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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246040, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285610


Abstract Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a congenitally reduced head circumference (-3 to -5 SD) and non-progressive intellectual disability. The objective of the study was to evaluate pathogenic mutations in the ASPM gene to understand etiology and molecular mechanism of primary microcephaly. Blood samples were collected from various families across different remote areas of Pakistan from February 2017 to May 2019 who were identified to be affected with primary microcephaly. DNA extraction was performed using the salting-out method; the quality and quantity of DNA were evaluated using spectrophotometry and 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, respectively in University of the Punjab. Mutation analysis was performed by whole exome sequencing from the Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne. Sanger sequencing was done in University of the Punjab to confirm the pathogenic nature of mutation. A novel 4-bp deletion mutation c.3877_3880delGAGA was detected in exon 17 of the ASPM gene in two primary microcephaly affected families (A and B), which resulted in a frame shift mutation in the gene followed by truncated protein synthesis (p.Glu1293Lysfs*10), as well as the loss of the calmodulin-binding IQ domain and the Armadillo-like domain in the ASPM protein. Using the in-silico tools Mutation Taster, PROVEAN, and PolyPhen, the pathogenic effect of this novel mutation was tested; it was predicted to be "disease causing," with high pathogenicity scores. One previously reported mutation in exon 24 (c.9730C>T) of the ASPM gene resulting in protein truncation (p.Arg3244*) was also observed in family C. Mutations in the ASPM gene are the most common cause of MCPH in most cases. Therefore, enrolling additional affected families from remote areas of Pakistan would help in identifying or mapping novel mutations in the ASPM gene of primary microcephaly.

Resumo Microcefalia primária autossômica recessiva (MCPH) é um distúrbio do neurodesenvolvimento caracterizado por uma redução congênita do perímetro cefálico (-3 a -5 DP) e deficiência intelectual não progressiva. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar mutações patogênicas no gene ASPM a fim de compreender a etiologia e o mecanismo molecular da microcefalia primária. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de várias famílias em diferentes áreas remotas do Paquistão de fevereiro de 2017 a maio de 2019, que foram identificadas como afetadas com microcefalia primária. A extração do DNA foi realizada pelo método salting-out; a qualidade e a quantidade de DNA foram avaliadas por espectrofotometria e eletroforese em gel de agarose a 1%, respectivamente, na Universidade de Punjab. A análise de mutação foi realizada por sequenciamento completo do exoma do Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne. O sequenciamento de Sanger foi feito na Universidade do Punjab para confirmar a natureza patogênica da mutação. Uma nova mutação de deleção de 4 bp c.3877_3880delGAGA foi detectada no exon 17 do gene ASPM em duas famílias afetadas por microcefalia primária (A e B), que resultou em uma mutação de frame shift no gene seguida por síntese de proteína truncada (pGlu1293Lysfs * 10), bem como a perda do domínio IQ de ligação à calmodulina e o domínio do tipo Armadillo na proteína ASPM. Usando as ferramentas in-silico Mutation Taster, PROVEAN e PolyPhen, o efeito patogênico dessa nova mutação foi testado; foi previsto ser "causador de doenças", com altos escores de patogenicidade. Uma mutação relatada anteriormente no exon 24 (c.9730C > T) do gene ASPM, resultando em truncamento de proteína (p.Arg3244 *) também foi observada na família C. Mutações no gene ASPM são a causa mais comum de MCPH na maioria dos casos . Portanto, a inscrição de famílias afetadas adicionais de áreas remotas do Paquistão ajudaria a identificar ou mapear novas mutações no gene ASPM da microcefalia primária.

Humans , Microcephaly/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Pakistan , Consanguinity , Mutation/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928435


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child manifesting with intellectual disability, language delay and autism spectrum disorder.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the child and his family members, and subjected to whole exome sequencing. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing and interpreted according to the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.@*RESULTS@#The child was found to harbor a heterozygous c.568C>T (p.Q190X) nonsense variant of the ADNP gene, which was not detected in either parent by Sanger sequencing.@*CONCLUSION@#The clinical and genetic testing both suggested that the child has Helsmoortel-van der Aa syndrome due to ADNP gene mutation, which is extremely rare in China.

Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Autistic Disorder/genetics , Child , Heterozygote , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Mutation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Rare Diseases
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928429


OBJECTIVE@#To detect potential mutation of the ASPM gene in a Chinese pedigree affected with autosomal recessive primary microcephaly 5 (MCPH5).@*METHODS@#Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the proband and her parents. Amniotic fluid sample was also collected upon her mother' s subsequent pregnancy. Following extraction of genomic DNA, PCR and Sanger sequencing were carried out to identify potential variants of the ASPM gene.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to harbor compound heterozygous variants of the ASPM gene, namely c.8214dupT (p.Q2739fs) in exon 18 and c.9541C>T (p.R3181X) in exon 23, which were respectively inherited from her father and mother. The fetus has found to have inherited the c.9541C>T (p.R3181X) variant only.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.8214dupT (p.Q2739fs) and c.9541C>T (p.R3181X) compound heterozygous variants of the ASPM gene probably underlay the pathogenesis of MCPH5 in this patient. Above finding has enabled genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for her family.

China , Counseling , Female , Humans , Microcephaly , Mutation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Pedigree , Pregnancy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921969


Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS)(OMIM#606232) is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 22q13 involving a variety of clinical features with considerably heterogeneous degrees of severity. This syndrome is characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, absent or severely delayed speech, minor dysmorphic features and autism spectrum disorder. PMS is easy to be misdiagnosed due to the lack of specific clinical manifestations. SHANK3 has been identified as the critical candidate gene for the neurological features of this syndrome. However, some studies have shown that other genes located in the 22q13 region may have a role in the formation of symptoms in individuals with PMS. This article provides a review for recent progress made in research on PMS including etiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and treatment, with a particular emphasis on clinical diagnosis and treatment.

Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Chromosome Deletion , Chromosome Disorders/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 , Humans , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879599


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for two Chinese pedigrees affected with Huntington disease and provide prenatal diagnosis for them.@*METHODS@#Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the probands. PCR and capillary gel electrophoresis were used to determine the number of CAG repeats in their IT15 gene. Pre-symptomatic testing was offered to their children and relatives, and prenatal diagnosis was provided to three pregnant women from the two pedigrees.@*RESULTS@#The two probands, in addition with three asymptomatic members, were found to have a (CAG)n repeat number greater than 40. Upon prenatal diagnosis, the numbers of CAG repeats in two fetuses from pedigree 1 were determined as (16, 19) and (18, 19), both were within the normal range. A fetus from pedigree 2 was found to have a CAG repeat number of (15, 41), which exceeded the normal range.@*CONCLUSION@#Genetic testing can facilitate the diagnosis of Huntington disease and avoid further birth of affected children.

Child , Female , Genetic Testing , Humans , Huntington Disease/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Pedigree , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879588


OBJECTIVE@#To describe the clinical and genetic characteristics of a child with 14q12q13.1 deletion involving the FOXG1 gene.@*METHODS@#Clinical manifestation of the child was analyzed. Peripheral blood sample of the patient was subjected to chromosomal karyotyping and single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) analysis.@*RESULTS@#The male infant has developed feeding difficulty, poor sucking, lower limb tremor, and frontal bruising 8 days after birth. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant enlargement of bilateral ventricles and corpus callosum dysplasia. Chromosomal analysis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY,del(14)(q12q13.1), and SNP-array confirmed that there was a 9.6 Mb deletion in 14q11.2q13.1, which encompassed the FOXG1 gene.@*CONCLUSION@#For patients with brain development abnormalities, dyskinesia, cognitive impairment, speech disorder and other manifestations, copy number variation of the FOXG1 gene should be excluded. SNP-array should be carried out as early as possible to attain the diagnosis.

Child , Chromosome Deletion , DNA Copy Number Variations , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Heterozygote , Humans , Infant , Karyotyping , Male , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 877-886, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922515


Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) is the leading cause of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE), and infantile convulsions with choreoathetosis (ICCA). Reduced penetrance of PRRT2 has been observed in previous studies, whereas the exact penetrance has not been evaluated well. The objective of this study was to estimate the penetrance of PRRT2 and determine its influencing factors. We screened 222 PKD index patients and their available relatives, identified 39 families with pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) PRRT2 variants via Sanger sequencing, and obtained 184 PKD/BFIE/ICCA families with P/LP PRRT2 variants from the literature. Penetrance was estimated as the proportion of affected variant carriers. PRRT2 penetrance estimate was 77.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 74.5%-80.7%) in relatives and 74.5% (95% CI 70.2%-78.8%) in obligate carriers. In addition, we first observed that penetrance was higher in truncated than in non-truncated variants (75.8% versus 50.0%, P = 0.01), higher in Asian than in Caucasian carriers (81.5% versus 68.5%, P = 0.004), and exhibited no difference in gender or parental transmission. Our results are meaningful for genetic counseling, implying that approximately three-quarters of PRRT2 variant carriers will develop PRRT2-related disorders, with patients from Asia or carrying truncated variants at a higher risk.

Dystonia , Epilepsy, Benign Neonatal/genetics , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Pedigree , Penetrance , Seizures/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879476


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a pedigree affected with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease through high-throughput sequencing.@*METHODS@#Potential variants of the genes associated with CMT were screened by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the members of the pedigree.@*RESULTS@#NGS has revealed that the two affected sisters both harbored homozygous c.1A>G variant of the GDAP1 gene, which caused replacement of the first amino acid Methionine by Valine (p.Met1Val). Their parents were both carriers of the heterozygous c.1A>G variant. The variant was unreported previously and has an extremely low frequency in the population. Meanwhile, one of the sisters and the mother also carried heterozygous c.710A>T variant of the BAG3 gene.@*CONCLUSION@#The homozygous c.1A>G variant of the GDAP1 gene probably underlay the CMT in both children. Above result has enabled clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling for this pedigree.

Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics , Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease/genetics , Child , Female , Fibula/abnormalities , Homozygote , Humans , Mutation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Pedigree
Biol. Res ; 50: 18, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838969


BACKGROUND: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), discovered initially by via differential display RT-PCR analysis of brains of rats administered cocaine, is expressed mainly in central nervous system or neuronal origin cells, and is involved in a wide range of behaviors, such as regulation of food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction. The hens egg-laying rate mainly depends on the developmental status of follicles, expression of CART have not been identified from hen follicles, the regulatory mechanisms of CART biological activities are still unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize the mRNA expression of CART in hen follicular granulosa cells and determine CART peptide localization and regulatory role during follicular development. METHODS: Small white follicles (1-2 mm in diameter) were treated for RNA isolation; Small white follicles (1-2 mm in diameter) and large white follicles (4-6 mm in diameter) were treated for immunohistochemical localization and large white follicles (4-6 mm in diameter), small yellow follicles (6-8 mm in diameter), large yellow follicles (9-12 mm in diameter), mature follicles (F5, F4, F3, F2, F1, >12 mm in diameter) were treated for RNA isolation and Real time PCR. RESULTS: The results showed that full length of the CDS of hen CART was 336 bp encoding a 111 amino acid polypeptide. In the hen ovary, CART peptide was primarily localized to the theca layer, but not all, the oocyte and granulosa layer, with diffused, weaker staining than relative to the theca cell layer. Further, amount of CART mRNA was more (P < 0.05) in granulosa cells of 6-8 mm follicles compared with that in granulosa cells of other follicles. However, CART mRNA amount was greater in theca cells of 4-6 mm follicles relative to follicles of other sizes (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that CART could play a potential role in developmental regulation of chicken follicles.

Animals , Female , Ovarian Follicle/metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Cells, Cultured , Chickens , DNA, Complementary/biosynthesis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gene Expression Profiling , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(1): 50-54, Jan. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772603


ABSTRACT We analyzed demographic, clinical and genetic characteristics of juvenile Huntington disease (JHD) and it frequency in an Argentinean cohort. Age at onset was defined as the age at which behavioral, cognitive, psychiatric or motor abnormalities suggestive of JHD were first reported. Clinical and genetic data were similar to other international series, however, in this context we identified the highest JHD frequency reported so far (19.72%; 14/71). Age at onset of JHD is challenging and still under discussion. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that clinical manifestations, other than the typical movement disorder, may anticipate age at onset of even many years. Analyses of JHD cohorts are required to explore it frequency in populations with different backgrounds to avoid an underestimation of this rare phenotype. Moreover, data from selected populations may open new pathways in therapeutic approaches and may explain new potential correlations between HD presentations and environmental or biological factors.

RESUMO Foram analisadas as características demográficas, clínicas e genéticas de doença de Huntington juvenil (JHD) e na freqüência em uma coorte argentino. A idade de início foi definida como a idade em que distúrbios comportamentais, cognitivos, psiquiátricos ou anormalidades motoras sugestivas de JHD foram relatada pela primeira vez. Os dados clínicos e genéticos foram semelhantes aos de outras séries internacionais, no entanto, neste contexto identificamos a maior freqüência de JHD relatados até agora (19,72%; 14/71). A idade de início de JHD é um desafio ainda em discussão. Nossos resultados reforçam a hipótese de que as manifestações clínicas, além do transtorno de movimento típico, pode antecipar a idade de início em muitos anos. As análises de coortes de JHD são obrigados a explorar frequências em populações com diferentes formações, para evitar uma subestimação deste fenótipo raro. Além disso, os dados de populações selecionadas podem abrir novos caminhos em abordagens terapêuticas e pode explicar novas correlações potenciais entre apresentações de HD e fatores ambientais ou biológicas.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Child Behavior Disorders/epidemiology , Cognition Disorders/epidemiology , Huntington Disease/epidemiology , Movement Disorders/epidemiology , Age of Onset , Argentina/epidemiology , Huntington Disease/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Retrospective Studies
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-10, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950843


Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder that results in a significant disability for the patient. The disorder is characterized by impairment of the adaptive orchestration of actions, a cognitive function that is mainly dependent on the prefrontal cortex. This behavioral deficit, together with cellular and neurophysiological alterations in the prefrontal cortex, as well as reduced density of GABAergic cells and aberrant oscillatory activity, all indicate structural and functional deficits of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Among the several risk factors for the development of schizophrenia, stress during the prenatal period has been identified as crucial. Thus, it is proposed that prenatal stress induces neurodevelopmental alterations in the prefrontal cortex that are expressed as cognitive impairment observed in schizophrenia. However, the precise mechanisms that link prenatal stress with the impairment of prefrontal cortex function is largely unknown. Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein involved in the development of cortical neural connectivity at embryonic stages, and in synaptic plasticity at postnatal stages. Interestingly, down-regulation of reelin expression has been associated with epigenetic changes in the reelin gene of the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. We recently showed that, similar to schizophrenic patients, prenatal stress induces down-expression of reelin associated with the methylation of its promoter in the rodent prefrontal cortex. These alterations were paralleled with altered prefrontal cortex functional connectivity and impairment in prefrontal cortex-dependent behavioral tasks. Therefore, considering molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral evidence, we propose a unifying framework that links prenatal stress and prefrontal malfunction through epigenetic alterations of the reelin gene.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/physiopathology , Schizophrenia/etiology , Schizophrenia/physiopathology , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Brain/embryology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal/genetics , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic/physiology , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Social Behavior Disorders/physiopathology , Brain/physiopathology , Gene Expression , Risk Factors , Cognition Disorders/physiopathology , DNA Methylation
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(11): 1377-1385, nov. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-771726


Background: Several studies have reported that variants rs16969968 G>A of the CHRNA5 gene and CYP2A6*12 of the CYP2A6 gene are associated with smoking and smoking refusal, respectively. In addition, some studies report that a higher cigarette consumption is associated with low body mass index (BMI). Aim: To analyze the allele and genotypic frequencies of these variants and their impact on smoking and BMI. Material and Methods: A blood sample was obtained and a survey about smoking habits was answered by 319 university students aged 18 to 35 years (127 women, 171 smokers), living in Northeastern Mexico. Genetic variants were studied by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism and their frequencies were associated with smoking and BMI. Results: No associations were found between the analyzed variants and smoking in the study groups. However, there was an association among non-smoking subjects between the A allele of rs16969968 and high a BMI (p < 0.01). Conclusions: This last variant may be involved in food-addiction disorders.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Body Mass Index , /genetics , Gene Frequency , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Receptors, Nicotinic/genetics , Smoking/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genotype , Genetic Variation/genetics , Mexico , Nicotine/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(3): 142-151, jun. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-760107


El síndrome de Rett (SR) es un trastorno del neurodesarrollo que afecta casi exclusivamente a niñas y cursa secundariamente con autismo. Es poco frecuente y consta de 5 formas clínicas, una clásica y el resto atípicas que comprometen de manera general la habilidad manual, el lenguaje y la motricidad amplia unida a la aparición de estereotipias y epilepsia precoz. Con el objetivo de actualizar la información sobre SR, se aplicaron los descriptores de búsqueda Síndrome de Rett, genes y «Síndrome de Rett¼, «Rett Syndrome gene¼, «Rett Syndrome¼, «Rett Syndrome gene therapy¼ y «Rett Syndrome review¼. Se investigó en los archivos digitales PubMed, Hinari, SCIELO y Medline, y se consultaron los sitios web OMIM, ORPHANET, GeneMap, Genetests, Proteins y Gene, entre otros. Entre 1.348 artículos se seleccionaron 42, los cuales reportan 3 genes causantes del síndrome: MECP2, CDKL5 y FOXG. El gen MECP2 está mutado en el 80% de los pacientes con SR clásico así como en el 40% de los afectados con alguna de sus formas atípicas. El SR con epilepsia precoz y la variante congénita se deben fundamentalmente a variaciones en los genes CDKL5 y FOXG1 respectivamente. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico del SR se basa en criterios clínicos, sin embargo, los avances en la biología molecular y en la genética en particular han abierto el abanico de posibilidades diagnósticas a las diferentes formas clínicas que antes quedaban sin clasificar, a la vez que el análisis molecular permite confirmar el criterio clínico y aportar información en cuanto al pronóstico del paciente.

Rett syndrome (RS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that exclusively affects girls, and occurs along with autism. It is very uncommon, and has five distinct forms, one classic and the others atypical, which generally compromise manual skills, language, and mobility, and widely associated with the appearance of stereotypy and early epilepsy. With the aim of updating the information about RS, a search was performed in the computer data bases of PubMed, Hinari, SCIELO and Medline, as well as consulting other web sites including OMIM, ORPHANET, GeneMap, Genetests, Proteins and Gene, using the descriptors "Síndrome de Rett", "genes y Síndrome de Rett", "Rett Syndrome gene", "Rett Syndrome", "Rett Syndrome gene therapy", and "Rett Syndrome review". Of the 1,348 articles found, 42 articles were selected, which reported 3 genes causing the syndrome: MECP2, CDKL5 and FOXG. The MECP2 gene is mutated in 80% of patients with classic RS, as well as in 40% of those affected by any of its atypical forms. RS with early epilepsy and the congenital variant are mainly due to variations in the CDKL5 and FOXG1 genes, respectively. Conclusions: The diagnosis of RS is based on clinical criteria. However, the advances in molecular biology and genetics have opened a wide range of possibilities for diagnosing the different clinical forms that could not be classified before. Molecular analysis can help confirm the clinical criteria and provided information as regards the prognosis of the patient.

Humans , Female , Rett Syndrome/physiopathology , Stereotypic Movement Disorder/etiology , Epilepsy/etiology , Prognosis , Rett Syndrome/diagnosis , Rett Syndrome/genetics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Molecular Biology/methods , Mutation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(4): 1085-1098, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744894


The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of oral cancer self-examinationamong the elderly and confirm whether prevalence was higher among users of the dental services provided by Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS, acronym in Portuguese). A transversal study of elderly people aged between 65 and 74 years living in a large-sized Brazilian municipality was conducted using simple random sampling. Logistic regression was conducted and results were corrected for sample design and unequal weighting using the SPSS(r) software. The study assessed 740 individuals. A total of 492 met the inclusion criteria, of which 101 (22.4%) reported having performed an oral cancer self-examination. Prevalence was higher among users of the dental services provided by the SUS, higher-income individuals, people with higher levels of education, individuals that used a removable dental prosthesis, and people who had not experienced discomfort attributed to oral condition, and lower among people who sought regular and periodic dental treatment and individuals who did not have a drinking habit. This type of self-care should be encouraged by public health policies which respond to the needs of the elderly, with emphasis on users of private and philanthropic services, and other services outside the public health network.

Este estudo objetivou identificar a prevalência do autoexame bucal entre idosos e constatar se essa prevalência foi maior entre usuários de serviços odontológicos prestados pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Estudo transversal conduzido a partir de amostragem probabilística complexa por conglomerados, entre idosos (65-74 anos) de um município brasileiro de grande porte populacional. Foi realizada regressão logística binária, as estimativas foram corrigidas pelo efeito de desenho e por ponderações, utilizando-se o SPSS(r). Dentre os 740 avaliados, atenderam aos critérios de inclusão 492 idosos e, destes, 101 (22,4%) relataram a prática do autoexame bucal. Esta prática foi maior entre idosos usuários dos serviços odontológicos prestados no SUS, entre aqueles com maior renda per capita, os com maior escolaridade, aqueles que utilizavam prótese dentária removível e entre os que não tiveram impactos decorrentes das desordens bucais; foi menor entre os que usaram serviços odontológicos por rotina e os que não possuíam hábito etilista. A prevalência do autoexame bucal entre idosos foi baixa e maior entre aqueles usuários do SUS. O estímulo à adesão a este autocuidado deve ser considerado nas políticas de saúde do idoso vigentes, especialmente entre usuários de serviços particulares, supletivos e filantrópicos.

Child , Humans , /genetics , Dyslexia/genetics , Language Disorders/genetics , Colorado , Genetic Loci , Genotype , Haplotypes , Intelligence Tests , Iowa , Italy , Linkage Disequilibrium , Longitudinal Studies , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Phenotype , Pseudogenes , Psychological Tests , Proteins/genetics , Reading , Thiolester Hydrolases/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics
Salud colect ; 11(1): 99-114, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-746687


El Consejo Federal de Medicina de Brasil (CFM) -órgano normativo y fiscalizador del ejercicio ético de la medicina- prohibió, en 2008, la participación de médicos brasileños en investigaciones que utilizaran placebo para enfermedades con tratamiento eficaz y efectivo, en contraposición a la Declaración de Helsinki, que permite su uso en condiciones metodológicamente justificadas. Con el objetivo de verificar si la normativa ética del CFM modificó el uso de placebo en ensayos clínicos de fase III en Brasil, se analizaron varias características de sus registros en el, en los períodos de 2003 a 2007 y de 2009 a 2013. Se concluye que: a) la normativa promulgada por el CFM en 2008 fue ineficaz y prevaleció la posición adoptada por la Declaración de Helsinki; b) el patrocinio de ensayos con placebo por parte de la industria farmacéutica multinacional fue significativo; c) predominaron las investigaciones de fármacos para enfermedades crónicas, y fueron poco significativas para las enfermedades postergadas, de importancia para Brasil.

In 2008, Brazil's Federal Council of Medicine [Conselho Federal de Medicina] (CFM) - regulatory and supervisory agency on the ethical practice of medicine - banned the participation of Brazilian doctors in studies using placebos for diseases with efficient and effective treatment. This position differs with the Helsinki Declaration, which allows the use of placebos in methodologically justified conditions. To ascertain whether the CMF's ethical regulation modified the use of placebos in phase III clinical trials in Brazil, characteristics of the records in were researched in the periods from 2003 to 2007 and from 2009 to 2013. The conclusions reached were: a) the regulations issued by the CFM in 2008 were ineffective and the position adopted by the Helsinki Declaration prevails; b) there was significant sponsorship by the multinational pharmaceutical industry of trials with placebos; c) the research was predominantly on new drugs for chronic diseases, with little study done of the neglected diseases which are of great importance to Brazil.

Animals , Rats , Apoptosis/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/genetics , Heme/deficiency , Nerve Degeneration/genetics , Neurons/metabolism , Porphyrias/complications , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspases/drug effects , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cell Survival/genetics , Collagen Type XI/drug effects , Collagen Type XI/metabolism , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/drug effects , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/genetics , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/metabolism , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Down-Regulation/physiology , Enzyme Inhibitors , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Heptanoates , Heme/biosynthesis , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , Membrane Proteins/drug effects , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nerve Degeneration/metabolism , Nerve Degeneration/physiopathology , Nerve Tissue Proteins/drug effects , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/drug effects , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/genetics , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/pathology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases , Porphyrias/metabolism , Porphyrias/physiopathology , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/drug effects , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SMN Complex Proteins , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Up-Regulation/physiology , Vesicular Transport Proteins/drug effects , Vesicular Transport Proteins/genetics , Vesicular Transport Proteins/metabolism
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(3): 477-486, 03/2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744826


This paper offers a critical overview of social science research presented at the 2014 International AIDS Conference in Melbourne, Australia. In an era of major biomedical advance, the political nature of HIV remains of fundamental importance. No new development can be rolled out successfully without taking into account its social and political context, and consequences. Four main themes ran throughout the conference track on social and political research, law, policy and human rights: first, the importance of work with socially vulnerable groups, now increasingly referred to as "key populations"; second, continued recognition that actions and programs need to be tailored locally and contextually; third, the need for an urgent response to a rapidly growing epidemic of HIV among young people; and fourth, the negative effects of the growing criminalization of minority sexualities and people living with HIV. Lack of stress on human rights and community participation is resulting in poorer policy globally. A new research agenda is needed to respond to these challenges.

Este artigo oferece uma perspectiva crítica da pesquisa em ciências sociais apresentada na Confe-rência Internacional de AIDS de Melbourne, Aus-trália, em 2014. Em tempos de grandes avanços no campo biomédico, a natureza política do HIV permanece de importância fundamental. Nenhuma inovação será bem-sucedida na prática se desconsiderar o contexto sociopolítico e suas consequências. Quatro temas emergiram da Conferência nos campos do direito, dos direitos humanos e da pesquisa social e política: (1) a importância do trabalho com grupos socialmente vulneráveis, crescentemente chamado de "populações chaves"; (2) o reconhecimento de que ações e programas devem ser sob medida para cada local e contexto; (3) a urgência da resposta a uma epidemia crescendo muito rapidamente entre adolescentes; (4) o efeito negativo da crescente criminalização de minorias sexuais e pessoas vivendo com HIV. Globalmente, a falta de ênfase nos direitos humanos e da participação comunitária tem como resultado políticas públicas de pior qualidade. Precisamos de uma nova agenda de pesquisa para responder a esses desafios.

El artículo ofrece una perspectiva crítica de la investigación en ciencias sociales, presentada en la Conferencia Internacional de SIDA en Melbourne (Australia), 2014. En tiempos de enormes avances biomédicos, la naturaleza política del VIH sigue siendo muy importante. Ninguna innovación será exitosa sin considerar el contexto sociopolítico y sus consecuencias. Cuatro temas surgieron de la conferencia en el campo legal y derechos humanos, además de investigación social y política: (1) la importancia del trabajo con grupos socialmente vulnerables, crecientemente denominados "poblaciones claves"; (2) el reconocimiento de que las acciones y programas deben ser adaptados a un contexto local; (3) la urgencia de una respuesta a una epidemia con crecimiento rápido entre adolescentes; (4) el efecto negativo de la creciente criminalización de las minorías sexuales y personas viviendo con VIH. Globalmente, un limitado énfasis en los derechos humanos y la participación comunitaria tiene como consecuencia peores políticas públicas. Necesitamos una nueva agenda de investigación para responder a estos desafíos.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Gene Silencing/physiology , Huntington Disease/therapy , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Blotting, Northern , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Huntington Disease/genetics , Huntington Disease/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/physiology , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Plasmids , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/physiology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57308


Mammalian cells remove misfolded proteins using various proteolytic systems, including the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system (UPS), chaperone mediated autophagy (CMA) and macroautophagy. The majority of misfolded proteins are degraded by the UPS, in which Ub-conjugated substrates are deubiquitinated, unfolded and cleaved into small peptides when passing through the narrow chamber of the proteasome. The substrates that expose a specific degradation signal, the KFERQ sequence motif, can be delivered to and degraded in lysosomes via the CMA. Aggregation-prone substrates resistant to both the UPS and the CMA can be degraded by macroautophagy, in which cargoes are segregated into autophagosomes before degradation by lysosomal hydrolases. Although most misfolded and aggregated proteins in the human proteome can be degraded by cellular protein quality control, some native and mutant proteins prone to aggregation into beta-sheet-enriched oligomers are resistant to all known proteolytic pathways and can thus grow into inclusion bodies or extracellular plaques. The accumulation of protease-resistant misfolded and aggregated proteins is a common mechanism underlying protein misfolding disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease (HD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), prion diseases and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). In this review, we provide an overview of the proteolytic pathways in neurons, with an emphasis on the UPS, CMA and macroautophagy, and discuss the role of protein quality control in the degradation of pathogenic proteins in neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, we examine existing putative therapeutic strategies to efficiently remove cytotoxic proteins from degenerating neurons.

Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/drug therapy , Animals , Autophagy/drug effects , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Huntington Disease/drug therapy , Lysosomes/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Mutation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , PrPSc Proteins/metabolism , Prion Diseases/drug therapy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteolysis , Proteostasis Deficiencies/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Ubiquitin/metabolism , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism , tau Proteins/metabolism
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 48(spe): 53-58, 08/2014.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-731286


Objective To understand the experiences and expectations of nurses in the treatment of women with chronic venous ulcers. Method Phenomenological research was based on Alfred Schütz, whose statements were obtained in January, 2012, through semi-structured interviews with seven nurses. Results The nurse reveals the difficulties presented by the woman in performing self-care, the perceived limitations in the treatment anchored in motivation, and the values and beliefs of women. It showed professional frustration because venous leg ulcer recurrence, lack of inputs, interdisciplinary work and training of nursing staff. There was an expected adherence to the treatment of women, and it emphasized the need for ongoing care, supported self-care and standard practices in treatment. Conclusion That treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers constitutes a challenge that requires collective investment, involving women, professionals, managers and health institutions. .

Objetivo Comprender las experiencias y expectativas de enfermeras en el tratamiento de mujeres con úlcera venosa crónica. Método Investigación fenomenológica fundamentada en Alfred Schutz, que buscó Se realizó entrevista semiestructurada con siete enfermeras, en enero del 2012. Resultados La enfermera revela dificultades presentadas por la mujer para realizar el autocuidado, percibe limitaciones en el tratamiento relacionadas con la desmotivación, los valores y las creencias de las mujeres. Refiere frustración profesional debido a la recidiva de la lesión, a la falta de insumos, al deficiente trabajo interdisciplinar y a la limitada capacitación del equipo de enfermeras. Espera la adhesión de la mujer al tratamiento y resalta la necesidad del cuidado continuo, del autocuidado apoyado y de estandarizar conductas de tratamiento. Conclusión El tratamiento de la úlcera venosa crónica es un desafío que requiere contribución colectiva, involucrando a las mujeres, a los profesionales, a los gestores y a las instituciones de salud. .

Objetivo Compreender as experiências e expectativas de enfermeiras no tratamento de mulheres com úlcera venosa crônica na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Método Pesquisa fundamentada na fenomenologia social de Alfred Schütz, com depoimentos obtidos em janeiro de 2012, por meio de entrevista semiestruturada com sete enfermeiras. Resultados As enfermeiras revelam dificuldades apresentadas pelas mulheres com úlcera venosa crônica para realizar o autocuidado, percebem limitações na terapêutica ancoradas na desmotivação e nos valores e crenças das mulheres. Referem frustração profissional em razão da recidiva da lesão, falta de insumos e tecnologia, de trabalho interdisciplinar e da capacitação da equipe de enfermagem. Esperam a adesão das mulheres ao tratamento e ressaltam a necessidade do cuidado contínuo, do autocuidado apoiado e da padronização de condutas no tratamento. Conclusão O tratamento da úlcera venosa crônica constitui-se em um desafio que requer investimento coletivo, envolvendo a mulher, os profissionais, os gestores e as instituições de saúde. .

Animals , Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/isolation & purification , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Ion Channels/isolation & purification , Ion Channels/metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins/isolation & purification , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Nervous System/metabolism , Neurons, Afferent/metabolism , Sensation/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Base Sequence/genetics , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics , Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/metabolism , Caenorhabditis elegans/cytology , Capsaicin/pharmacology , Cell Compartmentation/genetics , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/ultrastructure , Gene Expression Regulation/physiology , Ion Channels/genetics , Ion Channels/ultrastructure , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/ultrastructure , Nervous System/cytology , Nervous System/drug effects , Neurons, Afferent/cytology , Neurons, Afferent/drug effects , Pain/genetics , Pain/metabolism , Pain/physiopathology , Phylogeny , Receptors, Drug/drug effects , Receptors, Drug/metabolism , Receptors, Drug/ultrastructure , Sensation/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , TRPV Cation Channels , Transient Receptor Potential Channels
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(2): 207-217, abr.-jun. 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712403


Introduction: Cerebral ischemia is the third leading cause of death and the primary cause of permanent disability worldwide. Atorvastatin is a promising drug with neuroprotective effects that may be useful for the treatment of stroke. However, the effects of atorvastatin on specific neuronal populations within the nigrostriatal system following cerebral ischemia are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the effects of atorvastatin on dopaminergic and GABAergic neuronal populations in exofocal brain regions in a model of transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight male eight-week-old Wistar rats were used in this study. Both sham and ischemic rats were treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) or carboxymethylcellulose (placebo) by gavage at 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-reperfusion. We analyzed the immunoreactivity of glutamic acid decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase in the globus pallidus, caudate putamen and substantia nigra. Results: We observed neurological damage and cell loss in the caudate putamen following ischemia. We also found an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the medial globus pallidus and substantia nigra reticulata, as well as a decrease in glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity in the lateral globus pallidus in ischemic animals treated with a placebo. However, atorvastatin treatment was able to reverse these effects, significantly decreasing tyrosine hydroxylase levels in the medial globus pallidus and substantia nigra reticulata and significantly increasing glutamic acid decarboxylase levels in the lateral globus pallidus. Conclusion: Our data suggest that post-ischemia treatment with atorvastatin can have neuro-protective effects in exofocal regions far from the ischemic core by modulating the GABAergic and dopaminergic neuronal populations in the nigrostriatal system, which could be useful for preventing neurological disorders.

Introducción. La isquemia cerebral es la tercera causa de muerte y la primera de discapacidad permanente en el mundo. La atorvastatina es un fármaco neuroprotector prometedor para el tratamiento de la apoplejía; sin embargo, su acción sobre las poblaciones neuronales del sistema nigroestriatal después de la isquemia aún se desconoce. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la atorvastatina sobre poblaciones gabérgicas y dopaminérgicas en regiones exofocales en un modelo de oclusión transitoria de la arteria cerebral media. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 28 ratas Wistar macho de ocho semanas de edad. Los ejemplares con isquemia simulada y los ejemplares sometidos a isquemia fueron tratados con atorvastatina (10 mg/kg) y carboximetilcelulosa (placebo) administrados por medio de sonda a las 6, 24, 48 y 72 horas después de la reperfusión. Se analizó la inmunorreacción de la descarboxilasa del ácido glutámico y de la tirosina hidroxilasa en el globo pálido, el putamen caudado y la sustancia negra. Resultados. Los datos confirmaron el daño neurológico y la pérdida celular en el putamen caudado. Se incrementó la inmunorreacción de la tirosina hidroxilasa en el globo pálido medial y la sustancia negra pars reticulata , disminuyendo la inmunorreacción de la descarboxilasa del ácido glutámico en el globo pálido lateral de los animales isquémicos tratados con placebo; sin embargo, el tratamiento con atorvastatina pudo revertirla, lo que logró una disminución significativa de la tirosina hidroxilasa en el globo pálido medial y la sustancia negra pars reticulata y aumentando los niveles de descarboxilasa del ácido glutámico en el globo pálido lateral. Conclusión. Nuestros datos sugieren que la atorvastatina en el tratamiento posterior a la isquemia ejerce neuroprotección en las zonas exofocales, modulando las poblaciones neuronales gabérgicas y dopaminérgicas del sistema nigroestriatal, lo que podría prevenir trastornos neurológicos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Corpus Striatum/drug effects , Dopaminergic Neurons/drug effects , GABAergic Neurons/drug effects , Heptanoic Acids/therapeutic use , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Ischemic Attack, Transient/drug therapy , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Pyrroles/therapeutic use , Substantia Nigra/drug effects , Behavior, Animal , Corpus Striatum/blood supply , Corpus Striatum/pathology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Dopaminergic Neurons/enzymology , Dopaminergic Neurons/pathology , Enzyme Induction/drug effects , GABAergic Neurons/enzymology , GABAergic Neurons/pathology , Glutamate Decarboxylase/biosynthesis , Glutamate Decarboxylase/genetics , Heptanoic Acids/pharmacology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/pathology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/pathology , Movement Disorders/etiology , Movement Disorders/prevention & control , Nerve Tissue Proteins/biosynthesis , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Recovery of Function , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Sensation Disorders/etiology , Sensation Disorders/prevention & control , Substantia Nigra/blood supply , Substantia Nigra/pathology , /biosynthesis , /genetics
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 73(6): 552-554, Dec. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708578


La ataxia espinocerebelosa tipo 3 o enfermedad de Machado-Joseph (SCA-3/EMJ) es la forma más frecuente de ataxia espinocerebelosa autosómica dominante. Se caracteriza por una marcada variabilidad fenotípica, pudiendo causar formas no cerebelosas de presentación. En base a algunos casos comunicados, se ha propuesto una forma de presentación clínica similar a la de una paraparesia espástica hereditaria, con la presencia de signos de disfunción piramidal predominantes como la manifestación clínica inicial. Presentamos dos nuevos casos de SCA-3/EMJ con un cuadro clínico inicial sugerente de paraparesia espástica hereditaria y una revisión de los casos clínicos similares previamente informados. Nuestros hallazgos apoyan la propuesta de un subtipo de SCA-3/EMJ caracterizado por la presencia de marcada disfunción piramidal como manifestación inicial, simulando un cuadro clínico de paraparesia espástica hereditaria.

Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is the most frequent dominantly inherited spinocerebellar ataxia. A marked phenotypic variability is a characteristic of this disorder that could involve non-cerebellar presentations. Based on several case reports describing pyramidal dysfunction as the main symptom at onset, a clinical form resembling hereditary spastic paraplegia has been proposed. We report here two further cases of MJD patients whose initial clinical presentation suggested hereditary spastic paraplegia, and a summary of the main findings of previously similar published reports. Our findings lent support to the proposal of a MJD subtype distinguished by a marked pyramidal dysfunction at onset, simulating a clinical picture of hereditary spastic paraplegia.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Machado-Joseph Disease/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Phenotype , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Spastic Paraplegia, Hereditary/genetics , Diagnosis, Differential , Machado-Joseph Disease/diagnosis , Pedigree , Spastic Paraplegia, Hereditary/diagnosis