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1.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(1): e1392, ene.-mar. 2021. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251757

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Cuando se piensa en estudiar el cerebelo es posible que lo primero que viene a la mente sean las siguientes preguntas: ¿cuáles son sus enfermedades?, ¿cómo se expresan clínicamente? y quizás, ¿cómo es su estructura y cuáles las funciones de este órgano? Objetivo: Examinar las principales características anatómicas y funcionales del cerebelo y relacionarlas con su expresión clínica cuando enferma, así como comentar sobre su abanico de etiologías en el niño. Métodos: Las fuentes de búsquedas fueron las bases de datos computarizadas: PubMed, Ebsco y SciELO. Se utilizaron las palabras clave: cerebelo, ataxia, erores congénicos del metabolismo y ataxias, ataxias episódicas, enfermedades progresivas del sistema nervioso y ataxias; en idioma español e inglés. Resultados: El cerebelo recepciona múltiples informaciones y las envía a diversas estructuras cerebrales por medio de las cuales modula la excitabilidad de estas estructuras y sus sistemas descendentes. Este órgano organiza, dirige, coordina múltiples funciones que se traducen en fuerza, tiempo y secuencia. El cerebelo enfermo impide que la persona ejecute sus funciones y movimientos de forma uniforme y coordinada; puede resultar afectado por un amplio abanico de posibilidades etiológicas, genéticas o adquiridas y enfermarse todo o parte de él. Consideraciones finales: El cerebelo cumple importantes funciones dentro del sistema nervioso, tiene una expresividad muy típica cuando está enfermo. El uso adecuado de las nuevas técnicas de estudios por imágenes y genéticas, entre otras, permiten al pediatra clínico estar en mejores condiciones para el diagnóstico de sus afecciones y tratamiento oportuno(AU)


Introduction: When we think about studying the cerebellum, the first thing that comes to mind may be the following questions: Which are its diseases? How they are clinically expressed? , and perhaps: What is its structure and what functions do this organ has? Objective: Examine the main anatomical and functional characteristics of the cerebellum and relate them to its clinical expression when it becomes ill, as well as comment on its range of etiologies in the child. Methods: Search sources were computerized databases like: PubMed, Ebsco, and SciELO. Keywords used were: cerebellum, ataxia, metabolism congenital errors and ataxias, episodic ataxias, progressive diseases of the nervous system and ataxias; in Spanish and English. Results: The cerebellum receives information and sends it to various brain structures through which it modulates the excitability of these structures and their downstream systems. This organ organizes, directs, and coordinates multiple functions that translate into strength, time and sequence. An ill cerebellum prevents the person from performing their functions and movements in a uniform and coordinated way; it can be affected by a wide range of etiological, genetic or acquired possibilities and make all or part of it ill. Final considerations: The cerebellum performs important functions within the nervous system; it has a very typical expressiveness when it is ill. Proper use of new imaging and genetic study techniques, among others, allows the clinical pediatricians to be better able to diagnose its conditions and timely treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Ataxia , Cerebellum , Information , Pediatricians , Nervous System
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(10): 824-829, Oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1143411

ABSTRACT

The species Bradypus variegatus is known as the common sloth, an endemic mammal from neotropical regions, which has been suffering from devastating anthropogenic activities. Our study aimed to describe the brachial plexus of B. variegates, regarding the origin and distribution of nerves, through the sampling of 10 adult females. Analyses were carried out at the Anatomy Section, "Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal", "Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco", under license no. 034/2015 of the Ethics Committee on the Use of Animals. The results determined that the brachial plexus of the common sloth starts from the fifth cervical spine segment until the second thoracic segment. This area contains the long and suprascapular thoracic nerves, which originate immediately from the medullary segment 5 and 6, respectively, and from the pectoral, subscapular, axillary, radial, musculocutaneous, medial, forearm and ulnar medial cutaneous nerves, arising from a trunk comprised of cervical spine nerves (C) 7, C8, C9, and thoracic (T) 1 and T2. Regarding other wild and domestic animals, different suggestions were observed about the origin of the plexus in B. variegatus, however, the constituent nerves and their innervation areas did not demonstrate any discrepancies.(AU)


A espécie Bradypus variegatus é conhecida como preguiça-comum. Trata-se de um mamífero endêmico de regiões neotropicais que vem sofrendo com a ação antrópica devastadora. Esses Bradipodídeos possuem três dedos nos membros torácicos e pélvicos, são arborícolas consagrados e descem ao solo apenas para excretar e trocar de árvore. O estudo teve como objetivo descrever o plexo braquial de B. variegatus em relação à origem e distribuição dos nervos. Para tal, utilizou-se 10 fêmeas adultas. As análises foram realizadas no Pavilhão de Anatomia do Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, sob a licença nº 034/2015 do Comitê de Ética no Uso de Animais. Os cadáveres foram obtidos após morte natural, fixados em formaldeído a 20%, conservados em solução salina a 30% em tanques e dissecados para a visualização dos nervos destinados a inervar os membros e músculos torácicos. Uma vez feito, constatou-se que o plexo braquial da preguiça-comum se origina do quinto segmento espinal cervical, se estendendo até o segundo segmento torácico. Sendo formado pelos nervos torácico longo e supraescapular, de origem imediatamente do segmento medular 5 e 6, respectivamente, e pelos nervos peitorais, subescapulares, axilar, radial, musculocutâneo, mediano, cutâneo medial do antebraço e ulnar, decorrentes de um tronco formado a partir de nervos espinais cervicais (C) 7, C8, C9, e torácicos (T) 1 e T2. Em comparação a outros animais silvestres e domésticos foram observadas diferentes disposições em relação à origem do plexo de B. variegatus, todavia, os nervos constituintes e suas áreas de inervação não apresentaram discrepâncias.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Sloths/anatomy & histology , Brachial Plexus/anatomy & histology , Nervous System/anatomy & histology , Spinal Nerves/anatomy & histology
4.
Med. U.P.B ; 39(2): 49-55, 21/10/2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1123581

ABSTRACT

La aparición progresiva de habilidades sensoriales, motoras y cognitivo-afectivas en el humano a lo largo de su desarrollo es un reflejo de cambios fisiológicos que se gestan al interior del sistema nervioso. Dichos cambios hacen parte de procesos dinámicos y dependen, después del nacimiento, de la actividad eléctrica inducida por la experiencia. Considerando lo anterior, el sistema nervioso en desarrollo constituye una especie de protomapa, sobre el que la experiencia moldea características moleculares, neuroquímicas y de conectividad, que se reflejan en las actividades emergentes del sistema. La evidencia que soporta la importancia que la influencia experiencial tiene sobre el desarrollo del sistema nervioso viene en aumento. Esta revisión reúne información sobre estudios en modelos biológicos y en humanos sometidos a privación sensorial y ambiental. Se enfatiza en la caracterización de los rasgos cognitivos y sociales.


The progressive advent of sensory, motor, affective, and cognitive skills in the human being through its development, demonstrate physiological changes that are gestated within the nervous system. These processes are dynamic and dependent postnatally on electrical activity induced by experience. Taking this into account, the developing nervous system constitutes a protomap molded by experience dependent molecular, physiological and connectivity characteristics, which are reflected in the emergent principles of the system. The evidence that supports the importance of experience as influence over the development of this system has increased in the past years. This document gathers information about animal models and human studies enduring sensory and environmental deprivation, emphasizing in the characterization of their cognitive and social remarks.


O aparecimento progressivo de habilidades sensoriais, motoras e cognitivo-afetivas no humano ao longo do seu desenvolvimento é um reflexo de mudanças fisiológicas que se gestam no interior do sistema nervoso. Ditas mudanças fazem parte de processos dinâmicos e dependem, depois do nascimento, da atividade elétrica induzida pela experiência. Considerando o anterior, o sistema nervoso em desenvolvimento constitui uma espécie de "protomapa", sobre o que a experiência molda características moleculares, neuroquímicas e de conectividade, que se refletem nas atividades emergentes do sistema. A evidência que suporta a importância que a influência experiencial tem sobre o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso vem em aumento. Esta revisão reúne informação sobre estudos em modelos biológicos e em humanos submetidos a privação sensorial e ambiental. Se enfatiza na caracterização das características cognitivas e sociais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Reflex , Sensory Deprivation , Synapses , Cognition , Models, Animal , Growth and Development , Models, Biological , Nervous System , Neuronal Plasticity
5.
Diagn. tratamento ; 25(1): 32-35, jan.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099971

ABSTRACT

Contexto: Os telefones celulares emitem radiações eletromagnéticas que são classificadas como possivelmente cancerígenas para os seres humanos. A hipótese de que o uso de telefones celulares pode estar relacionado ao risco de desenvolvimento de tumor cerebral, tem sido motivo de muita controvérsia e de grande debate na comunidade científica. Objetivos: O objetivo foi avaliar as evidências na literatura, relativas à exposição à radiação de telefones celulares e o risco de desenvolvimento de tumores cerebrais. Desenho de estudo: Trata-se de scoping review. Métodos: Procedeu-se à busca por estudos no MEDLINE/PubMed e na Cochrane Library. Foram utilizados descritores do DeCS (Descritores em Ciências da Saúde) e não houve restrição geográfica e temporal das publicações. O critério de inclusão consistia em estudos em humanos abrangendo a exposição a telefones celulares e o desenvolvimento de neoplasias cerebrais. Resultados: A estratégia de busca recuperou 77 citações e, destas, 8 estudos foram incluídos nessa revisão. A grande maioria dos estudos são do tipo caso-controle e há resultados divergentes entre eles. A maioria não demonstra risco entre a exposição habitual ao celular e o desenvolvimento de tumores cerebrais. Entretanto, alguns estudos correlacionam um possível risco associado à exposição intensa à radiação do telefone celular. Conclusão: Os estudos realizados até o momento não permitem concluir sobre o risco da exposição ao telefone celular e o desenvolvimento de tumores cerebrais, sendo recomendada a realização de novos estudos para elucidação da questão.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced , Risk Factors , Cell Phone , Evidence-Based Practice , Neoplasms , Nervous System
6.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(1): e392, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093742

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los signos neurológicos blandos se han asociado con dificultades motoras, alteraciones comportamentales menores e incluso como factores de vulnerabilidad para la aparición de afecciones como, esquizofrenia, trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad, trastorno disocial y episodios psicóticos. Aunque la investigación sobre los signos ha venido aumentando, no se tiene claridad sobre qué puede predisponer su aparición. Objetivo: Describir la asociación entre factores de riesgo prenatales, perinatales y neonatales y la aparición de los signos neurológicos blandos en niños con estos factores riesgo y en niños sin ellos. Métodos: Estudio de tipo descriptivo comparativo, de corte transversal, con diseño no experimental. La población en estudio se conformó por 550 niños y niñas, con edades entre seis y ocho años organizados. en cuatro grupos: los que presentaban riesgos prenatales, perinatales, neonatales, y el grupo que no presentaba ningún riesgo. Las aplicaciones se llevaron a cabo durante el primer semestre de 2017. Los datos se tomaron de las historias clínicas y los. signos neurológicos blandos se evaluaron a través del apartado de la Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil. Resultados: La mayoría de los signos neurológicos blandos presentaron diferencias significativas y valores altos en la comparación de los rendimientos en cada uno de los grupos con riesgo. Conclusiones: la presencia de riesgos prenatales, perinatales y neonatales producen una serie de alteraciones en el desarrollo del niño que se van acumulando y pueden estar asociados con la aparición de los signos neurológicos blandos(AU)


Introduction: The soft neurological signs have been associated with motor difficulties, lower behavioural alterations and even with vulnerability factors for the appearance of conditions such as schizophrenia, attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity, disocial disorder and psychotic episodes. Although research on the signs has been increasing, it is not clear what may predispose their appearance. Objective: To describe the association between prenatal, perinatal and neonatal risk factors and the appearance of the soft neurological signs in children with these risk factors and in children without them. Methods: Descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional non-experimental design´s study. The study´s population was formed by 550 boys and girls between the ages of six and eight years organized in four groups: with prenatal risks, with perinatal risks, with neonatal risks, and the group that did not present any risks. The tests were carried out during the first semester of 2017. The data were taken from the medical records and the soft neurological signs were evaluated through the item called Neuropsychological Assessment of Children. Results: Most of the soft neurological signs showed significant differences and high values in the performance comparison in each of the groups with risks. Conclusions: The presence of prenatal, perinatal and neonatal risks produce a series of alterations in the development of the child that are accumulated and may be associated with the appearance of the soft neurological signs(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child Development/physiology , Risk Factors , Nervous System/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Neuropsychological Tests/standards , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(3): 163-168, Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098075

ABSTRACT

Abstract Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a cause of a severe disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans. The demonstration of specific antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may contribute to the retrospective neurological diagnosis. However, the commercial immunological tests for HSV infection are for use in serum samples. Objective: The aim of the present study was to adapt a commercial kit anti-HSV IgG used for serum samples to be performed with a CSF sample. Methods: Forty CSF specimens from 38 patients with suspected CNS HSV infection were serially diluted for detecting anti-HSV IgG by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The same samples were also analyzed with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The sensitivity of EIA test for HSV was 5% (dilution 1:40) and 65% (dilution 1:2) in CSF, and HSV DNA PCR was 15%. The combined analysis of EIA (dilution 1:2) and PCR increased the sensitivity up to 72.5%. The inflammatory CSF was associated with positive HSV PCR. Conclusions: We demonstrated the importance to adapt serological anti-HSV IgG EIA test for CSF assays to increase the accuracy of the analysis, considering the low concentration of specific antibodies in CSF.


Resumo O vírus herpes simples (HSV) é um dos agentes causadores de uma doença grave no sistema nervoso central (SNC) em humanos. A detecção de anticorpos específicos no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) pode contribuir para o diagnóstico neurológico retrospectivo. Entretanto, os testes imunológicos comerciais são para uso em amostras de soro. Objetivo: Adaptar um kit comercial sorológico anti-HSV IgG para ser utilizado no de LCR. Metodos: Quarenta amostras de LCR de 38 pacientes com suspeita de infecção por HSV no SNC foram diluídas pesquisa de anticorpos anti-HSV IgG pelo método imunoenzimático (EIA). Além disso, as mesmas amostras também foram analisadas por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Resultados: A sensibilidade do teste EIA para o HSV consistiu em 5% (diluição 1:40) e 65% (diluição 1:2) no LCR, e o PCR do DNA do HSV, 15%. A análise combinada de EIA (diluição 1:2) e PCR aumentou a sensibilidade para 72,5%. Houve associação entre presença do LCR inflamatório e PCR positiva para HSV. Conclusões: Demonstramos a importância na adaptação previa do teste sorológico anti-HSV IgG EIA para ensaios do no LCR, a fim de aumentar a acuracia da análise, considerando a baixa concentração de anticorpos específicos no LCR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Simplexvirus/isolation & purification , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/virology , Antibodies, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Viral Proteins , DNA, Viral/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Retrospective Studies , Simplexvirus/genetics , DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/genetics , Exodeoxyribonucleases , Herpes Simplex/cerebrospinal fluid , Nervous System
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787239

ABSTRACT

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a term that is used to describe individuals who are not affected by celiac disease or wheat allergy, yet they have intestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms related to gluten ingestion with improvement of their symptoms upon withdrawing gluten from their diet. Gluten-related disorder groups are manifested by symptoms of gastrointestinal tract disorders, as well as hematological dermatological endocrinological, gynecological, rheumatological and nervous system symptoms. It is believed that NCGS represents heterogeneous groups with different subgroups characterized by different etiologies, clinical histories and clinical courses. There also appears to be an overlap between NCGS and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). There is a need for establishing strict criteria for diagnosing NCGS. The absence of validated biomarkers remains a significant limitation for research studies on NCGS. New evidence shows that a gluten-free diet may be beneficial for some patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, such as those symptoms commonly found in patients with IBS. Further studies about NCGS are needed.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Biomarkers , Celiac Disease , Diarrhea , Diet , Diet, Gluten-Free , Eating , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Tract , Glutens , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Nervous System , Wheat Hypersensitivity
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1381-1385, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827108

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic risk factors of HLH children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement so as to provide more reference for further improving the prognosis of HLH children.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 45 HLH children with CNS involvement treated in our hospital from January 2006 to October 2016 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The clinical characteristics of HLH children with CNS involvement were recorded, moreover the possible factors influencing the prognosis of HLH children with CNS involvement were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis through the establishment of Cox risk ratio model.@*RESULTS@#Among 45 HLH children with CNS involvement, male was 19 cases and female was 26 cases. The median age of 4.0 years old (1.0-15.1). The detection showed that EBV found in 38 cases (84.44%), CMV infection in 1 case (2.22%), bacterial infection in 3 cases (6.67%), connection tissue disease in 1 case (2.22%) and indefinite etiology infection in 2 cases (4.44%). After lumbar puncture of 27 HLH children with CNS involvement, 10 cases (37.04%) showed cerebrospinal fluid abnormality. In addition, 22 cases showed the craniography abnormality. The follow-up results showed that the OS rate of 1 year was 46.67% (21/45), the OS rate of 3 years was 44.44% (20/45); the median survival time was 5.0 months. The OS analysis indicated that 1 years OS rate of diseased children with cerebrospinal fluid abnormality was significantly lower than that of diseased children with cerebrospinal fluid normality (10/45 vs 17/45) (P<0.05), and 1 years OS rate of diseased children who not received intrathecal injection was significantly lower that of diseased children who received intrathecal (10/45 vs 17/45) (P<0.05). The univariate analysis showed that the symptoms of nervous system, abnormal cerebrospinal fluid, absence of intrathecal injection and treatment schedule all were the risk factors affecting the prognosis of HLH children with CNS involvement (P<0.05). The multivariate analysis by Cox risk model showed that abnormal cerebrospinal fluid and absence of intrathecal injection were independent risk factors for of HLH children with CNS involvement (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The clinical prognosis of HLH children with CNS involvement is relatively poor, moreover some of HLH children with CNS involvement have neural sequelae. The cerebrospinal fluid abnormality and absence of intrathecal injection are independent risk factors leading to poor prognosis for HLH clildren with CNS involvement.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Female , Humans , Male , Nervous System , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1195-1214, out.-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-994984

ABSTRACT

O período de 1870 a 1920 é conhecido como aquele no qual diversos teóricos da psicologia estadunidense estabelecem as diretrizes teóricas e políticas da independência da disciplina frente às demais ciências e às reflexões filosóficas. A psicologia comparada proposta por Robert Mearns Yerkes é uma das mais importantes do final do século XIX e das duas primeiras décadas do século seguinte. As obras do autor referentes à evolução do sistema nervoso central e periférico e suas relações com a inteligência, em conjunto com a psicologia militar e a eugenia, possibilitam, ao menos em parte, a concretização da engenharia humana e de suas futuras aplicações em diversos setores da sociedade estadunidense como instrumento de dominação da classe dominante. Como se trata de uma obra vasta e variadas aplicações na vida cotidiana, pensamos que essa primeira aproximação seja aprofundada em futuras investigações acerca dos movimentos da classe trabalhadora durante o processo de modernização da indústria e da grande reforma social pela qual a sociedade estadunidense à época. Movimentos amplamente desprezados pela historiografia da psicologia estadunidense.(AU)


The period from 1870 to 1920 is known as the one in which several theorists of American psychology establish the theoretical and political guidelines of the discipline's independence from other sciences and philosophical domain. The comparative psychology proposed by Robert Mearns Yerkes is one of the most important of the late nineteenth century and the first two decades of the following century. The author's works on the evolution of the central and peripheral nervous system and its relations with intelligence, taken together with military psychology and eugenics, enable, at least in part, the concretization of human engineering and its future applications in various sectors of the American society as an instrument of domination of the ruling class. As it is a vast work and of varied applications in everyday life, we think that this first approximation will be deepened in future investigations about the movements of the working class during the process of modernization of the industry and of the great social reform by which the American society happened to the time. These movements were widely neglected by the historiography of American psychology.(AU)


El período de 1870 a 1920 es conocido como aquel en el cual diversos teóricos de la psicología estadounidense establecen las directrices teóricas y políticas de la independencia de la disciplina frente a las demás ciencias y reflexiones filosóficas. La psicología comparada propuesta por Robert Mearns Yerkes es una de las más importantes del fin del siglo XIX y de las dos primeras décadas del siglo siguiente. Las obras del autor referentes a la evolución del sistema nervioso central y periférico y sus relaciones con la inteligencia, en conjunto con la psicología militar y la eugenesia, posibilitan, al menos en parte, la concreción de la ingeniería humana y de sus futuras aplicaciones en diversos sectores de la sociedad estadounidense como instrumento de dominación de la clase dominante. Como se trata de una obra vasta y de variadas aplicaciones en la vida cotidiana, esperamos que esa primera aproximación sea profundizada en futuras investigaciones acerca de los movimientos de la clase trabajadora durante el proceso de modernización de la industria y de la gran reforma social por la que la sociedad estadounidense pasaba en esa época. Estos movimientos fueron ampliamente despreciados por la historiografía de la psicología estadounidense.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Psychology/history , Ergonomics , Psychology, Comparative , Psychology, Military , Eugenia , Nervous System
12.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(10): 749-751, Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038734

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This paper reviews aspects of the life and work of Professor Louis Ranvier 140 years after the publication of Leçons sur l'histologie du système nerveux, published in 1878, and shows the importance of the histological description of myelinated fibers of the nodes of Ranvier.


RESUMO Os autores apresentam uma revisão sobre aspectos da vida e obra do Professor Louis Ranvier 140 anos após a publicação de seu livro Leçons sur l'histologie du système nerveux publicado em 1878 e mostra a importância da descrição histológica nas fibras mielínicas dos nodos de Ranvier.


Subject(s)
History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Ranvier's Nodes , Nervous System/anatomy & histology , Neurology/history , Paris , Nerve Fibers, Myelinated
14.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 26(3): 160-164, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126331

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can affect the nervous system and present a variety of neurological and psychiatric syndromes but the prevalence of neuropsychiatric manifestations in Colombia is unknown. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Patients were assessed by the department of rheumatology between 2010 and 2013 and included randomly chosen subjects over 18 years of age. Prevalence of neurological manifestations was calculated using a confidence interval of 95%. SLE disease activity index was used as baseline to compare statistically with activity, neurological manifestations and fatality. Mann-Whitney U test was used for quantitative variables, while chi-square test was used for qualitative variables. Results: 306 subjects initially entered into the study, 274 were analyzed, 89.1% were women with a median age of 43 years (interquartile range: 23). Prevalence of neuropsychiatric manifestations was 26.2% (95% CI: 21.2-31%). The most common symptoms were headache (13.1%; 95% CI: 9.1-17.2%), cerebrovascular disease (8%; 95% CI: 5.1-11.3%), acute confusional state (6.6%; 95% CI: 4-9.1%), seizure disorders (4.7%; 95% CI: 2.6-7.3%), and aseptic meningitis (2.2%; 95% CI: 0.7-4%); autonomic neuropathy, polyneuropathy, and myelopathy each occurred at 0.7% (95% CI: 0-1.8%). Patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations had severe disease activity (45.8%) and (31.9%) had moderate disease activity. Conclusions: In hospitalized patients diagnosed with SLE, NPS manifestations can occur in up to 26% of cases, the most frequent being headache, cerebrovascular disease, acute confusional state, seizures, and aseptic meningitis and the most frequent treatment being systemic steroids. Prospective studies are required to determine their prognostic implications in this group of patients.


Resumen Antecedentes: El lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) puede afectar el sistema nervioso con una amplia variedad de síndromes psiquiátricos y neurológicos. La prevalencia de manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas en Colombia es desconocida. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte transversal. A partir de la revisión del sistema de información del hospital se obtuvieron datos de los pacientes con diagnóstico de LES, mayores de 18 años, que fueron valorados por reumatología entre 2010 y 2013. Se utilizó un muestreo aleatorio del listado de sujetos con diagnóstico de lupus en el hospital, se calculó la prevalencia de manifestaciones neurológicas con IC 95%, se realizaron cruces exploratorios entre la actividad de la enfermedad por SLEDAI y las manifestaciones neurológicas, y desenlace de fallecimiento. Resultados: De 306 sujetos ingresados al estudio se llevaron al análisis final 274 individuos, de los cuales el 89,1% fueron mujeres; la mediana de edad fue de 43 años (RIQ: 23); la prevalencia de manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas fue del 26,2% (IC 95%: 21,2-31). Los síntomas neurológicos en orden descendente incluyen cefalea (13,1%; IC 95%: 9,1-17,2), enfermedad cerebrovascular (8%; IC 95%: 5,1-11,3), estado confusional agudo (6,6%; IC 95%: 4-9,1), trastornos convulsivos (4,7%; IC 95%: 2,6-7,3), meningitis aséptica (2,2%; IC 95%: 0,7-4), neuropatía autonómica, polineuropatía y mielopatía (presentes en el 0,7%; IC 95%: 0-1,8). Dentro de la población con manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas se encontró que el 45,8% tenía actividad severa de la enfermedad y el 31,9% actividad moderada. Conclusiones: En pacientes hospitalizados con diagnóstico de LES las manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas pueden ocurrir hasta en el 26% de los casos; las más frecuentes son cefalea, enfermedad cerebrovascular, estado confusional agudo, convulsiones y meningitis aséptica, y el tratamiento más frecuente son los esteroides sistémicos. Se requieren estudios prospectivos para determinar sus implicaciones pronósticas en este grupo de pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prevalence , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Cohort Studies , Nervous System , Neurologic Manifestations
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(5): 706-713, May 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012947

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The term meditation can be used in many different ways, according to the technique to which it refers. Transcendental Meditation (MT) is one of these techniques. TM could serve as a model for research on spiritual meditation, unlike the meditation techniques based on secular knowledge. The purpose of the present study is to conduct a bibliographic review to organize scientific evidence on the effects of TM on neurophysiology, neurochemistry, and cognitive and behavioral aspects of its practitioners. To conduct this critical narrative review of the literature, we searched for scientific papers on the PubMed database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The keywords used in the search were Transcendental Meditation, Neuroscience of meditation e Meditation and behavior. We selected 21 papers that analyzed different aspects that could be altered through meditation practice. We concluded that TM has positive and significant documentable neurochemical, neurophysiological, and cognitive-behavioral effects. Among the main effects are the reduction of anxiety and stress (due to the reduction of cortisol and norepinephrine levels), increase of the feeling of pleasure and well-being (due to the increase of the synthesis and release of dopamine and serotonin), and influence on memory recall and possible consolidation. Further studies are needed using creative and innovative methodological designs that analyze different neural circuitry and verify the clinical impact on practitioners.


RESUMO O termo meditação pode ser utilizado de diversas formas, de acordo com a técnica a que se refere. A meditação transcendental (MT) é uma dessas técnicas meditativas. A MT pode ser um modelo para pesquisas de meditação espiritual, diferentemente de técnicas de meditação baseadas em uma compreensão secular. O presente estudo objetiva realizar uma revisão bibliográfica para organizar as evidências científicas sobre os efeitos da MT sobre a neurofisiologia, neuroquímica e aspectos cognitivos e comportamentais dos seus praticantes. Para a realização desta revisão narrativa crítica da literatura, foi realizado um levantamento dos artigos científicos presentes na base de dados PubMed do National Center for Biotechnology Information. As palavras-chave utilizadas na busca foram Transcendental Meditation, Neuroscience of meditation e Meditation and behavior. Foram selecionados 21 artigos que analisavam diferentes aspectos que poderiam ser alterados pela prática meditativa. Conclui-se que a MT produz efeitos neuroquímicos, neurofisiológicos e cognitivo-comportamentais documentáveis em seus praticantes, de caráter positivo e significativo. Entre os principais efeitos estão a diminuição da ansiedade e do estresse (via diminuição nos níveis de cortisol e noradrenalina), aumento na sensação de prazer e bem-estar (em decorrência ao aumento na síntese e liberação de dopamina e serotonina) e influência na evocação e possível consolidação da memória. São necessários mais estudos utilizando desenhos metodológicos inovadores e criativos, analisando diferentes circuitos neurais e verificando o impacto clínico sobre os praticantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cognition/physiology , Meditation/psychology , Nervous System/chemistry , Nervous System Physiological Phenomena , Neurotransmitter Agents/analysis , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exposure to mercury is known to affect the nervous system and cardiovascular system, but effects of chronic exposure to mercury remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high blood mercury concentrations on the health of patients living in the Yeong-dong region.METHODS: We analyzed the relationship between blood mercury concentration and cardiovascular risk and neuropathic symptoms for 555 patients whose blood mercury concentration was tested from 1999 to 2017. We analyzed the association of each lipid component and blood mercury concentration through a partial correlation method. We performed an analysis to determine the odds ratios (ORs) of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity to high blood mercury levels through a logistic regression model. We analyzed the association between mercury levels and neuropathic symptoms using a χ² test and calculated the OR.RESULTS: The average blood mercury concentration was 8.1±7.5 µg/L and 5.5±5.2 µg/L for males and females, respectively. There was a positive correlation of mercury concentration with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (r, 0.268, 0.219; P-value, <0.001). Among other cardiovascular disease risk factors, no significant correlation was found with high blood mercury level. A tingling sensation in females was related to a high blood mercury level (OR, 2.080; 95% confidence interval, 1.119–3.866).CONCLUSION: It was found that higher mercury concentrations could affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol regardless of sex and can cause a tingling sensation in women.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular System , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, HDL , Diabetes Mellitus , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Hypesthesia , Lipoproteins , Logistic Models , Male , Methods , Nervous System , Obesity , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Sensation
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772487

ABSTRACT

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is being used more and more widely in the diagnosis of central nervous system. Based on DTI, track density imaging (TDI) is an emerging technique applied to clinical use. This article introduced the principle and clinical application, analyzed pros and cons, and made conclusion and prospect of these two techniques.


Subject(s)
Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Humans , Nervous System , Diagnostic Imaging
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776646

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the anti-neuroinflammation effect of extract of Fructus Schisandrae chinensis (EFSC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 cells and the possible involved mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Primary cortical neurons were isolated from embryonic (E17-18) cortices of Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse fetuses. Primary microglia and astroglia were isolated from the frontal cortices of newborn ICR mouse. Different cells were cultured in specific culture medium. Cells were divided into 5 groups: control group, LPS group (treated with 1 μg/mL LPS only) and EFSC groups (treated with 1 μg/mL LPS and 100, 200 or 400 mg/mL EFSC, respectively). The effect of EFSC on cells viability was tested by methylthiazolyldiphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. EFSC-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitrite oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were quantified and neuron-protection effect against microglia-mediated inflammation injury was tested by hoechst 33258 apoptosis assay and crystal violet staining assay. The expression of pro-inflammatory marker proteins was evaluated by Western blot analysis or immunofluorescence.@*RESULTS@#EFSC (200 and 400 mg/mL) reduced NO, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression in LPS-induced BV-2 cells (P<0.01 or P<0.05). EFSC (200 and 400 mg/mL) reduced the expression of NO in LPS-induced primary microglia and astroglia (P<0.01). In addition, EFSC alleviated cell apoptosis and inflammation injury in neurons exposed to microglia-conditioned medium (P<0.01). The mechanistic studies indicated EFSC could suppress nuclear factor (NF)-?B phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation (P<0.01). The anti-inflammatory effect of EFSC occurred through suppressed activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway (P<0.01 or P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EFSC acted as an anti-inflammatory agent in LPS-induced glia cells. These effects might be realized through blocking of NF-κB activity and inhibition of MAPK signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astrocytes , Metabolism , Pathology , Cell Line , Cell Nucleus , Metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Down-Regulation , Inflammation , Pathology , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice, Inbred ICR , Microglia , Metabolism , Pathology , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Nervous System , Pathology , Neurons , Metabolism , Pathology , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Schisandra , Chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
19.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 145-155, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775481

ABSTRACT

The autonomic nervous system controls various internal organs and executes crucial functions through sophisticated neural connectivity and circuits. Its dysfunction causes an imbalance of homeostasis and numerous human disorders. In the past decades, great efforts have been made to study the structure and functions of this system, but so far, our understanding of the classification of autonomic neuronal subpopulations remains limited and a precise map of their connectivity has not been achieved. One of the major challenges that hinder rapid progress in these areas is the complexity and heterogeneity of autonomic neurons. To facilitate the identification of neuronal subgroups in the autonomic nervous system, here we review the well-established and cutting-edge technologies that are frequently used in peripheral neuronal tracing and profiling, and discuss their operating mechanisms, advantages, and targeted applications.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autonomic Nervous System , Physiology , Cell Differentiation , Physiology , Cell Lineage , Physiology , Homeostasis , Physiology , Humans , Nervous System , Neurons , Physiology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719412

ABSTRACT

Neural stem cells (NSCs) can proliferate and differentiate into multiple cell types that constitute the nervous system. NSCs can be derived from developing fetuses, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells. NSCs provide a good platform to screen drugs for neurodegenerative diseases and also have potential applications in regenerative medicine. Natural products have long been used as compounds to develop new drugs. In this review, natural products that control NSC fate and induce their differentiation into neurons or glia are discussed. These phytochemicals enable promising advances to be made in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Embryonic Stem Cells , Fetus , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Nervous System , Neural Stem Cells , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurogenesis , Neuroglia , Neurons , Neuroprotection , Phytochemicals , Regenerative Medicine
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