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1.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 15-20, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928511

ABSTRACT

Semen analysis is characterized by high levels of intra- and inter-laboratory variability, due to a low level of standardization, high subjectivity of the assessments, and problems with automated procedures. To improve consistency of laboratory results, quality control and training of technicians are important requisites. The goals of this study are to evaluate the results of an external quality control (EQC) program and standardized training by ESHRE Basic Semen Analysis Courses (BSAC) on the variability in manual assessments of semen parameters. We performed retrospective analyses of (1) the interlaboratory variability in the Dutch EQC program and (2) the interobserver variability in BSACs for concentration, motility, and morphology assessments. EQC data showed that the interlaboratory coefficient of variation (CV) for concentration assessment decreased (range from 24.0%-97.5% to 12.7%-20.9%) but not for morphology and motility assessments. Concentration variability was lower if improved Neubauer hemocytometers were used. Morphology assessment showed highest CVs (up to 375.0%), with many outliers in the period of 2007-2014. During BSAC, a significant reduction of interobserver variability could be established for all parameters (P < 0.05). The absence of an effect in the EQC program for motility and morphology might be explained by respectively the facts that motility assessment was introduced relatively late in the EQC program (since 2013) and that criteria for morphology assessment changed in time. BSAC results might have been influenced by the pretraining level of participants and the influence of external factors. Both EQC and training show positive effects on reducing variability. Increased willingness by laboratories to change their methods toward standards may lead to further improvements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Netherlands , Quality Control , Retrospective Studies , Semen , Semen Analysis , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility
2.
Rev. latinoam. bioét ; 21(1): 127-136, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341511

ABSTRACT

Abstract: In discussions about assisted dying (euthanasia, assisted suicide), those who argue 'against' legalisation often reason from a religious angle, whereas those 'in favour' adopt a secular stance. The Dutch experience is more nuanced: here, euthanasia advocacy largely originated from protestant religious believers. In this contribution, I criticise the use of religious arguments favouring any specific position. Religion may provide a heuristic context to explore norms relevant in the discussion, and religion may help us formulate our personal stance. But when it comes to societal debates (often focusing on whether or not to legalise euthanasia), we should concentrate on legal, societal, empirical, and ethical arguments that are understandable to all.


Resumen: en discusiones sobre la muerte asistida (eutanasia, suicidio asistido), aquellos que argumentan estar "en contra" de la legalización a menudo razonan desde un ángulo religioso, mientras que los que están "a favor" adoptan una postura secular. La experiencia holandesa es más matizada: aquí, la defensa de la eutanasia se originó en gran medida por creyentes religiosos protestantes. En esta contribución, critico el uso de argumentos religiosos que favorezcan cualquier posición específica. La religión puede proveer un contexto heurístico para explorar normas relevantes en la discusión, y la religión puede ayudarnos a formular nuestra postura personal. Pero cuando se trata de debates sociales (a menudo enfocados en la legalización o no de la eutanasia), debemos concentrarnos en argumentos jurídicos, sociales, empíricos y éticos que sean comprensibles para todos.


Resumo: Em discussões sobre a morte assistida (eutanásia, suicidio assistido), os que argumentam estar "contra" a legalização com frequência pensam a partir de um ângulo religioso, enquanto os que estão "a favor" adotam um posicionamento secular. A experiência holandesa é mais fusionada: aqui, a defesa da eutanásia foi originada em grande medida por crentes religiosos protestantes. Nesta contribuição, critico o uso de argumentos religiosos que favoreçam qualquer posicionamento específico. A religião pode promover um contexto heurístico para explorar normas relevantes na discussão, e a religiao pode ajudarnos a formular nosso posicionamento pessoal. Contudo, quando é tratado de debates sociais (às vezes focados na legalização ou não da eutanásia), devemos concentrar-nos em argumentos jurídicos, sociais, empíricos e éticos que sejam compreensíveis para todos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bioethics , Religion , Euthanasia , Netherlands
3.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e38, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101766

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. To identify specific health care areas whose optimization could improve population health in the Dutch Caribbean islands of Aruba and Curaçao. Methods. Comparative observational study using mortality and population data of the Dutch Caribbean islands and the Netherlands. Mortality trends were calculated, then analyzed with Joinpoint software, for the period 1988-2014. Life expectancies were computed using abridged life tables for the most recent available data of all territories (2005-2007). Life expectancy differences between the Dutch Caribbean and the Netherlands were decomposed into cause-specific contributions using Arriaga's method. Results. During the period 1988-2014, levels of amenable mortality have been consistently higher in Aruba and Curaçao than in the Netherlands. For Aruba, the gap in amenable mortality with the Netherlands did not significantly change during the study period, while it widened for Curaçao. If mortality from amenable causes were reduced to similar levels as in the Netherlands, men and women in Aruba would have added, respectively, 1.19 years and 0.72 years to their life expectancies during the period 2005-2007. In Curaçao, this would be 2.06 years and 2.33 years. The largest cause-specific contributions were found for circulatory diseases, breast cancer, perinatal causes, and nephritis/nephrosis (these last two causes solely in Curaçao). Conclusions. Improvements in health care services related to circulatory diseases, breast cancer, perinatal deaths, and nephritis/nephrosis in the Dutch Caribbean could substantially contribute to reducing the gap in life expectancy with the Netherlands. Based on our study, we recommend more in-depth studies to identify the specific interventions and resources needed to optimize the underlying health care areas.(AU)


RESUMEN Objetivo. Determinar las áreas específicas de atención de salud cuya optimización podría mejorar la salud de la población en las islas del Caribe holandés de Aruba y Curaçao. Métodos. Estudio de observación comparativo en el que se utilizaron datos demográficos y de mortalidad de las islas del Caribe holandés y de los Países Bajos. Se calcularon las tendencias de mortalidad y luego se analizaron con programas de computación Jointpoint de regresión lineal segmentada, para el período 1988-2014. La esperanza de vida se calculó utilizando tablas de mortalidad abreviadas con los datos más recientes disponibles de todos los territorios (2005-2007). Las diferencias de esperanza de vida entre el Caribe holandés y los Países Bajos se desglosaron, usando el método de Arriaga, en contribuciones por causas específicas. Resultados. En el período 1988-2014, los niveles de mortalidad por causas evitables mediante la atención de salud han sido sistemáticamente mayores en Aruba y Curaçao que en los Países Bajos. En el caso de Aruba, la brecha en la mortalidad por causas evitables mediante la atención de salud con respecto a los Países Bajos no varió significativamente durante el período de estudio; en el caso de Curaçao, la brecha fue mayor. Si la mortalidad por causas evitables mediante la atención de salud se redujese a un nivel similar al de los Países Bajos, los hombres y las mujeres en Aruba habrían sumado, respectivamente, 1,19 años y 0,72 años a su esperanza de vida en el período 2005-2007. En Curaçao, el aumento hubiese sido de 2,06 años y de 2,33 años. Según el estudio, las causas específicas que más contribuyen a esta diferencia son las enfermedades circulatorias, el cáncer de mama, las complicaciones perinatales, y la nefritis/nefrosis (estas últimas dos causas solamente en Curaçao). Conclusiones. Una mejora en los servicios de salud en relación con las enfermedades circulatorias, el cáncer de mama, las complicaciones perinatales, y la nefritis/nefrosis en el Caribe holandés podría contribuir sustancialmente a la reducción de la brecha en la esperanza de vida con respecto a los Países Bajos. Por tanto, con base en nuestro estudio, recomendamos que se realicen más estudios exhaustivos a fin de determinar las intervenciones específicas y los recursos que se necesitan para optimizar las áreas de atención de salud involucradas.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivo. Identificar áreas específicas da atenção à saúde cuja otimização poderia melhorar a saúde da população nas ilhas de Aruba e Curaçao, no Caribe holandês. Métodos. Estudo observacional comparativo baseado em dados de mortalidade e populacionais das ilhas do Caribe holandês e dos Países Baixos. As tendências de mortalidade foram calculadas e então analisadas com o software Joinpoint, no período de 1988 a 2014. As expectativas de vida foram computadas usando tábuas de mortalidade resumidas com os dados disponíveis mais recentes de todos os territórios (2005-2007). As diferenças na expectativa de vida entre o Caribe holandês e os Países Baixos foram desagregadas segundo as contribuições específicas por causa usando o método de Arriaga. Resultados. No período de 1988 a 2014, os níveis de mortalidade evitável foram consistentemente mais elevados em Aruba e Curaçao do que nos Países Baixos. Em Aruba, a diferença na mortalidade evitável em comparação com os Países Baixos não mudou significativamente durante o período do estudo, enquanto que em Curaçao a diferença aumentou. Se a mortalidade por causas evitáveis fosse reduzida a níveis semelhantes aos dos Países Baixos, os homens e mulheres de Aruba teriam aumentos respectivos de 1,19 e 0,72 anos nas suas expectativas de vida durante o período 2005-2007. Em Curaçao, o aumento seria de 2,06 e 2,33 anos. As maiores contribuições de causas específicas foram as de doenças circulatórias, câncer de mama, causas perinatais e nefrite/nefrose (estas duas últimas causas somente em Curaçao). Conclusões. Melhorias nos serviços de saúde relacionados com doenças circulatórias, câncer de mama, mortes perinatais e nefrite/nefrose no Caribe holandês poderiam contribuir substancialmente para reduzir as disparidades na expectativa de vida em comparação com os Países Baixos. Com base neste trabalho, recomendamos estudos mais aprofundados para identificar as intervenções e recursos específicos necessários para otimizar estas áreas da atenção à saúde.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Evaluation/statistics & numerical data , Life Expectancy , Quality Indicators, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Aruba , Curacao , Netherlands
6.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 46(4): 89-96, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019345

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Based on his model of self-regulation and executive functions, Barkley developed a self- and other-report questionnaire (the Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale - BDEFS). The BDEFS measures deficits in executive functions as expressed in daily life activities like self-management of time, self-organization, self-restraint, self-motivation, and self-regulation of emotion. Objectives This study created and analyzed a Dutch translation and adaptation in conformance with official guidelines. Methods The Dutch and English BDEFS were completed by 25 bilingual Dutch adults to evaluate semantic correspondence. Consequently, 60 Dutch participants completed the Dutch BDEFS, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-Eleventh edition (BIS-11) and the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) to evaluate concurrent validity and internal consistency. Results The versions demonstrated sufficient semantic equivalence and Spearman's rho of total scores was high; items mostly showed moderate-to-high correlations. Regression analysis showed no proportional bias. Internal consistency was also high. Correlations between BDEFS, BIS-11 and DEX supported concurrent validity. Discussion We conclude that a successful BDEFS translation and adaptation was created with satisfactory reliability and validity. Further research should assess the utility of the BDEFS in Dutch clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Translating , Surveys and Questionnaires , Executive Function/physiology , Behavior Rating Scale , Psychometrics , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Self-Management/psychology , Netherlands
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776243

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To systematically review the current status of application of acupuncture in low back pain guidelines.@*METHODS@#The computer retrieval was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMbase, China Journal Full Text Database (CNKI), China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), VIP, Wanfang, guidelines databases, and the official websites of WHO and academic organizations (American Pain Society, American College of Physicians, etc.). After screening, the basic information and acupuncture-related issues in the guidelines that met the inclusion criteria were extracted and compared by using Excel software.@*RESULTS@#A total of 35 low back pain guidelines were included. ① One guideline was published before 2000, 16 guidelines were published from 2000 to 2010, and 18 guidelines were published from 2011 to 2017; 17 guidelines were published by the United States, 4 by Canada and China, 2 by New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and Europe, and 1 by Netherlands, Philippines, Denmark and Italy. ② Twenty-three guidelines were evidence-based guidelines, which was developed mainly by system review, meta-analysis and expert consultation, involving diagnosis, treatment, primary care of low back pain. ③ Acupuncture was mentioned in 23 guidelines, of them, 7 guidelines recommended acupuncture, 6 guidelines indicated that acupuncture might be considered under certain conditions such as combined with other therapies or patients were interested in acupuncture, however, 10 guidelines did not recommended acupuncture for low back pain.@*CONCLUSION@#The guidelines of low back pain are mainly developed by Europe countries and the United States, and the majority is published in the last 20 years. Among them, 20% of the guidelines have recommend acupuncture for low back pain.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , China , Europe , Humans , Low Back Pain , Therapeutics , Netherlands , New Zealand , Practice Guidelines as Topic , United Kingdom
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A randomized trial of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (ARUBA) reported superior outcomes in conservative management compared to interventional treatment. There were numerous limitations to the study. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for patients with brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) by comparing its outcomes to those of the ARUBA study. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed ARUBA-eligible patients treated with GKS from June 2002 to September 2017 and compared against those in the ARUBA study. AVM obliteration and hemorrhage rates, and clinical outcomes following GKS were also evaluated. RESULTS: The ARUBA-eligible cohort comprised 264 patients. The Spetzler-Martin grade was Grade I to II in 52.7% and III to IV in 47.3% of the patients. The mean AVM nidus volume, marginal dose, and follow-up period were 4.8 cm³, 20.8 Gy, and 55.5 months, respectively. AVM obliteration was achieved in 62.1%. The annual hemorrhage rate after GKS was 3.4%. A stroke or death occurred in 14.0%. The overall stroke or death rate of the ARUBA-eligible cohort was significantly lower than that of the interventional arm of the ARUBA study (P < 0.001) and did not significantly differ from that of the medical arm in the ARUBA study (P = 0.601). CONCLUSION: GKS was shown to achieve a favorable outcome with low procedure-related morbidity in majority of the ARUBA-eligible patients. The outcome after GKS in our patients was not inferior to that of medical care alone in the ARUBA study. It is suggested that GKS is rather superior to medical care considering the short follow-up duration of the ARUBA study.


Subject(s)
Arm , Arteriovenous Malformations , Brain , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Mortality , Netherlands , Radiosurgery , Retrospective Studies , Stroke
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the performance of the 2015 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) classification criteria for gout in Korean patients with acute arthritis and to compare the performance of the ACR/EULAR criteria to that of other sets of criteria for gout classification. METHODS: Patients with acute arthritis who underwent diagnostic arthrocentesis at one of the four participating rheumatology clinics were consecutively enrolled between February and December 2017. Crystal-proven gout was diagnosed upon confirming the presence of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in patients with a clinical impression of gout as judged by the rheumatologist. The performance of the ACR/EULAR and other gout classification criteria, including the Rome, New York, American Rheumatism Association (ARA), Mexico, and Netherlands criteria, was analyzed regardless of the presence/absence of MSU crystals. RESULTS: The study enrolled 118 gout patients (all crystal-proven) and 95 non-gout patients. According to the area under the curve, the diagnostic performance was the highest for the ACR/EULAR classification criteria (sensitivity, 80.5%; specificity, 95.8%; area under the curve, 0.966), followed by the Netherlands, Rome, ARA, New York, and Mexico criteria. All six sets of criteria demonstrated lower sensitivity in patients exhibiting the first episode of acute arthritis. CONCLUSION: In Korean patients with acute arthritis, the ACR/EULAR classification criteria outperformed other sets of gout classification criteria even in the absence of information regarding the presence of MSU crystals. However, to enhance diagnostic sensitivity, synovial fluid analysis should be considered in patients with the first episode of acute arthritis.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , Arthrocentesis , Classification , Gout , Humans , Mexico , Netherlands , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Synovial Fluid , Uric Acid
10.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 420-427, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786580

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To prevent and manage the societal and economic burden of occupational diseases (ODs), countries should develop strong prevention policies, health surveillance and registry systems. This study aims to contribute to the improvement of OD surveillance at national level as well as to identify priority actions in Turkey.METHODS: The history and current status of occupational health studies were considered from the perspective of OD surveillance. Interpretative research was done through literature review on occupational health at national, regional and international level. Analyses were focused on countries’ experiences in policy development and practice, roles and responsibilities of institutions, multidisciplinary and intersectoral collaboration. OD surveillance models of Turkey, Belgium and the Netherlands were examined through exchange visits. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to explore the peculiarities of legislative and institutional structures, the best and worst practices, and approach principles.RESULTS: Some countries are more focused on exploring OD trends through effective and cost-efficient researches, with particular attention to new and emerging ODs. Other countries try to reach every single case of OD for compensation and rehabilitation. Each practice has advantages and shortcomings, but they are not mutually exclusive, and thus an effective combination is possible.CONCLUSION: Effective surveillance and registry approaches play a key role in the prevention of ODs. A well-designed system enables monitoring and assessment of OD prevalence and trends, and adoption of preventive measures while improving the effectiveness of redressing and compensation. A robust surveillance does not only provide protection of workers’ health but also advances prevention of economic losses.


Subject(s)
Belgium , Compensation and Redress , Cooperative Behavior , Health Policy , Netherlands , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Health , Policy Making , Prevalence , Rehabilitation , Turkey
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719306

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore current practice and influencing factors on adoption of the opportunistic salpingectomy (OS), particularly regarding the decision making, to eventually enhance the development and implementation of clear guidelines. METHODS: This nationwide cross-sectional survey study was conducted in all hospitals in the Netherlands. An anonymous online survey was sent to gynecologists with special interest in gynecological oncology, gynecological endoscopy or urogynecology and all Dutch gynecology trainees. The survey mainly focused on current practice regarding OS and identification of influencing factors on the level of innovation, organization, healthcare professional and individual patient. RESULTS: The response rate was 348 out of 597 gynecologists (58.3%) and 142 out of 340 trainees (41.8%). Current practice of discussing and performing the OS varied widely, with ovarian cancer (OC) risk reduction as most important supportive factor on innovation level. Supportive factors on the level of organization and healthcare provider were; working in a non-training hospital, knowledge of current literature and extensive work experience (in years and annual number of hysterectomies). On individual patient level, a vaginal approach of hysterectomy, negative family history for OC and the presence of firm adhesions were suppressive factors for the OS. CONCLUSION: In this study we evaluated the current practice regarding the opportunistic salpingectomy in the Netherlands and identified influencing factors on different levels to raise awareness and attribute to development of a targeted implementation strategy, on both national and international level.


Subject(s)
Anonyms and Pseudonyms , Cross-Sectional Studies , Decision Making , Delivery of Health Care , Endoscopy , Gynecology , Health Personnel , Humans , Hysterectomy , Netherlands , Ovarian Neoplasms , Primary Prevention , Risk Reduction Behavior , Salpingectomy
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719252

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Netherlands , Salpingectomy
14.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 66-71, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Because of the national screening program for colorectal carcinoma in The Netherlands, the number of colonoscopies has increased. In case of incomplete colonoscopy, computed tomography colonography (CTC) and double-balloon colonoscopy (DBc) are alternative options. This study evaluated cecal intubation rate and pathology detection rate in the previously unexplored part of the colon, complication rate of DBc, and CTC results after incomplete colonoscopy. METHODS: Retrospective observational study in a tertiary referral hospital regarding DBc and CTC reports from cases with incomplete colonoscopy. RESULTS: Sixty-three DBcs were performed after incomplete colonoscopy. Cecal intubation rate was 95%. Detection rate was 58% (5% carcinoma and 3% high-grade dysplastic adenoma). CTC preceded 54% of DBcs and 62% of CTC findings were confirmed. In 16%, a biopsy was taken, and in 60%, an intervention (mostly polypectomy) was performed. One major complication (1.5%) occurred, i.e., arterial bleeding due to polypectomy necessitating right hemicolectomy. CTC (n=213) showed a possible lesion in 35%, and could be confirmed by follow-up endoscopy or surgery in 65%. CONCLUSIONS: DBc is effective and safe for completion of colon inspection in incomplete colonoscopy. In patients with a high likelihood of pathology, DBc is preferred over CTC.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Cecum , Colon , Colonography, Computed Tomographic , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms , Endoscopy , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intubation , Mass Screening , Netherlands , Observational Study , Pathology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764450

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: It is assumed that case-based questions require higher-order cognitive processing, whereas questions that are not case-based require lower-order cognitive processing. In this study, we investigated to what extent case-based and non-case-based questions followed this assumption based on Bloom's taxonomy. METHODS: In this article, 4,800 questions from the Interuniversity Progress Test of Medicine were classified based on whether they were case-based and on the level of Bloom's taxonomy that they involved. Lower-order questions require students to remember or/and have a basic understanding of knowledge. Higher-order questions require students to apply, analyze, or/and evaluate. The phi coefficient was calculated to investigate the relationship between whether questions were case-based and the required level of cognitive processing. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that 98.1% of case-based questions required higher-level cognitive processing. Of the non-case-based questions, 33.7% required higher-level cognitive processing. The phi coefficient demonstrated a significant, but moderate correlation between the presence of a patient case in a question and its required level of cognitive processing (phi coefficient= 0.55, P< 0.001). CONCLUSION: Medical instructors should be aware of the association between item format (case-based versus non-case-based) and the cognitive processes they elicit in order to meet the desired balance in a test, taking the learning objectives and the test difficulty into account.


Subject(s)
Classification , Education, Medical , Educational Measurement , Humans , Learning , Netherlands
16.
Intestinal Research ; : 366-373, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715884

ABSTRACT

Electronic health (eHealth) data collection is increasingly used in many chronic illnesses, to track pattern of disease. eHealth systems have the potential to revolutionize care. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a paradigm for such an approach: this is a chronic disease that usually affects young and technologically literate patient population, who are motivated to be involved in their own care. A range of eHealth technologies are available for IBD. This review considers the strengths and weaknesses of 7 platforms that focus on patient-provider interaction. These have been developed in Denmark, United States, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, demonstrating an international interest in this form of technology and interaction. Not only do these technologies aim to improve care but they also have the potential to collect large amounts of information. Information includes demographics and patient reported outcomes (symptoms, quality of life), quality of care (steroid use, among other metrics) and outcomes such as hospitalization. These data could inform quality improvement programmes to improve their focus. eHealth technology is also open to machine learning to analyze large data sets, through which personalized algorithms may be developed.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Technology , Chronic Disease , Data Collection , Dataset , Demography , Denmark , Electronic Health Records , United Kingdom , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Machine Learning , Mobile Applications , Netherlands , Quality Improvement , Telemedicine , United States
17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 336-343, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713800

ABSTRACT

“Comfort women” refers to young women and girls who were forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese military during World War II. They were abducted from their homes in countries under Imperial Japanese rule, mostly from Korea, and the rest from China, Philippines, Malaysia, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Netherlands, etc. “Comfort women” endured extreme trauma involving rape, sexual torture, physical abuse, starvation, threats of death, and witnessed many others being tortured and killed. This article reviews all the studies that have investigated the psychiatric or psychosocial sequelae of the survivors of the Japanese military sexual slavery. Most importantly, a recent study which conducted a psychiatric evaluation on the former “comfort women” currently alive in South Korea is introduced. The participants’ unmarried rate was relatively high and their total fertility rate was relatively low. Majority of the participants reported having no education and being the low economic status. They showed high current and lifetime prevalence of posttraumatic disorder, major depressive disorder, somatic symptom disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and alcohol use disorder. Participants showed high suicidality and majority of the participants still reported being ashamed of being former “comfort women” after all these years. This article high-lights the fact that the trauma has affected the mental health and social functioning of former “comfort women” throughout their lives, and even to the present day.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Asians , Birth Rate , China , Depressive Disorder, Major , Education , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Korea , Malaysia , Mental Health , Military Personnel , Netherlands , Panic Disorder , Philippines , Physical Abuse , Prevalence , Rape , Single Person , Enslavement , Starvation , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Survivors , Taiwan , Torture , World War II
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766441

ABSTRACT

Chronic diseases, such as hypertension and diabetes, account for 60% of global mortality. These conditions are directly related to unhealthy lifestyle habits, which are considered to be preventable risk factors, making it important to establish and maintain healthy habits. Several countries, including South Korea, have organized medical-based expert committees in order to develop and release lifestyle management guidelines. In this study, committees in the United States, United Kingdom, Netherlands, and Australia, and how they have developed guidelines, are scrutinized as benchmark policy cases. Physicians comprise most of the members of those committees, and most of the committees are operated independently from the government. All members of each committee are transparently listed on the committee's website, and the committees develop guidelines in a systematic and well-organized way. In comparison with these international committees, the relevant Korean committees (the Medical Guideline Committee and the Korean Preventive Services Task Force), have a number of things to change in terms of independence, expertise, and the process of developing guidelines. First, both of these committees are directly related to a governmental agency, the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The proportion of physicians on the Medical Guideline Committee and the Korean Preventive Services Task Force is lower than that of other committees. Moreover, the focus of the current process of developing guidelines is limited to development itself, rather than the broader process, including re-assessment and feedback loops. This paper provides suggestions for the current lifestyle guideline committee based on case studies, with the ultimate goal of improving quality of life.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Australia , Benchmarking , Chronic Disease , United Kingdom , Hypertension , Korea , Life Style , Mortality , Netherlands , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , United States
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(5): 429-430, oct. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899738

ABSTRACT

From the begin of clinical microbiology in the second half of the nineteenth century, the fungi were neglected as contaminants without relevance for health, belonging the major advances of their study to the fields of milk derivatives and beer industries. However, the seek for the etiological agent of thrush, a very common oral pathology affecting the newborn, put the yeasts on the table near 1840 with three capital papers - Berg, Gruby and Bennett - speaking about spores from vegetable as parasites of animal and human beings. The door was open, and very soon, in 1853, came the decisive description by Robin of the Oidium albicans as the causative agent of this painful disease. Seventy years after, in 1923, Christine Marie Berkhout, rejecting this name, defined the genus as Candida, leaving the specie with the iterative Latin name of Candida albicans, that means "White-white". Or, perhaps, with a fine sense of humor, she has made an oxymoron, because "candida" means a brilliant white and "albicans" a matt one, both opposite adjectives. Or, may be, Christine is still saying us: "White…but not so white".


Subject(s)
History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Candida albicans/classification , Candidiasis/history , Microbiology/history , France , Netherlands
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Korea, the problem of physician workforce imbalances has been a debated issue for a long time. This study aimed to draw key lessons and policy implications to Korea by analyzing projection models of physician demand/supply among five countries. METHODS: We adopted theoretical framework and analyzed detail indicators used in projection models of demand/supply comparatively among countries. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar with key search terms and it was complimented with hand searching of grey literature in Korean or English. RESULTS: As a results, Korea has been used a supply-based traditional approach without taking various variables or environmental factors influencing on demand/supply into consideration. The projection models of USA and Netherlands which considered the diversity of variables and political issues is the most closest integrated approach. Based on the consensus of stakeholder, the evolved integrated forecasting approach which best suits our nation is needed to minimize a wasteful debate related to physician demand/supply. Also it is necessary to establish the national level statistics indices and database about physician workforce. In addition, physician workforce planning will be discussed periodically. CONCLUSION: We expect that this study will pave the way to seek reasonable and developmental strategies of physician workforce planning.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Forecasting , Hand , Korea , Netherlands
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