation of microglia causes the continuous production of neurotoxic mediators, which further causes neuron degeneration. Therefore, inhibition of microglial activation is a possible target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Balanophonin, a natural neolignoid from Firmiana simplex, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-neuroinflammatory effects and mechanism of balanophonin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. BV2 microglia cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of balanophonin. The results indicated that balanophonin reduced not only the LPS-mediated TLR4 activation but also the production of inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), in BV2 cells. Balanophonin also inhibited LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) protein expression and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK. Interestingly, it also inhibited neuronal cell death resulting from LPS-activated microglia by regulating cleaved caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage in N2a cells. In conclusion, our data indicated that balanophonin may delay the progression of neuronal cell death by inhibiting microglial activation.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Cell Death , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Dinoprostone , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Microglia , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Necrosis , Nerve Degeneration , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotection , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphotransferases , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(1): 111-112, Jan.-Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776417

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ross syndrome is a rare disease characterized by peripheral nervous system dysautonomia with selective degeneration of cholinergic fibers. It is composed by the triad of unilateral or bilateral segmental anhidrosis, deep hyporeflexia and Holmes-Adie's tonic pupil. The presence of compensatory sweating is frequent, usually the symptom that most afflicts patients. The aspects of the syndrome are put to discussion due to the case of a male patient, caucasian, 47 years old, with clinical onset of 25 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Primary Dysautonomias/pathology , Hyperhidrosis/pathology , Hypohidrosis/pathology , Syndrome , Cholinergic Fibers/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Primary Dysautonomias/physiopathology , Hyperhidrosis/physiopathology , Hypohidrosis/physiopathology , Nerve Degeneration/pathology
16.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 455-463, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331640

ABSTRACT

A growing body of evidence suggests that glial cells play an important role in neural development, neural survival, nerve repair and regeneration, synaptic transmission and immune inflammation. As the highest number of cells in the central nervous system, the role of glial cells in Parkinson's disease (PD) has attracted more and more attention. It has been confirmed that nigral iron accumulation contributes to the death of dopamine (DA) neurons in PD. Until now, most researches on nigral iron deposition in PD are focusing on DA neurons, but in fact glial cells in the central nervous system also play an important role in the regulation of iron homeostasis. Therefore, this review describes the role of iron metabolism of glial cells in death of DA neurons in PD, which could provide evidence to reveal the mechanisms underlying nigral iron accumulation of DA neurons in PD and provide the basis for discovering new potential therapeutic targets for PD.


Subject(s)
Dopaminergic Neurons , Humans , Iron , Nerve Degeneration , Neuroglia , Parkinson Disease
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48909

ABSTRACT

A nerve block is an effective tool for diagnostic and therapeutic methods. If a diagnostic nerve block is successful for pain relief and the subsequent therapeutic nerve block is effective for only a limited duration, the next step that should be considered is a nerve ablation or modulation. The nerve ablation causes iatrogenic neural degeneration aiming only for sensory or sympathetic denervation without motor deficits. Nerve ablation produces the interruption of axonal continuity, degeneration of nerve fibers distal to the lesion (Wallerian degeneration), and the eventual death of axotomized neurons. The nerve ablation methods currently available for resection/removal of innervation are performed by either chemical or thermal ablation. Meanwhile, the nerve modulation method for interruption of innervation is performed using an electromagnetic field of pulsed radiofrequency. According to Sunderland's classification, it is first and foremost suggested that current neural ablations produce third degree peripheral nerve injury (PNI) to the myelin, axon, and endoneurium without any disruption of the fascicular arrangement, perineurium, and epineurium. The merit of Sunderland's third degree PNI is to produce a reversible injury. However, its shortcoming is the recurrence of pain and the necessity of repeated ablative procedures. The molecular mechanisms related to axonal regeneration after injury include cross-talk between axons and glial cells, neurotrophic factors, extracellular matrix molecules, and their receptors. It is essential to establish a safe, long-standing denervation method without any complications in future practices based on the mechanisms of nerve degeneration as well as following regeneration.


Subject(s)
Axons , Classification , Denervation , Electromagnetic Fields , Extracellular Matrix , Myelin Sheath , Nerve Block , Nerve Degeneration , Nerve Fibers , Nerve Growth Factors , Nerve Regeneration , Neuroglia , Neurons , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Peripheral Nerves , Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment , Recurrence , Regeneration , Sympathectomy , Wallerian Degeneration
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287146

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the neuroprotective effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and to further investigate the role of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor member RET (rearranged during transfection) and its key downstream phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI-3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway in the process.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 220 seven-day-old SD rats (of either sex, from 22 broods) were randomly divided into two groups, one (30 rats) for sham-surgery group and the other (190 rats) for HIE model group. The HIE model was established using the left common carotid artery ligation method in combination with hypoxic treatment. The successfully established rats were randomly divided into five groups, including control model group, EA group, sham-EA group, antagonist group and antagonist plus electroacupuncture group, with 35 rats in each group. Baihui (GV 20), Dazhui (GV 14), Quchi (LI 11) and Yongquan (KI 1) acupoints were chosen for acupuncture. EA was performed at Baihui and Quchi for 10 min once a day for continuous 1, 3, 7 and 21 days, respectively. The rats were then killed after the operation and injured cerebral cortex was taken for the measurement of neurologic damage by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and the degenerative changes of cortical ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy. RET mRNA level and Akt protein level were detected by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis, respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>EA could ameliorate neurologic damage of the first somatic sensory area (S1Tr) and alleviate the degenerative changes of ultrastructure of cortical neurons in rats subjected to HIE. And the longer acupuncture treatment lasted, the better its therapeutic effect would be. This was accompanied by gradually increased expression of GDNF family receptor RET at the mRNA level and its downstream signaling Akt at the protein level in the ischemic cortex.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>EA has neuroprotective effects on HIE and could be a potential therapeutic strategy for HIE in the neonate. Activation of RET/Akt signaling pathway might be involved in this process.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Cerebral Cortex , Pathology , Electroacupuncture , Female , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Genetics , Metabolism , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Genetics , Pathology , Therapeutics , Male , Nerve Degeneration , Pathology , Neurons , Pathology , Neuroprotective Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Genetics , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret , Genetics , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
19.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 9(4): 369-379, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770580

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The superimposed clinical features of motor neuron disease (MND) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) comprise a distinct, yet not fully understood, neurological overlap syndrome whose clinicopathological basis has recently been reviewed. Here, we present a review of the clinical, pathological and genetic basis of MND-FTD and the role of MRI in its diagnosis. In doing so, we discuss current techniques that depict the involvement of the selective corticospinal tract (CST) and temporal lobe in MND-FTD.


RESUMO As características clínicas sobreposta da doença do neurônio motor (DNM) e demência frontotemporal (DFT) compreendem um distinto ainda não totalmente compreendido, base neurológica síndrome de sobreposição clínico-patológico foi recentemente revisto. Aqui, apresentamos uma revisão das bases clínicas, patológicas e genética de DNM-DFT e o papel da ressonância magnética no diagnóstico STI. Ao fazê-lo, discutimos as técnicas atuais que retratam o envolvimento do trato corticoespinhal seletiva (TCS) e lobo temporal em DNM-DFT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Frontotemporal Dementia , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Nerve Degeneration
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(7): 616-623, 07/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752381

ABSTRACT

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting approximately 1.6% of the population over 60 years old. The cardinal motor symptoms are the result of progressive degeneration of substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons which are involved in the fine motor control. Currently, there is no cure for this pathology and the cause of the neurodegeneration remains unknown. Several studies suggest the involvement of neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of PD as well as a protective effect of anti-inflammatory drugs both in animal models and epidemiological studies, although there are controversial reports. In this review, we address evidences of involvement of inflammatory process and possible therapeutic usefulness of anti-inflammatory drugs in PD.


A doença de Parkinson (DP) é a segunda doença neurodegenerativa mais comum afetando aproximadamente 1,6% da população acima de 60 anos de idade. Os sinais motores cardinais são o resultado da degeneração progressiva de neurônios dopaminérgicos da substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), a qual está intimamente envolvida com o controle motor. Atualmente, não há cura para esta patologia e a causa da neurodegeneração permanece desconhecida. Contudo, muitos estudos sugerem o envolvimento da neuroinflamação na patofisiologia da DP bem como um efeito protetor de drogas antiinflamatórias tanto em modelos animais quanto em estudos epidemiológicos, embora haja relatos controversos. Nesta revisão, foram abordadas evidências de envolvimento do processo inflamatório e uma possível utilidade terapêutica de drogas antiinflamatórias na DP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Encephalitis/drug therapy , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Cytokines , Nerve Degeneration/drug therapy , Nerve Degeneration/physiopathology , Parkinson Disease/etiology , Pars Compacta/physiopathology , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL