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1.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(2): 61-72, may. 26, 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1247335

ABSTRACT

El nuevo coronavirus, denominado COVID-19, es un betacoronavirus asociado a síntomas respiratorios que van desde un cuadro respiratorio leve hasta cuadros severos, que implican compromiso de varios órganos blanco como los sistemas pulmonar, renal, cardiovascular, nervioso, de la coagulación y se asocian a diversas complicaciones que ensombrecen el pronóstico. El órgano blanco afectado está determinado por la expresión de receptores para angiotensina II, que además se encuentran en el tejido nervioso, presentes en estructuras vitales en el control cardiorespiratorio. Es así como se han descrito manifestaciones neurológicas en estudios publicados alrededor del mundo que aún no son concluyentes, donde se asocian a una afección directa de las estructuras nerviosas o producto de complicaciones sistémicas


The new coronavirus, called COVID-19, is a beta-coronavirus associated with respiratory symptoms that range from mild to severe respiratory symptoms, which involve involvement of various target organs such as the pulmonary, renal, cardiovascular, nervous, coagulation systems and se associated with various complications that cloud the prognosis. The target organ affected is determined by the expression of receptors for angiotensin II, which are also found in nervous tissue, present in vital structures in cardiorespiratory control. This is how neurological manifestations have been described in studies published around the world that are not yet conclusive, where they are associated with a direct affection of the nervous structures or the product of systemic complications


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Neurologic Manifestations , Target Organs , Betacoronavirus
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): e142-e148, abril 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1152045

ABSTRACT

La gripe se asocia al aparato respiratorio, especialmente en invierno, y puede causar complicaciones neurológicas. Se evaluó a pacientes pediátricos con manifestaciones neurológicas graves por gripe desde septiembre de 2018 hasta febrero de 2019 para determinar características clínicas, neuroimagenología, tratamiento y resultados. El objetivo fue evaluar la encefalitis asociada a la gripe y destacar diferentes manifestaciones neurológicas y cambios de neuroimagenología. El estudio incluyó a 13 pacientes. Los síntomas neurológicos ocurrieron tras los síntomas típicos de la gripe. Los cambios de neuroimagenología incluyen alteraciones de señal de la sustancia blanca cortical y subcortical, edema localizado o generalizado y lesiones multifocales simétricas bilaterales en el tálamo y la médula del cerebelo. Las opciones terapéuticas incluyen metilprednisolona en inyección intravenosa, inmunoglobulina intravenosa, plasmaféresis y oseltamivir. Es fundamental considerar la encefalitis asociada a la gripe en pacientes con convulsiones, la encefalopatía con hallazgos radiológicos compatibles, e iniciar el tratamiento lo antes posible


Influenza is mostly associated with the respiratory tract system, especially in the winter season. Various neurological complications could occur due to influenza infection. Pediatric patients who had severe neurological manifestations due to influenza infection from September 2018 to February 2019 were evaluated for clinical characteristics, neuroimaging studies, treatment, and outcome. We aimed to assess Influenza-associated encephalitis in children, emphasize different neurological manifestations and neuroimaging changes. Thirteen patients were included in the study. Neurological symptoms occurred after flu-like symptoms. Neuroimaging changes of influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy include cortical and subcortical white matter signal alterations, localized or generalized edema, and bilateral symmetrical multifocal lesions on the thalamus and cerebellar medulla. Pulse methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange, and oseltamivir are the therapy choices. It is essential to consider influenza-associated encephalitis in patients with seizures, encephalopathy with supporting radiological findings, especially during the influenza season and starting treatment as fast as possible for better outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Encephalitis/diagnostic imaging , Influenza, Human/complications , Turkey/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/therapy , Encephalitis/therapy , Neuroimaging , Neurologic Manifestations
3.
Coluna/Columna ; 20(1): 42-46, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154024

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the clinical and radiological results of posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR) for the treatment of kyphosis from spinal tuberculosis. Methods: Retrospective study of a series of 14 cases, 9 female and 5 male, with a mean age of 28 years (1 to 64) at the time of surgery, with spinal tuberculosis with mean kyphosis of 56.42° (2° to 95°). Results: All patients underwent surgical treatment with PVCR, with a mean number of 2.57 (1 to 6) resected vertebrae and a mean number of instrumented vertebrae of 6.14 (4 to 8). The mean kyphosis correction was 64% after up to one year of follow-up. Prior to surgery, eight patients had signs of spinal cord impairment (ASIA score ranging from A to D), and six did not present any deficit of strength or sensory function (ASIA E). There was no neurological worsening and everyone with deficits improved by at least one degree on the scale. In the postoperative follow-up, bone consolidation was observed in all patients, except one. Among the intra- and postoperative complications, pleurotomy was the most prevalent. Conclusion: Posterior vertebral column resection has proven to be a safe and effective option for the treatment of kyphotic deformity from spinal tuberculosis. Level of evidence IV; Therapeutic studies - Investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliação dos resultados clínicos e radiológicos da ressecção da coluna vertebral por via posterior (RCVP) no tratamento da cifose por tuberculose vertebral. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de uma série de 14 casos, sendo 9 do sexo feminino e 5 do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 28 anos (1 a 64) à época da cirurgia, portadores de tuberculose vertebral, com média de cifose de 56,42° (2° a 95°). Resultados: Todos os pacientes foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico com RCVP, com número médio de 2,57 (1 a 6) vértebras ressecadas e número médio de vértebras instrumentadas de 6,14 (4 a 8). A média de correção da cifose foi de 64%, com até um ano de seguimento. Antes da cirurgia, oito pacientes apresentavam sinais de sofrimento medular (escore ASIA variando de A a D) e outros seis não apresentavam déficit de força ou sensibilidade (ASIA E). Não houve piora neurológica, e todos os que tinham déficits melhoraram no mínimo um grau na escala. No seguimento pós-operatório, foi evidenciada consolidação óssea em todos os pacientes, exceto um. Dentre as complicações intra e pós-operatórias, a pleurotomia foi a mais prevalente. Conclusões: A ressecção por via posterior mostrou ser uma opção segura e eficaz no tratamento da cifose por tuberculose vertebral. Nível de evidência IV; Estudos terapêuticos - Investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluación de los resultados clínicos y radiológicos de la resección de la columna vertebral por vía posterior (RCVP) en el tratamiento de la cifosis por tuberculosis vertebral. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de una serie de 14 casos, 9 del sexo femenino y 5 del sexo masculino, con promedio de edad de 28 años (1 a 64) en el momento de la cirugía, portadores de tuberculosis vertebral con promedio de cifosis de 56,42° (2º a 95°). Resultados: Todos los pacientes fueron sometidos a tratamiento quirúrgico con RCVP, con número promedio de 2,57 (1 a 6) vértebras resecadas y número promedio de vértebras instrumentadas de 6,14 (4 a 8). El promedio de corrección de la cifosis fue de 64%, con hasta un año de seguimiento. Antes de la cirugía, ocho pacientes presentaban señales de sufrimiento medular (puntuación ASIA variando de A a D), y otros seis no presentaban déficit de fuerza o sensibilidad (ASIA E). No hubo empeoramiento neurológico, y todos los que tenían déficit mejoraron al menos un grado en la escala. En el seguimiento postoperatorio, fue evidenciada consolidación ósea en todos los pacientes, excepto en uno. Entre las complicaciones intra y postoperatorias, la pleurotomía fue la más prevalente. Conclusiones: La resección por vía posterior mostró ser una opción segura y eficaz en el tratamiento de la cifosis por tuberculosis vertebral. Nivel de evidencia IV; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteotomy , Tuberculosis, Spinal , Neurologic Manifestations
4.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(1): e957, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289533

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica tiene una elevada incidencia y prevalencia en Cuba, y constituye la tercera causa de muerte en el país. Existen diferencias anatómicas y clínicas entre el infarto de la circulación anterior y la posterior. En ocasiones, los elementos distintivos que ayudan al diagnóstico topográfico de la enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica son las manifestaciones neuroftalmológicas. Con el objetivo de profundizar en el conocimiento actual sobre las alteraciones neuroftalmológicas que se asocian a la enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, donde se consultaron un total de 69 fuentes de información digital de los últimos 5 años. La circulación cerebral se divide de manera general en anterior y posterior. Los síntomas y signos principales del ictus que afecta la circulación anterior son la desviación conjugada de la mirada, la afectación de las sácadas, la hemianopsia homónima, la heminegligencia y la apraxia de la apertura ocular; mientras que las alteraciones asociadas a la afectación de la circulación posterior son el nistagmo, las anormalidades en la alineación y los movimientos oculares, así como la hemianopsia homónima con conservación macular. Se concluye que en la enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica aparecen síntomas y signos como consecuencia de la afectación, tanto de la vía visual aferente, como de la eferente. La hemianopsia homónima es el signo más frecuente reportado(AU)


Ischemic cerebrovascular disease has a high incidence and prevalence in Cuba, and it is the third cause of death in the country. A number of anatomical and clinical differences distinguish anterior from posterior circulation infarction. On certain occasions the distinguishing elements that aid in the topographic diagnosis of ischemic cerebrovascular disease are its neuro-ophthalmological manifestations. With the purpose of gaining insight into the current knowledge about the neuro-ophthalmological alterations associated to ischemic cerebrovascular disease, a bibliographic review was conducted based on the analysis of 69 digital information sources from the last five years. Cerebral circulation is generally divided into anterior and posterior. The main symptoms and signs of the stroke that affects anterior circulation are conjugate gaze deviation, altered saccades, homonymous hemianopsia, heminegligence and eyelid opening apraxia, whereas the alterations associated to posterior circulation involvement are nystagmus, eye movement and alignment abnormalities, and homonymous hemianopsia with macular preservation. It is concluded that ischemic cerebrovascular disease presents symptoms and signs related to both the afferent and the efferent visual pathways. Homonymous hemianopsia is the most common sign reported(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Hemianopsia/etiology , Review Literature as Topic , Neurologic Manifestations
5.
Rev. enferm. UFSM ; 11: e72, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1342112

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar os danos neurológicos prevalentes em pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva e a relação destes com as características sociais e clínicas, os cuidados e o desfecho clínico. Método: estudo transversal com análise de 83 prontuários de pacientes com danos neurológicos e internados no período de 2016 a 2018. Resultados: predomínio do Acidente Vascular Encefálico Hemorrágico (55,4%). O Traumatismo Cranioencefálico acometeu apenas homens (16,9%). A Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica foi a principal comorbidade evidenciada (51,8%). A alteração da força muscular foi o principal sinal de dano neurológico grave (36,2%). A analgesia prevaleceu entre os cuidados intensivos dedicados aos pacientes com danos neurológicos graves (95,1%). Predomínio do óbito como desfecho clínico (85,6%). Conclusão: predomina o Acidente Vascular Encefálico Hemorrágico, especialmente em mulheres. A analgesia é o principal cuidado evidenciado, e a taxa de mortalidade foi superior à dos índices encontrados na literatura.


Objective: to identify the prevalent neurological damage in patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit and their relationship with social and clinical characteristics, care, and clinical outcome. Method: cross-sectional study with analysis of 83 medical records of patients with neurological damage and hospitalized in the period from 2016 to 2018. Results: predominance of Hemorrhagic Stroke (55.4%). Traumatic Brain Injury affected only men (16.9%). Systemic Arterial Hypertension was the main comorbidity evidenced (51.8%). Altered muscle strength was the main sign of severe neurological damage (36.2%). Analgesia prevailed among intensive care dedicated to patients with severe neurological damage (95.1%). Death as clinical outcome predominated (85.6%). Conclusion: Hemorrhagic stroke predominates, especially in women. Analgesia is the main care evidenced, and the mortality rate was higher than the rates found in the literature.


Objetivo: identificar el daño neurológico prevalente en los pacientes ingresados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos y su relación con las características sociales y clínicas, los cuidados y el resultado clínico. Método: estudio transversal con análisis de 83 historias clínicas de pacientes con daño neurológico e ingresados en el periodo de 2016 a 2018. Resultados: predominio del Ictus Hemorrágico (55,4%). El traumatismo craneoencefálico sólo afectaba a los hombres (16,9%). La hipertensión arterial sistémica fue la principal comorbilidad evidenciada (51,8%). La alteración de la fuerza muscular fue el principal signo de daño neurológico grave (36,2%). La analgesia prevaleció entre los cuidados intensivos dedicados a los pacientes con daño neurológico grave (95,1%). Predominó la muerte como resultado clínico (85,6%). Conclusión: Predomina el ictus hemorrágico, especialmente en las mujeres. La analgesia es el principal cuidado evidenciado, y la tasa de mortalidad fue superior a las tasas encontradas en la literatura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Profile , Adult , Intensive Care Units , Nervous System Diseases , Neurologic Manifestations
6.
S. Afr. med. j. (Online) ; 111(11): 1046-1049, 2021. figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1344518

ABSTRACT

South Africa has experienced three deadly waves of the COVID-19 pandemic with devastating consequences, but little is known about the experiences in small-town hospitals in the country. Between May 2020 and June 2021, author GC treated ~100 confirmed COVID-19 cases. This retrospective case series report describes 10 of these cases, 7 with unusual complications and 3 with sudden death.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Hospitals, Urban , Comorbidity , COVID-19 , Neurologic Manifestations , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dyspnea , Infarction
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 778-786, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1129176

ABSTRACT

O perfil epizootiológico da cinomose canina em Belo Horizonte é desatualizado e não alberga algumas características relevantes. Uma análise recente da distribuição do vírus em relação às características do hospedeiro e do meio ambiente associada aos principais sinais clínicos e achados laboratoriais são importantes para se adotarem medidas estratégicas para o controle da enfermidade. Objetivou-se, assim, determinar as características epizootiológicas da infecção pelo vírus da cinomose canina associada à variedade de sinais clínico-neurológicos e laboratoriais em Belo Horizonte, auxiliando no diagnóstico precoce da infecção e na diminuição das taxas de morbidade e mortalidade da doença. A avaliação do perfil epizootiológico de 90 cães revelou que a doença é mais frequente em animais adultos (um a seis anos de idade) e que não receberam vacinas conforme recomendado pelos protocolos. Os sinais clínicos extraneurais e neurais foram variados, com predomínio para manifestações gastrentérica e respiratória, mioclonia e déficit motor, respectivamente. O exame do fluido cérebro-espinhal demonstrou predomínio de proteinorraquia associada à pleocitose linfocítica. O teste de imunocromatografia para pesquisa de antígeno com amostras do fluido cerebroespinhal foi eficaz para identificar a doença em pacientes com sinais neurológicos, diferentemente das amostras do swab conjuntival, que não devem ser utilizadas.(AU)


The epizootiology profile of canine distemper in Belo Horizonte is outdated and does not harbor some important characteristics. A recent analysis of the virus distribution in relation to host and environmental characteristics associated with the main clinical signs and laboratory findings are important for adopting strategic measures to control the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the epizootiology characteristics of canine distemper virus infection associated with a variety of clinical and neurologic signs and laboratory findings in Belo Horizonte, helping to detect early infection and reduce morbidity and mortality rates. The evaluation of the epizootiology profile of 90 dogs revealed that the disease is more frequent in adult animals (1-6 years of age) and did not receive vaccines as recommended by the protocols. Extra neural and neural clinical signs were varied, with predominance for gastrointestinal and respiratory manifestations and myoclonus and motor deficit, respectively. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid of 16 dogs showed a predominance of increase protein associated with lymphocytic pleocytosis. The immunochromatography test for antigen screening with samples of cerebrospinal fluid in 76 animals with neurological signs was effective in identifying the disease, unlike conjunctival swab samples, which should not be used.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Distemper/epidemiology , Distemper Virus, Canine/isolation & purification , Myoclonus/veterinary , Neurologic Manifestations , Chromatography, Affinity/veterinary , Motor Skills Disorders/virology , Lymphocytosis/veterinary
9.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(4): e2020178, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131846

ABSTRACT

Atrial myxomas are rare primary cardiac tumours with neurological manifestations being reported in 30% of cases. Though a rare cause of ischemic stroke in young patients, considering it as a possibility in absence of any obvious risk factors can help avoid misdiagnosis at early stages. We present a case of left atrial myxoma in a 36-year-old male with no known co-morbidities, showing an unusual clinical presentation of isolated bilateral painless vision loss. With multiple infarcts on Non Contrast Computerised Tomography (NCCT) and a suspicion of Atrial Myxoma on Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE), patient was successfully managed surgically with confirmation of diagnosis on histopathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Stroke/etiology , Myxoma , Thrombosis , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Neurologic Manifestations
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811284

ABSTRACT

We performed a revisionary open reduction and internal fixation for treating nonunion of the mid-shaft of the left clavicle with an autogenous cancellous bone graft. On postoperative day 4, the patient presented with neurologic deficits in the left upper extremity. We removed the implant and made a superior angulation to decompress the brachial plexus. At 6 months postoperatively, callus bridging and consolidation were visible and all hand and elbow functions were fully recovered. Our case suggests that brachial plexus neuropathy may be caused by stretching and compression after reduction and straightening of the nonunion site around adhesions or scar tissue. Therefore, care should be taken whether there are the risk factors that can cause brachial plexus neuropathy when revision surgery is performed for treating nonunion of a clavicle shaft fracture.


Subject(s)
Bony Callus , Brachial Plexus Neuropathies , Brachial Plexus , Cicatrix , Clavicle , Elbow , Hand , Humans , Neurologic Manifestations , Risk Factors , Transplants , Upper Extremity
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1940-1943, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1055146

ABSTRACT

Ehrlichia infections in cattle are frequent in Africa but have also been reported in Brazil and North America. This paper reports natural infection by Ehrlichia sp. associated with Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale in a calf in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, presenting polioencephalomalacia. The molecular evidence, based on a fragment of the dsb gene, indicates a species of Ehrlichia genetically related to Ehrlichia canis and other species of the genus found in the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and a calf from Brazil (99 to 100% identity). It was not possible to associate the clinical signs with Ehrlichia infection due to co-infections and histological evidence of another disease. However, the circulation of the bacteria in bovines in Brazilian Cerrado was confirmed and more attention should be given to clinical suspicion of tick-borne pathogens in cattle to clarify the pathogenic potential of Ehrlichia sp.(AU)


Infecções por Ehrlichia em bovinos são frequentes na África, mas também foram relatadas no Brasil e na América do Norte. Este artigo relata uma infecção natural por Ehrlichia sp. associado a Babesia bigemina e Anaplasma marginale em um bezerro, no município de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, o qual apresentava polioencefalomalácia. A evidência molecular, baseada em um fragmento do gene dsb, indica uma espécie de Ehrlichia geneticamente relacionada a Ehrlichia canis e outras espécies do gênero encontradas no carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus e em um bezerro do Brasil (99 a 100% de identidade). Não foi possível associar os sinais clínicos à infecção por Ehrlichia devido a coinfecções e evidências histológicas de outra doença. No entanto, a circulação da bactéria em bovinos no Cerrado brasileiro foi confirmada, e mais atenção deve ser dada à suspeita clínica de patógenos transmitidos por carrapatos em bovinos para esclarecer o potencial patogênico de Ehrlichia sp.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Ehrlichiosis/diagnosis , Ehrlichiosis/veterinary , Ehrlichia/isolation & purification , Neurologic Manifestations , Tick-Borne Diseases/veterinary
13.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 28-52, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019275

ABSTRACT

Abstract Neurological Soft Signs (NSS) are indicative of generalized disruptions in neurological networks of cortico-subcortical areas. Their presence leads to problems in children's cognitive development with future academic repercussions. The presence of NSS was assessed and compared in 144 children aged 6 to 11 years of low-medium socioeconomic status from Mexico City and the metropolitan area through the Infant Neuropsychological Maturity Questionnaire (CUMANIN, for its Spanish acronym) and the School Neuropsychological Maturity Questionnaire (CUMANES, for its Spanish acronym). Results indicate significant differences by sex. Girls showed better performance in word articulation. In groups by age, significant differences were found in leximetric-comprehension, visual perception and executive function-errors. Participants showed the presence of developmental NSS which include: language (articulation disorders, oral and written language disturbances, difficulty finding words), psychomotricity, visual perception and other cognitive functions. There are several factors related to those impairments such as age, socioeconomic context and critical stages in child's development. Identification and early diagnosis can reduce the risk of school failure.


Resumo Os Sinais Neurológico Sutis (SNS) são indicadores de interrupções generalizadas nas redes de trabalho neural de áreas córtico-subcorticais, cuja presença leva a problemas no desenvolvimento neurocognitivo da criança que representam repercussões acadêmicas negativas. Na presente pesquisa, foi avaliada e comparada a presença de SNS com os processos cognitivos de 144 participantes mexicanos de estrato socioeconómico médio-baixo com idades entre 6 e 11 anos, sem antecedentes neurológicos ou psiquiátricos, por meio dos Cuestionarios de Madurez Neuropsicológica (CUMANIN) e Madurez Neuropsicológica Escolar (CUMANES). Os resultados indicaram diferenças significativas por gênero, já que as meninas apresentaram melhor desempenho na articulação de palavras. Nos grupos por idade, as diferenças significativas foram encontradas na velocidade de leitura e compreensão, visuopercepção e função executiva e erros. Em geral, os participantes mostraram presença de SNS de desenvolvimento, que incluem interferências na linguagem (problemas articulatórios, alterações da linguagem oral e escrita, dificuldade para encontrar palavras), psicomotricidade, visuopercepção e outras funções cognitivas. Ao final, conclui-se que a identificação e o diagnóstico precoce dos SNS permite diminuir o risco de fracasso escolar.


Resumen Los Signos Neurológicos Blandos (SNB) son indicativos de interrupciones generalizadas en las redes de trabajo neuronal de áreas cortico-subcorticales, cuya presencia conlleva a problemas en el desarrollo neurocognitivo del niño que representan repercusiones académicas negativas. En la presente investigación se evaluó y comparó la presencia de SNB con los procesos cognitivos de 144 participantes mexicanos de estrato socioeconómico medio-bajo con edades entre los 6 y 11 años sin antecedentes neurológicos o psiquiátricos por medio de los Cuestionarios de Madurez Neuropsicológica (CUMANIN) y Madurez Neuropsicológica Escolar (CUMANES). Los resultados indicaron diferencias significativas por sexo, ya que las niñas presentaron mejor desempeño en la articulación de palabras. En los grupos por edad, las diferencias significativas se encontraron en leximetría-comprensión, visopercepción y función ejecutiva-errores; y, en general, los participantes mostraron presencia de SNB de desarrollo, que incluyen afectaciones en: lenguaje (problemas articulatorios, alteraciones del lenguaje oral y escrito, dificultad para encontrar palabras), psicomotricidad, visopercepción y otras funciones cognitivas. Al final, se concluye que la identificación y diagnóstico temprano de los SNB permite disminuir el riesgo de fracaso escolar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Educational Status , Neurologic Manifestations , Neuropsychological Tests
14.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 57(4): 357-364, dic. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092732

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El síndrome de vasoconstricción cerebral reversible es una entidad clínica y radiológica caracterizada por cefalea en estallido recurrente y vasoconstricción segmental multifocal de las arterias cerebrales, acompañado o no de otros déficits neurológicos, el cual resuelve espontáneamente en uno a tres meses. Métodos: Se reporta el caso clínico de una paciente que fue diagnosticada de síndrome de vasoconstricción cerebral reversible secundario a fármacos vasoactivos. Se plantea una búsqueda bibliográfica y una puesta al día de las últimas actualizaciones en relación a esta patología. Conclusión: Al menos la mitad de los casos de este síndrome son secundarios, sobre todo postparto y/o por la exposición a sustancias vasoactivas tales como drogas ilícitas, simpaticomiméticos y serotoninérgicos. Es trascendental identificar este cuadro a fin de retirar los posibles agentes causales, o evitar las complicaciones potenciales


Introduction: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is a clinical-radiologic syndrome characterized by recurrent thunderclap headache, with or without other acute neurological symptoms, and diffuse segmental constriction of cerebral arteries that resolves spontaneously within 3 months. Methods: It is described a clinic case of a woman, who was diagnosed with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. A literature search and an update of the latest updates regarding this disease was done. Conclusion: At least half of the cases of this syndrome are secondary, especially postpartum and/or exposure to vasoactive substances such as illicit drugs, sympathomimetics and serotonergic drugs. It is crucial to identify this disorder in order to remove possible causative agents, or avoid potential complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Syndrome , Vasoconstriction , Illicit Drugs , Cerebral Arteries , Neurologic Manifestations
15.
Coluna/Columna ; 18(3): 217-221, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019782

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the clinical and radiological results of posterior vertebral column resection in the treatment of kyphosis due to vertebral tuberculosis in children under 9 years of age with neurological deficit. Methods Retrospective study of a series of 5 cases, 4 females and 1 male, mean age of 4.7 years at the time of surgery, with spinal tuberculosis and mean kyphosis of 89 degrees. Results All patients underwent surgical treatment with PVCR in multiple levels, with a mean number of 3.6 resected vertebrae, mean surgical time of 359 minutes, mean postoperative stay of 21.2 days. The mean follow-up was 29 months. The mean kyphosis correction was 62.6%. Before surgery, all patients had signs of spinal cord injury, one of which did not present a deficit of strength or sensibility (ASIA E), but there were pyramidal signs and a history of falls. The other 4 had some degree of sensory-motor dysfunction, with ASIA score varying from A to D. Postoperative complications included two dehiscences of suture, one pneumothorax and one pneumonia, all with favorable evolution. Four patients progressed with neurological improvement and one of them had persistence of the neurological deficit until the last follow-up. Conclusions Multiple-level PVCR has proven to be a safe and effective option for the treatment of kyphotic deformity in spinal tuberculosis in children with neurological deficit. Level of evidence IV; Case Series.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliação dos resultados clínicos e radiológicos da vertebrectomia posterior multinível no tratamento da cifose por tuberculose vertebral em crianças menores de 9 anos apresentando déficit neurológico. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo de uma série de 5 casos, sendo 4 do sexo feminino e 1 do sexo masculino, média de idade de 4,7 anos na época da cirurgia, portadoras de tuberculose vertebral múltiplos níveis, com média de cifose de 89°. Resultados Todos os pacientes foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico com RCVP múltiplos níveis, com número médio de 3,6 vértebras ressecadas, média de tempo cirúrgico de 359 minutos, período médio de internação pós-operatória de 21,2 dias. O seguimento médio foi de 29 meses. A média de correção da cifose foi de 62,6%. Antes da cirurgia, todos os pacientes tinham sinais de sofrimento medular, sendo que um deles não apresentava déficit de força ou sensibilidade (ASIA E), porém havia a presença de sinais piramidais e história de quedas. Os outros 4 possuíam algum grau de disfunção sensitivo-motora, com escore ASIA variando de A a D. Como complicações pós-operatórias ocorreram duas deiscências de sutura, um pneumotórax e uma pneumonia, todas com evolução favorável. Quatro pacientes evoluíram com melhora neurológica e um deles apresentou manutenção do déficit neurológico até o último seguimento. Conclusão A RCVP múltiplos níveis se mostrou uma opção segura e eficaz no tratando da cifose na TB vertebral em crianças com déficit neurológico. Nível de evidência IV; Série de Casos.


RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar los resultados clínicos y radiológicos de la vertebrectomía posterior en múltiples niveles en el tratamiento de la cifosis por tuberculosis vertebral en niños menores de 9 años con déficit neurológico. Métodos Estudio retrospectivo de una serie de 5 casos, siendo 4 del sexo femenino 1 del sexo masculino, con promedio de edad de 4,7 años en el momento de la cirugía y múltiples niveles de tuberculosis espinal con cifosis promedio de 89 grados. Resultados Todos los pacientes se sometieron a tratamiento quirúrgico por RPCV en niveles múltiples, con una media de 3,6 vértebras resecadas, tiempo operatorio promedio de 359 minutos y estancia promedio postoperatoria de 21,2 días. El seguimiento promedio fue de 29 meses. La corrección de la cifosis promedio fue del 62,6%. Antes de la cirugía, todos los pacientes tenían signos de lesión de la médula espinal, uno de los cuales no tenía déficit de fuerza o sensibilidad (ASIA E), pero tenía signos piramidales y antecedentes de caídas. Los otros 4 tenían algún grado de disfunción sensoriomotora con puntuación de ASIA que variaba de A a D. Las complicaciones postoperatorias incluyeron dos dehiscencias de sutura, un neumotórax y una neumonía, todas con evolución favorable. Cuatro pacientes tuvieron mejoría neurológica y uno de ellos tuvo persistencia del déficit neurológico hasta el último seguimiento. Conclusiones La RPCV ha demostrado ser una opción segura y eficaz en el tratamiento de la deformidad cifótica en la tuberculosis espinal en niños con déficit neurológico. Nivel de evidencia IV; Serie de Casos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Cord Compression , Tuberculosis, Spinal , Neurologic Manifestations
16.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 26(3): 160-164, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126331

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can affect the nervous system and present a variety of neurological and psychiatric syndromes but the prevalence of neuropsychiatric manifestations in Colombia is unknown. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Patients were assessed by the department of rheumatology between 2010 and 2013 and included randomly chosen subjects over 18 years of age. Prevalence of neurological manifestations was calculated using a confidence interval of 95%. SLE disease activity index was used as baseline to compare statistically with activity, neurological manifestations and fatality. Mann-Whitney U test was used for quantitative variables, while chi-square test was used for qualitative variables. Results: 306 subjects initially entered into the study, 274 were analyzed, 89.1% were women with a median age of 43 years (interquartile range: 23). Prevalence of neuropsychiatric manifestations was 26.2% (95% CI: 21.2-31%). The most common symptoms were headache (13.1%; 95% CI: 9.1-17.2%), cerebrovascular disease (8%; 95% CI: 5.1-11.3%), acute confusional state (6.6%; 95% CI: 4-9.1%), seizure disorders (4.7%; 95% CI: 2.6-7.3%), and aseptic meningitis (2.2%; 95% CI: 0.7-4%); autonomic neuropathy, polyneuropathy, and myelopathy each occurred at 0.7% (95% CI: 0-1.8%). Patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations had severe disease activity (45.8%) and (31.9%) had moderate disease activity. Conclusions: In hospitalized patients diagnosed with SLE, NPS manifestations can occur in up to 26% of cases, the most frequent being headache, cerebrovascular disease, acute confusional state, seizures, and aseptic meningitis and the most frequent treatment being systemic steroids. Prospective studies are required to determine their prognostic implications in this group of patients.


Resumen Antecedentes: El lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) puede afectar el sistema nervioso con una amplia variedad de síndromes psiquiátricos y neurológicos. La prevalencia de manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas en Colombia es desconocida. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte transversal. A partir de la revisión del sistema de información del hospital se obtuvieron datos de los pacientes con diagnóstico de LES, mayores de 18 años, que fueron valorados por reumatología entre 2010 y 2013. Se utilizó un muestreo aleatorio del listado de sujetos con diagnóstico de lupus en el hospital, se calculó la prevalencia de manifestaciones neurológicas con IC 95%, se realizaron cruces exploratorios entre la actividad de la enfermedad por SLEDAI y las manifestaciones neurológicas, y desenlace de fallecimiento. Resultados: De 306 sujetos ingresados al estudio se llevaron al análisis final 274 individuos, de los cuales el 89,1% fueron mujeres; la mediana de edad fue de 43 años (RIQ: 23); la prevalencia de manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas fue del 26,2% (IC 95%: 21,2-31). Los síntomas neurológicos en orden descendente incluyen cefalea (13,1%; IC 95%: 9,1-17,2), enfermedad cerebrovascular (8%; IC 95%: 5,1-11,3), estado confusional agudo (6,6%; IC 95%: 4-9,1), trastornos convulsivos (4,7%; IC 95%: 2,6-7,3), meningitis aséptica (2,2%; IC 95%: 0,7-4), neuropatía autonómica, polineuropatía y mielopatía (presentes en el 0,7%; IC 95%: 0-1,8). Dentro de la población con manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas se encontró que el 45,8% tenía actividad severa de la enfermedad y el 31,9% actividad moderada. Conclusiones: En pacientes hospitalizados con diagnóstico de LES las manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas pueden ocurrir hasta en el 26% de los casos; las más frecuentes son cefalea, enfermedad cerebrovascular, estado confusional agudo, convulsiones y meningitis aséptica, y el tratamiento más frecuente son los esteroides sistémicos. Se requieren estudios prospectivos para determinar sus implicaciones pronósticas en este grupo de pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prevalence , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Cohort Studies , Nervous System , Neurologic Manifestations
17.
Arch. med ; 19(2): 420-428, 2019/07/30.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023451

ABSTRACT

Las anemias megaloblásticas agrupan una serie de desórdenes que se caracterizan por el cambio morfológico de los eritrocitos y su alteración en el desarrollo y maduración a nivel de la médula ósea. Las causas de anemia megaloblástica son numerosas, pero en la mayoría de los casos es debido a deficiencia de folatos y vitamina B12. Esta última, se ve involucrada en múltiples procesos fisiológicos y metabólicos incluyendo el desarrollo del sistema nervioso central, la síntesis de neurotransmisores y la integridad celular. El déficit o ausencia de dichos compuestos genera anemia megaloblástica, una condición que deforma las células sanguíneas y causa diversos síntomas tales como fatiga, debilidad, adelgazamiento y en la primera infancia puede generar deficiencias intelectuales y trastornos motores persistentes. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica con el objetivo hacer una revisión de la deficiencia de la vitamina B12 y folatos en relación con sus complicaciones a nivel neurológico..(AU)


Megaloblastic anemias group a series of disorders that are characterized by the morphological change of the erythrocytes and their alteration in the development and maturation at the level of the bone marrow. The causes of megaloblastic anemia are numerous, but in most cases it is due to a deficiency of folates and vitamin B12. This last has been involved in multiple physiological and metabolic processes including the development of the central nervous system, the synthesis of neurotransmitters and cellular integrity. The deficit or absence of these compounds generates megaloblastic anemia, a condition that deforms blood cells and causes various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, weight loss and in early childhood can generate intellectual deficiencies and persistent motor disorders. A bibliographic search was carried out in order to review the deficiency of vitamin B12 and folate in relation to its complications at the neurological level..(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia, Megaloblastic , Neurologic Manifestations
18.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 247-252, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002222

ABSTRACT

Brazil is the worldwide leader in the long-term use of pesticides and herbicides. This compromises the health of handlers by causing harmful neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular changes. The herbicide 2.4D has been shown to cause cardiac overload with subsequent pathological remodeling. Objective: To analyze the cardiac morphological repercussions on the left ventricle (LV) of mice submitted to nebulization by the herbicide 2.4D. Methods: Fifteen mice were divided into three groups: control group (CG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization with sodium chloride solution; low concentration group (LCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 3.71 x 10-3 grams; and high concentration group (HCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 9.28 x 10-3 grams for 15 minutes. The fractal dimension analysis was performed through the box-counting method. Later, the ImageJ program was used to calculate the fractal dimension of each group. To evaluate cardiac remodeling, histological slides were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE). Fifty areas of cardiomyocytes were analyzed per animal. The comparisons between groups were performed by ANOVA One-Way with Tukey's posttest (p < 0.05). Results: There was no change in fractal dimension values between the CG = 1.37 ± 0.02, LCG = 1.33 ± 0.04 and the HCG = 1.33 ± 0.07 groups. However, cardiac hypertrophy occurred in the HCG = 303.9 ± 38.80 µm(2) when compared to the CG group = 236.9 ± 61.71 µm(2) (p = 0.034). Conclusion: The herbicide 2.4D used for 72 hours did not promote cardiotoxicity when evaluated by fractal dimension. However, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was observed in the LV


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pesticides/adverse effects , Inhalation , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Remodeling , Herbicides/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Statistical Analysis , Analysis of Variance , Agrochemicals/adverse effects , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular , Models, Animal , Mice , Neurologic Manifestations
19.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 47(1): 71-75, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-985436

ABSTRACT

Abstract Interscalene block (ISB) is the brachial plexus approach most frequently used in shoulder surgery, providing better postoperative analgesia and reducing the need for rescue morphine compared to general anesthesia. While it is considered a safe block, it has been associated with a relatively high rate of complications, the most serious of which are postoperative neurologic symptoms, such as paresthesia, dysesthesia, and reduced sensitivity. We present the case of a patient with prolonged neurological deficit lasting 4 months following nerve stimulation-guided ISB. Due to the multifactorial nature of postoperative neurological lesions, it can be difficult to determine their etiology. In our case, the brachial plexopathy was probably due to the administration of local anesthetic through the perineurium. We discuss possible causes and argue for the use of ultrasound associated with nerve stimulation when an ISB is performed in order to reduce the incidence of nerve puncture.


Resumen El bloqueo Interescalénico (BIE) es el abordaje al plexo braquial usado con mayor frecuencia en cirugía de hombro, que permite una mejor analgesia postoperatoria y reduce la necesidad de morfina de rescate, en comparación con la anestesia general. Si bien es cierto que se considera un bloqueo seguro, se ha asociado a una tasa de complicaciones relativamente alta, siendo la complicación más seria los síntomas neurológicos postoperatorios (SNPO), tales como parestesia, disestesia, y pérdida de la sensibilidad. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con déficit neurológico prolongado de 4 meses de duración, luego de BIE guiado por neuroestimulación. Debido a la naturaleza multifactorial de las lesiones neurológicas postoperatorias, puede ser difícil determinar su etiología. En nuestro caso, la plexopatía braquial se debió posiblemente a la administración de anestésico local (AL) a través del perineuro. Hacemos referencia a las posible causas y la opción de ultrasonido asociado a la neuroestimulación cuando se realiza un bloqueo interescalénico, a fin de reducir la incidencia de punción del nervio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arthroplasty , Shoulder , Brachial Plexus , Anesthesia, General , Neurologic Manifestations , Paresthesia , Peripheral Nerves , Ultrasonics , Brachial Plexus Neuropathies , Analgesia , Anesthetics, Local , Morphine
20.
Acta fisiátrica ; 26(1): 25-36, mar. 2019.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046643

ABSTRACT

A Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde (CIF) vem sendo utilizada na Associação de Assistência à Criança com Deficiência (AACD) desde 2011 no setor de Fisioterapia Adulto. Esta Classificação, desde então, serve como base para nortear os objetivos funcionais traçados, para melhorar a comunicação entre os setores multiprofissionais e para indicar qualidade assistencial para fins de auditoria de serviço institucional. A experiência foi válida para a instituição e bem aceita pelos seus colaboradores, e seu uso pôde ser expandido. A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sugere que o uso dos códigos da CIF não está completo sem a utilização dos seus qualificadores. Dessa forma o presente trabalho tem como objetivo descrever a implantação da CIF e seus qualificadores no setor de fisioterapia de adultos da instituição. O instrumento adaptado para uso neste serviço permite avaliar o paciente na sua admissão e acompanhar sua evolução ao longo do seu processo de reabilitação, de forma a ser utilizado como indicador de evolução setorial. Será relatado nesse trabalho o processo que foi realizado: a implantação da classificação, o estudo de aprofundamento na qualificação preconizada; desenvolvimento de um instrumento adequado para a prática clínica do serviço; treinamento dos profissionais e projeto piloto; além de reportar dados iniciais na forma de indicadores de evolução.


The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has been used in the Association of Assistance for Disabled Children (AACD) since 2011 in the Adult Physiotherapy division. Since then, the Classification serves as foundation for guiding the functional objectives set, improving communication between multiprofissional divisions and indicating quality of care for institutional audit service purposes. The experience was valid for the institution and well accepted by its employees, and the use was expanded. The World Health Organization (WHO) suggests that the ICF codes' use is not complete without their qualifiers. Therefore, this paper aims to describe the implementation of ICF and its qualifiers in the adult physiotherapy division of the institution. The instrument, which was adapted for use in our servisse, allows the patients to be evaluated on their admission and to monitor the evolution throughout their rehabilitation process, in order to be used as an evolution indicator. This study will report the process we performed: the implementation of the Classification; the study to deepen knowledge on the recommended qualification; development of an appropriate instrument to be used for clinical practice of this service; staff training and pilot application; and, in addition, to report initial data as progress indicators.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rehabilitation Centers , International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health , Disabled Persons , Neurologic Manifestations
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