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1.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 45(Supl. Especial 2): 58-65, 2021/12/28.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352328

ABSTRACT

Este artigo consiste em um estudo de caso de paciente do sexo masculino, 40 anos, com diarreia e perda ponderal significativa iniciada sete meses depois da sua admissão no Hospital Geral Roberto Santos. O paciente não apresentava alterações significativas no exame físico e as investigações clínicas e laboratoriais foram inexpressivas. Foram realizados estudos endoscópicos e anatomopatológicos, confirmando o diagnóstico de neoplasia neuroendócrina gástrica. Os achados histopatológicos evidenciaram um tumor bem diferenciado do tipo dois, sendo uma neoplasia rara de bom prognóstico. O paciente foi submetido a gastrectomia segmentar de corpo gástrico e evoluiu com melhora clínica da diarreia. Ele recebeu alta hospitalar e segue em acompanhamento com os serviços de gastroenterologia e endocrinologia.


This study reports the case of a 40-year-old male patient presenting with diarrhea and significant weight loss initiated seven months before admission at the Hospital Geral Roberto Santos. The patient showed no significant changes in the physical examination, and clinical and laboratory investigations were inexpressive. Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasia was diagnosed by endoscopic and anatomopathological studies. Histopathological findings showed a well-differentiated type 2 tumor ­ a rare neoplasm with a good prognosis. The patient underwent segmental gastrectomy of the gastric body, evolving with clinical improvement of diarrhea. He was discharged from the hospital and is being followed by gastroenterology and endocrinology services.


Paciente del sexo masculino, 40 años, con diarrea y pérdida significativa de peso, que inició siete meses después de su ingreso en el Hospital Geral Roberto Santos. El paciente no presentó cambios significativos en la exploración física y las investigaciones clínicas y de laboratorio fueron inexpresivas. Se realizaron estudios endoscópicos y anatomopatológicos que confirmaron el diagnóstico de neoplasia neuroendocrina gástrica. Los hallazgos histopatológicos mostraron un tumor tipo 2 bien diferenciado, que es una neoplasia poco frecuente y de buen pronóstico. El paciente fue sometido a gastrectomía segmentaria del cuerpo gástrico y evolucionó con mejoría clínica de la diarrea. Fue dado de alta del hospital y aún está en seguimiento con los servicios de gastroenterología y endocrinología.


Subject(s)
Weight Loss , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Diarrhea , Research Report , Gastrectomy
2.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 210-213, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285333

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: A common site of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is the rectum. The technique most often used is endoscopic mucosal resection with saline injection. However, deep margins are often difficult to obtain because submucosal invasion is common. Underwater endoscopic mucosal resection (UEMR) is a technique in which the bowel lumen is filled with water rather than air, precluding the need for submucosal lifting. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of UEMR for removing small rectal neuroendocrine tumors (rNETs). METHODS: Retrospective study with patients who underwent UEMR in two centers. UEMR was performed using a standard colonoscope. No submucosal injection was performed. Board-certified pathologists conducted histopathologic assessment. RESULTS: UEMR for small rNET was performed on 11 patients (nine female) with a mean age of 55.8 years and 11 lesions (mean size 7 mm, range 3-12 mm). There were 9 (81%) patients with G1 rNET and two patients with G2, and all tumors invaded the submucosa with only one restricted to the mucosa. None case showed vascular or perineural invasion. All lesions were removed en bloc. Nine (81%) resections had free margins. Two patients had deep margin involvement; one had negative biopsies via endoscopic surveillance, and the other was lost to follow-up. No perforations or delayed bleeding occurred. CONCLUSION: UEMR appeared to be an effective and safe alternative for treatment of small rNETs without adverse events and with high en bloc and R0 resection rates. Further prospective studies are needed to compare available endoscopic interventions and to elucidate the most appropriate endoscopic technique for resection of rNETs.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Um local comum de tumores neuroendócrinos (TNEs) é o reto. A técnica mais utilizada é a ressecção endoscópica da mucosa com injeção de solução salina. No entanto, as margens profundas costumam ser difíceis de ressecar porque a invasão da submucosa é comum. A ressecção endoscópica sob imersão d'água (RESI) é uma técnica em que o lúmen intestinal é preenchido com água em vez de ar, evitando a necessidade de elevação submucosa. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia e segurança da RESI para a remoção de pequenos TNEs retais (rTNEs). MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com pacientes que realizaram RESI em dois centros. RESI foi realizada usando um colonoscópio padrão. Nenhuma injeção submucosa foi realizada. Patologistas certificados conduziram avaliação histopatológica. RESULTADOS: RESI foi realizada para pequenos rTNEs em 11 pacientes (nove mulheres) com média de idade de 55,8 anos e 11 lesões (tamanho médio de 7 mm, variando de 3-12 mm). Havia 9 (81%) pacientes com G1 rTNEs e dois pacientes com G2, sendo que todos os tumores invadiam a submucosa sendo apenas um restrito a mucosa. Nenhum caso mostrou invasão vascular ou perineural. Todas as lesões foram removidas em bloco. Nove (81%) ressecções tiveram margens livres. Dois pacientes tiveram envolvimento de margens profundas; um teve biópsias negativas por meio de vigilância endoscópica e o outro perdeu o acompanhamento. Não ocorreram perfurações ou sangramento tardios. CONCLUSÃO: A RESI parece ser uma alternativa eficaz e segura para o tratamento de pequenos rTNEs sem eventos adversos e com altas taxas de ressecção em bloco e R0. Mais estudos prospectivos são necessários para comparar as intervenções endoscópicas disponíveis e para elucidar a técnica endoscópica mais adequada para ressecção de rTNEs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Neuroendocrine Tumors/surgery , Endoscopic Mucosal Resection , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Intestinal Mucosa/surgery , Middle Aged
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 240-245, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285326

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Duodenal papilla neuroendocrine tumors (DP-NET) are rare. Surgical therapy may be recommended for their treatment. However, they have high rates of morbidity and mortality. Endoscopic papillectomy (EP) is safe and effective for complete resection of tumors at this site. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe a case series of DP-NETs resected by EP and perform a literature review. METHODS: A series of patients with DP-NETs underwent EP as primary treatment between Jan/2008 and Mar/2020 at a tertiary referral center. A comprehensive search was made on the MEDLINE primary electronic database. The search strategy was designed to find all articles related to DP-NETs published in the literature. RESULTS: Six patients underwent EP for presenting DP-NETs, four of whom were women (mean age, 63 years). The mean diameter of DP-NETs was 1.6±0.3 cm. Four of six patients were followed up, one of whom suffered relapse at the resection site after 3 months and was referred to surgery (pT3n1b) and the remaining three patients experienced no endoscopic or histological recurrence during follow-up periods of 10, 7, and 4 years, respectively. Eighteen articles were found in the literature search in MEDLINE. The articles included case reports of endoscopically treated DP-NETs. CONCLUSION: EP is safe and effective for DP-NETs that are ≤20 mm, confined to the submucosal layer, well-differentiated, and without local or remote metastasis. Adequate endoscopic follow-up and definitive surgical treatment in the presence of relapse are necessary.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Tumores neuroendócrinos da papila duodenal (TNE-PD) são raros. A cirurgia deve ser recomendada para o tratamento. No entanto, apresentam altas taxas de morbimortalidade. A papilectomia endoscópica (PE) é segura e eficaz para a ressecção completa de tumores nesta região. OBJETIVO: Descrever uma série de casos de TNEs-PD ressecados por PE e realizar uma revisão da literatura. MÉTODOS: Pacientes com TNEs-PD submetidos a PE como tratamento primário com intenção curativa entre jan/2008 e mar/2020 em um centro de referência terciário foram estudados. Uma pesquisa abrangente foi feita no MEDLINE. A estratégia de busca foi desenhada para encontrar todos os artigos relacionados a TNEs-PD publicados na literatura, que haviam sido submetidos a PE. RESULTADOS: Seis pacientes foram submetidos a PE por apresentar TNEs-PD, sendo quatro mulheres, com média de idade de 66 anos (22-96). O diâmetro médio dos TNEs-PD foi de 1,8±0,4 cm. Quatro dos seis pacientes foram acompanhados, um dos quais sofreu recidiva no local da ressecção após 3 meses e foi encaminhado para cirurgia (pT3n1b), e os três pacientes restantes não apresentaram recorrência endoscópica ou histológica durante os períodos de acompanhamento de 10, 7 e 4 anos, respectivamente. Dezoito artigos foram encontrados no MEDLINE. Os artigos incluíram relatos de casos de TNEs-PD tratados pela PE. CONCLUSÃO: A PE é segura e eficaz para TNEs-PD ≤20 mm, confinados à camada submucosa, bem diferenciados e sem metástases locais ou remotas. Acompanhamento endoscópico adequado e tratamento cirúrgico definitivo na vigência de recidiva são necessários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Neuroendocrine Tumors/surgery , Duodenal Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
4.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(2): 152-155, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286997

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tumours of the appendix are rare and tend to be diagnosed incidentally, in cases of acute appendicitis. For some authors, appendiceal neuroendocrine tumours (ANETs) are the most frequent neoplasm of the appendix, observed in 0.3% to 0.9% of cases acute appendicitis. The present is a unicentric retrospective study conducted between January 2005 and March 2017. Out of a total of 3,007 surgeries for appendiceal pathologies performed in the adult population at the hospital where the present study was conducted, there were 70 (2.33%) malignant cases, 20 (28.6%) of which were ANETs. The patients had a median age of 44 years (range: 18 to 85 years), and were predominantly women (there were 1.9 times more women than men). In 16 cases (80%), a simple appendicectomy was performed (1 patient was submitted to a right hemicolectomy later). The cases of ANETs had a good prognosis in our series: 85% of the patients are either alive today or were alive after 5 years of follow-up. Despite the fact that ANETs are described as the most frequent tumor of the appendix, this was not confirmed in our series, in which they only represented 28.6% of the cases; adenocarcinoma was the most frequent tumor (65.7%) among our sample.


Resumo Tumores do apêndice são raros, e tendem a ser diagnosticados de forma incidental, em casos de apendicite aguda. Para alguns autores, tumores neuroendócrinos do apêndice (TNEAs) são as neoplasias mais frequentes do apêndice, e são observados em 0,3 a 0,9% de todos os casos agudos de apendicite. Este é um estudo monocêntrico e retrospectivo realizado entre janeiro de 2005 e março de 2017. Entre umtotal de 3.007 cirurgias para patologias do apêndice realizadas na população adulta no hospital em que o estudo foi conduzido, houve 70 (2,33%) casos de malignidade, 20 (28,6%) dos quais eram TNEAs. Os pacientes tinham uma idade média de 44 anos (gama: 18-85 anos), e eram predominantemente mulheres (havia 1,9 vezes mais mulheres do que homens). Em 16 casos (80%), realizou-se uma simples apendicectomia (1 paciente foi submetido a uma hemicolectomia direita mais tarde). Os casos de TNEAs tiveram um bom prognóstico em nossa série: 85% dos pacientes estão vivos hoje, ou estavam após um seguimento de 5 anos. Apesar de os TNEAs serem descritos como os tumores mais frequentes do apêndice, isso não foi confirmado nesta série, na qual eles representaram apenas 28,6% dos casos; adenocarcinoma foi o tumor mais frequente (65,7%) emnossa amostra.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Appendiceal Neoplasms , Adenocarcinoma , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Appendectomy , Appendix/surgery
5.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(supl.1): 78-84, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251552

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El mejor tratamiento para los tumores neuroendocrinos es la resección completa del tumor, los ganglios, e inclusive en casos seleccionados, las metástasis a distancia. En ocasiones, el tumor primario es pequeño y de difícil localización preoperatoria o sus recaídas pueden ser difíciles de localizar en el terreno de fibrosis por cirugías o tratamientos previos. La cirugía radioguíada ofrece una opción adicional de localización intraoperatoria que hasta ahora no ha sido muy utilizada en tumores neuroendocrinos. Presentación del caso: Paciente de 59 años con antecedente de resección atípica de duodeno y páncreas por tumor neuroendocrino grado 2 del duodeno un año antes. En la tomografía por emisión de positrones/tomografía computarizada (PET/CT) 68Ga-DOTANOC se encontró un ganglio con sobreexpresión de receptores de somatostatina en el mesenterio, sin otras lesiones a distancia. Por los antecedentes quirúrgicos y la dificultad de visualizar la lesión en las imágenes anatómicas (resonancia magnética [RM]) se decidió realizar la cirugía radioguíada. En el preoperatorio se administraron 15 mCi de tecnecio 99 metaestable-hidrazinonicotinilo-Tyr3-octreotida (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) y se verificó la buena captación en el ganglio. En cirugía, luego de la disección inicial se utilizó la sonda gamma, que detectó una actividad 5 veces mayor en el ganglio, comparado con los tejidos vecinos, lo que permitió su localización y resección. La evolución fue adecuada y un año después no hay evidencia de recaídas. Conclusión: La cirugía radioguíada no ha sido muy utilizada en la localización intraoperatoria de tumores neuroendocrinos, pero es una buena alternativa en casos seleccionados, como el presentado en este artículo, y permite la detección intraoperatoria y su resección completa.


Abstract Introduction: The best treatment for neuroendocrine tumors is complete resection of the tumor, lymph nodes, and even distant metastases in selected cases. Sometimes, the primary tumor is small and difficult to detect before surgery, or its relapses may be difficult to locate in the fibrosis field due to previous surgeries or treatments. Although radioguided surgery allows for additional intraoperative localization, it has yet to be widely used in neuroendocrine tumors. Case report: A 59-year-old patient with a history of atypical resection of duodenum and pancreas due to grade 2 neuroendocrine tumor of the duodenum one year earlier. On 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT, a node with somatostatin receptor overexpression was found in the mesentery, with no other distant lesions. Due to the surgical history and the difficulty in visualizing the lesion on anatomical images (MRI), it was decided to perform the radioguided surgery. During the preoperative period, 15 mCi of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC were administered verifying good uptake in the ganglion. Following the initial dissection, a gamma probe was used, detecting 5 times more activity in the ganglion than in adjacent tissues, allowing for localization and resection. The patient's progress was satisfactory, and one year later there is no evidence of relapse. Conclusion: Although radioguided surgery is not commonly used in the intraoperative location of neuroendocrine tumors, it is a viable option in some situations, such as the one presented here, because it allows for intraoperative detection and full resection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Somatostatin , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Positron-Emission Tomography , Probe
7.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(3): 232-236, 20210000. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348029

ABSTRACT

Introduction: To evaluate the prevalence of appendix neoplasia correlating with patient profile, histological types and frequency. Methods: Data collection was performed in the Pathology Department of a General Hospital, with the objective of identifying patients diagnosed with malignant cecal appendix tumors by histopathologic study of specimens from acute appendicitis. Results: The prevalence of malignant primary epithelial neoplasia of the appendix was 1%. Fifty percent of the cases were neuroendocrine tumors, 35% were mucinous, and 15% were adenocarcinomas. The mean age at diagnosis was 41.3 (SD, 20.4) years (range 16-81), with a women/men ratio of 3:1. Discussion: Appendiceal neoplasms are rare and should be suspected manly in women over 40 years of age with suggestive symptoms of acute appendicitis. The size, location, extent, margins and presence of mucin are essential findings for the treatment of these patients. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Appendiceal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Appendicitis , Adenocarcinoma , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous
8.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021309, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285407

ABSTRACT

Cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors represent a major advance in breast cancer treatment, emerging as the standard of care of the initial treatment of hormone receptor-positive and HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. Their activity in this subset of patients leads to interest in their use in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. This case report presents a real-life case of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors use in a patient initially considered to have stage IV luminal HER2-negative breast cancer with liver metastasis. The discrepancy of treatment response between the breast tumor and liver node led to a repetition of the liver biopsy, which revealed metastasis of a neuroendocrine tumor of unknown primary. The breast tumor showed a partial response, and the initial therapeutic strategy was then redefined for curative intent. While cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors are not yet approved for clinical practice in the neo / adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, this case report portrays a successful example of its application in a neoadjuvant setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma/pathology , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/therapeutic use , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6/therapeutic use , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Liver/abnormalities , Neoplasm Metastasis
9.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020198, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142401

ABSTRACT

Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive malignancy that frequently recurs/disseminates, but metastases to the genitourinary tract are rare. Only eight cases of Merkel cell carcinoma metastatic to the testis are reported. We describe the ninth case of this event and provide a review of the literature. A 58-year-old man diagnosed with Merkel cell carcinoma of the wrist, presented, 37 months later, a recurrence in the form of a testicular metastasis. The tumor consisted of a monotonous proliferation of small, blue, round cells, with immunoexpression of neuroendocrine markers and the typical dot-like paranuclear immunostaining for cytokeratin 20, in the absence of immunostaining for cytokeratin 7. The patient is alive with no evidence of disease. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of metastatic dissemination to the testis since genital examination/imaging is not part of routine follow-up for these patients, but timely orchiectomy may be curative.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Testicular Neoplasms/complications , Carcinoma, Merkel Cell/complications , Neuroendocrine Tumors/pathology , Neoplasm Metastasis
10.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021305, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285408

ABSTRACT

Primary paraganglioma and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder are rare tumors, comprising 0.05% of all bladder tumors and <1% of all malignant bladder tumors, respectively. These tumors can be the cause of a diagnostic dilemma or misdiagnosis on morphology. Paraganglioma is often mistaken for urothelial carcinoma and small cell carcinoma for poorly differentiated carcinoma or lymphoma. Herein, we report a case of primary paraganglioma and another of a small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and discuss their closest differential diagnoses. The diagnostic pitfalls should be kept in mind so that correct, timely diagnosis of these entities can be made due to implications in the management and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Paraganglioma/complications , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/complications , Neuroendocrine Tumors/complications , Carcinoma, Small Cell/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors
11.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(1): 17-20, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146467

ABSTRACT

Insulinoma es un tumor neuroendocrino que surge de las células ß del páncreas y produce hiperinsulinemia endógena. Son neoplasias raras con una incidencia reportada de 4 casos por millón de habitantes por año. La presentación clínica típicamente cursa con síntomas adrenérgicos y neuroglucopénicos secundarios a hipoglicemia. Requiere estudios de niveles séricos de insulina, pro-insulina y péptido C, además de imágenes diagnosticas que confirmen los hallazgos. La mayoría de los insulinomas son benignos, su sitio primario más común es el páncreas y pueden extirparse quirúrgicamente. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 36 años con déficit cognitivo leve y episodios de diaforesis con deterioro neurológico hasta convulsiones tónico clónicas generalizadas que curiosamente resolvían con uso doméstico de "panela molida". Se ingresó a urgencias por ataques recurrentes de hipoglicemia severa con requerimiento de altas dosis de dextrosa al 50% por acceso central, hasta confirmación diagnóstica, intervención y resección de tumor neuroendocrino pancreático bien diferenciado (G1 según clasificación OMS) tipo insulinoma en la cola del páncreas.


Insulinoma is a neuroendocrine tumor that arises from the ß cells of the pancreas and produces endogenous hyperinsulinemia. They are rare neoplasms with a reported incidence to 4 cases per million inhabitants per year. The clinical presentation typically presents with adrenergic and neuroglycopenic symptoms secondary to hypoglycemia. It requires studies of serum levels of insulin, pro-insulin and C-peptide, in addition to diagnostic images that confirm the findings. Most insulinomas are benign, their most common primary site is the pancreas, and they can be removed surgically. We present the case of a 36-year-old man with mild cognitive deficits and episodes of diaphoresis with neurological deterioration to generalized clonic tonic seizures that curiously resolved with domestic use of "ground brown sugar". He was admitted to the emergency department due to recurrent attacks of severe hypoglycemia with a high-dose requirement for 50% dextrose through central access, until diagnostic confirmation, intervention, and resection of a welldifferentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (G1 according to WHO classification) insulinoma in the tail of pancreas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Insulinoma/diagnosis , Pancreatic Neoplasms/surgery , Pancreatic Neoplasms/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Diagnosis, Differential , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Glucose/therapeutic use , Hyperinsulinism/etiology , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Hypoglycemia/drug therapy , Insulinoma/surgery , Insulinoma/complications
12.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020201, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142397

ABSTRACT

Undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells (UCOGCs) is an extremely rare morphologically and clinically distinct variant of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), exhibiting a characteristic component of reactive osteoclast-like giant cells admixed with neoplastic mononuclear cells. Sommers and Meissner first described it in 1954 as an "unusual carcinoma of the pancreas". Later it acquired many different names. In 2010, the WHO classified these tumors as a variant of PDAC under the heading of "undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells". Here we describe the first case of pancreatic mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNEN) composed of UCOGC and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET), which occurred in a 78-year-old man with biliary colic and pancreatitis. The mass did not respond to the chemotherapy, and he soon developed liver metastasis from the NET component, and unfortunately, the patient passed away 10 months later. Since UCOGC is extremely rare, and its association with NET has not been reported yet, our case expands the knowledge regarding its unusual presentation and poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/pathology , Giant Cells , Fatal Outcome
13.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 784-789, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922147

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are a kind of epithelial tumors originating from pulmonary neuroendocrine cells, accounting for about 20% of primary lung tumors, including typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell carcinoma, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. The morphologic and clinical characteristics of these four types of PNETs are relatively highly heterogeneous. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been shown robust antitumor activity in a variety of solid tumors. Treatment regimens of advanced PNETs have developed greatly in the past decade, but ICIs are still in their infancy in the field of PNETs. This review focuses on the landscape of current clinical trials and research as well as the situation of ICIs-related biomarkers in PNETs.
.


Subject(s)
Carcinoid Tumor , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive , Neuroendocrine Tumors/drug therapy
14.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 847-852, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The curative potential of various bronchoscopic treatments such as electric snare, carbon dioxide freezing, argon plasma coagulation (APC), Neudymium-dopted Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of intraluminal tumor has been administered previously, but this regimen is not common in the treatment of typical carcinoid. The aim of this study is to investigate the curative effects both in short-term and long-term of interventional bronchoscopy in the treatment of typical carcinoid.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of typical carcinoid patients who were treated with interventional bronchoscopy for tumor suppression and they were hospitalized in the Emergency General Hospital from December 2010 to December 2020, and Wilcoxon rank sum test and chi-square test were used for analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 32 patients were included, including 18 cases of preoperative bronchial artery embolization (embolization rate 56%, 95%CI: 31%-79%). The grade score of dyspnea decreased from before treatment to after treatment, and the difference was statistically significant [(1.44±1.03) score vs (0.25±0.58) score, P=0.003]; The degree of bronchial stenosis decreased from pre-treatment to post-treatment, and the difference was statistically significant [(87.50%±13.90%) vs (17.50%±6.83%), P<0.001]; There was significant difference in bronchial diameter before and after treatment [(0.14±0.18) cm vs (0.84±0.29) cm, P<0.001].@*CONCLUSIONS@#Bronchoscopic interventional therapy has significant short-term and long-term effects in the treatment of typical carcinoid.


Subject(s)
Bronchial Neoplasms/surgery , Bronchoscopy , Carcinoid Tumor/surgery , Humans , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Retrospective Studies
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921878

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the impact of prior non-pancreatic cancer on the survival outcomes of patients with localized pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs). Methods We reviewed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database and selected patients with localized PanNETs diagnosed between 1973 and 2015. We divided the patients into two groups according to the presence or absence of prior non-pancreatic malignancy. Before and after propensity score matching, we compared the clinicopathological characteristics and studied the overall survival and cancer-specific survival. Results A total of 357 (12.9%) of 2778 patients with localized PanNETs had prior cancer. A total of 1211 cases with only a localized PanNET and 133 cases with a localized PanNET and prior cancer had complete data and met the inclusion criteria of the current study. Patients with prior cancer were associated with advanced age (>65 years, 57.9% prior cancer


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Neuroendocrine Tumors/epidemiology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Propensity Score
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921565

ABSTRACT

Liver metastasis is not rare during the course of neuroendocrine neoplasms.The methods for treating neuroendocrine neoplasm with liver metastasis(NENLM)are diversifying,which exposes the limitations of the early therapeutic response assessment based on only morphological changes.The emerging imaging biomarkers can sensitively describe changes in response to treatment from the functional level,providing new ideas for the therapeutic response evaluation of NENLM.In this paper,we reviewed the status quo and the latest research progress of imaging assessment for early therapeutic response of NENLM,aiming to provide reference for assessing the response and further exploring the treatment-related biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neuroendocrine Tumors/diagnostic imaging
17.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 989-1000, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920980

ABSTRACT

Lung and thymus neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are rare tumors. According to the fifth edition of the World Health Organization classification of thoracic tumors published in 2021, lung and thymus NENs include typical carcinoids, atypical carcinoids, large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, and small cell carcinomas. Although the incidence of lung and thymus NENs has gradually increased in recent years, there is a lack of randomized controlled clinical study results to guide clinical practice. The treatment of early-stage lung and thymus NENs is complete surgical resection, and the treatment methods for unresectable advanced diseases include different medical treatments, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and local therapy. To improve the standardization of diagnosis and treatment of lung and thymus NENs in China, the Expert Committee of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms, Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology developed the expert consensus after multidisciplinary expert discussions based on existing clinical study evidences and guidelines from different neuroendocrine tumor societies. The contents of the consensus cover the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathological classification, staging, treatment and follow-up of lung and thymus NENs (except small cell lung cancer).


Subject(s)
Carcinoid Tumor , China , Consensus , Humans , Lung , Neuroendocrine Tumors/therapy
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879947

ABSTRACT

Neuroendocrine tumors are a type of heterogeneous tumors originating from neuroendocrine cells derived from the neural crest,which can secrete a variety of amines and peptide hormones.Based on different molecular biomarkers,histologic types and differentiation degrees,individualized nuclear imaging can provide information for the early diagnosis,clinical staging,treatment guidance,and detection of the recurrence and metastasis of neuroendocrine tumor. In this paper,we review the development and application of nuclear medicine molecular imaging probes such as glucose analogs,somatostatin analogues,amine precursors,hormone analogs and enzyme inhibitors in the diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Molecular Probes , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neuroendocrine Tumors/diagnostic imaging , Radionuclide Imaging
19.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 26(3): 120-124, set. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138707

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Los tumores neuroendocrinos primarios (NET) del mediastino son muy raros. Presentamos el caso de un tumor carcinoide atípico primario de timo. Un hombre de 52 años que fue a un examen médico porque se quejaba de tos no productiva sin hemoptisis. Se solicitó una radiografía de tórax donde se evidenció un mediastino notablemente ensanchado, con una tomografía de tórax que mostro una masa tumoral de 90 x 50 mm en el mediastino anterosuperior que comprime el arco aórtico y la arteria pulmonar sin un plano de clivaje adecuado. Debido a que el tumor era infiltrativo, se proporcionó escisión quirúrgica completa, quimioterapia y radioterapia al mediastino. El objetivo principal de nuestro estudio fue evaluar los hallazgos de CT y MRI con relación a la literatura mundial.


Abstract: Primary neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the mediastinum are very rare. We present the case of a primary atypical carcinoid tumor of the thymus. A 52-year-old man who went to a medical examination because he complained of a non-productive cough without hemoptysis. A chest radiograph was requested where a markedly widened mediastinum was evidenced, with a thoracic tomography showing a tumor mass of 90 x 50 mm in the anterosuperior mediastinum that compresses the aortic arch and pulmonary artery without an adequate cleavage plane. Because the tumor was infiltrative, complete surgical excision, chemotherapy and radiotherapy were provided to the mediastinum. The main objective of our study was to evaluate the findings of CT and MRI in relation to universal literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thymus Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoid Tumor/diagnostic imaging , Neuroendocrine Tumors/diagnostic imaging , Thymus Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoid Tumor/surgery , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Neuroendocrine Tumors/surgery , Mediastinum/pathology
20.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(5): 305-312, 20200000. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1367286

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Los TNE-GEP son raros y se originan en el sistema endocrino localizado en el tubo gastrointestinal (carcinoides) y en el páncreas (tumores insulares) con una gran variedad de presentaciones clínicas. Diseño: Cooperativo, Retrospectivo y protocolizado Material y Métodos: Entre enero del 2005 y diciembre del 2018, un trabajo cooperativo, con el Servicio de Guardia Central del HNC, Servicio de Cirugía General "Pablo Luis Mirizzi" del HNC y Clínica Privada Caraffa, se intervinieron quirúrgicamente 24 pacientes con TNEGEP. Del total, 14 pertenecían al sexo femenino (58.3 %) y los 10 restantes al masculino (41.6 %), con un rango etario entre 20 y 82 años de edad con un promedio de 55.3 años. Resultados: La localizaciones fueron 4 de estómago (16.6 %), 14 en intestino (58.3 %) y finalmente 6 en la cabeza del páncreas (25 %). En relación al estómago en los 4 pacientes se llevó a cabo una gastrectomía total y la anatomía patológica en tres demostró carcinoma neuroendocrino de bajo grado y el cuarto de alto grado, falleciendo esta última. Las lesiones de intestino 5 de apéndice menores de 1 cm. La anatomía patológica fue apendicitis aguda más, un Carcinoma neuroendocrino de bajo grado. En región ileocecal, en cuatro se realizó hemicolectomía derecha. En tres eran carcinoma de bajo grado que viven y cuarto de alto grado con mtts hepáticas que falleció. En tres de íleon todos fueron oclusivos, llevándose a cabo resecciones intestinales, en dos carcinomas de bajo grado y ultimo de moderado grado con metástasis (mtts) hepáticas que vive. Los tumores de colon fueron, uno ascendente con mtts hepáticas y se realizó colectomía derecha más resecciones hepáticas, siendo la anatomía patológica un carcinoma de alto grado y otro un colon descendente de bajo grado. Las 6 lesiones de páncreas, 3 fueron no funcionantes y otras tres funcionantes. A todos se les practico DPC. Conclusiones: Los TNE-GEP son una patología rara cuya frecuencia es de aparición constante. Con la mejora de los métodos de imágenes, nos encontramos ante un aumento de la presunción preoperatoria y ante sus mejores posibilidades oncológicas, una patología que todo cirujano debe conocer y pensar.


Background: Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT)- are rare and are originated in the endocrine system located in the gastrointestinal tract (carcinoids) and in the pancreas (islet cell tumors) with a variety of clinical presentations. Design: Cooperative, retrospective. Method: Between January 2005 and December 2018, a cooperative work in the Central Guard Service of the HNC, General Surgery Service "Pablo Luis Mirizzi" of the HNC and Caraffa Private Clinic, 24 patients with NET-GIT underwent surgical treatment. Of the total, 14 were females (58.3%) and the remaining 10 (41.6%) were men aged 20 to 82 years, with an average of 55.3 years. Results: The locations were 4 in the stomach (16.6%), 14 in the intestine (58.3%) and finally, 6 in the head of the pancreas (25%). In relation to the stomach, in 4 patients total gastrectomies were performed, and the pathological anatomy in three demonstrated a low-grade of neuroendocrine carcinoma and in the fourth a high degree; the latter. 5 patients died with a clinical presentation of acute appendicitis. The pathological anatomy was further acute appendicitis, a low-grade of neuroendocrine carcinoma.In the ileum-cecal region,and four of it underwent a right colectomy. In three there was a low-grade living and fourth high-grade carcinoma with liver mtts who died. In three of the ileum all were occlusive, carrying out intestinal resections, in two low- and last-grade moderate-grade carcinomas with living liver metastasis (mtts).. The colonic tumors were, one ascending with hepatic mtts and right colectomy more liver resections, with pathological anatomy being a high-grade carcinoma and another a low-grade in the descending colon. From the 6 pancreatic lesions, 3 were non-functioning and three functioning. All patients were operated of CPD. Conclusion: NET-GIT is a rare pathology but whose frequency is in constantly rise With improved imaging methods, we are faced with an increase in preoperative presumption and in the face of its best oncological possibilities, a pathology that every surgeon must know and think about.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Retrospective Studies , Colectomy , Neuroendocrine Tumors/therapy , Protocols , Gastrointestinal Tract/surgery , Gastrectomy
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