Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.028
Filter
1.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 434-442, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939578

ABSTRACT

The nervous system and the immune system are relatively independent but interactional, and neuro-immune regulation is very important for the respiratory system to resist external harmful stimuli and to maintain homeostasis. Neuro-immune interaction is involved in the occurrence and development of respiratory diseases, and is essential for monitoring and modulating inflammation and tissue repair. This article summaries the neuro-immune regulation of respiratory system and discusses its role in respiratory diseases, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for further understanding the crosstalk between the nervous and immune systems, to explore the underlying mechanism in respiratory diseases, and to provide new thoughts for the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Homeostasis , Humans , Immune System , Inflammation , Nervous System , Neuroimmunomodulation , Respiration Disorders
2.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 551-559, dic. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357567

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el buen sueño es esencial para la salud física y mental a lo largo de la vida. Sin embargo, existen pocos reportes sobre los problemas del sueño que enferentan las personas mayores que viven en la comunidad. Objetivo: describir la prevalencia de los principales problemas de sueño y su relación con condiciones médicas en las personas mayores que viven en la comunidad. Material y métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo con 1678 personas de 60 años y más, derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) en la Ciudad de México. Se evaluó la duración del sueño, la calidad del sueño, la somnolencia diurna, el insomnio y el riesgo de apnea obstructiva de sueño, junto con algunas variables sociodemográficas y condiciones médicas. Resultados: las personas mayores reportaron dormir, en promedio, 6.04 (± 1.5) horas por noche; el 49.1% tenía baja calidad del sueño y el 19.1% experimentaba somnolencia diurna; el 30.8% presentó insomnio y el 27.5% tenía riesgo de apnea obstructiva del sueño. Se observó un patrón de mayor prevalencia de problemas de sueño en las personas mayores con depresión, deterioro cognitivo, dificultades para realizar actividades básicas de la vida diaria y en quienes consumían medicamentos para el sistema nervioso. Conclusiones: este estudio mostró que las personas mayores duermen pocas horas, tienen baja calidad de sueño y prevalencia alta de trastornos del sueño. La identificación y el tratamiento de los problemas del sueño en las personas mayores debe ser una prioridad en el IMSS.


Background: Good sleep is essential for physical and mental health throughout life. However, there are few reports describing the sleep problems experienced by community-dwelling older people. Objective: To describe the prevalence of sleep disorders and their relationship with medical conditions in community-dwelling older people. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1678 older people (60 years and over) from the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Mexico City. Sleep duration, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, insomnia and risk of obstructive sleep apnea were evaluated, alongside with sociodemographic variables and medical conditions. Results: Participants self-reported an average sleep duration of 6.04 (± 1.5) hours per night, approximately half had poor sleep quality (49.1%), and 2 out of 10 experienced daytime sleepiness (19.1%); one third had insomnia (30.8%) and risk of obstructive sleep apnea (27.5%). A pattern of higher prevalence of sleep problems was observed in older adults with depression, with cognitive impairment, with difficulties in basic activities of daily living and in those taking medications for the nervous system. Conclusions: This study showed that older people sleep few hours, have low sleep quality, and have a high prevalence of sleep disorders. The identification and treatment of sleep disordes in older people should be a priority in the IMSS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Geriatrics , Mexico , Sleep Wake Disorders , Aging , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Nervous System
3.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(5): 421-430, sep.-oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1357208

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La dinámica no lineal de la regulación autonómica cardiovascular a partir de la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca no ha sido previamente estudiada en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 mediante la prueba del peso sostenido como inductor de hiperreactividad cardiovascular. Objetivo: Determinar las variaciones en la dinámica no lineal de la regulación autonómica cardiovascular durante la prueba del peso sostenido en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Método: Estudio cuasiexperimental, antes-después, con grupo control, realizado en junio-agosto de 2018 en la Facultad No. 1 de Medicina de Santiago de Cuba. Se trabajó con 15 pacientes que padecían diabetes mellitus tipo 2 sin otra enfermedad asociada y 15 sujetos sanos, a quienes se les aplicó la prueba del peso sostenido. Resultados: En los pacientes con diabetes mellitus, al realizar la prueba del peso sostenido se produjo un aumento significativo en la presión arterial sistólica, diastólica y media, y en la frecuencia cardiaca. En la entropía muestral, parámetro que evalúa la adaptabilidad de los sistemas, se produjo una disminución significativa (2.28 ± 0.33 vs. 1.83 ± 0.47 ms; p = 0.003143). El valor del estadístico C de la entropía muestral en estado basal quedó establecido en 0.973, siendo la variable con mayor capacidad predictiva. Conclusiones: Durante la prueba del peso sostenido en los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 se produjo una disminución de la complejidad de la regulación autonómica cardiovascular; la entropía muestral basal constituyó el indicador de mayor eficacia en la identificación de alteraciones autonómicas cardiovasculares.


Abstract Introduction: The analysis of non-linear dynamics of cardiovascular autonomic regulation based on heart rate variability has not been previously studied in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using the sustained weight test as an inducer of cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Objective: To determine the variations in the non-linear dynamics of cardiovascular autonomic regulation during the sustained weight test in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: A quasi-experimental, before-after study with a control group, from June-August 2018, at the No. 1 School of Medicine in Santiago de Cuba. We worked with 15 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus without other associated disease and 15 healthy subjects, to whom the sustained weight test was applied. Results: In patients with diabetes mellitus, when performing the sustained weight test, there was a significant increase in the hemodynamic parameters TAS, TAD, TAM and FC. In the sample entropy, a parameter that evaluates the adaptability of the systems, there is a significant decrease (2.28 ± 0.33 vs. 1.83 ± 0.47 ms; p = 0.003143). The value of the C statistic of the sample entropy at baseline was established at 0.973, being the variable with the highest predictive capacity. Conclusions: In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus during the sustained weight test, there was a decrease in the complexity of cardiovascular autonomic regulation, the basal sample entropy was the indicator of greater efficacy in the identification of cardiovascular autonomic alterations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Patients , Nonlinear Dynamics , Compliance , Heart Rate , Nervous System
4.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 33-38, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292774

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. El trastorno del espectro de neuromielitis óptica, enfermedad inflamatoria, desmielinizante, afecta al sistema nervioso central, frecuente en poblaciones no caucásicas como la ecuatoriana. El retraso en su diagnóstico y tratamiento provoca discapacidad que se puede prevenir. OBJETIVO. Determinar el perfil clínico y epidemiológico de los pacientes con diagnóstico de trastorno del espectro de neuromielitis óptica. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio descriptivo transversal. Población de 45 Historias Clínicas y una muestra de 41 de pacientes con diagnóstico de trastorno del espectro de neuromielitis óptica atendidos en la Unidad de Neurología del Hospital de Especialida-des Carlos Andrade Marín, período enero 2005 a diciembre 2019. Se realizó análisis univarial. Se aplicó el programa estadístico International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versión 25. RESULTADOS. El 76,0% (31; 41) fueron mujeres. Datos promedios: edad 48,9 años; diagnóstico definitivo demoró 4,12 años, desde el inicio de los síntomas; tiempo de diagnóstico fue 3,17 años; 3,7 brotes en total; el 87,8% (36; 41) con un fenotipo recurrente. La media de duración de la enfermedad fue de 6,8 años. En el 70,7% (29; 41), se identificaron anticuerpos anti-AQP4 en suero mediante inmunofluorescencia directa, el 51,2% requirieron para la marcha apoyo uni o bilateral. El 43,9% (18; 41) debutó con neuritis óptica; el 31,7% (13; 41) presentaron mielitis como primer síntoma y el 24,4% (10; 41) la combinación de neuritis óptica y mielitis fueron los síntomas iniciales. CONCLUSIÓN. Se determinó el perfil clínico y epi-demiológico de los pacientes con diagnóstico de trastorno del espectro de neuromielitis óptica. Existió demora en el diagnóstico definitivo de los pacientes desde el inicio de los síntomas, lo que se tradujo en un aumento de la discapacidad.


INTRODUCTION. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, an inflammatory, demyelinating disease, affects the central nervous system, common in non-Caucasian popu-lations such as Ecuadorians. The delay in its diagnosis and treatment causes disabi-lity that can be prevented. OBJECTIVE. To determine the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Population of 45 Medical Records and a sample of 41 patients with a diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disor-der seen at the Neurology Unit of the Carlos Andrade Marín Specialties Hospital, period from January 2005 to December 2019. Univariate analysis was performed. The statistical program International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 25 was used. RESULTS. 76,0% (31; 41) were women. Average data: age 48,9 years; definitive diagnosis took 4,12 years from the onset of symptoms; time to diagnosis was 3,17 years; 3,7 outbreaks in total; 87,8% (36; 41) with a recurrent phenotype. The average disease duration was 6,8 years. In 70,7% (29; 41), anti-AQP4 antibodies were identified in serum by direct immunofluorescence, 51,2% required uni- or bilateral su-pport for walking. Optic neuritis started in 43,9% (18; 41); 31,7% (13; 41) had myelitis as the first symptom and 24,4% (10; 41) the combination of optic neuritis and myelitis were the initial symptoms. CONCLUSION. The clinical and epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder was determined. There was delay in the conclusive diagnosis of patients from the beginning of symptoms, which resulted in increased disability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Autoimmune Diseases , Optic Neuritis , Neuromyelitis Optica , Health of the Disabled , Myelitis , Nervous System , Sjogren's Syndrome , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct , Hashimoto Disease , Hypothyroidism
5.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(4): 346-349, Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278379

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The longstanding study of gross anatomy experienced a considerable improvement with the advent of the microscope in the early 17th century. The representative personality of this new era certainly was Marcello Malpighi, seen as "founder of microscopic anatomy". He studied, with a rudimentary compound microscope, numerous tissues and organs of several classes of animals, as well as plants. He described, for the first time, the microscopic structure of the nervous system, identifying in the gray matter of its various levels minute elements he took as "glands". It should be reminded that the concept of "cell" (and "nerve cell") was unknown at his time. Many researchers followed, performing microscopic studies, but without better results, and Malpighi's view was maintained until the beginning of the 19th century, when new histological processing and staining techniques appeared, as well as improved microscopes.


RESUMO O estudo de longa data da anatomia macroscópica experimentou um incremento considerável com o advento do microscópio no início do século 17. A personalidade representativa dessa nova era foi, certamente, Marcello Malpighi, considerado "fundador da anatomia microscópica". Ele estudou, com um microscópio composto rudimentar, numerosos tecidos e órgãos de diversas classes de animais, assim como plantas. Descreveu, pela primeira vez, a estrutura microscópica do sistema nervoso, identificando na substância cinzenta dos vários níveis elementos de minúsculas dimensões, que denominou "glândulas". Deve-se lembrar que o conceito de "célula" (e de "célula nervosa") era desconhecido naquele tempo. Muitos pesquisadores seguiram realizando estudos microscópicos, mas sem resultados melhores, e o entendimento de Malpighi foi mantido até o início do século 19, quando apareceram técnicas histológicas novas de processamento e de coloração, assim como microscópios mais aprimorados.


Subject(s)
Animals , History, 17th Century , Nervous System , Neurons , Staining and Labeling , Cerebral Cortex , Gray Matter , Italy
6.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(1): e1392, ene.-mar. 2021. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251757

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Cuando se piensa en estudiar el cerebelo es posible que lo primero que viene a la mente sean las siguientes preguntas: ¿cuáles son sus enfermedades?, ¿cómo se expresan clínicamente? y quizás, ¿cómo es su estructura y cuáles las funciones de este órgano? Objetivo: Examinar las principales características anatómicas y funcionales del cerebelo y relacionarlas con su expresión clínica cuando enferma, así como comentar sobre su abanico de etiologías en el niño. Métodos: Las fuentes de búsquedas fueron las bases de datos computarizadas: PubMed, Ebsco y SciELO. Se utilizaron las palabras clave: cerebelo, ataxia, erores congénicos del metabolismo y ataxias, ataxias episódicas, enfermedades progresivas del sistema nervioso y ataxias; en idioma español e inglés. Resultados: El cerebelo recepciona múltiples informaciones y las envía a diversas estructuras cerebrales por medio de las cuales modula la excitabilidad de estas estructuras y sus sistemas descendentes. Este órgano organiza, dirige, coordina múltiples funciones que se traducen en fuerza, tiempo y secuencia. El cerebelo enfermo impide que la persona ejecute sus funciones y movimientos de forma uniforme y coordinada; puede resultar afectado por un amplio abanico de posibilidades etiológicas, genéticas o adquiridas y enfermarse todo o parte de él. Consideraciones finales: El cerebelo cumple importantes funciones dentro del sistema nervioso, tiene una expresividad muy típica cuando está enfermo. El uso adecuado de las nuevas técnicas de estudios por imágenes y genéticas, entre otras, permiten al pediatra clínico estar en mejores condiciones para el diagnóstico de sus afecciones y tratamiento oportuno(AU)


Introduction: When we think about studying the cerebellum, the first thing that comes to mind may be the following questions: Which are its diseases? How they are clinically expressed? , and perhaps: What is its structure and what functions do this organ has? Objective: Examine the main anatomical and functional characteristics of the cerebellum and relate them to its clinical expression when it becomes ill, as well as comment on its range of etiologies in the child. Methods: Search sources were computerized databases like: PubMed, Ebsco, and SciELO. Keywords used were: cerebellum, ataxia, metabolism congenital errors and ataxias, episodic ataxias, progressive diseases of the nervous system and ataxias; in Spanish and English. Results: The cerebellum receives information and sends it to various brain structures through which it modulates the excitability of these structures and their downstream systems. This organ organizes, directs, and coordinates multiple functions that translate into strength, time and sequence. An ill cerebellum prevents the person from performing their functions and movements in a uniform and coordinated way; it can be affected by a wide range of etiological, genetic or acquired possibilities and make all or part of it ill. Final considerations: The cerebellum performs important functions within the nervous system; it has a very typical expressiveness when it is ill. Proper use of new imaging and genetic study techniques, among others, allows the clinical pediatricians to be better able to diagnose its conditions and timely treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Ataxia , Cerebellum , Pediatricians , Nervous System
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 335-342, 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153364

ABSTRACT

The species of Pugilina cochlidium (Linnaeus, 1758) and P. erecta (Vermeij & Raben, 2009) has been studied in the present study. The female can be differentiated from the male by the absence of the cephalic penis and a complicated genital aparatus visible through the mantle skirt in both the sexes. In other aspects of the external features of female are quite to males. In both species the digestive system was similar with few differences in structure between each other. It consists of buccal mass, proboscis, salivary glands, accessory salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, intestine, rectum and anus. The nervous system in both P. cochlidium and P. erecta is constituted by six ganglia which forms the circumoesophgeal ganglionic ring. Among the neogastropods there is a similarity in the organization of the reproductive systems. The female reproductive system is more complicated than that of male. The sexes are separated in these two species. The gross morphology of the reproductive system of P. cochlidium and P. erecta was almost similar. The present study aims to describe the digestive system, nervous system and reproductive system of two gastropods species P. cochlidium and P. erecta.


As espécies de Pugilina cochlidium (Linnaeus, 1758) e P. erecta (Vermeij & Raben, 2009) foram tomadas no presente estudo. A fêmea pode ser diferenciada do macho pela ausência do pênis cefálico e um complicado complexo genital visível através da saia do manto em ambos os sexos. Em outros aspectos das características externas da fêmea são bastante semelhantes aos dos machos. Em ambas as espécies, o sistema digestivo era semelhante, com poucas diferenças de estrutura entre si. Consiste em massa bucal, probóscide, glândulas salivares, glândulas salivares acessórias, esôfago, estômago, intestino, reto e ânus. O sistema nervoso em P. cochlidium e P. erecta é constituído por seis gânglios que formam um anel ganglionar circunoesofágico. Entre os neogastrópodes, há uma semelhança na organização dos sistemas reprodutivos. O sistema reprodutivo feminino é mais complicado que o masculino. Os sexos são separados nessas duas espécies. A morfologia macroscópica do sistema reprodutivo de P. cochlidium e P. erecta foi quase similar. O presente estudo tem como objetivo descrever o sistema digestivo, sistema nervoso e sistema reprodutivo de duas espécies, P. cochlidium e P. erecta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Digestive System/anatomy & histology , Gastropoda/anatomy & histology , Genitalia/anatomy & histology , Nervous System/anatomy & histology , Salivary Glands , Bays , India
9.
NOVA publ. cient ; 18(spe35): 121-127, jul.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149476

ABSTRACT

Resumen A pesar de la gran cantidad de complicaciones neurológicas relacionadas con la infección por SARS-CoV-2, aún no está claro si estos síntomas son el resultado de una lesión neural directa o se deben a alguna otra razón. Actualmente, parece que la mayoría de los síntomas neurológicos del COVID-19 son inespecíficos y secundarios a la enfermedad sistémica. Hasta la fecha no se cuenta con suficiente evidencia científica que confirme que el virus del SARS-CoV-2 afecta de forma directa al sistema nervioso central o periférico en los seres humanos. En el presente artículo corto se presentan las implicaciones de SARS-CoV-2 en el adulto mayor con enfermedad neurodegenerativa, así como los mecanismos de acción relacionados en sistema nervioso.


Abstract Despite the many neurological complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, it isn´t still clear whether these symptoms are the result of direct neural injury or due to some other reason. Currently, it appears that most of the neurological symptoms of COVID-19 are nonspecific and secondary to systemic disease. To date, there is not enough scientific evidence to confirm that SARS-CoV-2 virus directly affects the central or peripheral nervous system in humans. This short article presents the implications of SARS-CoV-2 in the elderly with neurodegenerative disease, as well as the related mechanisms of action in the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , COVID-19 , Nervous System
10.
Med. U.P.B ; 39(2): 49-55, 21/10/2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1123581

ABSTRACT

La aparición progresiva de habilidades sensoriales, motoras y cognitivo-afectivas en el humano a lo largo de su desarrollo es un reflejo de cambios fisiológicos que se gestan al interior del sistema nervioso. Dichos cambios hacen parte de procesos dinámicos y dependen, después del nacimiento, de la actividad eléctrica inducida por la experiencia. Considerando lo anterior, el sistema nervioso en desarrollo constituye una especie de protomapa, sobre el que la experiencia moldea características moleculares, neuroquímicas y de conectividad, que se reflejan en las actividades emergentes del sistema. La evidencia que soporta la importancia que la influencia experiencial tiene sobre el desarrollo del sistema nervioso viene en aumento. Esta revisión reúne información sobre estudios en modelos biológicos y en humanos sometidos a privación sensorial y ambiental. Se enfatiza en la caracterización de los rasgos cognitivos y sociales.


The progressive advent of sensory, motor, affective, and cognitive skills in the human being through its development, demonstrate physiological changes that are gestated within the nervous system. These processes are dynamic and dependent postnatally on electrical activity induced by experience. Taking this into account, the developing nervous system constitutes a protomap molded by experience dependent molecular, physiological and connectivity characteristics, which are reflected in the emergent principles of the system. The evidence that supports the importance of experience as influence over the development of this system has increased in the past years. This document gathers information about animal models and human studies enduring sensory and environmental deprivation, emphasizing in the characterization of their cognitive and social remarks.


O aparecimento progressivo de habilidades sensoriais, motoras e cognitivo-afetivas no humano ao longo do seu desenvolvimento é um reflexo de mudanças fisiológicas que se gestam no interior do sistema nervoso. Ditas mudanças fazem parte de processos dinâmicos e dependem, depois do nascimento, da atividade elétrica induzida pela experiência. Considerando o anterior, o sistema nervoso em desenvolvimento constitui uma espécie de "protomapa", sobre o que a experiência molda características moleculares, neuroquímicas e de conectividade, que se refletem nas atividades emergentes do sistema. A evidência que suporta a importância que a influência experiencial tem sobre o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso vem em aumento. Esta revisão reúne informação sobre estudos em modelos biológicos e em humanos submetidos a privação sensorial e ambiental. Se enfatiza na caracterização das características cognitivas e sociais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Reflex , Sensory Deprivation , Synapses , Cognition , Models, Animal , Growth and Development , Models, Biological , Nervous System , Neuronal Plasticity
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(10): 824-829, Oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143411

ABSTRACT

The species Bradypus variegatus is known as the common sloth, an endemic mammal from neotropical regions, which has been suffering from devastating anthropogenic activities. Our study aimed to describe the brachial plexus of B. variegates, regarding the origin and distribution of nerves, through the sampling of 10 adult females. Analyses were carried out at the Anatomy Section, "Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal", "Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco", under license no. 034/2015 of the Ethics Committee on the Use of Animals. The results determined that the brachial plexus of the common sloth starts from the fifth cervical spine segment until the second thoracic segment. This area contains the long and suprascapular thoracic nerves, which originate immediately from the medullary segment 5 and 6, respectively, and from the pectoral, subscapular, axillary, radial, musculocutaneous, medial, forearm and ulnar medial cutaneous nerves, arising from a trunk comprised of cervical spine nerves (C) 7, C8, C9, and thoracic (T) 1 and T2. Regarding other wild and domestic animals, different suggestions were observed about the origin of the plexus in B. variegatus, however, the constituent nerves and their innervation areas did not demonstrate any discrepancies.(AU)


A espécie Bradypus variegatus é conhecida como preguiça-comum. Trata-se de um mamífero endêmico de regiões neotropicais que vem sofrendo com a ação antrópica devastadora. Esses Bradipodídeos possuem três dedos nos membros torácicos e pélvicos, são arborícolas consagrados e descem ao solo apenas para excretar e trocar de árvore. O estudo teve como objetivo descrever o plexo braquial de B. variegatus em relação à origem e distribuição dos nervos. Para tal, utilizou-se 10 fêmeas adultas. As análises foram realizadas no Pavilhão de Anatomia do Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, sob a licença nº 034/2015 do Comitê de Ética no Uso de Animais. Os cadáveres foram obtidos após morte natural, fixados em formaldeído a 20%, conservados em solução salina a 30% em tanques e dissecados para a visualização dos nervos destinados a inervar os membros e músculos torácicos. Uma vez feito, constatou-se que o plexo braquial da preguiça-comum se origina do quinto segmento espinal cervical, se estendendo até o segundo segmento torácico. Sendo formado pelos nervos torácico longo e supraescapular, de origem imediatamente do segmento medular 5 e 6, respectivamente, e pelos nervos peitorais, subescapulares, axilar, radial, musculocutâneo, mediano, cutâneo medial do antebraço e ulnar, decorrentes de um tronco formado a partir de nervos espinais cervicais (C) 7, C8, C9, e torácicos (T) 1 e T2. Em comparação a outros animais silvestres e domésticos foram observadas diferentes disposições em relação à origem do plexo de B. variegatus, todavia, os nervos constituintes e suas áreas de inervação não apresentaram discrepâncias.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Sloths/anatomy & histology , Brachial Plexus/anatomy & histology , Nervous System/anatomy & histology , Spinal Nerves/anatomy & histology
12.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(supl.2): 173-179, oct. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142461

ABSTRACT

Los coronavirus son una familia de virus que se caracterizan por producir afectaciones respiratorias y gastrointestinales en animales y en seres humanos. El actual SARS-CoV-2, agente infeccioso de la COVID-19, pertenece a un subgrupo denominado betacoronavirus del que hacen parte el SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV, virus responsables de epidemias en el 2002 y el 2012, respectivamente. Estos virus también pueden infectar el sistema nervioso debido a su afinidad con la enzima convertidora de angiotensina humana 2 (ACE2), la cual se expresa en neuronas y células gliales. Se ha demostrado que las infecciones con SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV, y ahora también con el SARS-CoV-2, ocasionan condiciones neurológicas como la enfermedad cerebrovascular aguda, la conciencia alterada y las lesiones musculares, así como mareos, hipogeusia, hiposmia, hipoxia, neuralgia y encefalopatía hipóxica. Por ello debe prestarse mucha atención a las manifestaciones neurológicas de los pacientes de COVID-19.


Coronaviruses cause respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders in animals and humans. The current SARS-CoV-2, the COVID-19 infectious agent, belongs to a subgroup called betacoronavirus including the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV responsible for epidemics in 2002 and 2012, respectively. These viruses can also infect the nervous system due to their affinity for the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expressed in neurons and glial cells. Infections with SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and now SARS-CoV-2 also produce neurological signs such as acute cerebrovascular disease, impaired consciousness, and muscle injury, as well as dizziness, hypogeusia, hyposmia, hypoxia, neuralgia, and hypoxic encephalopathy. For this reason, close attention should be paid to the neurological manifestations of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Nervous System , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
13.
Diagn. tratamento ; 25(1): 32-35, jan.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099971

ABSTRACT

Contexto: Os telefones celulares emitem radiações eletromagnéticas que são classificadas como possivelmente cancerígenas para os seres humanos. A hipótese de que o uso de telefones celulares pode estar relacionado ao risco de desenvolvimento de tumor cerebral, tem sido motivo de muita controvérsia e de grande debate na comunidade científica. Objetivos: O objetivo foi avaliar as evidências na literatura, relativas à exposição à radiação de telefones celulares e o risco de desenvolvimento de tumores cerebrais. Desenho de estudo: Trata-se de scoping review. Métodos: Procedeu-se à busca por estudos no MEDLINE/PubMed e na Cochrane Library. Foram utilizados descritores do DeCS (Descritores em Ciências da Saúde) e não houve restrição geográfica e temporal das publicações. O critério de inclusão consistia em estudos em humanos abrangendo a exposição a telefones celulares e o desenvolvimento de neoplasias cerebrais. Resultados: A estratégia de busca recuperou 77 citações e, destas, 8 estudos foram incluídos nessa revisão. A grande maioria dos estudos são do tipo caso-controle e há resultados divergentes entre eles. A maioria não demonstra risco entre a exposição habitual ao celular e o desenvolvimento de tumores cerebrais. Entretanto, alguns estudos correlacionam um possível risco associado à exposição intensa à radiação do telefone celular. Conclusão: Os estudos realizados até o momento não permitem concluir sobre o risco da exposição ao telefone celular e o desenvolvimento de tumores cerebrais, sendo recomendada a realização de novos estudos para elucidação da questão.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced , Risk Factors , Cell Phone , Evidence-Based Practice , Neoplasms , Nervous System
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(3): 163-168, Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098075

ABSTRACT

Abstract Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a cause of a severe disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans. The demonstration of specific antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may contribute to the retrospective neurological diagnosis. However, the commercial immunological tests for HSV infection are for use in serum samples. Objective: The aim of the present study was to adapt a commercial kit anti-HSV IgG used for serum samples to be performed with a CSF sample. Methods: Forty CSF specimens from 38 patients with suspected CNS HSV infection were serially diluted for detecting anti-HSV IgG by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The same samples were also analyzed with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The sensitivity of EIA test for HSV was 5% (dilution 1:40) and 65% (dilution 1:2) in CSF, and HSV DNA PCR was 15%. The combined analysis of EIA (dilution 1:2) and PCR increased the sensitivity up to 72.5%. The inflammatory CSF was associated with positive HSV PCR. Conclusions: We demonstrated the importance to adapt serological anti-HSV IgG EIA test for CSF assays to increase the accuracy of the analysis, considering the low concentration of specific antibodies in CSF.


Resumo O vírus herpes simples (HSV) é um dos agentes causadores de uma doença grave no sistema nervoso central (SNC) em humanos. A detecção de anticorpos específicos no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) pode contribuir para o diagnóstico neurológico retrospectivo. Entretanto, os testes imunológicos comerciais são para uso em amostras de soro. Objetivo: Adaptar um kit comercial sorológico anti-HSV IgG para ser utilizado no de LCR. Metodos: Quarenta amostras de LCR de 38 pacientes com suspeita de infecção por HSV no SNC foram diluídas pesquisa de anticorpos anti-HSV IgG pelo método imunoenzimático (EIA). Além disso, as mesmas amostras também foram analisadas por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Resultados: A sensibilidade do teste EIA para o HSV consistiu em 5% (diluição 1:40) e 65% (diluição 1:2) no LCR, e o PCR do DNA do HSV, 15%. A análise combinada de EIA (diluição 1:2) e PCR aumentou a sensibilidade para 72,5%. Houve associação entre presença do LCR inflamatório e PCR positiva para HSV. Conclusões: Demonstramos a importância na adaptação previa do teste sorológico anti-HSV IgG EIA para ensaios do no LCR, a fim de aumentar a acuracia da análise, considerando a baixa concentração de anticorpos específicos no LCR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Simplexvirus/isolation & purification , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/virology , Antibodies, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Viral Proteins , DNA, Viral/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Retrospective Studies , Simplexvirus/genetics , DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/genetics , Exodeoxyribonucleases , Herpes Simplex/cerebrospinal fluid , Nervous System
15.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(1): e392, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093742

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los signos neurológicos blandos se han asociado con dificultades motoras, alteraciones comportamentales menores e incluso como factores de vulnerabilidad para la aparición de afecciones como, esquizofrenia, trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad, trastorno disocial y episodios psicóticos. Aunque la investigación sobre los signos ha venido aumentando, no se tiene claridad sobre qué puede predisponer su aparición. Objetivo: Describir la asociación entre factores de riesgo prenatales, perinatales y neonatales y la aparición de los signos neurológicos blandos en niños con estos factores riesgo y en niños sin ellos. Métodos: Estudio de tipo descriptivo comparativo, de corte transversal, con diseño no experimental. La población en estudio se conformó por 550 niños y niñas, con edades entre seis y ocho años organizados. en cuatro grupos: los que presentaban riesgos prenatales, perinatales, neonatales, y el grupo que no presentaba ningún riesgo. Las aplicaciones se llevaron a cabo durante el primer semestre de 2017. Los datos se tomaron de las historias clínicas y los. signos neurológicos blandos se evaluaron a través del apartado de la Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil. Resultados: La mayoría de los signos neurológicos blandos presentaron diferencias significativas y valores altos en la comparación de los rendimientos en cada uno de los grupos con riesgo. Conclusiones: la presencia de riesgos prenatales, perinatales y neonatales producen una serie de alteraciones en el desarrollo del niño que se van acumulando y pueden estar asociados con la aparición de los signos neurológicos blandos(AU)


Introduction: The soft neurological signs have been associated with motor difficulties, lower behavioural alterations and even with vulnerability factors for the appearance of conditions such as schizophrenia, attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity, disocial disorder and psychotic episodes. Although research on the signs has been increasing, it is not clear what may predispose their appearance. Objective: To describe the association between prenatal, perinatal and neonatal risk factors and the appearance of the soft neurological signs in children with these risk factors and in children without them. Methods: Descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional non-experimental design´s study. The study´s population was formed by 550 boys and girls between the ages of six and eight years organized in four groups: with prenatal risks, with perinatal risks, with neonatal risks, and the group that did not present any risks. The tests were carried out during the first semester of 2017. The data were taken from the medical records and the soft neurological signs were evaluated through the item called Neuropsychological Assessment of Children. Results: Most of the soft neurological signs showed significant differences and high values in the performance comparison in each of the groups with risks. Conclusions: The presence of prenatal, perinatal and neonatal risks produce a series of alterations in the development of the child that are accumulated and may be associated with the appearance of the soft neurological signs(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child Development/physiology , Risk Factors , Nervous System/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Neuropsychological Tests/standards , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787239

ABSTRACT

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a term that is used to describe individuals who are not affected by celiac disease or wheat allergy, yet they have intestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms related to gluten ingestion with improvement of their symptoms upon withdrawing gluten from their diet. Gluten-related disorder groups are manifested by symptoms of gastrointestinal tract disorders, as well as hematological dermatological endocrinological, gynecological, rheumatological and nervous system symptoms. It is believed that NCGS represents heterogeneous groups with different subgroups characterized by different etiologies, clinical histories and clinical courses. There also appears to be an overlap between NCGS and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). There is a need for establishing strict criteria for diagnosing NCGS. The absence of validated biomarkers remains a significant limitation for research studies on NCGS. New evidence shows that a gluten-free diet may be beneficial for some patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, such as those symptoms commonly found in patients with IBS. Further studies about NCGS are needed.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Biomarkers , Celiac Disease , Diarrhea , Diet , Diet, Gluten-Free , Eating , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Tract , Glutens , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Nervous System , Wheat Hypersensitivity
17.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1381-1385, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827108

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic risk factors of HLH children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement so as to provide more reference for further improving the prognosis of HLH children.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 45 HLH children with CNS involvement treated in our hospital from January 2006 to October 2016 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The clinical characteristics of HLH children with CNS involvement were recorded, moreover the possible factors influencing the prognosis of HLH children with CNS involvement were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis through the establishment of Cox risk ratio model.@*RESULTS@#Among 45 HLH children with CNS involvement, male was 19 cases and female was 26 cases. The median age of 4.0 years old (1.0-15.1). The detection showed that EBV found in 38 cases (84.44%), CMV infection in 1 case (2.22%), bacterial infection in 3 cases (6.67%), connection tissue disease in 1 case (2.22%) and indefinite etiology infection in 2 cases (4.44%). After lumbar puncture of 27 HLH children with CNS involvement, 10 cases (37.04%) showed cerebrospinal fluid abnormality. In addition, 22 cases showed the craniography abnormality. The follow-up results showed that the OS rate of 1 year was 46.67% (21/45), the OS rate of 3 years was 44.44% (20/45); the median survival time was 5.0 months. The OS analysis indicated that 1 years OS rate of diseased children with cerebrospinal fluid abnormality was significantly lower than that of diseased children with cerebrospinal fluid normality (10/45 vs 17/45) (P<0.05), and 1 years OS rate of diseased children who not received intrathecal injection was significantly lower that of diseased children who received intrathecal (10/45 vs 17/45) (P<0.05). The univariate analysis showed that the symptoms of nervous system, abnormal cerebrospinal fluid, absence of intrathecal injection and treatment schedule all were the risk factors affecting the prognosis of HLH children with CNS involvement (P<0.05). The multivariate analysis by Cox risk model showed that abnormal cerebrospinal fluid and absence of intrathecal injection were independent risk factors for of HLH children with CNS involvement (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The clinical prognosis of HLH children with CNS involvement is relatively poor, moreover some of HLH children with CNS involvement have neural sequelae. The cerebrospinal fluid abnormality and absence of intrathecal injection are independent risk factors leading to poor prognosis for HLH clildren with CNS involvement.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Female , Humans , Male , Nervous System , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
19.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1195-1214, out.-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-994984

ABSTRACT

O período de 1870 a 1920 é conhecido como aquele no qual diversos teóricos da psicologia estadunidense estabelecem as diretrizes teóricas e políticas da independência da disciplina frente às demais ciências e às reflexões filosóficas. A psicologia comparada proposta por Robert Mearns Yerkes é uma das mais importantes do final do século XIX e das duas primeiras décadas do século seguinte. As obras do autor referentes à evolução do sistema nervoso central e periférico e suas relações com a inteligência, em conjunto com a psicologia militar e a eugenia, possibilitam, ao menos em parte, a concretização da engenharia humana e de suas futuras aplicações em diversos setores da sociedade estadunidense como instrumento de dominação da classe dominante. Como se trata de uma obra vasta e variadas aplicações na vida cotidiana, pensamos que essa primeira aproximação seja aprofundada em futuras investigações acerca dos movimentos da classe trabalhadora durante o processo de modernização da indústria e da grande reforma social pela qual a sociedade estadunidense à época. Movimentos amplamente desprezados pela historiografia da psicologia estadunidense.(AU)


The period from 1870 to 1920 is known as the one in which several theorists of American psychology establish the theoretical and political guidelines of the discipline's independence from other sciences and philosophical domain. The comparative psychology proposed by Robert Mearns Yerkes is one of the most important of the late nineteenth century and the first two decades of the following century. The author's works on the evolution of the central and peripheral nervous system and its relations with intelligence, taken together with military psychology and eugenics, enable, at least in part, the concretization of human engineering and its future applications in various sectors of the American society as an instrument of domination of the ruling class. As it is a vast work and of varied applications in everyday life, we think that this first approximation will be deepened in future investigations about the movements of the working class during the process of modernization of the industry and of the great social reform by which the American society happened to the time. These movements were widely neglected by the historiography of American psychology.(AU)


El período de 1870 a 1920 es conocido como aquel en el cual diversos teóricos de la psicología estadounidense establecen las directrices teóricas y políticas de la independencia de la disciplina frente a las demás ciencias y reflexiones filosóficas. La psicología comparada propuesta por Robert Mearns Yerkes es una de las más importantes del fin del siglo XIX y de las dos primeras décadas del siglo siguiente. Las obras del autor referentes a la evolución del sistema nervioso central y periférico y sus relaciones con la inteligencia, en conjunto con la psicología militar y la eugenesia, posibilitan, al menos en parte, la concreción de la ingeniería humana y de sus futuras aplicaciones en diversos sectores de la sociedad estadounidense como instrumento de dominación de la clase dominante. Como se trata de una obra vasta y de variadas aplicaciones en la vida cotidiana, esperamos que esa primera aproximación sea profundizada en futuras investigaciones acerca de los movimientos de la clase trabajadora durante el proceso de modernización de la industria y de la gran reforma social por la que la sociedad estadounidense pasaba en esa época. Estos movimientos fueron ampliamente despreciados por la historiografía de la psicología estadounidense.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Psychology/history , Ergonomics , Psychology, Comparative , Psychology, Military , Eugenia , Nervous System
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(10): 749-751, Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038734

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This paper reviews aspects of the life and work of Professor Louis Ranvier 140 years after the publication of Leçons sur l'histologie du système nerveux, published in 1878, and shows the importance of the histological description of myelinated fibers of the nodes of Ranvier.


RESUMO Os autores apresentam uma revisão sobre aspectos da vida e obra do Professor Louis Ranvier 140 anos após a publicação de seu livro Leçons sur l'histologie du système nerveux publicado em 1878 e mostra a importância da descrição histológica nas fibras mielínicas dos nodos de Ranvier.


Subject(s)
History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Ranvier's Nodes , Nervous System/anatomy & histology , Neurology/history , Paris , Nerve Fibers, Myelinated
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL