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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1310-1316, oct. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521015

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Although COVID-19 is primarily considered a respiratory pathology, it has been observed to impact other bodily systems, including the nervous system. While several studies have investigated anatomical changes in brain structures, such as volume or thickness post-COVID-19, there are no comprehensive reviews of these changes using imaging techniques for a holistic understanding. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the literature on brain changes observed through neuroimaging after COVID-19. We conducted a systematic review according to PRISMA guidelines using Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, Pubmed, Sciencedirect, and LitCOVID. We selected studies that included adult patients during or after COVID-19 development, a control group or pre-infection images, and morphometric measurements using neuroimaging. We used the MSQ scale to extract information on sample characteristics, measured anatomical structures, imaging technique, main results, and methodological quality for each study. Out of 1126 identified articles, we included 19 in the review, encompassing 1155 cases and 1284 controls. The results of these studies indicated a lower volume of the olfactory bulb and variable increases or decreases in cortical and limbic structures' volumes and thicknesses. Studies suggest that brain changes occur post-COVID-19, primarily characterized by a smaller olfactory bulb. Additionally, there may be variations in cortical and limbic volumes and thicknesses due to inflammation or neuroplasticity, but these findings are not definitive. These differences may be attributed to methodological, geographical, and temporal variations between studies. Thus, additional studies are required to provide a more comprehensive and quantitative view of the evidence.


Aunque el COVID-19 se considera principalmente una patología respiratoria, se ha observado que afecta otros sistemas corporales, incluido el sistema nervioso. Si bien varios estudios han investigado los cambios anatómicos en las estructuras cerebrales, como el volumen o el grosor posteriores a la COVID-19, no hay revisiones exhaustivas de estos cambios que utilicen técnicas de imágenes para una comprensión holística. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar sistemáticamente la literature sobre los cambios cerebrales observados a través de neuroimagen después de COVID-19. Realizamos una revisión sistemática de acuerdo con las pautas PRISMA utilizando Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, Pubmed, Sciencedirect y LitCOVID. Seleccionamos estudios que incluyeron pacientes adultos durante o después del desarrollo de COVID-19, un grupo de control o imágenes previas a la infección y mediciones morfométricas mediante neuroimagen. Utilizamos la escala MSQ para extraer información sobre las características de la muestra, las estructuras anatómicas medidas, la técnica de imagen, los principales resultados y la calidad metodológica de cada estudio. De 1126 artículos identificados, incluimos 19 en la revisión, que abarca 1155 casos y 1284 controles. Los resultados de estos estudios indicaron un menor volumen del bulbo olfatorio y aumentos o disminuciones variables en los volúmenes y espesores de las estructuras corticales y límbicas. Los estudios sugieren que los cambios cerebrales ocurren después del COVID-19, caracterizados principalmente por un bulbo olfatorio más pequeño. Además, pueden haber variaciones en los volúmenes y grosores corticales y límbicos debido a la inflamación o la neuroplasticidad, pero estos hallazgos no son definitivos. Estas diferencias pueden atribuirse a variaciones metodológicas, geográficas y temporales entre estudios. Por lo tanto, se requieren estudios adicionales para proporcionar una visión más completa y cuantitativa de la evidencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Neuroimaging , Neurologic Manifestations
2.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533504

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la necrosis laminar cortical es un término radiológico que describe la presencia de lesiones hiperdensas de localización cerebral, las cuales siguen una distribución giriforme y se observan con mayor sensibilidad en los estudios de resonancia magnética cerebral (RM). Esta condición patológica, que afecta a la corteza del cerebro, suele ser secundaria a una depleción de sus fuentes energéticas como consecuencia de hipoxia cerebral, alteraciones metabólicas, hipoglicemia, falla renal o hepática, intoxicaciones o infecciones. Presentación del caso: se reporta el caso de un hombre de 23 años, con antecedente de consumo crónico de alcohol, quien ingresó al servicio de urgencias de nuestra institución con un estado epiléptico. El estudio de resonancia magnética cerebral demostró la presencia de una necrosis laminar cortical con posterior déficit neurocognitivo y funcional. Conclusión: si se consideran las secuelas neurológicas potenciales asociadas a un estado epiléptico, relacionadas con necrosis laminar cortical cerebral, es necesario hacer un diagnóstico etiológico precoz, así como una atención terapéutica temprana a los pacientes.


Introduction: Cortical laminar necrosis (CLN) is radiologically defined as high-intensity cortical lesions on T1-weighted MRI images that follow a gyral distribution in the brain. Histopathologically, this pathological condition is characterized by necrosis of the cortex involving neurons, glial cells, and blood vessels. It is usually triggered by hypoxia, metabolic alterations, drugs, intoxications, or infections. Case description: We report the case of a 23-year-old man with a history of chronic alcohol abuse who was admitted to our institution with status epilepticus. The brain magnetic resonance imaging performed on this patient showed cortical laminar necrosis associated with subsequent neurocognitive deficits. Conclusion: Due to the potential neurological sequelae secondary to status epilepticus in relation to cortical laminar necrosis as permanent brain damage, it is necessary to provide early diagnosis and treatment for these patients.


Subject(s)
Status Epilepticus , Hypoxia, Brain , Cerebral Cortex , Neuroimaging
3.
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1508227

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Debido a la necesidad de un diagnóstico precoz de los trastornos neurodegenerativos, se ha intentado armonizar los criterios diagnósticos mediante métodos morfométricos basados en técnicas de neuroimagen, pero aún no se han obtenido resultados concluyentes. Objetivo: Determinar el volumen ventricular debido a su amplio uso como marcador de atrofia cerebral e identificar el efecto del sexo sobre estas estructuras, según el tipo de cráneo, estimado a partir de técnicas de imagen de tomografía computarizada multicorte. Métodos: Se desarrolló un estudio observacional y descriptivo en 30 sujetos con funciones neurocognitivas y exploración neuropsiquiátrica normales, con edades comprendidas entre 45 y 54 años, a los que se les realizó una tomografía computarizada multicorte simple de cráneo. Se utilizó un método de segmentación de imágenes basado en la homogeneidad. Resultados: Los volúmenes ventriculares mostraron una correlación significativa y positiva entre ellos, excepto entre el tercer y cuarto ventrículo y el tercero y el volumen ventricular derecho. Los estadísticos del modelo lineal multivariante aplicado mostraron que sólo eran significativos en función del sexo y del tipo de cráneo. No se encontraron diferencias significativas con respecto al sexo en ningún volumen, excepto en el tercer ventrículo (p= 0,01). Lo mismo ocurrió por tipo de cráneo (p= 0,005). Conclusiones: El método de morfometría del sistema ventricular encefálico a partir de imágenes de Tomografía Computarizada / Segmentación por homogeneidad, permitió cuantificar los cambios volumétricos cerebrales asociados al envejecimiento normal y puede ser utilizado como biomarcador de la relación entre la estructura cerebral y las funciones cognitivas(AU)


Introduction: Due to the need for an early diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders, attempts have been made to harmonize diagnostic criteria using morphometric methods based on neuroimaging techniques, but conclusive results have not yet been obtained. Objective: To determine the ventricular volume due to its wide use as a marker of cerebral atrophy and to identify the effect of sex on these structures, according to the type of skull, estimated from multislice computed tomography imaging techniques. Methods: An observational and descriptive study was developed in 30 subjects with normal neurocognitive functions and neuropsychiatric examination, aged between 45 and 54 years, who underwent a simple multislice CT scan of the skull. An image segmentation method based on homogeneity was used. Results: The ventricular volumes showed a significant and positive correlation between them, except between the third and fourth ventricles and the third and the right ventricular volume. The statistics in the multivariate linear model applied showed that they were only significant in terms of sex and type of skull. No significant differences were found regarding sex in any volume except in the third ventricle (p= 0.01). The same occurred by type of skull (p= 0.005). Conclusions: The morphometry method of the encephalic ventricular system from Computed Tomography images / Segmentation by homogeneity, allowed to quantify the cerebral volumetric changes associated with normal aging and can be used as a biomarker of the relationship between brain structure and cognitive functions(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Cerebral Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Anthropometry/methods , Titrimetry/methods , Cognition , Multidetector Computed Tomography/methods , Neuroimaging/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Observational Study
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1309-1326, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982471

ABSTRACT

Machine learning approaches are increasingly being applied to neuroimaging data from patients with psychiatric disorders to extract brain-based features for diagnosis and prognosis. The goal of this review is to discuss recent practices for evaluating machine learning applications to obsessive-compulsive and related disorders and to advance a novel strategy of building machine learning models based on a set of core brain regions for better performance, interpretability, and generalizability. Specifically, we argue that a core set of co-altered brain regions (namely 'core regions') comprising areas central to the underlying psychopathology enables the efficient construction of a predictive model to identify distinct symptom dimensions/clusters in individual patients. Hypothesis-driven and data-driven approaches are further introduced showing how core regions are identified from the entire brain. We demonstrate a broadly applicable roadmap for leveraging this core set-based strategy to accelerate the pursuit of neuroimaging-based markers for diagnosis and prognosis in a variety of psychiatric disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Brain/pathology , Neuroimaging/methods , Machine Learning , Comorbidity , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
5.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 258-267, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971319

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To identify topics attracting growing research attention as well as frontier trends of acupuncture-neuroimaging research over the past two decades.@*METHODS@#This paper reviewed data in the published literature on acupuncture neuroimaging from 2000 to 2020, which was retrieved from the Web of Science database. CiteSpace was used to analyze the publication years, countries, institutions, authors, keywords, co-citation of authors, journals, and references.@*RESULTS@#A total of 981 publications were included in the final review. The number of publications has increased in the recent 20 years accompanied by some fluctuations. Notably, the most productive country was China, while Harvard University ranked first among institutions in this field. The most productive author was Tian J with the highest number of articles (50), whereas the most co-cited author was Hui KKS (325). Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (92) was the most prolific journal, while Neuroimage was the most co-cited journal (538). An article written by Hui KKS (2005) exhibited the highest co-citation number (112). The keywords "acupuncture" (475) and "electroacupuncture" (0.10) had the highest frequency and centrality, respectively. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) ranked first with the highest citation burst (6.76).@*CONCLUSION@#The most active research topics in the field of acupuncture-neuroimaging over the past two decades included research type, acupoint specificity, neuroimaging methods, brain regions, acupuncture modality, acupoint specificity, diseases and symptoms treated, and research type. Whilst research frontier topics were "nerve regeneration", "functional connectivity", "neural regeneration", "brain network", "fMRI" and "manual acupuncture".


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture , Acupuncture Therapy , Bibliometrics , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging
6.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 110-117, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970680

ABSTRACT

The extraction of neuroimaging features of migraine patients and the design of identification models are of great significance for the auxiliary diagnosis of related diseases. Compared with the commonly used image features, this study directly uses time-series signals to characterize the functional state of the brain in migraine patients and healthy controls, which can effectively utilize the temporal information and reduce the computational effort of classification model training. Firstly, Group Independent Component Analysis and Dictionary Learning were used to segment different brain areas for small-sample groups and then the regional average time-series signals were extracted. Next, the extracted time series were divided equally into multiple subseries to expand the model input sample. Finally, the time series were modeled using a bi-directional long-short term memory network to learn the pre-and-post temporal information within each time series to characterize the periodic brain state changes to improve the diagnostic accuracy of migraine. The results showed that the classification accuracy of migraine patients and healthy controls was 96.94%, the area under the curve was 0.98, and the computation time was relatively shorter. The experiments indicate that the method in this paper has strong applicability, and the combination of time-series feature extraction and bi-directional long-short term memory network model can be better used for the classification and diagnosis of migraine. This work provides a new idea for the lightweight diagnostic model based on small-sample neuroimaging data, and contributes to the exploration of the neural discrimination mechanism of related diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Time Factors , Migraine Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging
7.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 852-858, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008909

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disorder that damages patients' memory and cognitive abilities. Therefore, the diagnosis of AD holds significant importance. The interactions between regions of interest (ROIs) in the brain often involve multiple areas collaborating in a nonlinear manner. Leveraging these nonlinear higher-order interaction features to their fullest potential contributes to enhancing the accuracy of AD diagnosis. To address this, a framework combining nonlinear higher-order feature extraction and three-dimensional (3D) hypergraph neural networks is proposed for computer-assisted diagnosis of AD. First, a support vector machine regression model based on the radial basis function kernel was trained on ROI data to obtain a base estimator. Then, a recursive feature elimination algorithm based on the base estimator was applied to extract nonlinear higher-order features from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. These features were subsequently constructed into a hypergraph, leveraging the complex interactions captured in the data. Finally, a four-dimensional (4D) spatiotemporal hypergraph convolutional neural network model was constructed based on the fMRI data for classification. Experimental results on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database demonstrated that the proposed framework outperformed the Hyper Graph Convolutional Network (HyperGCN) framework by 8% and traditional two-dimensional (2D) linear feature extraction methods by 12% in the AD/normal control (NC) classification task. In conclusion, this framework demonstrates an improvement in AD classification compared to mainstream deep learning methods, providing valuable evidence for computer-assisted diagnosis of AD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease/diagnostic imaging , Neural Networks, Computer , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neuroimaging/methods , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted , Brain , Cognitive Dysfunction
8.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1363-1369, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007495

ABSTRACT

Acupuncture-moxibustion is remarkably effective on encephalopathy, but its mechanism is unclear. With the continuous development of imaging technology, the in vivo brain imaging technology has been used increasingly in life science research and it also becomes a more effective tool for the basic research of acupuncture-moxibustion in treatment of encephalopathy. The paper summarizes the application of its technology in the basic research of acupuncture-moxibustion for encephalopathy and the characteristics of imaging, as well as the advantages and shortcomings. It is anticipated that the references may be provided for the basic research of acupuncture-moxibustion in treatment of encephalopathy and be conductive to the modernization of acupuncture-moxibustion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Moxibustion , Acupuncture Therapy , Acupuncture , Brain Diseases/therapy , Neuroimaging
9.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 138-162, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971541

ABSTRACT

Major advances have been made over the past few decades in identifying and managing disorders of consciousness (DOC) in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), bringing the transformation from a conceptualized definition to a complex clinical scenario worthy of scientific exploration. Given the continuously-evolving framework of precision medicine that integrates valuable behavioral assessment tools, sophisticated neuroimaging, and electrophysiological techniques, a considerably higher diagnostic accuracy rate of DOC may now be reached. During the treatment of patients with DOC, a variety of intervention methods are available, including amantadine and transcranial direct current stimulation, which have both provided class II evidence, zolpidem, which is also of high quality, and non-invasive stimulation, which appears to be more encouraging than pharmacological therapy. However, heterogeneity is profoundly ingrained in study designs, and only rare schemes have been recommended by authoritative institutions. There is still a lack of an effective clinical protocol for managing patients with DOC following ABI. To advance future clinical studies on DOC, we present a comprehensive review of the progress in clinical identification and management as well as some challenges in the pathophysiology of DOC. We propose a preliminary clinical decision protocol, which could serve as an ideal reference tool for many medical institutions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/methods , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Brain Injuries/complications , Consciousness , Neuroimaging
10.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 58-58, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010713

ABSTRACT

Chronic Painful Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) are challenging to diagnose and manage due to their complexity and lack of understanding of brain mechanism. In the past few decades' neural mechanisms of pain regulation and perception have been clarified by neuroimaging research. Advances in the neuroimaging have bridged the gap between brain activity and the subjective experience of pain. Neuroimaging has also made strides toward separating the neural mechanisms underlying the chronic painful TMD. Recently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is transforming various sectors by automating tasks that previously required humans' intelligence to complete. AI has started to contribute to the recognition, assessment, and understanding of painful TMD. The application of AI and neuroimaging in understanding the pathophysiology and diagnosis of chronic painful TMD are still in its early stages. The objective of the present review is to identify the contemporary neuroimaging approaches such as structural, functional, and molecular techniques that have been used to investigate the brain of chronic painful TMD individuals. Furthermore, this review guides practitioners on relevant aspects of AI and how AI and neuroimaging methods can revolutionize our understanding on the mechanisms of painful TMD and aid in both diagnosis and management to enhance patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Facial Pain/diagnostic imaging , Artificial Intelligence , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging/methods , Pain Measurement/methods
11.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 217-225, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981532

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease. Neuroimaging based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most intuitive and reliable methods to perform AD screening and diagnosis. Clinical head MRI detection generates multimodal image data, and to solve the problem of multimodal MRI processing and information fusion, this paper proposes a structural and functional MRI feature extraction and fusion method based on generalized convolutional neural networks (gCNN). The method includes a three-dimensional residual U-shaped network based on hybrid attention mechanism (3D HA-ResUNet) for feature representation and classification for structural MRI, and a U-shaped graph convolutional neural network (U-GCN) for node feature representation and classification of brain functional networks for functional MRI. Based on the fusion of the two types of image features, the optimal feature subset is selected based on discrete binary particle swarm optimization, and the prediction results are output by a machine learning classifier. The validation results of multimodal dataset from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) open-source database show that the proposed models have superior performance in their respective data domains. The gCNN framework combines the advantages of these two models and further improves the performance of the methods using single-modal MRI, improving the classification accuracy and sensitivity by 5.56% and 11.11%, respectively. In conclusion, the gCNN-based multimodal MRI classification method proposed in this paper can provide a technical basis for the auxiliary diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease/diagnostic imaging , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neural Networks, Computer , Neuroimaging/methods , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis
12.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 479-483, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981294

ABSTRACT

The role of white matter of brain has always been neglected by scholars.With the development of neuroimaging technology,the role of white matter has attracted increasing attention.Perioperative neurocognitive disorders have been a hot issue in the research on anesthesia,and recent studies have suggested that white matter may be involved in the effects of general anesthetics on cognitive function.This paper reviews the progress in the relationship between white matter,general anesthesia,and cognitive function from clinical practice and research,aiming to provide new ideas for the research on the mechanism.


Subject(s)
White Matter , Cognition , Brain , Neuroimaging , Anesthesia, General
13.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 465-474, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981021

ABSTRACT

Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), cyclic menstrual pain in the absence of pelvic anomalies, is characterized by acute and chronic gynecological pain disorders in childbearing age women. PDM strongly affects the quality of life of patients and leads to economic losses. PDM generally do not receive radical treatment and often develop into other chronic pain disorders later in life. The clinical treatment status of PDM, the epidemiology of PDM and chronic pain comorbidities, and the abnormal physiological and psychological characteristics of patients with PDM suggest that PDM not only is related to the inflammation around the uterus, but also may be related to the abnormal pain processing and regulation function of patients' central system. Therefore, exploring the brain neural mechanism of PDM is indispensable and important to understand the pathological mechanism of PDM, and is also a hotspot of brain science research in recent years, which will bring new inspiration to explore the target of PDM intervention. Based on the progress of the neural mechanism of PDM, this paper systematically summarizes the evidence from neuroimaging and animal model studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Female , Dysmenorrhea , Brain Mapping , Chronic Pain , Quality of Life , Neuroimaging , Models, Animal
14.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 60(3): 325-336, sept. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407821

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Introducción: La neuroimagen estructural y funcional en la esquizofrenia ha tomado fuerza en los últimos años, por lo que esta revisión tiene por objetivo describir hallazgos de esta técnica que contribuyen a la fisiopatología, diagnóstico y pronóstico de esta patología. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en PubMed/Medline de estudios clínicos que abordan el estudio con neuroimágenes en la esquizofrenia. Resultados: La búsqueda arrojó 2200 resultados, de los cuales fueron incluidos 13 estudios, los que arrojaron hallazgos que se tradujeron en alteraciones neurocognitivas, tales como alteraciones funcionales y estructurales de la amígdala asociada a síntomas negativos, reducción morfométrica de la región frontal, alteraciones en la perfusión del giro del cíngulo anterior y la corteza parietal inferior izquierda, desregulación de la enzima histona deacetilasa, entre otros. Conclusiones: Esta revisión brinda una visión actualizada sobre los hallazgos de la neuroimagenología que pueden aportar a la comprensión de los mecanismos patológicos detrás de este trastorno psicótico, así como su utilidad diagnóstica y potencial contribución al seguimiento de esta enfermedad.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Structural and functional neuroimaging in schizophrenia has gained strength in recent years, so this review aims to describe neuroimaging findings that contribute to the physiopathological understanding, monitoring, and diagnosis of this pathology. Methods: A PubMed/Medline search was conducted for clinical studies addressing neuroimaging in schizophrenia. Results: The search yielded 2200 results, from which 13 studies were included, which provided findings, such as functional and structural alterations of the amygdala, which have shown to be associated with negative symptoms; morphometric reduction of the frontal region, alterations in the perfusion of the anterior cingulate gyrus and the lower-left parietal cortex, deregulation of the histone deacetylase enzyme, among others which translate clinically in neurocognitive deficits. Conclusions: This review provides an updated view on the findings of neuroimaging that can contribute to the understanding of the pathological mechanisms behind this psychotic disorder, its diagnostic usefulness, and its potential contribution to the prognosis and follow-up of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schizophrenia/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging/methods
15.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 71(2): 141-148, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386077

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To systematically analyze quantitative data about the effects of religion/spirituality and the well-being/quality of life of cancer patients. The second aim was to hypothesize a neurophysiological model of the association between religion/spirituality and the brain. METHODS: This study met the PRISMA Statement and was registered at PROSPERO database. Randomized and Controlled trials investigating religion/spirituality and well-being/quality of life of cancer patients were included. Based on neuroimaging and neurophysiology studies, a neuroanatomical model was developed to hypothesize the relationship between neuroscience and religion/spirituality. RESULTS: A large effect size was found on the improvement of well-being/quality of life (SMD = 3.90 [2.43-5.38], p < 0.01). Heterogeneity was high among studies (I2 = 98%, p < 0.01). Specific regions of the brain, such as the temporal lobes, amygdalae and hippocampus, regions from the limbic system, were hypothesized to take part in the religion/spirituality phenomena and the well-being/quality of life improvement. CONCLUSION: Religion/spirituality intervention, mainly the Islamic, promotes an improvement on wellbeing/quality of life of cancer patients.


OBJETIVO: Analisar sistematicamente dados quantitativos sobre os efeitos da religião/espiritualidade e o bem-estar/qualidade de vida de pacientes com câncer. O segundo objetivo foi levantar a hipótese de um modelo neurofisiológico da associação entre religião/espiritualidade e o cérebro. MÉTODOS: Este estudo seguiu as recomendações do PRISMA e foi registrado no PROSPERO. Estudos randomizados e controlados investigando religião/espiritualidade e o bem-estar/qualidade de vida de pacientes com câncer foram incluídos. Com base em estudos de neuroimagem e neurofisiologia, um modelo neuroanatômico foi desenvolvido para hipotetizar relações entre neurociência e religião/espiritualidade. RESULTADOS: Um tamanho de efeito grande foi encontrado na melhoria do bem-estar/qualidade de vida (SMD = 3,90 [2,43-5,38], p < 0,01). A heterogeneidade foi alta entre os estudos (I2 = 98%, p < 0,01). Regiões específicas do cérebro, como lobos temporais, amídalas e hipocampo, regiões do sistema límbico, foram hipotetizadas como participantes dos fenômenos religião/espiritualidade e melhoria do bem-estar/qualidade de vida. CONCLUSÃO: A intervenção religiosa/espiritual, principalmente islâmica, promove melhora no bem-estar/qualidade de vida em pacientes com câncer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life/psychology , Religion and Psychology , Spirituality , Neoplasms/therapy , Complementary Therapies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Neuroimaging/methods , Islam
16.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 60(1): 40-50, mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388419

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción Antecedentes: La anorexia nerviosa (AN) y la bulimia nerviosa (BN) son enfermedades mentales graves y crónicas que afectan a un alto porcentaje de la población. Un número creciente de estudios han informado de alteraciones neuropsicológicas en esta población, que aparentemente contribuyen a la aparición y progresión del trastorno, y que repercuten en la eficacia del tratamiento y la recuperación. Metodología: El objetivo de esta Revisión Narrativa es resumir los hallazgos relativos al perfil neuropsicológico de las mujeres con AN y BN en diferentes fases de tratamiento. Resultados: La evidencia disponible sugiere que las mujeres con AN y BN presentan un perfil de déficits de cognición ejecutiva y social. Estos resultados son consistentes con la evidencia de los hallazgos de neuroimagen de alteraciones cerebrales estructurales en las áreas frontales y en los circuitos frontales-subcorticales. Conclusiones: El conocimiento de los perfiles neuropsicológicos de las mujeres con AN y BN ofrece información clave para entender la presentación clínica de esta población y los retos en la adherencia y beneficio del tratamiento. Los estudios futuros deberían explorar la eficacia de las intervenciones dirigidas a las deficiencias neuropsicológicas y cómo contribuyen al tratamiento habitual.


Background: Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are severe and chronic mental health illnesses that affect a high percentage of the population. A growing number of studies have reported neuropsychological impairments in this population, apparently contributing to the onset and progression of the disorder, and impacting on treatment efficacy and recovery. Methodology: This Narrative Review aimed to summarize findings regarding the neuropsychological profile of women with AN and BN at different treatment phases. Results: Available evidence suggests that women with AN and BN present a profile of executive and social cognition deficits. These results are consistent with evidence from neuroimaging findings of structural brain alterations in frontal areas and frontal-subcortical circuits. Conclusions: Knowledge about the neuropsychological profiles of AN and BN women offers key information to understand the clinical presentation of this population and challenges in adhering and benefiting from treatment. Future studies should explore the efficacy of interventions targeting neuropsychological impairments and how they contribute to treatment as usual.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Neurocognitive Disorders/diagnosis , Anorexia Nervosa , Neurocognitive Disorders/physiopathology , Bulimia Nervosa , Executive Function , Neuroimaging , Social Cognition , Neuropsychology
17.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 32: 32211, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1426444

ABSTRACT

A dor neuropática é causada por uma lesão ou doença do sistema nervoso somatossensitivo. Trata-se de uma manifestação sindrômica que envolve mecanismos inflamatórios e imunes com fisiopatologia ainda pouco esclarecida. O espectro de apresentação da dor neuropática é amplo e, assim, constitui um desafio na prática clínica. Este problema de saúde pública necessita de ampla capacidade técnica dos clínicos generalistas. Torna-se relevante identificar o potencial de cronificação do sintoma e adotar abordagens mitigantes do processo lesivo, estrutural e emocional. Nesse sentido, o diagnóstico adequado da dor neuropática é o primeiro passo na abordagem ao paciente. Diante disso, essa revisão objetiva facilitar a melhor escolha dos métodos diagnósticos no manejo clínico do paciente. Dentre estes, é possível citar a imagem por ressonância magnética funcional, eletroneuromiografia, tomografia por emissão de pósitrons, microneurografia, teste quantitativo sensorial, biópsias de pele, estudos de condução nervosa e de potencial somatossensorial evocado. A dor, por ser um processo sensorial subjetivo, apresenta amplo espectro de manifestações clínicas. Por essa razão, é possível fazer uso de técnicas como métodos de triagem e exames complementares para um diagnóstico mais específico.


Neuropathic pain is caused by an injury or illness of the somatosensory nervous system. It is a syndromic manifestation that involves inflammatory and immune mechanisms, whose pathophysiology is still poorly understood. The spectrum of presentation of neuropathic pain is wide and, therefore, it is a challenge in clinical practice. This public health problem requires the broad technical capacity of general practitioners. It is relevant to identify the potential for chronicity of the symptom and adopt mitigating approaches to the harmful, structural, and emotional process. In this sense, the proper diagnosis of neuropathic pain is the first step in approaching the patient. Therefore, this review aims to facilitate the best choice of diagnostic methods in the clinical management of the patient. Among these, functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroneuromyography, positron emission tomography, microneurography, quantitative sensory testing, skin biopsies, nerve conduction and evoked somatosensory potential studies are possible. Pain, being a subjective sensory process, has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. For this reason, it is possible to make use of techniques such as screening methods and complementary exams for a more specific diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Somatosensory Cortex , Central Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Chronic Pain/diagnosis , Nervous System/physiopathology , Parasympathetic Nervous System , Central Nervous System , Triage , Neuroimaging/methods , Nerve Conduction Studies
18.
Rev. colomb. radiol ; 33(1): 5714-5716, mar. 2022. imag
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1434437

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de desmielinización osmótica, antes conocido como mielinólisis central pontina, es una enfermedad que ocurre en pacientes con hiponatremia grave en los cuales se realiza una corrección rápida del sodio. Clínicamente, se presenta como una parálisis seudobulbar que consiste en tetraparesia, encefalopatía, rigidez, ataxia y movimientos anormales. El síndrome de desmielinización osmótica es una enfermedad desmielinizante no inflamatoria, secundaria a edema neuronal intenso que se produce en la protuberancia y otras regiones fuera de la protuberancia. Es una patología muy poco frecuente. Sin embargo, tiene muy mal pronóstico, y la rehabilitación es el único tratamiento eficaz. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 51 años de edad con cuadro de déficit neurológico altamente progresivo después de la corrección rápida de una hiponatremia, con tetraparesia, encefalopatía y rigidez en los días siguientes. El paciente requirió intubación orotraqueal debido al deterioro clínico. Fue diagnosticado mediante una tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) cerebral y se confirmó el diagnóstico mediante resonancia magnética (RM).


Osmotic demyelination syndrome, previously known as central pontine myelinolysis, is a known disorder in patients with severe hyponatremia in whom rapid sodium correction is performed. It is clinically described as a pseudobulbar palsy, comprised of tetraparesis, encephalopathy, rigidity, ataxia and abnormal movements. It consists of a non-inflammatory demyelination secondary to severe neuronal edema at the pons and other extrapontine locations. It is a very rare pathology, with a poor prognosis and whose only treatment is rehabilitation. A case of a 51-year-old man with fast progressive neurological deficit following rapid correction of severe hyponatremia is presented. The patient required orotracheal intubation due to clinical deteroriation and was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)


Subject(s)
Myelinolysis, Central Pontine , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging
19.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 533-547, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929102

ABSTRACT

People as third-party observers, without direct self-interest, may punish norm violators to maintain social norms. However, third-party judgment and the follow-up punishment might be susceptible to the way we frame (i.e., verbally describe) a norm violation. We conducted a behavioral and a neuroimaging experiment to investigate the above phenomenon, which we call the "third-party framing effect". In these experiments, participants observed an anonymous perpetrator deciding whether to keep her/his economic benefit while exposing a victim to a risk of physical pain (described as "harming others" in one condition and "not helping others" in the other condition), then they had a chance to punish that perpetrator at their own cost. Our results showed that the participants were more willing to execute third-party punishment under the harm frame compared to the help frame, manifesting a framing effect. Self-reported anger toward perpetrators mediated the relationship between empathy toward victims and the framing effect. Meanwhile, activation of the insula mediated the relationship between mid-cingulate cortex activation and the framing effect; the functional connectivity between these regions significantly predicted the size of the framing effect. These findings shed light on the psychological and neural mechanisms of the third-party framing effect.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Empathy , Gyrus Cinguli , Neuroimaging , Pain , Punishment/psychology
20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 303-317, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929085

ABSTRACT

Understanding the connection between brain and behavior in animals requires precise monitoring of their behaviors in three-dimensional (3-D) space. However, there is no available three-dimensional behavior capture system that focuses on rodents. Here, we present MouseVenue3D, an automated and low-cost system for the efficient capture of 3-D skeleton trajectories in markerless rodents. We improved the most time-consuming step in 3-D behavior capturing by developing an automatic calibration module. Then, we validated this process in behavior recognition tasks, and showed that 3-D behavioral data achieved higher accuracy than 2-D data. Subsequently, MouseVenue3D was combined with fast high-resolution miniature two-photon microscopy for synchronous neural recording and behavioral tracking in the freely-moving mouse. Finally, we successfully decoded spontaneous neuronal activity from the 3-D behavior of mice. Our findings reveal that subtle, spontaneous behavior modules are strongly correlated with spontaneous neuronal activity patterns.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Behavior, Animal , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Neuroimaging , Rodentia
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