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Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 44(2): 9-12, maio-ago. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1427966


The glossopharyngeal nerve (IX cranial nerve) is a mixed nerve, with both motor and sensory function. This relates to the tongue and pharynx. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is a rare nervous neuropathy, with poristic, lancinating and paritary crises, usually unilateral. The aim of the study was to review the literature on glossopharyngeal neuralgia of the nerve (IX cranial nerve), highlighting the anatomical aspects of this nerve and the possible causes and complications of neuralgia as well as forms of treatment. A literature review was carried out in the international Pubmed database. The literature review included 72 articles from 2015 to 2021. The keywords used were: "anatomy of glossopharyngeal neuralgia". Of the 72 articles, 7 were used for this literature review. Uncommon as nervous/glossophingeal etiologies and pathologies are neurological abnormalities/neurovarises and pathologies are neurovascular/neurovariseal lesions. Pharmacological treatment approaches mentioned in the literature were therapy with antiepileptics and antidepressants such as carbamazepine and gabapentin; a microvascular decompression; and gamma knife radiosurgery(AU)

O nervo glossofaríngeo (IX par de nervo craniano) é um nervo misto, contendo função tanto motora como sensitiva. Este nervo relaciona-se com a língua e com a faringe. A neuralgia do nervo glossofaríngeo é uma neurapatia rara, sendo caracterizada por crises dolorosas, lancinantes e paroxísticas, geralmente unilaterais. O objetivo do estudo foi realizar uma revisão de literatura sobre a neuralgia do nervo glossofaríngeo (IX par de nervo craniano), destacando os aspectos anatômicos deste nervo e as possíveis causas e complicações da neuralgia bem como formas de tratamento. Foi realizada uma revisão da literatura na base de dados internacional Pubmed. A revisão da literatura incluiu 72 artigos no período de 2015 a 2021. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram: "anatomia da neuralgia do glossofaríngeo". Dos 72 artigos, 7 foram utilizados para esta revisão de literatura. Verificouse que a neuralgia do nervo glossofaríngeo é incomum e as etiologias mais encontradas foram compressão neurovascular/variações vasculares, patologias e traumas. As abordagens dos tratamentos mencionadas na literatura foram a terapia farmacológica da área com antiepilépticos e antidepressivos, como carbamazepina e gabapentina; a descompressão microvascular; e radiocirurgia com faca gama(AU)

Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases , Glossopharyngeal Nerve , Neuralgia , Cranial Nerves , Neuralgia/complications , Neuralgia/etiology , Neuralgia/therapy
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(2): 195-198, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389856


Resumen La amigdalectomía es uno de los procedimientos quirúrgicos más frecuentes que realiza el otorrinolaringólogo. Dentro de las complicaciones posoperatorias, la neuralgia del nervio glosofaríngeo es extremadamente poco frecuente. En este artículo se presentan dos casos clínicos pediátricos con neuralgia del glosofaríngeo posamigdalectomía que fueron resueltos con tratamiento médico.

Abstract Tonsillectomy is one of the most common procedures done by the otolaryngologist. Among post-operative complications, the glossopharyngeal neuralgia is extremely uncommon. This article presents two pediatric clinical cases with post-tonsillectomy glossopharyngeal neuralgia that were resolved with medical treatment.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Postoperative Complications , Tonsillectomy/adverse effects , Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases , Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases/diagnosis , Glossopharyngeal Nerve , Neuralgia
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927354


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the occurrence time of neuralgia and the expression of purinergic ligand-gated ion channel 7 receptor (P2X7R) in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord after intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in diabetic rats, and to explore the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) and pretreatment of EA on the heat pain threshold and expression of P2X7R in the spinal dorsal horn in rats with diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP), and to explore the possible mechanism of EA for DNP.@*METHODS@#PartⅠ: Thirty male SD rats were randomly selected from 64 male SD rats as the control group; the remaining rats were given intraperitoneal injection of STZ (10 mg/mL) at a dose of 65 mg/kg to establish the diabetes model, and 30 rats were successfully modeled as the model group. The control group and the model group were divided into three subgroups respectively at 7, 14 and 21 days, with 10 rats in each subgroup. Body mass, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and thermal pain threshold were recorded at 7, 14 and 21 days after injection; the expression of P2X7R in spinal dorsal horn was detected by Western blot. PartⅡ: Eight SD rats were randomly selected from 35 male SD rats as the blank group, and the remaining 27 rats were given intraperitoneal injection of STZ (10 mg/mL) at a dose of 65 mg/kg to establish the diabetes model. The 24 rats with successful diabetes model were randomly divided into a DNP group, an EA group and a pre-EA group, 8 rats in each group. Fifteen to 21 days after STZ injection, the EA group received EA at "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Kunlun" (BL 60), continuous wave, frequency of 2 Hz, 30 min each time, once a day; the intervention method in the pre-EA group was the same as that in the EA group. The intervention time was 8 to 14 days after STZ injection. The body mass, FBG and thermal pain threshold were recorded before STZ injection and 7, 14 and 21 days after STZ injection; the expression of P2X7R in spinal dorsal horn was detected by Western blot 21 days after injection.@*RESULTS@#PartⅠ: Compared with the control group, in the model group, the body mass was decreased and FBG was increased 7, 14 and 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.01), and the thermal pain threshold was decreased 14 and 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.05), and the expression of P2X7R in spinal dorsal horn was increased 7, 14 and 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.05, P<0.01). PartⅡ: Compared with the blank group, in the DNP group, the body mass was decreased and fasting blood glucose were increased 7, 14 and 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.01). Compared with the DNP group, in the pre-EA group, the heat pain threshold was increased 14 and 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.05), while in the EA group, the heat pain threshold was increased 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.01), and the expression of P2X7R in the dorsal horn in the EA group and the pre-EA group was decreased (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The diabetic neuropathic pain is observed 14 days after STZ injection. EA could not only treat but also prevent the occurrence of DNP, and its mechanism may be related to down-regulation of P2X7R expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.

Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Neuralgia/therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 353-358, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939570


This study was aimed to observe the distribution of Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor A (MrgA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting nucleus of normal rats and its expression in neuropathic pain, and to provide morphological evidence for CSF-contacting nucleus to participate in neuropathic pain. The model of neuropathic pain with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve was made in Sprague-Dawley rats. The thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) and mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) were measured. The expressions of MrgA in the CSF-contacting nucleus were examined by double labeling with immunofluorescent staining. The results showed that on the 5th, 7th, 10th and 14th days, the values of MWT and TWL in CCI group were all lower than those in sham group (P < 0.05). MrgA was found to be distributed in CSF-contacting nucleus of normal rats; and the expression was markedly up-regulated in rats at the peak of neuropathic pain. Our data suggest that CSF-contacting nucleus may participate in neuropathic pain through the MrgA-mediated signaling pathway.

Animals , Rats , Neuralgia , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Staphylococcal Protein A/metabolism , Up-Regulation
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 403-416, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929123


Spinal cord stimulation (SCS)-induced analgesia was characterized, and its underlying mechanisms were examined in a spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain in rats. The analgesic effect of SCS with moderate mechanical hypersensitivity was increased with increasing stimulation intensity between the 20% and 80% motor thresholds. Various frequencies (2, 15, 50, 100, 10000 Hz, and 2/100 Hz dense-dispersed) of SCS were similarly effective. SCS-induced analgesia was maintained without tolerance within 24 h of continuous stimulation. SCS at 2 Hz significantly increased methionine enkephalin content in the cerebrospinal fluid. The analgesic effect of 2 Hz was abolished by μ or κ opioid receptor antagonist. The effect of 100 Hz was prevented by a κ antagonist, and that of 10 kHz was blocked by any of the μ, δ, or κ receptor antagonists, suggesting that the analgesic effect of SCS at different frequencies is mediated by different endorphins and opioid receptors.

Animals , Rats , Analgesics , Narcotic Antagonists/pharmacology , Neuralgia/therapy , Opioid Peptides , Receptors, Opioid/physiology , Receptors, Opioid, kappa , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Stimulation
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928159


The present study investigated the effect of emodin on the serum metabolite profiles in the chronic constriction injury(CCI) model by non-target metabolomics and explored its analgesic mechanism. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into a sham group(S), a CCI group(C), and an emodin group(E). The rats in the emodin group were taken emodin via gavage once a day for fifteen days(50 mg·kg~(-1)) on the first day after the CCI surgery. Mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT) and thermal withdrawal threshold(TWL) in each group were performed before the CCI surgery and 3,7, 11, and 15 days after surgery. After 15 days, blood samples were collected from the abdominal aorta. The differential metabolites were screened out by non-target metabolomics and analyzed with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) and ingenuity pathway analysis(IPA). From the third day after CCI surgery, the MWT and TWL values were reduced significantly in both CCI group and emodin group, compared with the sham group(P<0.01). At 15 days post-surgery, the MWT and TWL values in emodin group increased significantly compared with the CCI group(P<0.05). As revealed by non-target metabolomics, 72 differential serum metabolites were screened out from the C-S comparison, including 41 up-regulated and 31 down-regulated ones, while 26 differential serum metabolites from E-C comparison, including 10 up-regulated and 16 down-regulated ones. KEGG analysis showed that the differential metabolites in E-C comparison were enriched in the signaling pathways, such as sphingolipid metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism. IPA showed that the differential metabolites were mainly involved in the lipid metabolism-molecular transport-small molecule biochemistry network. In conclusion, emodin can exert an analgesic role via regulating sphingolipid metabolism and arginine biosynthesis.

Animals , Rats , Analgesics/pharmacology , Arginine , Emodin/pharmacology , Neuralgia/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sphingolipids
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928133


Neuropathic pain is one of the common complications of diabetes. Tetrahydropalmatine(THP) is a main active component of Corydalis Rhizoma with excellent anti-inflammatory and pain-alleviating properties. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of THP on diabetic neuropathic pain(DNP) and the underlying mechanism. High-fat and high-sugar diet(4 weeks) and streptozotocin(STZ, 35 mg·kg~(-1), single intraperitoneal injection) were employed to induce type-2 DNP in rats. Moreover, lipopolysaccharide(LPS) was used to induce the activation of BV2 microglia in vitro to establish an inflammatory cellular model. Fasting blood glucose(FBG) was measured by a blood glucose meter. Mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT) was assessed with von Frey filaments, and thermal withdrawal latency(TWL) with hot plate apparatus. The protein expression levels of OX42, inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), CD206, p38, and p-p38 were determined by Western blot, the fluorescence expression levels of OX42 and p-p38 in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord by immunofluorescence, the mRNA content of p38 and OX42 in rat spinal cord tissue by qRT-PCR, and levels of nitric oxide(NO), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-10(IL-10), and serum fasting insulin(FINS) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). RESULTS:: showed that the mo-del group demonstrated significant decrease in MWT and TWL, with pain symptoms. THP significantly improved the MWT and TWL of DNP rats, inhibited the activation of microglia and p38 MAPK signaling pathway in rat spinal cord, and ameliorated its inflammatory response. Meanwhile, THP promoted the change of LPS-induced BV2 microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, suppressed the activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, decreased the expression levels of inflammatory factors NO, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and increased the expression level of anti-inflammatory factor IL-10. The findings suggested that THP can significantly ameliorate the pain symptoms of DNP rats possibly by inhibiting the inflammatory response caused by M1 polarization of microglia via the p38 MAPK pathway.

Animals , Rats , Berberine Alkaloids , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies/genetics , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Microglia , Neuralgia/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Streptozocin/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1149-1158, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927770


The α2δ-1 protein coded by Cacna2d1 is dramatically up-regulated in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and spinal dorsal horn following sensory nerve injury in various animal models of neuropathic pain. Cacna2d1 overexpression potentiates presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons to cause pain hypersensitivity. The α2δ-1-NMDAR interaction promotes surface trafficking and synaptic targeting of NMDARs in neuropathic pain caused by chemotherapeutic agents and peripheral nerve injury, as well as in other pathological conditions such as in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) with neurogenic hypertension and in the brain with ischemic stroke. The lentiviral transfection method was used to construct a human embryonic kidney HEK293T cell line that could stably express α2δ-1-NMDAR complex. A stably transfected cell line was observed by florescence microscope, and identified by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. The results showed that the HEK293T cell line was successfully transfected and the genes could be stably expressed. Subsequently, the transfected cell line was successfully developed into a target drug screening system using patch clamp techniques. It provides a promising cell model for further research on the interaction mechanism of α2δ-1-NMDAR complex and drug screening for chronic pain and related diseases with low side effects.

Animals , Humans , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Drug Discovery , HEK293 Cells , Neuralgia/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/genetics
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(2): 128-134, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391544


Introduction: Considering the lack of specific treatments for neuropathic pain, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of a single dose of adenosine A3 receptor IB-MECA on inflammatory and neurotrophic parameters in rats subjected to a neuropathic pain model. Methods: 64 adult male Wistar rats were used. Neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve and the treatment consisted of a 0.5 µmol/kg dose of IB-MECA, a selective A3 adenosine receptor agonist, dissolved in 3% DMSO; vehicle groups received DMSO 3% in saline solution, and morphine groups received 5 mg/kg. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus IL-1ß, BDNF, and NGF levels were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent assay. Results: The main outcome was that a single dose of IB-MECA was able to modulate the IL-1ß hippocampal levels in neuropathic pain induced by CCI and the DMSO increased IL-1ß and NGF hippocampal levels in sham-operated rats. However, we did not observe this effect when the DMSO was used as vehicle for IB-MECA, indicating that IB-MECA was able to prevent the effect of DMSO. Conclusions: Considering that the IL-1ß role in neuropathic pain and the contributions of the hippocampus are well explored, our result corroborates the relationship between the A3 receptor and the process of chronic pain maintenance.

Animals , Male , Rats , Neuralgia/diagnosis , Neuralgia/metabolism , Nerve Growth Factor/genetics , Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism , Receptor, Adenosine A3/therapeutic use
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20390, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403729


Abstract Patient's satisfaction with healthcare services has an influence on pain management, which can be improved by patient education. Therefore, this study was aimed at identifying primary care health service opportunities in the treatment of neuropathic pain and assessing patients' satisfaction with the provision of drug information by clinical pharmacists. This was a cross- sectional, prospective study conducted at a pain unit during March-May 2017. Patients aged >18 years; diagnosed with neuropathic pain; and who used amitriptyline, gabapentin, pregabalin, or duloxetine were included. They were verbally informed about drug treatment by a clinical pharmacist, and their satisfaction was evaluated after 1 month. In all, 90 patients were included. The median duration for which the patients experienced pain until hospital admission was 3.6 years; furthermore, this duration was longer among women (p < 0.05). However, the median time to seeking advice from doctors was 3 months. The patients (15.6%) were less likely to admit pain unit initially and 46.7% had visited different units before being admitted to a pain unit. More than 95% of the patients indicated that they had received information from a pharmacist at a clinic and were satisfied with the provision of information (median duration, 8.5 min). Thus, the involvement of pharmacists in multidisciplinary pain management may help improve health- related outcomes at hospitals and/or in community care settings

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pain , Patients/classification , Pharmacists/ethics , Patient Education as Topic/classification , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Neuralgia/pathology , Primary Health Care/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/standards , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Health Services , Amitriptyline/administration & dosage
Acta neurol. colomb ; 37(3): 127-132, jul.-set. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345051


RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad de Fabry (EF) es una enfermedad genética, causada por el déficit de la enzima alfa galactosidasa A (α-Gal A), lo que provoca la acumulación de glicoesfingolípidos en los tejidos. Sus manifestaciones clínicas son variables. Estudios en mujeres heterocigotas reportan la existencia de dolor neuropático como manifestación de neuropatía de fibra pequeña. OBJETIVO: Determinar la presencia de neuropatía de fibra pequeña en mujeres heterocigotas para la EF, mediante la prueba cuantitativa sensorial. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron 33 mujeres heterocigotas para EF y 33 mujeres sanas, con características demográficas similares. A todas se les aplicó la prueba cuantitativa sensorial (Quantitative Sensory Testing por medio de la detección de umbrales de frío (Colà Detection Threshold), calor (Warm Detection Threshold), dolor inducido por calor (Heat-pain Detection Thresholds) y vibración (Vibratory Detection Threshold) en los miembros superior e inferior, utilizando un sistema asistido por computador versión IV (CASE IV, WR Medical Electronics Co., Stillwater, MN). Adicionalmente, al grupo de mujeres heterocigotas para EF, se le evaluó la percepción subjetiva de dolor neuropàtico mediante el cuestionario de síntomas sensitivos neuropáticos positivos (Positive Neuropathic Sensory Symptom). Los resultados de la prueba cuantitativa sensorial se compararon entre los grupos. También se estableció la correlación entre la prueba cuantitativa sensorial y los resultados del cuestionario de síntomas sensitivos neuropáticos positivos. RESULTADOS: Se encontró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en las pruebas de vibración (p = 0,008), calor (p = 0,017) y dolor inducido por calor (p = 0,04) en el miembro inferior en las mujeres heterocigotas para EF, comparado con el grupo control. Se encontró una correlación inversa estadísticamente significativa entre la intensidad del dolor quemante y el dolor inducido por calor en el miembro inferior (p = 0,018, r = -0,48) y entre la intensidad del dolor al ser rozado o tocado y el dolor inducido por calor en el miembro inferior (p = 0,006, r = -0,49). CONCLUSIÓN: En las mujeres heterocigotas para EF, las pruebas objetivas para establecer la presencia de neuropatía de fibra pequeña son anormales en miembros inferiores y se correlacionan con los síntomas sensitivos.

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Fabry disease is a genetic condition caused by alpha-galactosidase A deficiency triggering glycosphingolipid accumulation in tissues. Clinical manifestations are variable. Studies in heterozigous females report the existence of neuropathic pain as manifestation of small fiber neuropathy. OBJECTIVE: To determine presence of small fiber neuropathy in heterozigous females with Fabry disease through Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 33 heterozigous females with fabry disease and 33 healthy females with similar demographic characteristics were evaluated. QST was performed to every female evaluating Cold detection Threshold (CDT), Warm Detection Threshold (WDT), Heat-pain Detection Threshold (HPDT) and Vibratory Detection Threshold (VDT) in upper and lower limbs through Computer Assisted Sensory Examination software (CASE IV, WR Medical Electronics Co., Stillwater, MN). Subjective perception of neuropathic pain was measured through Positive Neuropathic Sensory Symptom questionnaire (P-NSS) in heterozigous females with Fabry disease. QST results were compared between groups. Correlations between QST and P-NSS were established. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were observed in VDT (p= 0,008), WDT (p= 0,017) and HPDT (p= 0,04) in lower limbs of heterozigous females with Fabry disease compared with control group. Negative correlation was found among burning pain intensity and HPDT at lower limbs (p= 0,018, r= -0,48) and among pain intensity to light touch and HPDT in lower limbs (p= 0,006, r=-0,49). CONCLUSIONS: Objective tests to establish presence of small fiber neuropathy in heterozigous females with Fabry disease are abnormal at lower limbs and correlate with sensory symptoms.

Sensory Thresholds , Pain Measurement , Fabry Disease , Enzyme Replacement Therapy , Small Fiber Neuropathy , Neuralgia
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(3): 263-267, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346272


Abstract Introduction: Knowledge on the characteristics of neuropathic pain in people with sickle cell disease (SCD) may help to provide more effective treatment procedures. Objective: To describe the characteristics of neuropathic pain in patients with sickle cell disease and identify the impact on their quality of life. Method: A cross-sectional study (CAAE 57274516.8.0000.5544) was conducted at a reference center in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The instruments used were the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Douleur Neuropatique Questionnaire (DN-4), the Anxiety and Depression Hospital scale (ADH) and the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization of Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-brief). The Mann-Whitney test was used to evaluate the association between the scores (5% alpha). Results: A total of 100 adults with SCD participated in the study, 69.7% of whom had neuropathic pain. Anxiety was present in 99% of the sample and depression, in 100%. Patients with neuropathic pain had worse scores in all domains of quality of life (p < 0.05), but no association was found with pain intensity. Conclusion: Neuropathic pain was more frequent than nociceptive pain in adults with SCD and generated worse scores in all domains of quality of life. Anxiety and depression were present in patients with both types of pain.

Humans , Male , Female , Quality of Life , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Neuralgia , Anxiety , Depression
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(3): 315-322, may.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346113


Resumen El dolor neuropático localizado (DNL) es de origen periférico y se caracteriza por áreas circunscritas de dolor con sensibilidad anormal de la piel o síntomas espontáneos característicos de dolor neuropático, por ejemplo, dolor urente. Se debe resaltar que el DNL está confinado a un área específica no mayor a una hoja de papel tamaño carta. El DNL representa 60 % de las condiciones de dolor neuropático. No existe una única etiología. El abordaje diagnóstico es similar al de otros síndromes dolorosos neuropáticos. Se utilizan herramientas diagnósticas generales para evaluar las características clínicas. En la actualidad no existen guías específicas de manejo del DNL, por lo que se utilizan las guías para dolor neuropático en general. En las guías de la Sociedad Canadiense de Dolor se incluyen los tratamientos tópicos como parte de las estrategias de segunda línea. Pese a la falta de guías, los parches de lidocaína a 5 % y los parches de capsaicina a 8 % han demostrado ser efectivos en modelos de DNL.

Abstract Localized neuropathic pain (LNP) is of peripheral origin and is characterized by circumscribed areas of pain with abnormal skin sensitivity or spontaneous symptoms that are characteristic of neuropathic pain, e.g. burning pain. It should be noted that LNP is confined to a specific area no larger than a letter size sheet of paper. LNP accounts for 60 % of neuropathic pain conditions. There is no single etiology of LNP. The diagnostic approach is similar to that for other neuropathic pain syndromes. General diagnostic tools are used to assess clinical features. So far, there are no specific guidelines for the management of LNP; for this reason, guidelines for general neuropathic pain are used. Topical treatments are included as part of second-line strategies in the Canadian Pain Society guidelines. Despite the lack of guidelines, 5 % lidocaine patches and 8 % capsaicin patches have been proven effective in LNP models.

Humans , Neuralgia/diagnosis , Neuralgia/etiology , Syndrome , Canada
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(2): e501, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251503


Abstract Introduction Neuropathic pain is present in up to 40 % of all cancer patients. A considerable number of patients fail to achieve enough pain relief with conventional treatment, which is why therapeutic alternatives such as spinal cord stimulation should be considered. Case description and results This is the case of a female patient with chronic neuropathic pain secondary to a partial femoral nerve injury sustained during resection and lymph node dissection surgery with curative intent for a large stage II cell squamous cell carcinoma T2N0M0, localized in the right popliteal fossa. The patient presented with difficult to manage chronic neuropathic pain, despite receiving multiple oral analgesics and nerve blocks. A medullary neurostimulator was implanted that relieved the patient's pain intensity in up to 80%, in addition to improved function and quality of life. Conclusions Spinal cord stimulation is considered an effective neuromodulatory intervention which has shown satisfactory results in the treatment of various types of refractory chronic pain in cancer patients, including neuropathic pain.

Resumen Introducción El dolor neuropático está presente hasta en el 40 % de los pacientes con cáncer. Un número considerable de pacientes no logran un alivio suficiente del dolor con el tratamiento convencional, por lo cual deben considerarse alternativas terapéuticas como la estimulación de la médula espinal. Descripción del caso y resultados Caso de una paciente con dolor neuropático crónico secundario a lesión parcial de nervio femoral durante cirugía de resección y vaciamiento ganglionar con objetivos curativos de carcinoma escamocelular de célula grande T2N0M0 estadio II, localizado en la fosa poplítea derecha, quien cursó con dolor neuropático crónico de difícil manejo a pesar de recibir múltiples analgésicos orales y bloqueos nerviosos. Se implantó un neuroestimulador medular con lo cual se logró un alivio hasta del 80 % en intensidad de dolor de la paciente, además de una mejoría de su funcionalidad y calidad de vida. Conclusiones La estimulación de la médula espinal se considera una intervención neuromoduladora eficaz, que ha demostrado resultados satisfactorios para tratar diversas formas de dolor crónico refractario en los pacientes con cáncer, incluido el dolor neuropático.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chronic Pain , Pain Management , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasms , Quality of Life , Therapeutics , Cells , Femoral Nerve , Analgesics , Nerve Block , Neuralgia
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(5): 415-419, May 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278393


ABSTRACT Background: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is the most common form of hereditary neuropathy. Objective: To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of pain in patients with CMT1A. Methods: Nineteen patients with a diagnosis of CMT1A were evaluated between September 2018 and October 2019, and other causes of neuropathy were ruled out. The following tools were used for the pain assessment: neurological assessment, LANSS, DN4, clinical evaluation, VAS, CMTNS2 and SF-36. Statistical analysis was performed using prevalence analysis, t test, chi-square test and Spearman's rho. Results: The prevalence of pain was 84.2% in the sample of this study, with moderate intensity and nociceptive characteristics according to the LANSS scale (75%) and clinical evaluation (50%), but differing from DN4, which found neuropathic pain in the majority of the patients (56.2%). Mixed pain was also observed in 43.7% of the patients, according to clinical criteria. There was a statistically significant correlation between pain intensity and SF-36, thus demonstrating that the lower the pain was, the lower the impairment was, in all domains. Conclusion: Pain is a prevalent and important symptom in CMT1A, with moderate intensity and nociceptive characteristics according to two tools, but neuropathic pain is also present, and there may even be a mixed pattern of pain. The correlation of the pain with SF-36 suggests that pain relief could provide improvements to the quality of life of these individuals.

RESUMO Introdução: A doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth tipo 1 A (CMT1A) é a forma mais comum de neuropatia hereditária. Objetivo: Investigar a prevalência e as características de dor nos pacientes com a doença de CMT1A. Métodos: Dezenove pacientes com diagnóstico de CMT1A foram avaliados de setembro 2018 a outubro de 2019, e outras causas de neuropatia foram excluídas. As seguintes ferramentas foram utilizadas para avaliar a dor: avaliação neurológica, LANSS, DN4, avaliação clínica, EVA, CMTNS2 e SF-36. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste de análise de prevalência, bem como pelos testes T, do qui-quadrado e rô de Sperman. Resultados: A prevalência de dor foi de 84,2% na amostra do estudo, com intensidade moderada e características nociceptivas de acordo com a escala LANSS (75%) e a avaliação clínica (50%), diferentemente da escala DN4, que encontrou dor neuropática na maioria dos pacientes (56,2%). Dor mista também foi verificada em 43,7% dos pacientes, de acordo com os critérios clínicos. Houve significância estatística da correlação entre a intensidade da dor e o SF-36, demonstrando que quanto menor a dor, menor o comprometimento em todos os domínios. Conclusão: A dor é um sintoma prevalente e relevante na CMT1A, com intensidade moderada e características nociceptivas de acordo com duas ferramentas, mas dor neuropática também está presente, e ainda pode haver padrão misto de dor. A correlação da dor com SF-36 sugere que o alívio da dor pode proporcionar melhorias na qualidade de vida desses indivíduos.

Humans , Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease , Neuralgia , Quality of Life , Prevalence , Neurologic Examination
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 29(1): [1-15], jan.-mar. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348199


: A cervicobraquialgia (CB) é caracterizada por uma dor com origem em diferentes níveis estruturais da coluna cervical baixa (C3- C7), com irradiação bilateral ou unilateral para o membro superior. Considerando as causas e consequências advindas da CB, novas modalidades de tratamento têm sido propostas na tentativa de promover intervenções efetivas. Entre os procedimentos fisioterapêuticos encontram-se as técnicas de terapia manual como liberação miofascial, quiropraxia, mobilização articular, estabilização segmentar e a mobilização neural (MN) que procura restabelecer a função do tecido neural, sua condução elétrica, elasticidade, movimento e fluxo axoplasmático. Sendo assim, o objetivo do estudo foi avaliar sistematicamente as evidências sobre o efeito da MN no tratamento da dor em indivíduos com CB. A busca bibliográfica foi realizada no período entre Novembro de 2018 a Junho de 2019, sem limite de ano de publicação, nas bases de dados: PEDro, PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (Lilacs, Scielo e Medline) e Cochrane Library. A análise foi restrita aos ensaios clínicos randomizados. Para a análise etodológica dos artigos aptos a inclusão, foi utilizada a escala PEDro. Foi encontrado um total de 38 artigos. Após remoção de duplicatas, 14 artigos foram elegidos por resumo, 8 artigos foram recuperados para leitura completa e analisados quanto a sua adequação, dos quais 3 foram excluídos por não cumprirem os critérios de elegibilidade, ao fim 5 artigos foram incluídos na revisão. Houve redução significativa da dor, em pacientes tratados com MN. Considerando os resultados obtidos nesta revisão, foi possível concluir que a MN demonstra ser eficaz na redução da dor presente na CB. Embora os estudos mostrem que os resultados da MN como tratamento da CB são significativamente inferiores ao efeito do Ibuprofeno, deve-se ter em consideração as consequências a longo prazo para a saúde sobre a utilização de anti- inflamatórios orais.(AU)

Cervicobrachialgia (CB) is characterized by pain originating from different structural levels of the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), w ith bilateral or unilateral irradiation to the upper limb. Considering the causes and consequences of CB, new treatment modalities have been proposed in an attempt to promote effective interventions. Among the physical therapy procedures are manual therapy techniques such as myofascial release, chiropractic, joint mobilization, segmental stabilization and neural mobilization (NM) that seeks to restore the function of neural tissue, its electrical conduction, elasticity, movement and ax oplasmic flow . Thus, the objective of the study w as to evaluate systematically evaluate the evidence on the effect of NM on pain management in individuals w ith CB. The bibliographic search w as performed from November 2018 to June 2019, w ithout limit of year of publication, in the databases: PEDro, PubMed, Virtual Health Library (Lilacs, Scielo and Medline) and Cochrane Library. The analysis w as restricted to randomized controlled trials. For the methodological analysis of the articles eligible for inc lusion, the PEDro scale w as used. A total of 38 articles w ere found. After removal of duplicates, 14 articles w ere elected by abstract, 8 articles w ere retrieved for full reading and analyzed for suitability, of w hich 3 w ere excluded for not meeting eligibility c riteria, at the end 5 articles w ere included in the review . There was a significant pain reduction in patients treated w ith NM. Considering the results obtained in this review , it w as concluded that NM demonstrates to be effective in reducing pain present in CB. Although studies show that the results of NM as a treatment for CB are significantly low er than the effect of ibuprofen, consideration should be given to the long-term health consequences about the utilization of oral anti-inflammatory drugs.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pain , Pain Management , Neural Conduction , Neuralgia , Physical Education and Training , Chiropractic , Physical Therapy Modalities , Manipulation, Spinal , Heat Conduction , Musculoskeletal Manipulations , Upper Extremity , Elasticity , Joints
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888078


Excitatory toxicity(ET) is an important factor of neuropathic pain(NPP) induced by central sensitization(CS), and the association of pannexin-1(Panx1)-Src-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2 B(NMDAR-2 B) is an important new pathway for ET to initiate CS. The present study confirmed whether the central analgesic effect of Chuanxiong Rhizoma extract(CRE) was achieved through the synchronous regulation of the brain and spinal pathways of Panx1-Src-NMDAR-2 B. In this study, dynamic and simulta-neo-us microdialysis of the brain and spinal cord in vivo combined with behavioristics, high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)-fluorescence detection, microdialysis analysis(ISCUS~(flex)), ultrasensitive multifactorial electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, ELISA, and Western blot was employed to investigate the protein expression of NMDAR-2 B, Src, and Panx1, extracellular excitatory amino acids, cytokines, energy metabolites, and substance P in spinal dorsal horn(SDH) and anterior cingulate cortex(ACC) after CRE intervention with the rat model of spared sciatic nerve injury(SNI) as the experimental tool. Compared with the sham group, the SNI group exhibited diminished mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT)(P<0.01), increased cold spray scores(P<0.01), glutamate(Glu), D-serine(D-Ser), and glycine(Gly) in extracellular fluids of ACC, and Glu, D-Ser, interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and lactic acid(Lac) in extracellular fluids of SDH(P<0.05), dwindled tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α)(P<0.05), and elevated protein levels of NMDAR-2 B, Src, and Panx1 in ACC(P<0.05). Compared with the SNI model rats, high-and medium-dose CRE(CRE-H/M) could potentiate the analgesic activity as revealed by the MWT test(P<0.05) and CRE-M enabled the decrease in cold spray scores(P<0.05). CRE-H/M could inhibit the levels of Glu, D-Ser and Gly in the extracellular fluids of ACC(P<0.05), and the levels of Glu in the extracellular fluids of SDH(P<0.05) in SNI rats. CRE-M significantly increased the levels of glucose(Gluc), Lac, interferon-gamma(IFN-γ), keratinocyte chemoattractant/human growth-regulated oncogenes(KC/GRO), and IL-4 in extracellular fluids of SDH in SNI rats(P<0.05). CRE-H/M/L could also inhibit the levels of NMDAR-2 B, Src and Panx1 in ACC and SDH in SNI rats(P<0.05). The central analgesic effect of CRE is presumedly related to the inhibited release of excitatory amino acid transmitters(Glu, D-Ser and Gly) in ACC and SDH of SNI rats, decreased protein expression of NMDAR-2 B, Src and Panx1 in the two regions, and the regulation of the Panx1-Src-NMDAR-2 B pathway in the spinal cord and brain. The above findings partially clarified the scientific basis of clinical analgesic effect of Chuanxiong Rhizoma.

Animals , Rats , Central Nervous System Sensitization , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spinal Cord/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922103


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanisms underlying elemene-induced analgesia in rats with spared nerve injury (SNI).@*METHODS@#Sixty-five rats were equally divided into 5 groups using a random number table: naive group, sham group, SNI group, SNI + elemene (40 mg·kg@*RESULTS@#The SNI rat model exhibited a significant decrease in paw withdrawal threshold and exploratory behaviour in the EPM (P<0.05). Consecutive administration of elemene alleviated SNI-induced mechanical allodynia and anxiety in rats (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical data showed that elemene decreased SNI-induced upregulation of NDRG2 within the SDH (P<0.05). Double immunofluorescent staining data further showed that elemene decreased SNI-induced upregulation of the number of GFAP immunoreactive (-ir), NDRG-ir, and GFAP/NDRG2 double-labelled cells within the SDH (P<0.05). Immunoblotting data showed that elemene decreased SNI-induced upregulation of GFAP and NDRG2 within the SDH (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Elemene possibly alleviated neuropathic pain by downregulating the expression of NDRG2 in spinal astrocytes in a rat model of SNI.

Animals , Rats , Astrocytes , Disease Models, Animal , Emulsions , Hyperalgesia/drug therapy , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sesquiterpenes , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 223-232, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878251


The present study was aimed to investigate the role of GluN2B-BDNF pathway in the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (CSF-CN) in neuropathic pain. Intra-lateral ventricle injection of cholera toxin subunit B conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (CBHRP) was used to label the CSF-CN. Double-labeled immunofluorescent staining and Western blot were used to observe the expression of GluN2B and BDNF in the CSF-CN. Chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve (CCI) rat model was used to duplicate the neuropathic pain. Pain behavior was scored to determine the analgesic effects of GluN2B antagonist Ro 25-6981 and BDNF neutralizing antibody on CCI rats. GluN2B and BDNF were expressed in the CSF-CN and their expression was up-regulated in CCI rats. Intra-lateral ventricle injection of GluN2B antagonist Ro 25-6981 or BDNF neutralizing antibody notably alleviated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in CCI rats. Moreover, the increased expression of BDNF protein in CCI rats was reversed by intra-lateral ventricle injection of Ro 25-6981. These results suggest that GluN2B and BDNF are expressed in the CSF-CN and alteration of GluN2B-BDNF pathway in the CSF-CN is involved in the modulation of the peripheral neuropathic pain.

Animals , Rats , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Hyperalgesia , Neuralgia , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sciatic Nerve