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1.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 626-631, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935335

ABSTRACT

The purpose was to discuss the infection status of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3) in children with acute respiratory tract infection(ARTI) in Qingdao, Shandong province, and to analyze the gene characteristics of HPIV-3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (HN). This study was a cross-sectional study. A total of 1 674 throat swab samples were collected randomly from children with ARTI, in the three hospitals (Qingdao Women and Children's Hospital, West Coast Branch of Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Laoshan Branch of Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University) from January 2018 to December 2019. Multiplex real-time fluorescence RT-PCR was performed to screen HPIV-3 positive specimens. For HPIV-3 positive specimens, nested PCR was used to amplify the full-length HN gene of HPIV-3. The HN gene was sequenced and compared with the representative strains of HPIV-3 in GenBank, and the phylogenetic tree was established. As results, this study collected 1 674 samples, in which there were 90 HPIV-3 positive samples showed and the detection rate was 5.37%. Among positive specimens, the number of samples from children under 6 years old was 88, accounting for 97.78%. HPIV-3 positive cases were mainly distributed in spring and summer. The full-length sequences of 44 HPIV-3 HN genes were obtained by nested PCR method. Sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis showed that the HPIV-3HN gene belonged to the C3a and C3b branches of C3 genotype, with 30 strains of subtype C3a and 14 strains of subtype C3b. The nucleotide and amino acid homology of the amplified 44 strains of the HPIV-3 HN gene in Qingdao were 97.0%-100.0% and 98.5%-100.0%, respectively. In conclusion, from 2018 to 2019, the C3a and C3b branches of HPIV-3 C3 genotype were circulating prevalent in Qingdao, Shandong province. HN gene variation rate was low, but showed certain regional characteristics in evolution.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hemagglutinins , Neuraminidase , Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human/genetics , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Viral Proteins
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e9542, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142580

ABSTRACT

Influenza viruses exacerbate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with considerable morbidity and mortality. Zanamivir and oseltamivir are effective in treating influenza. However, their efficacy in relieving influenza symptoms in COPD patients remains unknown, with the lack of controlled trials in this subject. Therefore, we conducted this randomized controlled trial to investigate the clinical efficacy of both interventions in this population. Patients were allocated to two groups (80 patients each): oseltamivir (OSELTA) and zanamivir (ZANA) groups. Oseltamivir (75 mg) was orally administered twice daily for 5 days, while zanamivir (10 mg) was inhaled twice daily for 5 days. Clinical parameters including body temperature, influenza symptoms (i.e., sore throat, cough, etc.), and serial blood tests were recorded on days 1, 3, and 7. We analyzed primary (changes in body temperature) and secondary outcomes (changes in non-specific symptoms) using the pre-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses. Differences between groups were assessed using t-test. Oseltamivir and zanamivir significantly reduced body temperature on the 3rd day after treatment; however, the number of patients who reported clinical improvement in influenza-like symptoms was significantly higher in the OSELTA group compared to the ZANA group on days 3 (85 vs 68.8%, P=0.015) and 7 (97.5 vs 83.8%, P=0.003). However, no significant changes in hematological (white blood cells and its subtypes) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein) parameters were noted (P>0.05). Our results suggested that oseltamivir and zanamivir are effective in reducing body temperature, while oseltamivir led to better clinical improvement regarding influenza-like symptoms in patients with COPD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Zanamivir/therapeutic use , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neuraminidase
3.
5.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(3): e002073, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119511

ABSTRACT

El autor aborda el caso de la cloroquina y la hidroxicloroquina en el contexto de la actual pandemia de COVID-19, a través de dos ejes centrales. Por un lado, el escándalo a nivel editorial y de comunicación de la evidencia, y por otro, el de la toma de decisiones en salud pública. Describe flagrantes debilidades en la cadena de generación, difusión y aplicación del nuevo conocimiento. Adicionalmente, explora iniciativas y propuestas que podrían contribuir a solucionar estos problemas. (AU)


The author addresses the case of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, through two central axes. On the one hand, the scandal at the editorial and communication level of the evidence, and on the other, that of decision-making in public health. He describes flagrant weaknesses in the chain of generation, diffusion,and application of new knowledge. Additionally, it explores initiatives and proposals that could contribute to solving these problems. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Clinical Decision-Making , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Bioethics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Scientific Misconduct , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Public Health , Paroxetine/therapeutic use , Peer Review, Research/ethics , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Evidence-Based Medicine , Ethics, Research , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/drug effects , Scientific Communication and Diffusion , Observational Studies as Topic , Evidence-Based Practice , Health Communication , Pandemics , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Neuraminidase/antagonists & inhibitors
6.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190427, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132174

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acne Vulgaris is a common skin disease caused by Propionibacterium acnes, an anaerobic microbiota of human skin that plays a vital role in the pathology of acne. The aim of this study was to prepare nanoparticles containing an acne recombinant protein and determine its ability as an oral acne vaccine in mice. The recombinant Sialidase-CAMP gene was expressed and purified in a prokaryotic host. The chitosan nanoparticles containing the recombinant protein were prepared, encapsulated, and administered by both oral and subcutaneous routes to Balb/c mice. Sera IgA and IgG and stool IgA titers were measured by ELISA, and the immunized mice were challenged against P. acnes. A 65 kDa recombinant protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blot. The size and zeta potential of nanoparticles were 80 nm and +18 mV, respectively. After oral immunization, the serum IgG and IgA titers were 1:3200 and 1:16, respectively, and the stool IgA titer was 1:8. In the subcutaneous route, the serum IgG titer was 1:51200. Immunized mice showed no inflammation in the ear of challenged mice. It is the first study that examines a chitosan-nanoparticulated acne fusion protein as an applicable acne vaccine candidate with appropriate immunogenicity potential. Further studies are required to validate the clinical usefulness of this vaccine candidate.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Propionibacterium acnes/drug effects , Acne Vulgaris/prevention & control , Chitosan/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Blotting, Western , Immunization/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neuraminidase
7.
Mycobiology ; : 256-260, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760533

ABSTRACT

Neuraminidase (NA) cleaves the glycosidic bond linkages of sialic acids to release the mature virions from infected cells and has been an attractive therapeutic target for anti-influenza agents. In our ongoing investigation of NA inhibitors in mushroom extracts, we found that the extract the fruiting body of Glaziella splendens potently inhibited neuraminidase. The fruiting bodies of G. splendens were extracted and partitioned successively with hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol. The ethyl acetate soluble-layer was subjected to silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and MPLC to obtain five compounds (1–5). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. NA inhibitory activity of these compounds was evaluated using NAs from recombinant rvH1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 influenza A viruses. One compound (1) was elucidated as a new azaphilone derivative, and four compounds (2–5) were identified as entonaemin A, comazaphilone D, rubiginosin A, and entonaemin B, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 showed considerable inhibitory activity against three types of neuraminidases with the IC₅₀ values of 30.9, 41.8, and 35.7 µM for 3 and 46.5, 50.4, and 29.9 µM for 4, respectively. This study reveals that the fruiting bodies of G. splendens possess azaphilone derivatives with the NA inhibitory activity. This is the first report on the isolation of neuraminidase inhibitors from the fruiting bodies of G. splendens.


Subject(s)
Agaricales , Chromatography , Fruit , Influenza A virus , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Neuraminidase , Sialic Acids , Silica Gel , Virion
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 336-346, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889223

ABSTRACT

Abstract Equine influenza is one of the major respiratory infectious diseases in horses. An equine influenza virus outbreak was identified in vaccinated and unvaccinated horses in a veterinary school hospital in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, in September 2015. The twelve equine influenza viruses isolated belonged to Florida Clade 1. The hemagglutinin and neuraminidase amino acid sequences were compared with the recent isolates from North and South America and the World Organisation for Animal Health recommended Florida Clade 1 vaccine strain. The hemagglutinin amino acid sequences had nine substitutions, compared with the vaccine strain. Two of them were in antigenic site A (A138S and G142R), one in antigenic site E (R62K) and another not in antigenic site (K304E). The four substitutions changed the hydrophobicity of hemagglutinin. Three distinct genetic variants were identified during the outbreak. Eleven variants were found in four quasispecies, which suggests the equine influenza virus evolved during the outbreak. The use of an out of date vaccine strain or updated vaccines without the production of protective antibody titers might be the major contributing factors on virus dissemination during this outbreak.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation , Disease Outbreaks , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Evolution, Molecular , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/isolation & purification , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Horse Diseases/virology , Orthomyxoviridae , Viral Proteins/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/classification , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/genetics , Genotype , Horses , Hospitals, Animal , Neuraminidase/genetics
9.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 406-415, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758813

ABSTRACT

The subtype H9N2 avian influenza virus greatly threatens the Chinese poultry industry, even with annual vaccination. Waterfowl can be asymptomatically infected with the H9N2 virus. In this study, three H9N2 virus strains, designated A/Goose/Jiangsu/YZ527/2011 (H9N2, Gs/JS/YZ527/11), A/Goose/Jiangsu/SQ119/2012 (H9N2, Gs/JS/SQ119/12), and A/Goose/Jiangsu/JD564/2012 (H9N2, Gs/JS/JD564/12), were isolated from domestic geese. Molecular characterization of the three isolates showed that the Gs/JS/YZ527/11 virus is a double-reassortant virus, combining genes of A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (H9N2, G1/97)-like and A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/98 (H9N2, F/98)-like; the Gs/JS/SQ119/12 virus is a triple-reassortant virus combining genes of G1/97-like, F/98-like, and A/Duck/Shantou/163/2004 (H9N2, ST/163/04)-like. The sequences of Gs/JS/JD564/12 share high homology with those of the F/98 virus, except for the neuraminidase gene, whereas the internal genes of Gs/JS/YZ527/11 and Gs/JS/SQ119/12 are closely related to those of the H7N9 viruses. An infectivity analysis of the three isolates showed that Gs/JS/SQ119/12 and Gs/JS/YZ527/11 replicated well, with seroconversion, in geese and chickens, the Gs/JS/JD564/12 did not infect well in geese or chickens, and the F/98 virus only infected chickens, with seroconversion. Emergence of these new reassortant H9N2 avian influenza viruses indicates that these viruses can infect both chicken and goose and can produce different types of lesions in each species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Asian People , Chickens , Geese , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Neuraminidase , Population Characteristics , Poultry , Sequence Analysis , Seroconversion , Vaccination
10.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 49-54, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766443

ABSTRACT

Influenza is an acute respiratory disease caused by the influenza virus. Each year, it causes a significant disease burden, especially in older adults. Furthermore, influenza pandemics occasionally occur because of antigenic change. Common signs and symptoms of influenza include fever, cough, sore throat, headache, myalgia, and runny nose. Severe cases may progress to pneumonia, which causes shortness of breath, tachycardia, hypotension, and the need for supportive respiratory interventions. Mild cases are self-limited and supportive care is sufficient. Antiviral treatment shortens the clinical course if it is administered within 48 hours from the onset of disease. Neuraminidase inhibitors, such as oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir, are widely used. Although annual vaccination is the best means of prevention, its effectiveness can vary from year to year and among different age and risk groups.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Cough , Dyspnea , Fever , Headache , Hypotension , Influenza, Human , Myalgia , Neuraminidase , Nose , Orthomyxoviridae , Oseltamivir , Pandemics , Pharyngitis , Pneumonia , Tachycardia , Vaccination , Zanamivir
11.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 391-396, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Due to advances in diagnostic techniques, clinicians are more frequently performing influenza diagnostic tests and referring to their test results ahead of the administration of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). To investigate the clinical significance of the time from symptom onset to laboratory diagnosis, we reviewed the clinical characteristics of adult patients with influenza who had an early laboratory diagnosis (ED) or a late laboratory diagnosis (LD) at one of four tertiary care centers during a seasonal outbreak of influenza. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 1,405 adults during the 2013 to 2014 influenza season. A patient was regarded as receiving an ED or LD if he/she received an influenza diagnostic test at 0 to 1 or 4 to 7 days after symptom onset, respectively. Early NAI therapy and late NAI therapy were defined as the administration of NAI ≤ 2 or > 2 days after symptom onset, respectively. RESULTS: Nearly half of the patients (47.0%) received an ED (n = 661), whereas 13.5% (n = 190) received a LD. Patients with a LD had initial symptoms of cough, sputum production, and dyspnea and experienced pneumonia, antibiotic therapy, hospitalization, and admission to the intensive care unit more often than those with an ED. NAI therapy and early NAI therapy were less frequent in patients with a LD than those with an ED. Of the analyzed baseline characteristics, age ≥ 50 years, influenza B infection, and diagnosis using a polymerase chain reaction test were significantly associated with a LD. CONCLUSIONS: LD was associated with inappropriate antiviral therapy and complicated presenting features in adult patients with seasonal influenza. ED of influenza should be emphasized, especially for older adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Antiviral Agents , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cough , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Dyspnea , Hospitalization , Influenza, Human , Intensive Care Units , Neuraminidase , Pneumonia , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Seasons , Sputum , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 61-66, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43943

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nitrocellulose membrane–based filtration system (NCFS) is widely used for protein concentration. In this study, we applied NCFS for production of virus-like particle (VLP) as a vaccine candidate and evaluated yield property and immunogenicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Influenza VLPs were generated by baculovirus-insect cell protein expression system. NCFS and sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation were used for purification of VLP. Immunogenicity of VLP was evaluated by animal experiment. RESULTS: Influenza VLPs expressing hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase proteins derived from highly pathogenic influenza virus (H5N8) were effectively produced and purified by NCFS. HA activity of VLP which correlated with antigenicity was well conserved during multiple purification steps. This NCFS based purified VLPs induced influenza virus–specific antibody responses. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the influenza VLP vaccine could be prepared by NCFS without loss of immunogenicity and elicit antigen-specific immune responses.


Subject(s)
Animal Experimentation , Antibody Formation , Baculoviridae , Collodion , Filtration , Hemagglutinins , Influenza, Human , Membranes , Neuraminidase , Orthomyxoviridae , Sucrose , Ultracentrifugation , Vaccines
13.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 299-306, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115777

ABSTRACT

A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8)-derived recombinant viruses have been used for seasonal flu vaccines; however, they are insufficient for vaccines against some human-fatal H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses (HPAIV) due to low productivity. Additionally, the polymerase basic 2 (PB2) protein, an important mammalian-pathogenicity determinant, of PR8 possesses several mammalian-pathogenic mutations. We previously reported two avian PB2 genes (01310 and 0028) related to efficient replication in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) and nonpathogenicity in BALB/c mice. In this study, we generated PR8-derived H5N1 recombinant viruses harboring hemagglutinin (attenuated) and neuraminidase genes of a clade 2.3.2.1c H5N1 HPAIV (K10-483), as well as the 01310 or 0028 PB2 genes, and investigated their replication and immunogenicity. Compared with a control virus harboring six internal PR8 genes (rK10-483), the recombinant viruses possessing the 01310 and 0028 PB2 genes showed significantly higher replication efficiency in ECEs and higher antibody titers in chickens. In contrast to rK10-483, none of the viruses replicated in BALB/c mice, and all showed low titers in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Additionally, the recombinant viruses did not induce a neutralization antibody but elicited decreased protective immune responses against K10-483 in mice. Thus, the highly replicative and mammalian nonpathogenic recombinant H5N1 strains might be promising vaccine candidates against HPAI in poultry.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Chickens , Efficiency , Eggs , Hemagglutinins , Influenza in Birds , Influenza Vaccines , Kidney , Neuraminidase , Ovum , Poultry , Reverse Genetics , Seasons , Vaccines , Virulence
14.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 307-313, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36816

ABSTRACT

Twelve nucleotides located at the 3′ end of viral genomic RNA (vRNA) are conserved among influenza A viruses (IAV) and have a promoter function. Hoffmann's 8-plasmid reverse genetics vector system introduced mutations at position 4, C nucleotide (C4) to U nucleotide (U4), of the 3′ ends of neuraminidase (NA) and matrix (M) vRNAs of wild-type A/PR/8/34 (PR8). This resulted in a constellation of C4 and U4 vRNAs coding for low (polymerases) and relatively high (all others) copy number proteins, respectively. U4 has been reported to increase promoter activity in comparison to C4, but the constellation effect on the replication efficiency and pathogenicity of reverse genetics PR8 (rgPR8) has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we generated 3 recombinant viruses with C4 in the NA and/or M vRNAs and rgPR8 by using reverse genetics and compared their pathobiological traits. The mutant viruses showed lower replication efficiency than rgPR8 due to the low transcription levels of NA and/or M genes. Furthermore, C4 in the NA and/or M vRNAs induced lower PR8 virus pathogenicity in BALB/c mice. The results suggest that the constellation of C4 and U4 among vRNAs may be one of the multigenic determinants of IAV pathogenicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Clinical Coding , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Neuraminidase , Nucleotides , Orthomyxoviridae , Reverse Genetics , RNA , Virulence
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(12): 745-749, Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829259

ABSTRACT

Although vaccines are the best means of protection against influenza, neuraminidase inhibitors are currently the main antiviral treatment available to control severe influenza cases. One of the most frequent substitutions in the neuraminidase (NA) protein of influenza A(H3N2) viruses during or soon after oseltamivir administration is E119V mutation. We describe the emergence of a mixed viral population with the E119E/V mutation in the NA protein sequence in a post-treatment influenza sample collected from an immunocompromised patient in Argentina. This substitution was identified by a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol and was confirmed by direct Sanger sequencing of the original sample. In 2014, out of 1140 influenza samples received at the National Influenza Centre, 888 samples (78%) were A(H3N2) strains, 244 (21.3%) were type B strains, and 8 (0.7%) were A(H1N1)pdm09 strains. Out of 888 A(H3N2) samples, 842 were tested for the E119V substitution by quantitative RT-PCR: 841 A(H3N2) samples had the wild-type E119 genotype and in one sample, a mixture of viral E119/ V119 subpopulations was detected. Influenza virus surveillance and antiviral resistance studies can lead to better decisions in health policies and help in medical treatment planning, especially for severe cases and immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Neuraminidase/genetics , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Viral Proteins/genetics , Argentina/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Mutation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 96-103, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117341

ABSTRACT

The influenza A (H1N1) virus, also known as swine flu is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality since 2009. There is a need to explore novel anti-viral drugs for overcoming the epidemics. Traditionally, different plant extracts of garlic, ginger, kalmegh, ajwain, green tea, turmeric, menthe, tulsi, etc. have been used as hopeful source of prevention and treatment of human influenza. The H1N1 virus contains an important glycoprotein, known as neuraminidase (NA) that is mainly responsible for initiation of viral infection and is essential for the life cycle of H1N1. It is responsible for sialic acid cleavage from glycans of the infected cell. We employed amino acid sequence of H1N1 NA to predict the tertiary structure using Phyre2 server and validated using ProCheck, ProSA, ProQ, and ERRAT server. Further, the modelled structure was docked with thirteen natural compounds of plant origin using AutoDock4.2. Most of the natural compounds showed effective inhibitory activity against H1N1 NA in binding condition. This study also highlights interaction of these natural inhibitors with amino residues of NA protein. Furthermore, among 13 natural compounds, theaflavin, found in green tea, was observed to inhibit H1N1 NA proteins strongly supported by lowest docking energy. Hence, it may be of interest to consider theaflavin for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Curcuma , Garlic , Zingiber officinale , Glycoproteins , Hope , In Vitro Techniques , Influenza A virus , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Life Cycle Stages , Molecular Docking Simulation , Mortality , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Neuraminidase , Phytochemicals , Plant Extracts , Plants , Polysaccharides , Swine , Tea
17.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 299-306, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148740

ABSTRACT

Nineteen highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 viruses were isolated from wild birds in the Donglim reservoir in Gochang, Jeonbuk province, Korea, which was first reported to be an outbreak site on January 17, 2014. Most genes from the nineteen viruses shared high nucleotide sequence identities (i.e., 99.7% to 100%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses were reassortants of the HPAI H5 subtype and the H4N2 strain and that their hemagglutinin clade was 2.3.4.4, which originated from Eastern China. The hemagglutinin protein contained Q222 and G224 at the receptor-binding site. Although the neuraminidase protein contained I314V and the matrix 2 protein contained an S31N substitution, other mutations resulting in oseltamivir and amantadine resistance were not detected. No substitutions associated with increased virulence and enhanced transmission in mammals were detected in the polymerase basic protein 2 (627E and 701D). Non-structural-1 was 237 amino acids long and had an ESEV motif with additional RGNKMAD amino acids in the C terminal region. These viruses caused deaths in the Baikal teal, which was unusual, and outbreaks occurred at the same time in both poultry and wild birds. These data are helpful for epidemiological understanding of HPAI and the design of prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Amantadine , Amino Acids , Base Sequence , Birds , China , Disease Outbreaks , Hemagglutinins , Influenza in Birds , Korea , Mammals , Neuraminidase , Oseltamivir , Poultry , Virulence
18.
Mycobiology ; : 117-120, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729443

ABSTRACT

During our ongoing investigation of neuraminidase inhibitors from medicinal fungi, we found that the fruiting bodies of Phellinus igniarius exhibited significant inhibitory activity against neuraminidase from recombinant H3N2 influenza viruses. Two active compounds were isolated from the methanolic extract of P. igniarius through solvent partitioning and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The active compounds were identified as phelligridins E and G on proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR) and electrospray ionization mass measurements. These compounds inhibited neuraminidases from recombinant rvH1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 influenza viruses, with IC₅₀ values in the range of 0.7~8.1 µM.


Subject(s)
Chromatography , Fruit , Fungi , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Methanol , Neuraminidase , Orthomyxoviridae , Protons
19.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 794-800, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812555

ABSTRACT

Anti-influenza Chinese herbal medicines (anti-flu CHMs) have advantages in preventing and treating influenza virus infection. Despite various data on antiviral activities of some anti-flu CHMs have been reported, most of them could not be compared using the standard evaluation methods for antiviral activity. This situation poses an obstacle to a wide application of anti-flu CHMs. Thus, it was necessary to develop an evaluation method to estimate antiviral activities of anti-flu CHMs. In the present study, we searched for anti-flu CHMs, based on clinic usage, to select study objects from commonly-used patented anti-flu Chinese medicines. Then, a neuraminidase-based bioassay, optimized and verified by HPLC method by our research group, was adopted to detect antiviral activities of selected 26 anti-flu CHMs. Finally, eight of these herbs, including Coptidis Rhizoma, Isatidis Folium, Lonicerae Flos, Scutellaria Radix, Cyrtomium Rhizome, Houttuynia Cordata, Gardeniae Fructus, and Chrysanthemi Indici Flos, were shown to have strong antiviral activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) values being 2.02 to 6.78 mg·mL (expressed as raw materials). In contrast, the IC value of positive control peramivir was 0.38 mg·mL. Considering the extract yields of CHMs, the active component in these herbs may have a stronger antiviral activity than peramivir, suggesting that these herbs could be further researched for active compounds. Moreover, the proposed neuraminidase-based bioassay was high-throughput and simple and could be used for evaluation and screening of anti-flu CHMs as well as for their quality control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Influenza, Human , Drug Therapy , Virology , Neuraminidase , Metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae , Physiology , Viral Proteins , Metabolism
20.
São Paulo med. j ; 133(6): 465-470, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770148

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis occurs frequently in pregnancy and increases susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STI). Considering that adolescents are disproportionally affected by STI, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cervicovaginal levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 and bacterial sialidase in pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at mother and child referral units in Belém, Pará, Brazil. METHODS: Vaginal samples from 168 pregnant adolescents enrolled were tested for trichomoniasis and candidiasis. Their vaginal microbiota was classified according to the Nugent criteria (1991) as normal, intermediate or bacterial vaginosis. Cervical infection due to Chlamydia trachomatisand Neisseria gonorrhoeae was also assessed. Cytokine and sialidase levels were measured, respectively, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and MUAN conversion in cervicovaginal lavages. Forty-eight adolescents (28.6%) were excluded because they tested positive for some of the infections investigated. The remaining 120 adolescents were grouped according to vaginal flora type: normal (n = 68) or bacterial vaginosis (n = 52). Their cytokine and sialidase levels were compared between the groups using the Mann-Whitney test (P < 0.05). RESULTS: The pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis had higher levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 (P < 0.05). Sialidase was solely detected in 35 adolescents (67.2%) with bacterial vaginosis. CONCLUSIONS: Not only IL-1 beta and sialidase levels, but also IL-6 and IL-8 levels are higher in pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis, thus indicating that this condition elicits a more pronounced inflammatory response in this population, which potentially increases vulnerability to STI acquisition.


RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A vaginose bacteriana é uma condição, comum em gestantes, que aumenta a susceptibilidade a infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST). Considerando que adolescentes são desproporcionalmente afetadas por IST, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os níveis cervicovaginais de interleucina (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 e sialidases bacterianas em gestantes adolescentes com vaginose bacteriana. DESENHO DO ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal em Unidade de Referência Materno Infantil (UREMIA), Belém, Pará, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Amostras vaginais das 168 gestantes adolescentes incluídas foram testadas para tricomoníase e candidíase e a microbiota vaginal foi classificada em normal, intermediária e vaginose bacteriana, segundo os critérios de Nugent (1991). Infecções cervicais por Chlamydia trachomatis eNeisseria gonorrhoeae também foram avaliadas. Os níveis de citocinas e sialidades foram quantificados, respectivamente, por método imunoenzimático e pela conversão do MUAN nos lavados cervicovaginais. Foram excluídas 48 (28,6%) adolescentes positivas para alguma das infecções investigadas. As 120 gestantes remanescentes foram agrupadas de acordo com o padrão de flora vaginal em: normal (n = 68) e vaginose bacteriana (n = 52). Níveis de citocinas e sialidases foram comparados pelo teste de Mann-Whitney, P < 0,05. RESULTADOS: As gestantes adolescentes com vaginose bacteriana entre os grupos apresentaram níveis aumentados de IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 (P < 0,05). Sialidases foram exclusivamente detectadas em 35 (67,2%) adolescentes com vaginose bacteriana. CONCLUSÕES: Não apenas a IL-1 beta e as sialidases estão aumentadas em gestantes adolescentes com vaginose bacteriana, mas também IL-6 e IL-8, indicando resposta inflamatória mais pronunciada dessa alteração de microbiota nesta população, potencializando a vulnerabilidade à aquisição de IST.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Interleukins/analysis , Neuraminidase/analysis , Vaginosis, Bacterial/pathology , Cervix Uteri/microbiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Interleukin-1/analysis , /analysis , /analysis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial/microbiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Vagina/microbiology
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