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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(5): 427-429, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131634

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A 42-year-old male presented with a 4-week history of a mass in the right inferior palpebral conjunctiva close to the punctum. An excisional biopsy of the lesion and histopathological examination revealed that the mass was composed of Schwann cells with thin conical nuclei, fine chromatin, and unnoticeable nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, the spindle cells were diffusely and strongly positive for S100 protein. Neurofilament immunostaining was also positive, which highlighted axons. In light of these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as solitary circumscribed neuroma. A comprehensive evaluation for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b was performed. However, no multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b stigmata and no family history were detected. The diagnosis was therefore finalized as solitary circumscribed neuroma, which is considered as a rare condition. The differential diagnosis is based on the histopathological examination and immunohistochemical evaluation. As the tumor can be related with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b, it is essential to systematically investigate for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b in such cases.


RESUMO Um homem de 42 anos apresentou uma massa na conjuntiva palpebral inferior direita, próxima ao punctum, com evolução de 4 semanas. Uma biópsia excisional da lesão e o subsequente exame anatomopatológico revelaram que a massa era composta de células de Schwann com núcleos cônicos, croma­tina fina e nucléolos não visíveis. Ao exame imuno-histoquímico, as células fusiformes mostraram-se difusa e fortemente positivas para a proteína S100. A imunocoloração também foi positiva para neurofilamentos e evidenciou os axônios. Considerando esses achados, o tumor foi diagnosticado como um neuroma circunscrito solitário. Procedeu-se uma investigação completa para neoplasia endócrina múltipla tipo 2b, entretanto, estigmas característicos e história familiar não foram detectados. Assim, o diagnóstico foi firmado como neuroma circunscrito solitário, condição rara cujo diagnóstico diferencial baseia-se no exame anatomopatológico e na avaliação imuno-histoquímica. Já que esse tumor pode estar relacionado à neoplasia endócrina múltipla tipo 2b, torna-se essencial, nesses casos, a investigação da neoplasia de forma sistemática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Conjunctiva , Neurofibroma , Neuroma , Diagnosis, Differential , Neurofibroma/diagnosis , Neuroma/diagnosis
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785315

ABSTRACT

Forefoot disorders are often seen in clinical practice. Forefoot deformity and pain can deteriorate gait function and decrease quality of life. This review presents common forefoot disorders and conservative treatment using an insole or orthosis. Metatarsalgia is a painful foot condition affecting the metatarsal (MT) region of the foot. A MT pad, MT bar, or forefoot cushion can be used to alleviate MT pain. Hallux valgus is a deformity characterized by medial deviation of the first MT and lateral deviation of the hallux. A toe spreader, valgus splint, and bunion shield are commonly applied to patients with hallux valgus. Hallux limitus and hallux rigidus refer to painful limitations of dorsiflexion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. A kinetic wedge foot orthosis or rocker sole can help relieve symptoms from hallux limitus or rigidus. Hammer, claw, and mallet toes are sagittal plane deformities of the lesser toes. Toe sleeve or padding can be applied over high-pressure areas in the proximal or distal interphalangeal joints or under the MT heads. An MT off-loading insole can also be used to alleviate symptoms following lesser toe deformities. Morton's neuroma is a benign neuroma of an intermetatarsal plantar nerve that leads to a painful condition affecting the MT area. The MT bar, the plantar pad, or a more cushioned insole would be useful. In addition, patients with any of the above various forefoot disorders should avoid tight-fitting or high-heeled shoes. Applying an insole or orthosis and wearing proper shoes can be beneficial for managing forefoot disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Congenital Abnormalities , Foot , Foot Orthoses , Gait , Hallux , Hallux Limitus , Hallux Rigidus , Hallux Valgus , Hammer Toe Syndrome , Head , Hoof and Claw , Humans , Joints , Metatarsal Bones , Metatarsalgia , Metatarsophalangeal Joint , Neuroma , Orthotic Devices , Quality of Life , Shoes , Splints , Toes
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762249

ABSTRACT

Intercostal neuralgia is neuropathic pain that develops in the thorax and abdomen. It usually occurs as a result of injury or inflammation associated with the intercostal nerve triggered by trauma, surgery, or herpes zoster. Primary intercostal neuroma is a rare cause of intercostal neuralgia. A 69-year-old male patient without a history of thoracic trauma or surgery underwent repeated testing and intermittent treatment for refractory pain in the right chest and abdomen for several years. However, the treatment had limited effect. Abdominal computed tomography performed to diagnose recent pain aggravation revealed schwannoma of the 11th intercostal nerve. The patient's pain was relieved following surgical excision of the tumor.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Aged , Herpes Zoster , Humans , Inflammation , Intercostal Nerves , Male , Neuralgia , Neurilemmoma , Neuroma , Pain, Intractable , Thorax
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750456

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction: Palisaded encapsulated neuroma (PEN) is a benign lesion of Schwann cells and its occurrence in the oral mucosa especially the tongue is very rare. Case Report: This article describes a case of a 41-year-old male, a chronic smoker with an actively bleeding, ulcerated, solitary, firm lesion on the lateral border of the tongue which had bled thrice before. A differential diagnosis of pyogenic granuloma, haemangioma, fibroma, nerve sheath tumour, salivary gland tumour and malignancy was made and surgically excised. Histopathology of the excised specimen revealed a well-circumscribed lesion with spindle-shaped cells arranged in interlacing fascicles and with the help of immunohistochemical markers confirmed it to be a PEN. Discussion: To our knowledge, this is the first description of an ulcerated PEN presented with an active bleed.


Subject(s)
Neuroma
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713427

ABSTRACT

Rudimentary polydactyly is a congenital anomaly of the hand clinically ranging from a small wart-like tumor to a pedunculated structure near the thumb or little finger. The histology reveals a marked neural proliferation, dilated blood vessels, and some Meissner corpuscles in the dermis. The etiology is unknown and there are a few theories. First, Hare believed that it represented a vestigial form of supernumerary finger, and termed it rudimentary polydactyly. Since then, Shapiro et al. has argued that rudimentary polydactyly is an amputation neuroma after finding histological similarity between acquired traumatic neuroma and rudimentary polydactyly. Recently Brehmer- Andersson et al. asserted that rudimentary polydactyly is a neuroma that can arise in any area containing Meissner corpuscles after observing a penile lesion with similar histology as rudimentary polydactyly. We report a case of rudimentary polydactyly characteristically not showing any prominent Meissner corpuscles. With this case, we provide support for the theory of Shapiro et al.


Subject(s)
Amputation , Blood Vessels , Dermis , Fingers , Hand , Hares , Neuroma , Polydactyly , Thumb
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717533

ABSTRACT

The number of reported cases with dual disability is increasing for the past few decades. Currently, dual disability of lower limb amputation and motor weakness after stroke became a strong issue in public concern. The functional levels of patients have shown in the wide range from independent community ambulation to non-ambulation. Thus, it indicates that favorable outcomes for dual disability may depend upon adopted rehabilitative strategies. We present the case of a man with left below-knee amputation and severe right-sided weakness following a huge putaminal hemorrhage. He had suffered from extreme pain and misfit of the prosthetic socket and the complicated residual limb for three years prior to the stroke. Forty days post-stroke, we performed a revision surgery to resolve the complications of bony overgrowth, verrucous hyperplasia, and neuroma and applied an ankle foot orthosis (AFO). Two years post-stroke, he was able to ambulate outside his home and negotiate stairs using a cane. This is the first case with the dual disability of lower limb amputation and contralateral hemiplegia to undergo revision surgery. The results suggest that an early revision surgery and use of an AFO are crucial for achieving a higher level of mobility in such cases.


Subject(s)
Amputation , Ankle , Canes , Extremities , Foot Orthoses , Hemiplegia , Humans , Hyperplasia , Lower Extremity , Neuroma , Putaminal Hemorrhage , Stroke , Walking
9.
Journal of Dentistry-Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. 2017; 18 (4): 314-317
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189596

ABSTRACT

The rarity of oral soft tissue spindle cell tumors combined with overlapping microscopic patterns can make challenges in their diagnosis and treatment. Oral cavity palisaded encapsulated neuroma is an uncommon lesion which occurs often on the hard palate. It is essential for oral pathologists to be familiar with its histopathology of this lesion is essential since many lesions are probably diagnosed microscopically as neurofibroma or schwannoma. Here, we report a case of oral palisaded encapsu-lated [solitary circumscribed] neuroma in an unusual site


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Neuroma , Mouth , Mouth Neoplasms
10.
Ultrasonography ; : 33-38, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731215

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic (US) features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. METHODS: This study was performed with approval from our Institutional Review Board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Six traumatic neuromas in five patients were included in this study. The US findings of traumatic neuromas were evaluated retrospectively by two radiologists according to the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. The final assessment was also recorded. RESULTS: On US, all six lesions presented as a mass within the pectoralis muscle layer (mean size, 4.8 mm; range, 3.9 to 5.5 mm). Of the six masses, four had an oval shape with a circumscribed margin, and two had an irregular shape and an indistinct margin. They were all hypoechoic. Two lesions showed a non-parallel orientation. On color Doppler examinations, two lesions showed internal vascularity. Strain elastography was performed for four neuromas, resulting in scores of 1 (n=1), 4 (n=2), and 5 (n=1). The final assessment categories were BI-RADS 3 (n=2), 4A (n=2), and 4B (n=2). CONCLUSION: On US, an oval shape, circumscribed margin, parallel orientation, and hypoechogenicity were the most frequent features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Neuromas may show increased vascularity on color Doppler imaging and present as a hard mass on elastography.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Ethics Committees, Research , Humans , Information Systems , Informed Consent , Mastectomy , Neuroma , Pectoralis Muscles , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-655868

ABSTRACT

Morton's neuroma, also known as interdigital neuroma, is a common cause of forefoot pain. It is a compressive neuropathy of the interdigital nerve, which is compressed by the overlying transverse metatarsal ligament. It is not a true tumor. The symptoms are forefoot pain that radiates into the toes, according to the involved nerve branches. Its histological findings are fibrosis around the nerve, demyelination. The clinical diagnosis can be obtained from a detailed history and physical examination, such as the compressive test. Moreover, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging can also be used. Conservative treatment is the common initial treatment modality for interdigital neuroma. Surgical excision or decompression is indicated after a failure of conservative treatments.


Subject(s)
Decompression , Demyelinating Diseases , Diagnosis , Fibrosis , Ligaments , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Metatarsal Bones , Neuroma , Physical Examination , Toes , Ultrasonography
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167674

ABSTRACT

Amputation stump pains can be developed in amputation sites after high voltage electrical burn injuries. We experienced one case of these severe stump pains in an upper extremity amputation patient. A 35-year-old man had a 38% total body surface area high voltage electrical burn. The patient underwent skin grafting and left shoulder disarticulation. During the rehabilitation period, he complained about severe stump area pains and phantom pains. We injected 0.5% Bupivacaine and Triamcinolone on the stump neuroma site but the pain sustained. After extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT,) the pain subsided and did not recur. The patient was satisfied with functional and pain outcomes, so we report this case.


Subject(s)
Adult , Amputation , Amputation Stumps , Body Surface Area , Bupivacaine , Burns , Disarticulation , Humans , Neuroma , Phantom Limb , Rehabilitation , Shock , Shoulder , Skin Transplantation , Triamcinolone , Upper Extremity
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100901

ABSTRACT

Brachial plexus injuries (BPI) can have devastating effects on upper extremity function, however, treatment in this injuries remains a difficult problem. Several kinds of surgical methods have been used to treat BPI, and nerve repair and nerve grafting have been traditionally used in postganglionic injury of brachial plexus. Because the several studies reported that nerve transfer to restore shoulder and elbow function has yielded superior results to historical reports for nerve grafting in partial BPI, the indication of nerve repair and nerve grafting has been decreased. Nonetheless, nerve repair and nerve grafting is still useful in focal damage in brachial plexus, such as laceration or gunshot wound and postganglionic neuroma in continuity without conduction of nerve action potential. In this paper, we described the basic concept, detailed indication and outcomes of nerve repair or nerve grafting in BPI.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Brachial Plexus , Elbow , Lacerations , Nerve Transfer , Neuroma , Shoulder , Transplants , Upper Extremity , Wounds, Gunshot
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26232

ABSTRACT

Traumatic neuromas are rare benign tumors that are common after trauma or surgery and are usually accompanied by obvious symptoms of pain. Most reports show neuromas in the face, neck, and limbs, and the traumatic neuroma of the medial plantar nerve has rarely been reported. We encountered a traumatic neuroma of the medial plantar nerve after a deep laceration mimicking a foreign body granuloma. A small mass lesion was found around plantar aponeurosis with heterogeneous high signal intensity in the T2 fat suppression view and slightly enhanced intensity in the magnetic resonance imaging that suggested a foreign body granuloma. The lesion was diagnosed pathologically as a traumatic neuroma. A satisfactory clinical result was obtained after excision of the traumatic neuroma and burial of the proximal and distal stumps to the adjacent muscle at the secondary operation.


Subject(s)
Burial , Extremities , Foot , Foreign Bodies , Granuloma, Foreign-Body , Lacerations , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck , Neuroma , Tibial Nerve
16.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 53(2): 153-160, 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789923

ABSTRACT

Five mares were submitted to palmar digital neurectomy by the guillotine technique and palmar digital neurotomy followed by end-to-side neurorrhaphy (right and left thoracic limbs, respectively). Mares were checked for local pain sensation using hoof tester and submitted to lameness workup at 15-day intervals. No evidence of painful neuroma formation was detected. Palmar digital nerve (PDN) stump segments were collected within 60 days of surgery. Mean left and right limb PDN stump thickness corresponded to 5.96 mm and 7.16 mm, respectively. Schwann cells prevailed over connective healing tissue in all PDN stumps studied. Well-formed nerve-like structures with better organized nervous tissue and predominance of parallel nerve fiber orientation were documented in left limb PDN stumps. End-to-side neurorrhaphy tended to promote tissue organization, potentially reducing the chances of neuroma formation...


O nervo digital palmar (NDP) lateral do membro torácico direito (MTD) de cinco equinos fêmeas foi submetido à neurectomia pela técnica da guilhotina, e o do membro torácico esquerdo (MTE) à neurotomia e neurorrafia término-lateral. Os animais foram avaliados a cada 15 dias quanto ao teste de sensibilidade cutânea com pressão local com pinça de casco e de claudicação, não sendo notados sinais clínicos de neuroma doloroso. Aos 60 dias pós-cirurgia coletou-se segmentos dos cotos proximais dos NDPs. Os dos MTDs apresentavam em média, a espessura de 7,16 mm e aos dos MTEs de 5,96 mm. Nos cotos proximais dos nervos dos membros direito e esquerdo notou-se predominância de células de Schwann à grande quantidade de tecido conjuntivo cicatricial. Os do MTEs apresentavam estruturas de nervo típico, bem constituídas, com maior organização do tecido nervoso e predomínio de fibras nervosas orientadas paralelamente. A neurorrafia termino-lateral apresentou tendência a ocasionar maior organização entre as estruturas analisadas, o que lhe conferiu menor potencial em desenvolver neuromas dolorosos...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Horses , Neuroma/surgery , Neuroma/veterinary , Peripheral Nerves/surgery , Neurosurgical Procedures/veterinary
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149526

ABSTRACT

Traumatic neuroma results from regeneration attempts of the proximal end of an injured or severed nerve, resulting in a non-neoplastic nodular lesion. The lower extremity after amputation is the most common site, followed by the head and neck. Traumatic neuromas occurring in the abdomen, however, are rare. In the abdominal region, traumatic neuromas occur in the cystic duct stump and the common bile ducts as well as around the celiac trunk. This study reports a case of a 59-year-old man who presented with a traumatic neuroma arising at the stump of the inferior mesenteric artery after rectal cancer surgery. Traumatic neuromas at the stump of the inferior mesenteric artery have not been previously reported. The lesion exhibited atypical imaging features, including a well-enhanced nodule, a significant interval growth in size and a mild increase in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, resembling lymph node metastasis. This case report will help physicians understand the sites of occurrence and imaging features of traumatic neuromas in the abdomen.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Amputation , Common Bile Duct , Cystic Duct , Head , Humans , Lower Extremity , Lymph Nodes , Mesenteric Artery, Inferior , Middle Aged , Neck , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neuroma , Rectal Neoplasms , Regeneration
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174620

ABSTRACT

During clinical endodontic treatment, we often find radiopaque filling material beyond the root apex. Accidental extrusion of calcium hydroxide could cause the injury of inferior alveolar nerve, such as paresthesia or continuous inflammatory response. This case report presents the extrusion of calcium hydroxide and treatment procedures including surgical intervention. A 48 yr old female patient experienced Calcipex II extrusion in to the inferior alveolar canal on left mandibular area during endodontic treatment. After completion of endodontic treatment on left mandibular first molar, surgical intervention was planned under general anesthesia. After cortical bone osteotomy and debridement, neuroma resection and neurorrhaphy was performed, and prognosis was observed. But no improvement in sensory nerve was seen following surgical intervention after 20 mon. A clinician should be aware of extrusion of intracanal medicaments and the possibility of damage on inferior alveolar canal. Injectable type of calcium hydroxide should be applied with care for preventing nerve injury. The alternative delivery method such as lentulo spiral was suggested on the posterior mandibular molar.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Calcium Hydroxide , Calcium , Debridement , Female , Humans , Mandibular Nerve , Molar , Neuroma , Osteotomy , Paresthesia , Prognosis
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88601

ABSTRACT

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN 2B) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, neuroma and Marfanoid feature. Medullary thyroid cancer occurs in more than 95% patients of MEN 2B and increases mortality. So, the early diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia is very important, because in the early diagnosed and treated medullary thyroid cancer, the prognosis is excellent. This is a case of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B that diagnosed early by conjunctival neuroma. A 15-year-old female patient was presented with both conjunctival masses that occurred 6 months ago. The excisional biopsy revealed conjunctival neuroma. The multiple endocrine tumor was suspected, further evaluation was performed. Medullary thyroid cancer was confirmed by thyroid ultrasound and fine needle aspiration. Finally, MEN type 2B was confirmed by a RET mutation genetic testing.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Early Diagnosis , Female , Genetic Testing , Humans , Male , Mortality , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia , Neuroma , Pheochromocytoma , Prognosis , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Ultrasonography
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