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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 47-68, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929080

ABSTRACT

Human cortical radial glial cells are primary neural stem cells that give rise to cortical glutaminergic projection pyramidal neurons, glial cells (oligodendrocytes and astrocytes) and olfactory bulb GABAergic interneurons. One of prominent features of the human cortex is enriched with glial cells, but there are major gaps in understanding how these glial cells are generated. Herein, by integrating analysis of published human cortical single-cell RNA-Seq datasets with our immunohistochemistical analyses, we show that around gestational week 18, EGFR-expressing human cortical truncated radial glial cells (tRGs) give rise to basal multipotent intermediate progenitors (bMIPCs) that express EGFR, ASCL1, OLIG2 and OLIG1. These bMIPCs undergo several rounds of mitosis and generate cortical oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and olfactory bulb interneurons. We also characterized molecular features of the cortical tRG. Integration of our findings suggests a general picture of the lineage progression of cortical radial glial cells, a fundamental process of the developing human cerebral cortex.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes , Cell Differentiation , Cerebral Cortex , Humans , Neuroglia , Oligodendroglia
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(2): 301-306, set 29, 2021. tab, fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354493

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o tabagismo é uma das principais causas evitáveis de mortes no mundo representando um problema de saúde pública. Objetivo: investigar a relação da exposição passiva à fumaça principal do cigarro e as possíveis alterações histomorfométricas das células gliais, arteríolas e da matriz extracelular do nervo olfatório de ratas. Metodologia: trata-se de um estudo experimental, analítico e quantitativo. Vinte ratas randomizadas divididas em dois grupos, controle e tabaco, foram expostas à inalação da fumaça principal do cigarro por 60 dias utilizando dispositivo validado na literatura. Resultados: a exposição à inalação da fumaça principal do cigarro resultou em alterações significativas no grupo tabaco, tais como, elevação nos níveis de cotinina no plasma sanguíneo, aumento na espessura da parede dos vasos sanguíneos, aumento na porcentagem do colágeno total do tecido, diminuição no número total de astrócitos e aumento no número total de micróglias. Conclusão: a exposição à fumaça principal do cigarro resulta em alterações histomorfométricas que poderiam causar alterações funcionais no nervo olfatório como perda sensorial olfativa. Os achados constatados são fortes o suficiente para servir como alerta a toda a população e às autoridades de saúde, no que se refere às leis antifumo, principalmente em ambientes fechados.


Introduction: smoking is one of the main preventable causes of death in the world and represents a worldwide public health problem. Objective: to investigate the relationship of second hand tobacco smoke and possible histomorphometric changes of glial cells, arterioles and extracellular matrix of the olfactory nerve in rats. Methodology: experimental, analytical and quantitative study, twenty wistar animals randomized into two control and tobacco groups, were exposed to inhalation of main cigarette smoke for 60 days using a device validated in the literature. Results: exposure to inhalation of main cigarette smoke resulted in changes in the tobacco group, such as increased levels of cotinine in the blood plasma, increased thickness of the blood vessel wall, increased percentage of total tissue collagen, decreased in the total number of astrocytes and increase in the total number of microglia. Conclusion: exposure to main cigarette smoke results in histomorphometric changes that can cause changes in the olfactory nerve such as sensory olfactory loss. Our findings are strong enough to serve as a warning to the entire population and to health authorities in relation to smokefree laws especially in closed environments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Olfactory Nerve , Rats , Tobacco Use Disorder , Neuroglia , Collagen , Tobacco Products , Anatomy , Laboratory and Fieldwork Analytical Methods , Intervention Studies
3.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(2): 157-166, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341979

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A neuroinflamação associada às células gliais é um elemento importante do processo patológico da doença de Alzheimer (DA). Este estudo apresenta uma revisão dos marcadores gliais quitinase 3-like 1 (YKL-40), do receptor desencadeado expresso nas células mieloides 2 (Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 ­ TREM2), da proteína acídica fibrilar glial (GFAP) e da proteína B S100 ligante de cálcio (S100B). Métodos: Nesta revisão são analisados os marcadores gliais YKL-40, TREM2, GFAP e S100B presentes em sangue e/ou líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR), a partir de estudos publicados até 2020 nos bancos de dados do PubMed, Medline e Periódicos Capes. Resultados: Foram recuperados 233 documentos, dentre os quais foram incluídos 60. Todos os marcadores se encontram aumentados na DA em LCR ­ YKL-40 e TREM2 solúvel (sTREM2), já na fase pré-clínica ­, e em sangue, e estão correlacionados ao declínio cognitivo. No entanto, nenhum dos marcadores analisados apresentou grande potencial para o diagnóstico diferencial. Além da proteína TREM2 solúvel no LCR, no sangue também se pode identificar alteração nos níveis do RNAm de TREM2. GFAP sanguíneo mostra ser o melhor em distinguir controles de pacientes com Alzheimer. Há evidências de um efeito protetivo da ativação glial em reação ao acúmulo amiloide. Conclusão: Os marcadores gliais no geral têm pouca utilidade para o diagnóstico diferencial, mas podem auxiliar no prognóstico e como biomarcadores inespecíficos para doenças neurodegenerativas. (AU)


Introduction: Glial cell-associated neuroinflammation is a driving force for the pathological process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study is a systematic review aimed to analyze the following glial markers: chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40), triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B). Methods: The PubMed, MEDLINE and CAPES Journals databases were searched for studies published until 2020 that addressed blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of YKL-40, TREM2, GFAP and S100B. Results: A total of 233 articles were retrieved, of which 60 were included in this study. All CSF ­ YKL-40 and soluble TREM2 (sTREM2) in preclinical stage ­ and blood biomarker levels were elevated for AD and were correlated to cognitive decline. None of the analyzed biomarkers showed promising results for differential diagnosis. Besides CSF sTREM2 levels, blood TREM2 mRNA levels were also altered in AD. Blood GFAP levels seem to be the best option for distinguishing controls from AD patients.' There is evidence of a protective role of glial activation in amyloid accumulation. Conclusion: Glial markers in general are of little use for differential diagnosis but can assist in prognosis and as nonspecific biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Neuroglia , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Membrane Glycoproteins , Receptors, Immunologic , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit , Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1 , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1625-1636, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922646

ABSTRACT

The capacity for neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain is extremely limited and highly restricted to a few regions, which greatly hampers neuronal regeneration and functional restoration after neuronal loss caused by injury or disease. Meanwhile, transplantation of exogenous neuronal stem cells into the brain encounters several serious issues including immune rejection and the risk of tumorigenesis. Recent discoveries of direct reprogramming of endogenous glial cells into functional neurons have provided new opportunities for adult neuro-regeneration. Here, we extensively review the experimental findings of the direct conversion of glial cells to neurons in vitro and in vivo and discuss the remaining issues and challenges related to the glial subtypes and the specificity and efficiency of direct cell-reprograming, as well as the influence of the microenvironment. Although in situ glial cell reprogramming offers great potential for neuronal repair in the injured or diseased brain, it still needs a large amount of research to pave the way to therapeutic application.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cellular Reprogramming , Nerve Regeneration , Neurogenesis , Neuroglia , Neurons
5.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 940-952, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921299

ABSTRACT

NG2-glia are a major type of glial cells that are widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS). Under physiological conditions, they mainly differentiate into oligodendrocytes and contribute to the myelination of axons, so they are generally called oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Emerging evidence suggests that NG2-glia not only act as the precursors of oligodendrocytes but also possess many other biological properties and functions. For example, NG2-glia can form synapse with neurons and participate in energy metabolism and immune regulation. Under pathological conditions, NG2-glia can also differentiate into astrocytes, Schwann cells and even neurons, which are involved in CNS injury and repair. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the biological characteristics and functions of NG2-glia under physiological and pathological conditions will be helpful for the treatment of CNS injury and disease. This article reviews the recent advances in the biological characteristics and functions of NG2-glia.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes , Central Nervous System , Neuroglia , Neurons , Oligodendroglia
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879970

ABSTRACT

Transient receptor potential M2 (TRPM2) ion channel is a non-selective cationic channel that can permeate calcium ions, and plays an important role in neuroinflammation, ischemic reperfusion brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, neuropathic pain, epilepsy and other neurological diseases. In ischemic reperfusion brain injury, TRPM2 mediates neuronal death by modulating the different subunits of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor in response to calcium/zinc signal. In Alzheimer's disease, TRPM2 is activated by reactive oxygen species generated by β-amyloid peptide to form a malignant positive feedback loop that induces neuronal death and is involved in the pathological process of glial cells by promoting inflammatory response and oxidative stress. In epilepsy, the TRPM2-knockout alleviates epilepsy induced neuronal degeneration by inhibiting autophagy and apoptosis related proteins. The roles of TRPM2 channel in the pathogenesis of various central nervous system diseases and its potential drug development and clinical application prospects are summarized in this review.


Subject(s)
Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroglia , TRPM Cation Channels/genetics , Transient Receptor Potential Channels
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828900

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the effects of different materials for partial sciatic nerve ligation on glial cell activation in the spinal cord in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI).@*METHODS@#SD rats were randomly divided into the sham group (=15), silk suture CCI group (=15) and chromic catgut CCI group (=14). The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) of the rats were detected at 3, 7, 11 and 15 days after the operation. The changes in the sciatic nerve, the activation of spinal cord glial cells and the expression of inflammatory factors were observed using Western blotting and RT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#At 3 to 15 days after the surgery, MWT and TWL of the rats were significantly lower in silk suture group and chromic catgut group than in the control group ( < 0.05), and was significantly lower in chromic catgut group than in the silk suture group ( < 0.05) at 3 days after the surgery. The results of sciatic nerve myelin staining showed that the sciatic nerve was damaged and demyelinated in both the ligation groups. The expressions of CD11b, GFAP, IL-1β and TNF-α in the two ligation groups were similar and all significantly higher than those in the control group ( < 0.05). IL-6 mRNA level was significantly higher in chromic catgut group than in the silk suture group ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The CCI models established by partial sciatic nerve ligation with silk suture and chromic catgut all show glial activation, and the inflammatory response is stronger in chromic catgut group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Constriction , Neuroglia , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sciatic Nerve , Spinal Cord
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728028

ABSTRACT

Decursin is a major biological active component of Angelica gigas Nakai and is known to induce apoptosis of metastatic prostatic cancer cells. Recently, other reports have been commissioned to examine the anticancer activities of this plant. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory activity and related mechanism of action of decursin against glioblastoma cell line. Decursin demonstrated cytotoxic effects on U87 and C6 glioma cells in a dose-dependent manner but not in primary glial cells. Additionally, decursin increased apoptotic bodies and phosphorylated JNK and p38 in U87 cells. Decursin also down-regulated Bcl-2 as well as cell cycle dependent proteins, CDK-4 and cyclin D1. Furthermore, decursin-induced apoptosis was dependent on the caspase activation in U87 cells. Taken together, our data provide the evidence that decursin induces apoptosis in glioblastoma cells, making it a potential candidate as a chemotherapeutic drug against brain tumor.


Subject(s)
Angelica , Apoptosis , Brain Neoplasms , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line , Cyclin D1 , Extracellular Vesicles , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Neuroglia , Plants , Prostatic Neoplasms
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 597-603, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777151

ABSTRACT

Central nervous system injury leads to irreversible neuronal loss and glial scar formation, which ultimately results in persistent neurological dysfunction. Regenerative medicine suggests that replenishing missing neurons may be an ideal approach to repair the damage. Recent researches showed that many mature cells could be transdifferentiated into functional neurons by reprogramming. Therefore, reprogramming endogenous glia in situ to produce functional neurons shows great potential and unique advantage for repairing neuronal damage and treating neurodegenerative diseases. The present review summarized the current research progress on in situ transdifferentiation in the central nervous system, focusing on the cell types, characteristics and research progress of glial cells that could be transdifferentiated in situ, in order to provide theoretical basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies of neuronal injury and further clinical application.


Subject(s)
Cell Transdifferentiation , Cellular Reprogramming , Central Nervous System , Cell Biology , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroglia , Cell Biology , Neurons , Cell Biology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765957

ABSTRACT

The role of the microbiome in health and human disease has emerged at the forefront of medicine in the 21st century. Over the last 2 decades evidence has emerged to suggest that inflammation-derived oxidative damage and cytokine induced toxicity may play a significant role in the neuronal damage associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines and T cell infiltration has been observed in the brain parenchyma of patients with PD. Furthermore, evidence for inflammatory changes has been reported in the enteric nervous system, the vagus nerve branches and glial cells. The presence of α-synuclein deposits in the post-mortem brain biopsy in patients with PD has further substantiated the role of inflammation in PD. It has been suggested that the α-synuclein misfolding might begin in the gut and spread “prion like” via the vagus nerve into lower brainstem and ultimately to the midbrain; this is known as the Braak hypothesis. It is noteworthy that the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms (constipation, dysphagia, and hypersalivation), altered gut microbiota and leaky gut have been observed in PD patients several years prior to the clinical onset of the disease. These clinical observations have been supported by in vitro studies in mice as well, demonstrating the role of genetic (α-synuclein overexpression) and environmental (gut dysbiosis) factors in the pathogenesis of PD. The restoration of the gut microbiome in patients with PD may alter the clinical progression of PD and this alteration can be accomplished by carefully designed studies using customized probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biopsy , Brain , Brain Stem , Cytokines , Deglutition Disorders , Dysbiosis , Enteric Nervous System , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Mesencephalon , Mice , Microbiota , Neuroglia , Neurons , Parkinson Disease , Probiotics , Vagus Nerve
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a very serious health problem, usually caused by a trauma and accompanied by elevated levels of inflammation indicators. Stem cell-based therapy is promising some valuable strategies for its functional recovery. Nestin-positive progenitor and/or stem cells (SC) isolated from pancreatic islets (PI) show mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics. For this reason, we aimed to analyze the effects of rat pancreatic islet derived stem cell (rPI-SC) delivery on functional recovery, as well as the levels of inflammation factors following SCI. METHODS: rPI-SCs were isolated, cultured and their MSC characteristics were determined through flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis. The experimental rat population was divided into three groups : 1) laminectomy & trauma, 2) laminectomy & trauma & phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and 3) laminectomy+trauma+SCs. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) labelled rPI-SCs were transplanted into the injured rat spinal cord. Their motilities were evaluated with Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) Score. After 4-weeks, spinal cord sections were analyzed for GFP labeled SCs and stained for vimentin, S100β, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 2’,3’-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proinflammatory (interleukin [IL]-6, transforming growth factor [TGF]-β, macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-2, myeloperoxidase [MPO]) and anti-inflammatory (IL-1 receptor antagonis) factors. RESULTS: rPI-SCs were revealed to display MSC characteristics and express neural and glial cell markers including BDNF, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), fibronectin, microtubule associated protein-2a,b (MAP2a,b), β3-tubulin and nestin as well as antiinflammatory prostaglandin E2 receptor, EP3. The BBB scores showed significant motor recovery in group 3. GFP-labelled cells were localized on the injury site. In addition, decreased proinflammatory factor levels and increased intensity of anti-inflammatory factors were determined. CONCLUSION: Transplantation of PI-SCs might be an effective strategy to improve functional recovery following spinal cord trauma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Dinoprostone , Fibronectins , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Inflammation , Islets of Langerhans , Laminectomy , Macrophages , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Microtubules , Nestin , Neuroglia , Peroxidase , Rats , Regeneration , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells , Transforming Growth Factors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vimentin , Wounds and Injuries
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765134

ABSTRACT

Accumulated evidence suggests that sporadic cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) make up more than 95% of total AD patients, and diabetes has been implicated as a strong risk factor for the development of AD. Diabetes shares pathological features of AD, such as impaired insulin signaling, increased oxidative stress, increased amyloid-beta (Aβ) production, tauopathy and cerebrovascular complication. Due to shared pathologies between the two diseases, anti-diabetic drugs may be a suitable therapeutic option for AD treatment. In this article, we will discuss the well-known pathologies of AD, including Aβ plaques and tau tangles, as well as other mechanisms shared in AD and diabetes including reactive glia and the breakdown of blood brain barrier in order to evaluate the presence of any potential, indirect or direct links of pre-diabetic conditions to AD pathology. In addition, clinical evidence of high incidence of diabetic patients to the development of AD are described together with application of anti-diabetic medications to AD patients.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Blood-Brain Barrier , Encephalitis , Humans , Incidence , Insulin , Neuroglia , Oxidative Stress , Pathology , Risk Factors , Tauopathies
13.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 547-553, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763791

ABSTRACT

Synucleinopathies are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the progressive accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in neurons and glia and include Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In this review, we consolidate our key findings and recent studies concerning the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), a pattern recognition innate immune receptor, in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies. First, we address the pathological interaction of α-syn with microglial TLR2 and its neurotoxic inflammatory effects. Then, we show that neuronal TLR2 activation not only induces abnormal α-syn accumulation by impairing autophagy, but also modulates α-syn transmission. Finally, we demonstrate that administration of a TLR2 functional inhibitor improves the neuropathology and behavioral deficits of a synucleinopathy mouse model. Altogether, we present TLR2 modulation as a promising immunotherapy for synucleinopathies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Dementia , Immunotherapy , Lewy Bodies , Mice , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroglia , Neurons , Neuropathology , Parkinson Disease , Toll-Like Receptor 2 , Toll-Like Receptors
14.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 311-319, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763773

ABSTRACT

Axon guidance molecules (AGMs), such as Netrins, Semaphorins, and Ephrins, have long been known to regulate axonal growth in the developing nervous system. Interestingly, the chemotactic properties of AGMs are also important in the postnatal period, such as in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. In particular, AGMs play pivotal roles in inflammation of the nervous system, by either stimulating or inhibiting inflammatory responses, depending on specific ligand-receptor combinations. Understanding such regulatory functions of AGMs in neuroinflammation may allow finding new molecular targets to treat neurodegenerative diseases, in which neuroinflammation underlies aetiology and progression.


Subject(s)
Axons , Ephrins , Inflammation , Nervous System , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroglia , Semaphorins
15.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 132-139, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786394

ABSTRACT

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) acts as an endotoxin, releases inflammatory cytokines, and promotes an inflammatory response in various tissues. This study investigated whether LPS modulates neuroglia activation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory factors in the cerebral cortex. Adult male mice were divided into control animals and LPS-treated animals. The mice received LPS (250 µg/kg) or vehicle via an intraperitoneal injection for 5 days. We confirmed a reduction of body weight in LPS-treated animals and observed severe histopathological changes in the cerebral cortex. Moreover, we elucidated increases of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress levels in LPS-treated animals. LPS administration led to increases of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. Iba-1 and GFAP are well accepted as markers of activated microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Moreover, LPS exposure induced increases of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory factors, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Increases of these inflammatory mediators by LPS exposure indicate that LPS leads to inflammatory responses and tissue damage. These results demonstrated that LPS activates neuroglial cells and increases NF-κB-mediated inflammatory factors in the cerebral cortex. Thus, these findings suggest that LPS induces neurotoxicity by increasing oxidative stress and activating neuroglia and inflammatory factors in the cerebral cortex.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Astrocytes , Body Weight , Cerebral Cortex , Cytokines , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Male , Mice , Microglia , Necrosis , Neuroglia , NF-kappa B , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species
16.
Immune Network ; : 40-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785821

ABSTRACT

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus associated with severe neurological disorders including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. The host innate immune responses against ZIKV infection are essential for protection; however, ZIKV has evolved strategies to evade and antagonize antiviral responses via its nonstructural (NS) proteins. Here, we demonstrated that ZIKV infection unexpectedly inhibits NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation in bone marrow-derived macrophages and mixed glial cells from mouse brain. ZIKV infection led to increased transcript levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6 via activating NF-κB signaling. However, ZIKV infection failed to trigger the secretion of active caspase-1 and IL-1β from macrophages and glial cells even in the presence of LPS priming or ATP costimulation. Intriguingly, ZIKV infection significantly attenuated NLRP3-dependent, but not absent in melanoma 2-dependent caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion from both cells. ZIKV infection further blocked apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain oligomerization in LPS/ATP-stimulated macrophages. Interestingly, expression of ZIKV NS3 protein reduced NLRP3-mediated caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in macrophages, whereas NS1 and NS5 proteins showed no effects. Furthermore, NLRP3 was found to be degraded by the overexpression of ZIKV NS3 in 293T cells. Collectively, these results indicate that ZIKV evades host NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated innate immune responses in macrophages and glial cells; this may facilitate ZIKV's ability to enhance the replication and dissemination in these cells.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Animals , Brain , Caspase 1 , Cytokines , Flavivirus , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , HEK293 Cells , Immunity, Innate , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-6 , Macrophages , Melanoma , Mice , Microcephaly , Nervous System Diseases , Neuroglia , Zika Virus
17.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 679-696, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785789

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes axonal damage and demyelination, neural cell death, and comprehensive tissue loss, resulting in devastating neurological dysfunction. Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPCs) transplantation provides therapeutic benefits for neural repair in SCI, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been uncovered to have capability of stimulating axonal regeneration and remyelination after SCI. In this study, to evaluate whether GDNF would augment therapeutic effects of NSPCs for SCI, GDNF-encoding or mock adenoviral vector-transduced human NSPCs (GDNF-or Mock-hNSPCs) were transplanted into the injured thoracic spinal cords of rats at 7 days after SCI. Grafted GDNF-hNSPCs showed robust engraftment, long-term survival, an extensive distribution, and increased differentiation into neurons and oligodendroglial cells. Compared with Mock-hNSPC- and vehicle-injected groups, transplantation of GDNF-hNSPCs significantly reduced lesion volume and glial scar formation, promoted neurite outgrowth, axonal regeneration and myelination, increased Schwann cell migration that contributed to the myelin repair, and improved locomotor recovery. In addition, tract tracing demonstrated that transplantation of GDNF-hNSPCs reduced significantly axonal dieback of the dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST), and increased the levels of dCST collaterals, propriospinal neurons (PSNs), and contacts between dCST collaterals and PSNs in the cervical enlargement over that of the controls. Finally grafted GDNF-hNSPCs substantially reversed the increased expression of voltage-gated sodium channels and neuropeptide Y, and elevated expression of GABA in the injured spinal cord, which are involved in the attenuation of neuropathic pain after SCI. These findings suggest that implantation of GDNF-hNSPCs enhances therapeutic efficiency of hNSPCs-based cell therapy for SCI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Axons , Cell Death , Cell Movement , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Cicatrix , Demyelinating Diseases , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Humans , Hyperalgesia , Myelin Sheath , Neuralgia , Neurites , Neuroglia , Neurons , Neuropeptide Y , Paraplegia , Pyramidal Tracts , Rats , Regeneration , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Therapeutic Uses , Transplants , Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels
18.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 469-474, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760944

ABSTRACT

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been reported to be involved in negatively regulating the effects of addictive disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate alterations in the levels of GDNF in patients with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and to assess the relationship between GDNF levels and the severity of IGD indices. Nineteen male patients with IGD and 19 sexmatched control subjects were evaluated for alteration of plasma GDNF levels and for relationship between GDNF levels and clinical characteristics of Internet gaming, including the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT). The GDNF levels were found to be significantly low in patients with IGD (103.2±62.0 pg/mL) compared with the levels of controls (245.2±101.6 pg/mL, p<0.001). GDNF levels were negatively correlated with Y-IAT scores (Spearman's rho=-0.645, p=<0.001) and this negative correlation remained even after controlling for multiple variables (r=-0.370, p=0.048). These findings support the assumed role of GDNF in the regulation of IGD.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Humans , Immunoglobulin D , Internet , Male , Neuroglia , Pilot Projects , Plasma
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl (·OH), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is reported to induce oxidative stress. ROS generated by oxidative stress can potentially damage glial cells in the nervous system. Cordyceps militaris (CM), a kind of natural herb widely found in East Asia. In this study, we investigated the free radical scavenging activity of the CM extract and its neuroprotective effects in H2O2-induced C6 glial cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: The ethanol extract of CM (100–1,000 µg/mL) was used to measure DPPH, ·OH, and NO radical scavenging activities. In addition, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced C6 glial cells were treated with CM at 0.5–2.5 µg/mL for measurement of cell viability, ROS production, and protein expression resulting from oxidative stress. RESULTS: The CM extract showed high scavenging activities against DPPH, ·OH, and NO radicals at concentration of 1,000 µg/mL. Treatment of CM with H2O2-induced oxidative stress in C6 glial cells significantly increased cell viability, and decreased ROS production. Cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression was down-regulated in CM-treated groups. In addition, the protein expression level of phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK), phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and phospho-extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK) in H2O2-induced C6 glial cells was down-regulated upon CM administration. CONCLUSION: CM exhibited radical scavenging activity and protective effect against H2O2 as indicated by the increased cell viability, decreased ROS production, down-regulation of inflammation-related proteins as well as p-p38, p-JNK, and p-ERK protein levels. Therefore, we suggest that CM could play the protective role from oxidative stress in glial cells.


Subject(s)
Cell Survival , Cordyceps , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Down-Regulation , Ethanol , Far East , Free Radicals , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , In Vitro Techniques , Nervous System , Neuroglia , Neuroprotective Agents , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Oxidative Stress , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Reactive Oxygen Species
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719412

ABSTRACT

Neural stem cells (NSCs) can proliferate and differentiate into multiple cell types that constitute the nervous system. NSCs can be derived from developing fetuses, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells. NSCs provide a good platform to screen drugs for neurodegenerative diseases and also have potential applications in regenerative medicine. Natural products have long been used as compounds to develop new drugs. In this review, natural products that control NSC fate and induce their differentiation into neurons or glia are discussed. These phytochemicals enable promising advances to be made in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Embryonic Stem Cells , Fetus , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Nervous System , Neural Stem Cells , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurogenesis , Neuroglia , Neurons , Neuroprotection , Phytochemicals , Regenerative Medicine
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