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1.
REVISA (Online) ; 13(Especial 1): 242-252, 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538183

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: o estudo visou um relato de experiências entre os autores sobre a tutoria do módulo três durante o curso EAD no ano de 2022. Método: Este curso com atividades síncronas e assíncronas, para professores da educação básica e estudantes de graduação, foi realizado em outubro e novembro, do ano de 2022 e culminou na construção de uma cartilha com mapas mentais, temas e estratégias trabalhados durante o curso comomateriais pedagógicos para o ensino fundamental II. Resultados:A cartilha intitulada: as consequências do consumo de álcool ao sistema nervoso, teve como parceria professores de duas escolas básicas. Esta apresenta informações anatomofisiológicas a respeito do funcionamento do sistema nervoso e o álcool. A temática explica como o funcionamento do sistema nervoso pode ser afetado pelo uso de bebidas alcoólicas; compreensão das alterações causadas ao funcionamento do sistema nervoso pela ingestão de álcool e instrumentalização dos professores com mais um recurso pedagógico. Conclusão:Dessa forma, foi possível a promoção da sensibilização dos estudantes quanto aos aspectos negativos do uso de bebidas alcoólicas. Assim como, prevenção nos jovens quanto ao seuuso indiscriminado, colaborando com a popularização da ciência.


Objective:the study aimed to report experiences between the authors regarding the tutoring of module three during the EAD course in the year 2022. Method:This course with synchronous and asynchronous activities, for basic education teachers and undergraduate students, was carried out in October and November, 2022 and culminated in the construction of a booklet with mental maps, themes and strategies workedon during the course as teaching materials for elementary school II. Results:The booklet entitled: the consequences of alcohol consumption on the nervous system, was partnered with teachers from two basic schools. This presents anatomophysiological information regarding the functioning of the nervous system and alcohol. The theme explains how the functioning of the nervous system can be affected by the use of alcoholic beverages; understanding the changes caused to the functioning of the nervous system byalcohol intake and providing teachers with yet another pedagogical resource. Conclusion:In this way, it was possible to promote student awareness regarding the negative aspects of the use of alcoholic beverages. As well as prevention among young people regarding its indiscriminate use, collaborating with the popularization of science.


Objetivo: el estudio tuvo como objetivo relatar experiencias entre los autores respecto a la tutoría del módulo tres durante el curso EAD en el año 2022. Método: Este curso con actividades sincrónicas y asincrónicas, para docentes de educación básica y estudiantes de pregrado, se realizó en los meses de octubre y noviembre de 2022 y culminó con la construcción de una cartilla con mapas mentales, temáticas y estrategias trabajadas durante el curso como material didáctico para la escuela primaria II. Resultados:El cuadernillo titulado: las consecuencias del consumo de alcohol en el sistema nervioso, fue elaborado en colaboración con docentes de dos escuelas básicas. Presenta información anatomofisiológica sobre el funcionamiento del sistema nervioso y el alcohol. El tema explica cómo el funcionamiento del sistema nervioso puede verse afectado por el uso de bebidas alcohólicas; comprender los cambios que provoca en el funcionamiento del sistema nervioso la ingesta de alcohol y dotar a los docentes de un recurso pedagógico más. Conclusión: De esta manera, fue posible sensibilizar a los estudiantes sobre los aspectos negativos del consumo de alcohol. Así como la prevención entre los jóvenes sobre su uso indiscriminado, contribuyendo a la popularización de la ciencia.


Subject(s)
Education, Primary and Secondary , Teaching , Ethanol , Intelligence Tests , Nervous System
2.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 30(1)mar. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536232

ABSTRACT

We describe the case of an 82-year-old man who had recently undergone cardiac surgery (quadruple coronary bypass), who consulted due to the appearance of a necrotic eschar on the thumb of the right index finger, together with paraesthesia and hypoaesthesia in the first 3 fingers of the same hand. An ultrasound scan of the right elbow was performed to rule out involvement of the median nerve and an anechoic, thick-walled mass was found, dependent on the wall of the proximal ulnar artery, compatible with a pseudoaneurysm of the same, compressing the nerve. Electromyography showed an acute lesion of the proximal median nerve and angio-CT confirmed the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm of the proximal ulnar artery. Pseudoaneurysm is a dilatation by rupture of the arterial wall, which does not involve all three layers of the arterial wall and communicates with the vascular lumen. Its development after vascular manipulation is very rare, and it is uncommon for it to act by compressing a nerve structure. In our case, together with vascular surgery, treatment with intralesional thrombin was decided, with good evolution.


Se describe el caso de un varón de 82 arios intervenido recientemente de cirugía cardíaca (cuádruple bypass coronario), que consulta por aparición de una escara necrótica en el pulpejo del dedo índice derecho, junto a parestesias e hipoestesias en los tres primeros dedos de dicha mano. Se realiza una ecografía del codo derecho para descartar afectación del nervio mediano y se objetiva una masa anecoica, de paredes engrosadas, dependientes de la pared de la arteria cubital proximal, compatible con pseudoaneurisma de esta, que comprime dicho nervio. En la electromiografía se evidencia una lesión aguda del nervio mediano a nivel proximal y en el angio-TC se confirma el diagnóstico de pseudoaneurisma de la arteria cubital proximal. El pseudoaneurisma es una dilatación por rotura de la pared arterial, que no implica a las tres capas de esta y se comunica con la luz vascular. Su desarrollo tras una manipulación vascular es muy infrecuente y que actúe comprimiendo una estructura nerviosa es poco común. En nuestro caso, conjuntamente con cirugía vascular se decidió tratamiento con trombina intralesional, con buena evolución.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular System , Arteries , Vascular Diseases , Blood Vessels , Cardiovascular Diseases , Ulnar Artery , Aneurysm, False , Peripheral Nervous System , Median Nerve , Nervous System
3.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(1): 291-312, Jan-Abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414871

ABSTRACT

Esse trabalho busca relatar o processo de confecção de peças anatômicas para o ensino da anatomia humana a partir de material cadavérico fetal. Os discentes do curso de medicina da Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR) ­ Campus Toledo participaram do programa de voluntariado acadêmico e deram atenção especial aos aspectos técnicos do processo de dissecação, bem como a experiência subjetiva desse procedimento como ferramenta de aprendizado ativo. O procedimento foi realizado na sala de preparação de cadáver da UFPR ­ Campus Toledo, utilizando instrumental de dissecação e cadáveres humanos fetais com 20, 17 e 14 semanas de idade gestacional, direcionado de modo a expor as partes constituintes do sistema neural. Foram confeccionadas peças de cérebro, cerebelo, tronco encefálico, medula espinal, nervos espinais e suas estruturas associadas. Os voluntários envolvidos foram capazes de produzir material de estudo de qualidade através da dissecação e fortalecer seu conhecimento em anatomia humana e aptidão manual. Também foi dada atenção à importância e às limitações do processo de dissecação como estratégia de aprendizado em cursos da área de saúde. pôde ser observado que a dissecação pode fazer parte de uma formação completa e bem estruturada dos discentes, que por sua vez irão integrar a sociedade e a academia. Além disso, a exposição da topografia neural fetal pode servir de referencial para posteriores estudos que venham a utilizar essas informações.


This work aims to report the confection process of anatomic pieces for teaching human anatomy from fetal cadaveric material. The students of the medicine course of Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR) ­ Campus Toledo, took part in the academic volunteer program and paid special attention to the technical aspects of the dissection process, as well as the subjective experience of this procedure as an active learning tool. The procedure was performed at the cadaver preparation room of the UFPR ­ Campus Toledo, using dissection tools and human fetal corpses of 20, 17 and 14 weeks of gestational ages, directed so as to expose the constituent parts of the neural system. Pieces of the brain, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and its associated structures were made. The involved voluntaries were able to produce quality study material through dissection, and strengthen their knowledge in human anatomy and manual skill. Attention was also given to the importance and limitations of the dissection process as a learning strategy in health courses. it was observed that dissection can be part of a complete and well-structured training of students, who in turn will integrate society and academia. In addition, the exposure of fetal neural topography can serve as a reference for further studies that use this information


Este trabajo tiene como objetivo relatar el proceso de confección de piezas anatómicas para la enseñanza de la anatomía humana a partir de material cadavérico fetal. Los alumnos del curso de medicina de la Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR) - Campus Toledo, participaron del programa de voluntariado académico y prestaron especial atención a los aspectos técnicos del proceso de disección, así como a la vivencia subjetiva de este procedimiento como herramienta de aprendizaje activo. El procedimiento fue realizado en la sala de preparación de cadáveres de la UFPR - Campus Toledo, utilizando herramientas de disección y cadáveres de fetos humanos de 20, 17 y 14 semanas de edad gestacional, dirigidos de forma a exponer las partes constitutivas del sistema neural. Se realizaron piezas del cerebro, cerebelo, tronco encefálico, médula espinal, nervios espinales y sus estructuras asociadas. Los voluntarios participantes pudieron elaborar material de estudio de calidad mediante la disección y reforzar sus conocimientos de anatomía humana y habilidad manual. También se prestó atención a la importancia y las limitaciones del proceso de disección como estrategia de aprendizaje en los cursos de salud. Se observó que la disección puede formar parte de una formación completa y bien estructurada de los estudiantes, que a su vez integrarán la sociedad y el mundo académico. Además, la exposición de la topografía neural fetal puede servir de referencia para estudios posteriores que utilicen esta información.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dissection/education , Fetus/anatomy & histology , Nervous System/anatomy & histology , Spinal Cord/anatomy & histology , Volunteers/education , Brain/anatomy & histology , Cerebellum/anatomy & histology , Dura Mater/anatomy & histology , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Neuroanatomy
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 295-304, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970073

ABSTRACT

Estrogen impacts neural development; meanwhile, it has a protective effect on the brain. Bisphenols, primarily bisphenol A (BPA), can exert estrogen-like or estrogen-interfering effects by binding with estrogen receptors. Extensive studies have suggested that neurobehavioral problems, such as anxiety and depression, can be caused by exposure to BPA during neural development. Increasing attention has been paid to the effects on learning and memory of BPA exposure at different developmental stages and in adulthood. Further research is required to elucidate whether BPA increases the risk of neurodegenerative diseases and the underlying mechanisms, as well as to assess whether BPA analogs, such as bisphenol S and bisphenol F, influence the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , Estrogens , Benzhydryl Compounds/pharmacology , Nervous System/metabolism
5.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 334-340, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981273

ABSTRACT

Neurological diseases include a variety of neurodegenerative diseases and other brain damage diseases.The treatment schemes for neurological diseases are still in research.The existing clinical and basic studies have confirmed that traditional estrogen therapy has certain protective effect on the nervous system,while it increases the risk of breast or endometrial cancer.The emergence of the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) can avoid the above mentioned problems.The available studies have confirmed the protective effect of tamoxifen as a SERM on the nervous system.This paper reviews the role and functioning mechanisms of tamoxifen in the nervous system and cognitive function,aiming to provide guidance for the future application of tamoxifen in the treatment of neurological diseases and the improvement of cognitive function.


Subject(s)
Tamoxifen/therapeutic use , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use , Cognition , Nervous System
6.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 30(1): [1-16], jan.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1373442

ABSTRACT

Verificar a influência da Atenção Precoce (AP) no desenvolvimento de bebês nos aspectos motores, cognitivos e sociais de bebês de risco que participam do programa de intervenção motora precoce (PIMP). Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo ex post facto. A coleta de dados foi realizada em uma Clínica de Fisioterapia e a amostra foi composta por sete bebês de ambos os sexos que realizaram por quatro meses atendimentos de AP, duas vezes por semana, por 50 minutos. As atividades realizadas perfazem o campo motor, cognitivo e social. Resultados: O grupo foi homogêneo em relação às características. As atividades referentes à postura e deslocamento melhorou em 85% dos bebês, exploração de objetos manualmente em 71% e o reconhecimento da função de objetos 57%. A atividade de execução de tarefas a pedido foi a que menos os bebês evoluíram (57%). Conclusão: A intervenção precoce traz benefícios sobre o desenvolvimento motor e social dos bebês de risco. O desenvolvimento cognitivo, que representa tarefas com mais redes neuronais envolvidas, necessita de mais tempo para ser avaliada. (AU)


To verify the influence of Early Attention (AP) on the development of infants in the motor, cognitive and social aspects of at-risk babies participating in the Early Motor Intervention Program (PIMP). Materials and Methods: This is an ex post facto study. Data collection was performed at a Physiotherapy Clinic and the sample consisted of seven infants of both sexes who underwent AP appointments twice a week for 50 minutes. The activities carried out comprise the motor, cognitive and social fields. Results: The group was homogeneous in relation to the characteristics. The activities related to posture and displacement, improved in 85% of the babies, exploitation of objects manually by 71% and recognition of the function of objects by 57%. The on-task task activity was the one with the least babies (57%). Conclusion: Early intervention brings benefits to the motor and social development of at-risk babies. Cognitive development, which represents tasks with more neural networks involved, requires more time to be evaluated. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child Development , Early Intervention, Educational , Posture , Risk , Physical Therapy Modalities , Biological Evolution , Social Evolution , Nervous System
7.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 30(1): [1-15], jan.-mar. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378073

ABSTRACT

A Paralisia Cerebral (PC) engloba um grupo de desordens do movimento e da postura resultantes de uma lesão não progressiva no sistema nervoso. Diversas abordagens fisioterapêuticas vêm sendo propostas para o tratamento de indivíduos com PC, dentre elas o uso de vestes terapêuticas. Sendo assim, a presente revisão teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos das vestes terapêuticas na reabilitação de crianças com PC, destacando seus benefícios e possíveis limitações. Tratou-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura realizada nas bases SciELO, Lilacs, Pubmed, Science Direct e PEDro, por meio do descritor "Paralisia Cerebral" e das palavras-chave "AdeliSuit", "PediaSuit", "TheraSuit". Após o levantamento bibliográfico, foram selecionados 11 estudos envolvendo crianças com idade entre um e 15 anos, os quais descreveram o uso das vestes terapêuticas AdeliSuit, TheraSuit e PediaSuit. Todos os estudos apresentaram efeitos favoráveis ao uso das vestes para função motora das crianças avaliadas. Também houveram relatos de melhora na funcionalidade, velocidade e qualidade da marcha e equilíbrio. Apenas quatro estudos compararam programas de reabilitação envolvendo vestes terapêuticas e outras abordagens, os quais apresentaram resultados controversos. Os achados demonstraram resultados favoráveis ao uso das vestes terapêuticas em indivíduos com diagnóstico de PC, apesar de poucas evidências quanto a sua superioridade sobre outras abordagens. (AU)


Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a group of movement and posture disorders resulting from nervous system non-progressive injury. Several physiotherapy approaches have been proposed to individuals with CP treatment, including the use of therapeutic suits. Thus, the present review aimed to assess the effects of therapeutic suits on children with CP rehabilitation, highlighting their benefits and possible limitations. It was an integrative literature review carried out on SciELO, Lilacs, Pubmed, Science Direct and PEDro databases, using tdescriptor "Cerebral Palsy" and keywords "AdeliSuit", "PediaSuit", "TheraSuit". After bibliographic search, 11 studies were selected involving children aged between one and 15 years old, which described the use of therapeutic suits: AdeliSuit, TheraSuit and PediaSuit. All studies showed positive effects therapeutic suits use during rehabilitation for motor function. Improvements in functionality, speed and quality of gait and balance were also reported. Only four studies compared rehabilitation programs involving therapeutic suits and other therapeutic approaches, which showed controversial results. Those findings demonstrated favorable results for the use of therapeutic suits during rehabilitation programs in individuals with CP, despite little evidence regarding their superiority over other approaches. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cerebral Palsy , Physical Therapy Modalities , Motor Activity , Posture , Therapeutics , Homeopathic Therapeutic Approaches , Muscle Strength , Gait , Movement , Nervous System
8.
Rev. SOBECC (Online) ; 27: 1-7, 01-01-2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1418214

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar a prevalência e a intensidade dos sinais e sintomas relacionados à exposição ocupacional à fumaça cirúrgica em trabalhadores da saúde e suas medidas de proteção. Método: Estudo transversal de caráter descritivo, desenvolvido com trabalhadores da área da saúde expostos à fumaça cirúrgica. A coleta foi realizada em setembro de 2021, em uma instituição de serviço terciário com característica oncológica e filantrópica e em um hospital universitário de alta complexidade. Resultados: A amostra foi de 155 participantes, a prevalência de sinais e sintomas: sistema respiratório de 55,45%, sistema ocular 43,22% e sistema nervoso 37,41%, com significância estatística para a intensidade de sinais e sintomas nos sistemas tegumentar (p=0,05) e nervoso (p=0,01). Conclusão: A maior taxa de prevalência dos sinais e sintomas foi nos sistemas respiratório, ocular, nervoso e tegumentar com significância estatística.


Objective: To identify the prevalence and intensity of signs and symptoms related to occupational exposure to surgical smoke in health workers and their protective measures. Method: Descriptive cross-sectional study, developed with healthcare workers exposed to surgical smoke. Collection was carried out in September 2021, in a tertiary service institution with oncological and philanthropic characteristics and in a highly complex university hospital. Results: The sample consisted of 155 participants; the prevalence of signs and symptoms was: respiratory system 55.45%, ocular system 43.22%, and nervous system 37.41%, with statistical significance for the intensity of signs and symptoms in the integumentary (p=0,05) and nervous (p=0,01) systems. Conclusions: The highest rate of prevalence of signs and symptoms was in the respiratory, ocular, nervous, and integumentary systems with statistical significance.


Objetivo: Identificar la prevalencia e intensidad de lós signos y síntomas relacionados con la exposición ocupacional al humo quirúrgico em trabajadores de la salud y sus medidas de protección. Método: Estudio transversal descriptivo, desarrollado con trabajadores de la salud expuestos al humo quirúrgico. La colecta se realizó en septiembre de 2021, en una institución de tercer nivel com características oncológicas, filantrópicas y en un hospital universitario de alta complejidad. Resultados: La muestra estuvo conformada por 155 participantes, La prevalencia de signos y síntomas: Sistema respiratorio 55,45%, sistema ocular 43,22% y sistema nervioso 37,41%, con significación estadística para la intensidad de signos y síntomas en los sistemas tegumentarios (p=0,05) y nervioso (p=0,01). Conclusión: La mayor tasa de prevalencia de signos y síntomas fue en los sistemas respiratorio, ocular, nervioso y tegumentario con significancia estadística.


Subject(s)
Humans , Security Measures , Smoke , Occupational Risks , Signs and Symptoms , Health Personnel , Nervous System
9.
Rev. enferm. neurol ; 21(2): 166-176, may.-ago. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1411078

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La donación de órganos se ha posicionado como el tratamiento definitivo para quienes la única forma de sobrevivencia es la inserción de uno o más órganos sanos donados por otras personas. Por lo anterior, el profesional de enfermería debe poseer los conocimientos científicos, técnicos, tecnológicos y humanísticos que integran el correcto mantenimiento y procuración de órganos en personas adultas con muerte encefálica. Objetivo. Analizar la literatura sobre intervenciones de enfermería en el manejo de procuración de órganos en las personas adultas con muerte encefálica, en función de una revisión sistemática para fundamentar en una segunda fase la guía clínica de intervenciones de enfermería correspondiente con el uso de la taxonomía de NANDA, NOC, NIC. Material y método. Para la limitación de búsqueda de información científica se ejecutó el método PICO, y para su evaluación la clasificación de los niveles de evidencia basados en el Centre for Evidence ­ Based Medicine de Oxford (OCEBM). Resultados. Las intervenciones de enfermería se enfocan en las complicaciones que la procuración de órganos presenta frecuentemente, como falla cardíaca, hipotensión, arritmias, edema pulmonar, diabetes insípida, hipotiroidismo, falla en los mecanismos termoreguladores e infección ocular. Conclusiones. Las intervenciones de enfermería focalizadas en prevenir complicaciones en la procuración de órganos de personas adultas con muerte encefálica generan un óptimo proceso de donación ­ trasplante de órganos.


Introduction: Organ donation is the definitive treatment for patients whose only survival option is the transplantation of one or more healthy organs from another person. Therefore, the nursing professional must have the scientific, technical, technological and humanistic knowledge that integrates the correct maintenance and organ procurement in adults with brain death. Objective: To conduct a systematic literature review on nursing interventions in the management of organ procurement in adults with brain death, to later propose a corresponding clinical guideline of nursing interventions based on the NANDA ­ NOC ­ NIC taxonomy. Material and method: The PICO framework was used to limit the research data, and the classification of the levels of evidence of the Centre for Evidence ­ Based Medicine of Oxford (OCEBM) for its assessment. Results: Nursing interventions focus on the most frequent complications in organ procurement, such as heart failure, hypotension, arrhythmias, pulmonary edema, diabetes insipidus, hypothyroidism failure of thermoregulatory mechanisms, and eye infection. Conclusions: Nursing interventions focused on preventing complications in organ procurement in adults with brain death generate an optimal donation process ­ organ transplantation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Brain Death , Nursing , Nervous System
10.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 434-442, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939578

ABSTRACT

The nervous system and the immune system are relatively independent but interactional, and neuro-immune regulation is very important for the respiratory system to resist external harmful stimuli and to maintain homeostasis. Neuro-immune interaction is involved in the occurrence and development of respiratory diseases, and is essential for monitoring and modulating inflammation and tissue repair. This article summaries the neuro-immune regulation of respiratory system and discusses its role in respiratory diseases, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for further understanding the crosstalk between the nervous and immune systems, to explore the underlying mechanism in respiratory diseases, and to provide new thoughts for the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeostasis , Immune System , Inflammation , Nervous System , Neuroimmunomodulation , Respiration Disorders
11.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 32: 32211, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1426444

ABSTRACT

A dor neuropática é causada por uma lesão ou doença do sistema nervoso somatossensitivo. Trata-se de uma manifestação sindrômica que envolve mecanismos inflamatórios e imunes com fisiopatologia ainda pouco esclarecida. O espectro de apresentação da dor neuropática é amplo e, assim, constitui um desafio na prática clínica. Este problema de saúde pública necessita de ampla capacidade técnica dos clínicos generalistas. Torna-se relevante identificar o potencial de cronificação do sintoma e adotar abordagens mitigantes do processo lesivo, estrutural e emocional. Nesse sentido, o diagnóstico adequado da dor neuropática é o primeiro passo na abordagem ao paciente. Diante disso, essa revisão objetiva facilitar a melhor escolha dos métodos diagnósticos no manejo clínico do paciente. Dentre estes, é possível citar a imagem por ressonância magnética funcional, eletroneuromiografia, tomografia por emissão de pósitrons, microneurografia, teste quantitativo sensorial, biópsias de pele, estudos de condução nervosa e de potencial somatossensorial evocado. A dor, por ser um processo sensorial subjetivo, apresenta amplo espectro de manifestações clínicas. Por essa razão, é possível fazer uso de técnicas como métodos de triagem e exames complementares para um diagnóstico mais específico.


Neuropathic pain is caused by an injury or illness of the somatosensory nervous system. It is a syndromic manifestation that involves inflammatory and immune mechanisms, whose pathophysiology is still poorly understood. The spectrum of presentation of neuropathic pain is wide and, therefore, it is a challenge in clinical practice. This public health problem requires the broad technical capacity of general practitioners. It is relevant to identify the potential for chronicity of the symptom and adopt mitigating approaches to the harmful, structural, and emotional process. In this sense, the proper diagnosis of neuropathic pain is the first step in approaching the patient. Therefore, this review aims to facilitate the best choice of diagnostic methods in the clinical management of the patient. Among these, functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroneuromyography, positron emission tomography, microneurography, quantitative sensory testing, skin biopsies, nerve conduction and evoked somatosensory potential studies are possible. Pain, being a subjective sensory process, has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. For this reason, it is possible to make use of techniques such as screening methods and complementary exams for a more specific diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Somatosensory Cortex , Central Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Chronic Pain/diagnosis , Nervous System/physiopathology , Parasympathetic Nervous System , Central Nervous System , Triage , Neuroimaging/methods , Nerve Conduction Studies
12.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 551-559, dic. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357567

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el buen sueño es esencial para la salud física y mental a lo largo de la vida. Sin embargo, existen pocos reportes sobre los problemas del sueño que enferentan las personas mayores que viven en la comunidad. Objetivo: describir la prevalencia de los principales problemas de sueño y su relación con condiciones médicas en las personas mayores que viven en la comunidad. Material y métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo con 1678 personas de 60 años y más, derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) en la Ciudad de México. Se evaluó la duración del sueño, la calidad del sueño, la somnolencia diurna, el insomnio y el riesgo de apnea obstructiva de sueño, junto con algunas variables sociodemográficas y condiciones médicas. Resultados: las personas mayores reportaron dormir, en promedio, 6.04 (± 1.5) horas por noche; el 49.1% tenía baja calidad del sueño y el 19.1% experimentaba somnolencia diurna; el 30.8% presentó insomnio y el 27.5% tenía riesgo de apnea obstructiva del sueño. Se observó un patrón de mayor prevalencia de problemas de sueño en las personas mayores con depresión, deterioro cognitivo, dificultades para realizar actividades básicas de la vida diaria y en quienes consumían medicamentos para el sistema nervioso. Conclusiones: este estudio mostró que las personas mayores duermen pocas horas, tienen baja calidad de sueño y prevalencia alta de trastornos del sueño. La identificación y el tratamiento de los problemas del sueño en las personas mayores debe ser una prioridad en el IMSS.


Background: Good sleep is essential for physical and mental health throughout life. However, there are few reports describing the sleep problems experienced by community-dwelling older people. Objective: To describe the prevalence of sleep disorders and their relationship with medical conditions in community-dwelling older people. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1678 older people (60 years and over) from the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Mexico City. Sleep duration, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, insomnia and risk of obstructive sleep apnea were evaluated, alongside with sociodemographic variables and medical conditions. Results: Participants self-reported an average sleep duration of 6.04 (± 1.5) hours per night, approximately half had poor sleep quality (49.1%), and 2 out of 10 experienced daytime sleepiness (19.1%); one third had insomnia (30.8%) and risk of obstructive sleep apnea (27.5%). A pattern of higher prevalence of sleep problems was observed in older adults with depression, with cognitive impairment, with difficulties in basic activities of daily living and in those taking medications for the nervous system. Conclusions: This study showed that older people sleep few hours, have low sleep quality, and have a high prevalence of sleep disorders. The identification and treatment of sleep disordes in older people should be a priority in the IMSS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Geriatrics , Mexico , Sleep Wake Disorders , Aging , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Nervous System
13.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 28(4): 267-275, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423888

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Smartphone overuse may lead to musculoskeletal manifestations, such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and arthritis of hand joints, with an increased median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA). Objective: The aim of this study is the early detection of musculoskeletal hand disorders using ultrasound techniques, and to detect nerve entrapment using clinical evaluation, ultrasound, and electrophysiological studies, in university employees younger than 35 years using mobile phones. Function is assessed using the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ). Materials and methods: Cross-sectional controlled study included 74 smartphone users classified into two groups according to a smartphone addiction scale (SAS), into high and low smart phone users, with 35 non-smartphone users with matched age and gender as a control group. A clinical assessment of nerve entrapment symptoms was performed, and the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ), with a total score from 0 to100, was used to assess hand function. Electrodiagnostic studies of median and ulnar nerves were used to detect early nerve entrapment. Bilateral ultrasound was performed in order to assess the median nerve CSA and involvement of thumb and small hand joints. The data collected were analyzed using the SPSS program version 20. Results: CSAs of median nerves were significantly higher in the dominant hand of high smartphone users than in low and non-smartphone users (p < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between CSA and SAS (r = 0.45), visual analogue scale (VAS) (r = 0.61), and duration of smartphone use (r = 0.80), with negative correlation with MHQ (r = -0.63). Significant differences in were found in the electrophysiological studies of median and ulnar nerves. The mean ultrasound score for both hands was higher in the high smartphone users compared to low smartphone users (15.08 ± 4.17 vs. 6.46 ± 1.38, p < .001). Conclusions: There is increased median nerve CSAs among high smartphone users associated with prolongation of both sensory and motor latencies and slow conduction velocities. Caution should be exercised when using mobile phones, in order to minimize the risk of developing hand musculoskeletal disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Peripheral Nerves , Diagnostic Imaging , Ultrasonography , Diagnosis , Median Nerve , Nervous System
14.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 10(2): 292, ago. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1418914

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de cauda equina es una patología poco frecuente en el área de anestesiología. Esta se caracteriza por presentar un conjunto de signos y síntomas que involucran: dolor, disminución o abolición de la fuerza muscular, disfunción de esfínteres e hipoestesia de silla de montar. El objetivo del presente trabajo es presentar y discutir el caso clínico de una paciente con diagnóstico de síndrome de cauda equina posterior a la administración por vía subaracnoidea de bupivacaina al 0,75 % hiperbárica. Se trata de paciente femenina de 42 años a quien se le realizó cesárea segmentaria y salpingectomia bilateral con bloqueo anestésico subaracnoideo; y quien posteriormente a las dieciséis horas del posoperatorio presentó: disminución de la fuerza muscular de miembros inferiores e hipoestesia de región de silla de montar, reflejo rotuliano: 0/4 bilateral y retención urinaria. Se le inicia tratamiento farmacológico y fisiátrico inmediatamente establecido el diagnóstico de síndrome de cauda equina. La paciente fue dada de alta el día diez del posoperatorio, con disminución significativa de la clínica antes descrita, evidenciándose posteriormente retención urinaria por lo que requirió sondaje vesical intermitente. Una vez establecido el diagnostico se instaló inmediatamente tratamiento farmacológico y fisiátrico para dar una oportuna resolución de la patología(AU)


Cauda equina syndrome is a rare pathology in the area of anesthesiology. This is characterized by presenting a set of signs and symptoms that involve: pain, decrease or abolition of muscle strength, sphincter dysfunction and saddle hypoesthesia. The objective of this work is to present and discuss the clinical case of a patient with a diagnosis of cauda equina syndrome after the administration of hyperbaric 0.75% bupivacaine via the subarachnoid route. This is a 42-year-old female patient who underwent segmental cesarean section and bilateral salpingectomy with subarachnoid anesthetic block; and who subsequently at sixteen hours postoperatively presented: decreased muscle strength, lower limbs and hypoesthesia of the saddle region, knee jerk reflex: bilateral 0/4 and urinary retention. Pharmacological and physical treatment was started immediately, the diagnosis of cauda equina syndrome was established. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 10, with a significant decrease in the symptoms described above, later evidence of urinary retention, requiring intermittent bladder catheterization. Once the diagnosis was established, pharmacological and physiatric treatment was immediately installed to give a timely resolution of the pathology(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Bupivacaine , Cauda Equina Syndrome , Cesarean Section , Urinary Retention , Muscle Strength , Anesthesiology , Nervous System
15.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 33-38, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292774

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. El trastorno del espectro de neuromielitis óptica, enfermedad inflamatoria, desmielinizante, afecta al sistema nervioso central, frecuente en poblaciones no caucásicas como la ecuatoriana. El retraso en su diagnóstico y tratamiento provoca discapacidad que se puede prevenir. OBJETIVO. Determinar el perfil clínico y epidemiológico de los pacientes con diagnóstico de trastorno del espectro de neuromielitis óptica. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio descriptivo transversal. Población de 45 Historias Clínicas y una muestra de 41 de pacientes con diagnóstico de trastorno del espectro de neuromielitis óptica atendidos en la Unidad de Neurología del Hospital de Especialida-des Carlos Andrade Marín, período enero 2005 a diciembre 2019. Se realizó análisis univarial. Se aplicó el programa estadístico International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versión 25. RESULTADOS. El 76,0% (31; 41) fueron mujeres. Datos promedios: edad 48,9 años; diagnóstico definitivo demoró 4,12 años, desde el inicio de los síntomas; tiempo de diagnóstico fue 3,17 años; 3,7 brotes en total; el 87,8% (36; 41) con un fenotipo recurrente. La media de duración de la enfermedad fue de 6,8 años. En el 70,7% (29; 41), se identificaron anticuerpos anti-AQP4 en suero mediante inmunofluorescencia directa, el 51,2% requirieron para la marcha apoyo uni o bilateral. El 43,9% (18; 41) debutó con neuritis óptica; el 31,7% (13; 41) presentaron mielitis como primer síntoma y el 24,4% (10; 41) la combinación de neuritis óptica y mielitis fueron los síntomas iniciales. CONCLUSIÓN. Se determinó el perfil clínico y epi-demiológico de los pacientes con diagnóstico de trastorno del espectro de neuromielitis óptica. Existió demora en el diagnóstico definitivo de los pacientes desde el inicio de los síntomas, lo que se tradujo en un aumento de la discapacidad.


INTRODUCTION. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, an inflammatory, demyelinating disease, affects the central nervous system, common in non-Caucasian popu-lations such as Ecuadorians. The delay in its diagnosis and treatment causes disabi-lity that can be prevented. OBJECTIVE. To determine the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Population of 45 Medical Records and a sample of 41 patients with a diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disor-der seen at the Neurology Unit of the Carlos Andrade Marín Specialties Hospital, period from January 2005 to December 2019. Univariate analysis was performed. The statistical program International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 25 was used. RESULTS. 76,0% (31; 41) were women. Average data: age 48,9 years; definitive diagnosis took 4,12 years from the onset of symptoms; time to diagnosis was 3,17 years; 3,7 outbreaks in total; 87,8% (36; 41) with a recurrent phenotype. The average disease duration was 6,8 years. In 70,7% (29; 41), anti-AQP4 antibodies were identified in serum by direct immunofluorescence, 51,2% required uni- or bilateral su-pport for walking. Optic neuritis started in 43,9% (18; 41); 31,7% (13; 41) had myelitis as the first symptom and 24,4% (10; 41) the combination of optic neuritis and myelitis were the initial symptoms. CONCLUSION. The clinical and epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder was determined. There was delay in the conclusive diagnosis of patients from the beginning of symptoms, which resulted in increased disability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Autoimmune Diseases , Optic Neuritis , Neuromyelitis Optica , Health of the Disabled , Myelitis , Nervous System , Sjogren's Syndrome , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct , Hashimoto Disease , Hypothyroidism
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(4): 346-349, Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278379

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The longstanding study of gross anatomy experienced a considerable improvement with the advent of the microscope in the early 17th century. The representative personality of this new era certainly was Marcello Malpighi, seen as "founder of microscopic anatomy". He studied, with a rudimentary compound microscope, numerous tissues and organs of several classes of animals, as well as plants. He described, for the first time, the microscopic structure of the nervous system, identifying in the gray matter of its various levels minute elements he took as "glands". It should be reminded that the concept of "cell" (and "nerve cell") was unknown at his time. Many researchers followed, performing microscopic studies, but without better results, and Malpighi's view was maintained until the beginning of the 19th century, when new histological processing and staining techniques appeared, as well as improved microscopes.


RESUMO O estudo de longa data da anatomia macroscópica experimentou um incremento considerável com o advento do microscópio no início do século 17. A personalidade representativa dessa nova era foi, certamente, Marcello Malpighi, considerado "fundador da anatomia microscópica". Ele estudou, com um microscópio composto rudimentar, numerosos tecidos e órgãos de diversas classes de animais, assim como plantas. Descreveu, pela primeira vez, a estrutura microscópica do sistema nervoso, identificando na substância cinzenta dos vários níveis elementos de minúsculas dimensões, que denominou "glândulas". Deve-se lembrar que o conceito de "célula" (e de "célula nervosa") era desconhecido naquele tempo. Muitos pesquisadores seguiram realizando estudos microscópicos, mas sem resultados melhores, e o entendimento de Malpighi foi mantido até o início do século 19, quando apareceram técnicas histológicas novas de processamento e de coloração, assim como microscópios mais aprimorados.


Subject(s)
Animals , History, 17th Century , Nervous System , Neurons , Staining and Labeling , Cerebral Cortex , Gray Matter , Italy
17.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(1): e1392, ene.-mar. 2021. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251757

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Cuando se piensa en estudiar el cerebelo es posible que lo primero que viene a la mente sean las siguientes preguntas: ¿cuáles son sus enfermedades?, ¿cómo se expresan clínicamente? y quizás, ¿cómo es su estructura y cuáles las funciones de este órgano? Objetivo: Examinar las principales características anatómicas y funcionales del cerebelo y relacionarlas con su expresión clínica cuando enferma, así como comentar sobre su abanico de etiologías en el niño. Métodos: Las fuentes de búsquedas fueron las bases de datos computarizadas: PubMed, Ebsco y SciELO. Se utilizaron las palabras clave: cerebelo, ataxia, erores congénicos del metabolismo y ataxias, ataxias episódicas, enfermedades progresivas del sistema nervioso y ataxias; en idioma español e inglés. Resultados: El cerebelo recepciona múltiples informaciones y las envía a diversas estructuras cerebrales por medio de las cuales modula la excitabilidad de estas estructuras y sus sistemas descendentes. Este órgano organiza, dirige, coordina múltiples funciones que se traducen en fuerza, tiempo y secuencia. El cerebelo enfermo impide que la persona ejecute sus funciones y movimientos de forma uniforme y coordinada; puede resultar afectado por un amplio abanico de posibilidades etiológicas, genéticas o adquiridas y enfermarse todo o parte de él. Consideraciones finales: El cerebelo cumple importantes funciones dentro del sistema nervioso, tiene una expresividad muy típica cuando está enfermo. El uso adecuado de las nuevas técnicas de estudios por imágenes y genéticas, entre otras, permiten al pediatra clínico estar en mejores condiciones para el diagnóstico de sus afecciones y tratamiento oportuno(AU)


Introduction: When we think about studying the cerebellum, the first thing that comes to mind may be the following questions: Which are its diseases? How they are clinically expressed? , and perhaps: What is its structure and what functions do this organ has? Objective: Examine the main anatomical and functional characteristics of the cerebellum and relate them to its clinical expression when it becomes ill, as well as comment on its range of etiologies in the child. Methods: Search sources were computerized databases like: PubMed, Ebsco, and SciELO. Keywords used were: cerebellum, ataxia, metabolism congenital errors and ataxias, episodic ataxias, progressive diseases of the nervous system and ataxias; in Spanish and English. Results: The cerebellum receives information and sends it to various brain structures through which it modulates the excitability of these structures and their downstream systems. This organ organizes, directs, and coordinates multiple functions that translate into strength, time and sequence. An ill cerebellum prevents the person from performing their functions and movements in a uniform and coordinated way; it can be affected by a wide range of etiological, genetic or acquired possibilities and make all or part of it ill. Final considerations: The cerebellum performs important functions within the nervous system; it has a very typical expressiveness when it is ill. Proper use of new imaging and genetic study techniques, among others, allows the clinical pediatricians to be better able to diagnose its conditions and timely treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Ataxia , Cerebellum , Pediatricians , Nervous System
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 335-342, 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153364

ABSTRACT

The species of Pugilina cochlidium (Linnaeus, 1758) and P. erecta (Vermeij & Raben, 2009) has been studied in the present study. The female can be differentiated from the male by the absence of the cephalic penis and a complicated genital aparatus visible through the mantle skirt in both the sexes. In other aspects of the external features of female are quite to males. In both species the digestive system was similar with few differences in structure between each other. It consists of buccal mass, proboscis, salivary glands, accessory salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, intestine, rectum and anus. The nervous system in both P. cochlidium and P. erecta is constituted by six ganglia which forms the circumoesophgeal ganglionic ring. Among the neogastropods there is a similarity in the organization of the reproductive systems. The female reproductive system is more complicated than that of male. The sexes are separated in these two species. The gross morphology of the reproductive system of P. cochlidium and P. erecta was almost similar. The present study aims to describe the digestive system, nervous system and reproductive system of two gastropods species P. cochlidium and P. erecta.


As espécies de Pugilina cochlidium (Linnaeus, 1758) e P. erecta (Vermeij & Raben, 2009) foram tomadas no presente estudo. A fêmea pode ser diferenciada do macho pela ausência do pênis cefálico e um complicado complexo genital visível através da saia do manto em ambos os sexos. Em outros aspectos das características externas da fêmea são bastante semelhantes aos dos machos. Em ambas as espécies, o sistema digestivo era semelhante, com poucas diferenças de estrutura entre si. Consiste em massa bucal, probóscide, glândulas salivares, glândulas salivares acessórias, esôfago, estômago, intestino, reto e ânus. O sistema nervoso em P. cochlidium e P. erecta é constituído por seis gânglios que formam um anel ganglionar circunoesofágico. Entre os neogastrópodes, há uma semelhança na organização dos sistemas reprodutivos. O sistema reprodutivo feminino é mais complicado que o masculino. Os sexos são separados nessas duas espécies. A morfologia macroscópica do sistema reprodutivo de P. cochlidium e P. erecta foi quase similar. O presente estudo tem como objetivo descrever o sistema digestivo, sistema nervoso e sistema reprodutivo de duas espécies, P. cochlidium e P. erecta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Digestive System/anatomy & histology , Gastropoda/anatomy & histology , Genitalia/anatomy & histology , Nervous System/anatomy & histology , Salivary Glands , Bays , India
20.
Rev Chil Anest ; 50(4): 576-581, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526286

ABSTRACT

Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol/remifentanil appears in the literatura as a good option for neurosurgical patients who have increased intracranial pressure (ICP),risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), need for neuromonitoring, and in those with impaired brain self-regulation. On the other hand, in patients with normal neurological status, normal ICP, a technique with volatile (halogenated) agents plus an opiiid can be used. This review describes two anesthetic techniques available for use in neurosurgery, highlighting the neurophysiological changes, advantages and disadvantages of each technique. MATERIAL AND METHOD: PubMed search engine was used for bibliographic search. DISCUSSION: The search for an ideal anesthetic in neurosurgery is still a matter of debate. There are numerous investigations aimed at finding an optimal agent that ensure the coupling between cerebral flow (CBF) and metabolism, keeping self-regulation intact without increasing the CBF and intracerebral pressure (ICP). CONCLUSIONS: Both anesthetic techniques, TIVA and volatile agents (halogenated), can be used in neurosurgical procedures and should provide neuroprotection, brain relaxation and a rapid awakening.


La anestesia total endovenosa (TIVA) con propofol/remifentanilo aparece en la literatura como una buena opción para pacientes neuroquirúrgicos que tienen aumento de la presión intracraneana (PIC), riesgo de náuseas y vómitos posoperatorios (NVPO), necesidad de neuromonitoreo, y en aquellos con alteración de la autorregulación cerebral. Por otra parte, en pacientes con estado neurológico normal, PIC normal puede usarse una técnica con agentes volátiles (halogenados) más un opioide. Esta revisión describe dos técnicas anestésicas disponibles para su uso en neurocirugía, destaca los cambios neurofisiológicos, ventajas y desventajas de cada técnica. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Para búsqueda bibliográfica se usó buscador PubMed. DISCUSIÓN: La búsqueda de un anestésico ideal en neurocirugía sigue siendo tema de debate. Existen numerosas investigaciones destinadas a buscar un agente óptimo que asegure el acoplamiento entre flujo sanguíneo cerebral (FSC) y metabolismo, manteniendo la autorregulación intacta sin aumentar el FSC y presión intracerebral (PIC). CONCLUSIONES: Ambas técnicas anestésicas, TIVA y agentes volátiles (halogenados), pueden ser usadas en procedimientos neuroquirúrgicos y deben brindar neuroprotección, relajación cerebral y un despertar rápido.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Anesthesia, Inhalation/methods , Anesthesia, Intravenous/methods , Anesthetics, Intravenous/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/chemically induced , Neuroprotection , Nervous System/drug effects
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