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1.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 85-90, mar. 2022. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362717

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de una mujer en la quinta década de la vida que ingresa al servicio de urgencias con manifestaciones gastrointestinales consistentes en vómito e hipo. Después de múltiples estudios e intervenciones por especialistas, se piensa en el origen central de los síntomas. Se realiza una resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) cerebral que permite el enfoque del caso y posterior confirmación del diagnóstico de una enfermedad dentro del espectro de la neuromielitis óptica, positiva para anticuerpos anti-acuaporinas-4. El tratamiento con esteroide y anticuerpo monoclonal (Rituximab) llevan a un control adecuado de la enfermedad.


We present a case report of a woman in her 50s admitted to the emergency room with gastrointestinal manifestations consisting of vomiting and hiccups. After a series of studies and interventions by specialists, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed in order to find the central origin of the symptoms. This allows the approach of the case and subsequent confirmation of the diagnosis of Neuromyelitis optica, positive for anti-acuaporin-4 antibodies. Finally, it seems that treatment with steroids and monoclonal antibodies leads to proper control of the disease.


Se apresenta o caso de uma mulher na quinta década de vida que ingressa ao serviço de urgências com manifestações gastrointestinais consistentes em vômito e soluço. Depois de múltiplos estudos e intervenções por especialistas, se pensa na origemcentral dos sintomas. Se realiza uma ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN) cerebral que permite o enfoque do caso e posterior confirmação do diagnóstico de uma doença dentro do espectro da neuromielite óptica, positiva para anticorpos anti-acuaporinas-4. O tratamento com esteroide e anticorpo monoclonal (Rituximab) levam a um controle adequado da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neuromyelitis Optica , Vomiting , Brain , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Aquaporins , Hiccup , Antibodies
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921881

ABSTRACT

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system predominantly targeting optic nerves and the spinal cord. The prevalence of the disease is much higher in Asia than in other parts of the world. Pain can be detected in more than 80% of NMOSD patients, with evoked pain mostly being caused by painful tonic muscle spasms and neuropathic pain as the most characteristic types. Depression is often comorbid with pain, and their comorbidity can severely influence quality of life. In recent years, studies have found considerable overlaps between the mechanisms of pain and depression; however, their association remains unclear. This article reviews the epidemiology, mechanism, evaluation and treatment of pain-depression comorbidity in NMOSD patients.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Neuromyelitis Optica/epidemiology , Pain , Quality of Life
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878714

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical features of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders(NMOSD)with connective tissue diseases(CTD). Methods Clinical data of 16 NMOSD-CTD patients and 54 NMOSD patients admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University from January 2015 to February 2020 were collected.The initial symptom,intracranial lesion,spinal cord lesion,laboratory examination and treatment response were compared between the two groups. Results The incidence of Sjögren's syndrome(SS)was the highest(10/16,62.5%)in NMOSD-CTD group.The NMOSD-CTD group had significantly higher positive rate of aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G(AQP4-IgG)in serum or cerebrospinal fluid(100% vs. 70.2%,P=0.009),higher positive rates of serum anti-nuclear antibodies,anti Sjögren's syndrome A antibodies and anti-Ro52 autoantibodies(P0.05).Conclusions NMOSD is often complicated with CTD,and SS is the most common one.The positive rate of serum or cerebrospinal AQP4-IgG and the seropositivity of several other autoantibodies in NMOSD-CTD patients were higher than those in NMOSD patients.Neurological impairment in NMOSD-CTD patients were severer,which should arouse attention of clinicians.


Subject(s)
Aquaporin 4 , Autoantibodies , Connective Tissue Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Neuromyelitis Optica/epidemiology
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(7): 430-439, July 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131732

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a potential threat to patients with autoimmune disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Such patients are usually treated with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive agents, which may tamper with the organism's normal response to infections. Currently, no consensus has been reached on how to manage MS and NMOSD patients during the pandemic. Objective: To discuss strategies to manage those patients. Methods: We focus on how to 1) reduce COVID-19 infection risk, such as social distancing, telemedicine, and wider interval between laboratory testing/imaging; 2) manage relapses, such as avoiding treatment of mild relapse and using oral steroids; 3) manage disease-modifying therapies, such as preference for drugs associated with lower infection risk (interferons, glatiramer, teriflunomide, and natalizumab) and extended-interval dosing of natalizumab, when safe; 4) individualize the chosen MS induction-therapy (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, alemtuzumab, and cladribine); 5) manage NMOSD preventive therapies, including initial therapy selection and current treatment maintenance; 6) manage MS/NMOSD patients infected with COVID-19. Conclusions: In the future, real-world case series of MS/NMOSD patients infected with COVID-19 will help us define the best management strategies. For the time being, we rely on expert experience and guidance.


RESUMO Introdução: A mais recente pandemia causada pelo coronavírus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19, do inglês coronavirus disease 2019) representa uma ameaça potencial para pacientes com doenças autoimunes, incluindo esclerose múltipla (EM) e transtorno do espectro de neuromielite óptica (NMOSD, do inglês neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders). Esses pacientes são geralmente tratados com medicamentos imunomoduladores ou imunossupressores que podem alterar a resposta normal do organismo a infecções. Até o momento, não há consenso sobre como o manejo dos pacientes com EM e NMOSD deve ser realizado durante a pandemia. Objetivo: Discutir estratégias para manejar esses pacientes. Métodos: Focamos em como 1) reduzir o risco de infecção por COVID-19, como distanciamento social, telemedicina e exames laboratoriais e de imagem em intervalos mais amplos; 2) manejo de surtos, incluindo evitar tratamento de surto leve e uso de corticoide oral; 3) gerenciar terapias modificadoras de doença, como a preferência por medicamentos associados a menor risco de infecção (interferons, glatirâmer, teriflunomida e natalizumabe) e infusão em intervalo estendido de natalizumabe, quando seguro; 4) individualizar a escolha da terapia de indução para EM (anticorpos monoclonais anti-CD20, alentuzumabe e cladribina); 5) manejar terapias preventivas de NMOSD, incluindo seleção inicial de terapia e manutenção do tratamento atual; 6) manejar pacientes com EM/NMOSD que foram infectados por COVID-19. Conclusão: No futuro, séries de casos de pacientes com MS/NMOSD infectados com COVID-19 nos ajudará a definir as melhores estratégias de manejo. Por enquanto, contamos com a experiência e orientação especializadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Neuromyelitis Optica/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Risk , Neuromyelitis Optica/diagnosis , Telemedicine , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 275-279, jun. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125079

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades del espectro neuromielitis óptica son trastornos inflamatorios del sistema nervioso central caracterizados por una grave desmielinización y daño axonal inmunomediado que afecta principalmente a los nervios ópticos y médula espinal. Suelen presentars e en edades tempranas, aunque existen algunas comunicaciones en la literatura de pacientes con presentaciones tardías. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 78 años que consultó por un cuadro de paraparesia grave, trastornos sensitivos y retención urinaria. Se realizó una resonancia magnética de columna cervicodorsal que evidenció una lesión medular longitudinal extensa. Se descartaron otras causas secundarias, basadas en la clínica y en resultados de laboratorio. El dosaje de anticuerpos anti-acuaporina 4 resultó positivo. Se indicó tratamiento con glucocorticoides a altas dosis y plasmaféresis, y mantenimiento con rituximab, obteniendo escasa respuesta clínica. En pacientes con lesiones medulares extensas se deben contemplar múltiples diagnósticos diferenciales según la presentación clínica, hallazgos mediante estudios por imágenes y epidemiología. Asimismo, debe incluir la búsqueda de anticuerpos anti-acuaporina 4 y contra la glicoproteína de la mielina del oligodendrocito, ya que el pronóstico funcional de estos pacientes suele ser desfavorable debido al gran componente destructivo de las lesiones. En consecuencia, el tratamiento temprano es fundamental a fin de limitar el daño agudo y prevenir futuras recaídas, lo cual es especialmente importante en presentaciones tardías de esta entidad debido a la escasa reserva funcional y baja capacidad de remielinización.


Optic neuromyelitis spectrum diseases are inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system characterized by severe demyelination and immunomediated axonal damage that mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. They usually appear at an early age, although there are some reports in the literature of patients with late presentations. We present the case of a 78-year-old woman who consulted for severe paraparesis, sensory disorders, and urinary retention. An MRI of the cervicodorsal spine was performed, showing extensive longitudinal spinal injury. Secondary causes based on clinical observations and laboratory studies were ruled out. The dosage of anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies was positive. Acute treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids and plasmapheresis was indicated, and maintenance with rituximab, obtaining little clinical response. In patients with extensive spinal injuries, multiple differential diagnoses should be considered according to the clinical presentation, findings through imaging studies and epidemiology. Likewise, it should include the search for anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies and against the oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein, since the functional prognosis of these patients is usually unfavourable due to the large destructive component of the lesions. Consequently, early treatment is essential in order to limit acute damage and prevent future relapses, which is especially important in late presentations of this entity due to the low functional reserve and low remyelination capacity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Neuromyelitis Optica/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Neuromyelitis Optica/immunology , Neuromyelitis Optica/cerebrospinal fluid , Aquaporin 4/immunology , Antibodies/analysis
6.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 58(2): 161-170, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115481

ABSTRACT

Resumen El espectro de Neuromielitis óptica (NMOSD por su sigla en inglés) corresponde a un conjunto de manifestaciones clínicas derivadas de un proceso inflamatorio y desmielinizante del sistema nervioso central, que causa lesiones primariamente en la médula espinal y nervios ópticos, pero también en otras regiones como tronco encefálico, diencéfalo o áreas cerebrales específicas. La mayoría de los pacientes con NMOSD son seropositivos para autoanticuerpos contra AQP4, el principal canal de agua de los astrocitos, sin embargo, existe un porcentaje no despreciable de pacientes, cercano al 25%, quienes son seronegativos para estos anticuerpos y en quienes la presencia de anticuerpos dirigidos contra mielina (anti-MOG) podrían tener un rol patogénico, el cual a la fecha no ha sido bien dilucidado. La evidencia científica actual, ha permitido reconocer que AQP4-IgG es patogénico en NMOSD, probablemente por un mecanismo que involucra citotoxicidad celular dependiente de la activación del complemento, generando infiltración leucocitaria, liberación de citokinas y disrupción de la barrera hemato-encefálica, lo cual lleva a muerte de oligodendrocitos, pérdida de mielina y muerte neuronal. Este artículo presenta una revisión basada en la evidencia, la cual enfatiza los principales aspectos de la patogénesis de NMOSD.


Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders (NMOSD) is a set of clinical manifestations derived from an inflammatory and demyelinating process of the central nervous system that causes lesions primarily in spinal cord and optic nerves but also in other regions such as brainstem, diencephalon or specific brain areas. Most patients with NMOSD are seropositive for autoantibodies against AQP4, the major water channel of astrocytes, however there is a non-negligible percentage of patients, close to 25%, who are seronegative for these antibodies and in whom the presence of antibodies directed against myelin (anti-MOG) could have a pathogenic role that to date has not been well elucidated. Current scientific evidence has allowed recognize that AQP4-IgG is pathogenic in NMOSD, probably by a mechanism involving complement dependent cellular cytotoxicity, causing leucocyte infiltration, cytokine release and blood-brain barrier disruption, which leads to oligodendrocyte death, myelin loss and neuron death. This article presents an evidence-based review, which emphasizes the main aspects in NMOSD pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Optic Nerve , Brain , Brain Stem , Central Nervous System , Neuromyelitis Optica
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(2): 121-123, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088997

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT First described by Retzius at the end of the 19th century, the structure in the posterior medulla oblongata, then named area postrema, underwent an intense investigation into its function in the decades that followed. Findings, mainly in animal studies, have partially elucidated its role as an emetic center in the central nervous system. In the second half of the 20th century, this function was associated with reports of syndromes characterized by uncontrollable nausea and vomiting related to structural damage in the area postrema, mainly in the context of demyelinating diseases. At the beginning of the 21st century, the so-called area postrema syndrome has been consolidated as a diagnostic factor in diseases related to the spectrum of neuromyelitis optica, more than 100 years after its first description.


RESUMO Descrita pela primeira vez por Retzius no final do século XIX, a estrutura na medula oblonga posterior, então nomeada de área postrema, passou por intensa investigação quanto à sua função nas décadas seguintes. Achados sobretudo em estudos com animais elucidaram parcialmente sua função como centro emético no sistema nervoso central. Na segunda metade do século XX, tal função foi associada a relatos de síndromes caracterizadas por náuseas e vômitos incoercíveis relacionadas a lesões estruturais na área postrema, principalmente no contexto das doenças desmielinizantes. Já no início do século XXI, a então chamada síndrome da área postrema se consolida como fator diagnóstico nas doenças relacionadas ao espectro da neuromielite óptica, mais de 100 anos sua primeira descrição.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neuromyelitis Optica , Area Postrema , Syndrome , Vomiting , Nausea
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782067

ABSTRACT

3) of the pain in domains of tingling/prickling sensation (p=0.024), mechanical allodynia (p=0.027), sudden pain attacks (p=0.018), and thermal hyperalgesia (p=0.002) were significantly more frequent in NMOSD compared to MS patients. Among the patients experiencing pain with a neuropathic component, total pain-related interference (p=0.045) scores were significantly higher in NMOSD patients than in MS patients. In daily life, pain interfered with normal work (p=0.045) and relationships with other people (p=0.039) more often in NMOSD patients than in MS patients. Although pain medication was prescribed more frequently in NMOSD patients, the percentage of patients experiencing medication-related pain relief was lower in those patients.CONCLUSIONS: The severity of neuropathic pain and the pain-related interference in daily life were greater in NMOSD patients than in MS patients. Individualized analgesic management should be considered based on a comprehensive understanding of neuropathic pain in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperalgesia , Korea , Multiple Sclerosis , Neuralgia , Neuromyelitis Optica , Referral and Consultation , Sensation , Sex Ratio
9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 60-65, set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040552

ABSTRACT

La neuromielitis óptica (NMO) es un trastorno autoinmune, inflamatorio y desmielinizante del sistema nervioso central con predilección por los nervios ópticos y médula espinal. En el año 2004 se publicó la asociación de NMO con un anticuerpo contra el canal de agua acuaporina 4 (anti-AQP4), como una enfermedad diferente de la esclerosis múltiple (EM). Actualmente se propone el término trastornos del espectro NMO (NMOSD), debido a que las manifestaciones de la enfermedad pueden ser más extensas, afectando además del nervio óptico y médula espinal, al área postrema del bulbo raquídeo, tronco encefálico, diencéfalo y áreas cerebrales típicas (periependimarias, cuerpo calloso, cápsula interna y sustancia blanca subcortical). NMOSD se aplica también a pacientes que cumplen los criterios de NMO y son negativos para anti-AQP4. Dentro de este último grupo se ha detectado en un 20% la presencia de otro anticuerpo, anti-MOG (Glicoproteína oligodendrocítica de mielina) con un mecanismo fisiopatológico diferente pero con una clínica, en algunos casos, similar, y en general con mejor pronóstico. El tratamiento inmunosupresor en la crisis, así como el tratamiento a largo plazo en los casos que esté indicado, es fundamental para evitar secuelas y recidivas. El diagnóstico correcto de esta entidad es fundamental ya que puede ser agravado con el uso de fármacos útiles en el tratamiento de EM. En esta publicación haremos una revisión de la fisiopatología, clínica y criterios diagnósticos de NMOSD, y discutiremos las distintas opciones terapéuticas.


Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, inflammatory and de myelinat ing disorder of the central nervous system with a predilection for the optic nerves and spinal cord. In 2004 the association of NMO with an antibody against the water channel aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) was published as a different pathology from multiple sclerosis (MS). Currently the term NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) is proposed, because the manifestations of the disease can be more extensive, affecting in addition to the optic nerve and spinal cord, the area postrema of the dorsal medulla, brainstem, diencephalon and typical brain areas (periependymal, corpus callosum, internal capsule and subcortical white matter). NMOSD is also applied to patients who meet the NMO criteria and are negative for AQP4-IgG. Within the latter group, the presence of another antibody, anti-MOG, has been detected in 20%, with a different physiopathological mechanism, but with a similar clinic and a better prognosis. The immunosuppressive treatment in the attack, as well as the long-term treatment in the cases that are indicated, is fundamental to avoid sequelaes and recurrences. The correct diagnosis of this entity is essential since it can be aggravated with the use of drugs useful in the treatment of MS. In this publication we will review the pathophysiology, clinical and diagnostic criteria of NMOSD, and discuss the different therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoantibodies/immunology , Neuromyelitis Optica/diagnosis , Neuromyelitis Optica/drug therapy , Autoantibodies/adverse effects , Neuromyelitis Optica/physiopathology , Neuromyelitis Optica/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis
10.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. Univ. Cuenca ; 37(1): 51-56, Junio 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004971

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad de Devic, también llamada neuromielitis óptica, es una entidad autoinmune desmielinizante del Sistema Nervioso Central, poco común que compromete los nervios ópticos y la médula espinal, ocasio-nando pérdida de la agudeza visual y afección motora. A continuación, se presenta el caso clínico de una mujer de 25 años, que presenta signos de mielopatía y amaurosis súbitas, cumpliendo criterios para neuromielitis óptica. Se inicia tratamiento con bolos de metilprednisolona sin mejoría, decidiéndose administrar Rituximab con respuesta favorable temprana. El Rituximab pertenece al grupo de anticuerpos monoclonales anti ­ CD20, una opción importante ante la falta de respuesta a la primera línea de tra-tamiento.


Devic's disease, is also called neuromyelitis optica, it is a demyelinating autoimmune entity of the central nervous system, it is uncommon and it compromises the optic nerves and the spinal cord, causing loss of visual acuity and motor impairment. A clinical case of a 25-year-old woman with signs of sudden myelopathy and amaurosis is presented. It is fulfilling crite-ria for neuromyelitis optica. The treatment with methylprednisolone boluses started without any improvement, and Rituximab was applied with an early favorable response. Rituximab belongs to the group of anti-CD20 monoclo-nal antibodies, it was an important option in the absence of response to the first line of treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Vision, Low , Neuromyelitis Optica , Rituximab , Pathology , Therapeutics , Antibodies, Monoclonal
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(4): 239-247, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001352

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To study the genetic susceptibility to neuromyelitis optica (NMO) as well as the relationship between HLA genotypes and susceptibility to the disease in the southern Brazilian population. Methods: We analyzed patients with NMO, who met criteria for Wingerchuk's diagnosis of NMO, with detected serum anti-AQP4-IgG antibody. The HLA genotyping was performed by high-resolution techniques (Sanger sequencing) in patients and controls. The HLA genotypes were statistically compared with a paired control population. Results: The HLA genotyping revealed the diversity of the southern Brazilian population whose HLA profile resembled European and Asian populations. Some alleles had statistical correlations with a positive association (increased susceptibility) with NMO, particularly the HLA-DRB1*04:05 and *16:02. Conclusions: In our study, the HLA genotype was different to that previously reported for other Brazilian populations. Although our study had a small cohort, HLA genotypes were associated with increased susceptibility to NMO for HLA-DRB1*04:05 and *16:02. The alleles of HLA class I HLA-A*02:08 and *30:09, HLA-B*08:04 and *35:04 showed an association before the Bonferroni correction.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estudar a suscetibilidade genética a neuromielite óptica (NMO) assim como sua relação com o genótipo HLA na população do sul do Brasil. Métodos: Nós analisamos pacientes com NMO que preenchiam os critérios diagnósticos de Wingerchuk para NMO, com presença do anticorpo anti-AQP4-IgG no soro. O genótipo HLA foi realizado usando técnicas de alta resolução (sequenciamento de Sanger) em pacientes e controles. Genótipos HLA foram estatisticamente comparados com uma população controle pareada. Resultados: Genotipagem HLA revelou a diversidade da população sul brasileira cujo perfil HLA lembra as populações europeia e asiática. Alguns alelos tiveram correlação estatística com associação positiva (suscetibilidade aumentada) com NMO, particularmente o HLA-DRB1*04:05 e *16:02. Conclusões: Em nosso estudo, o genótipo HLA foi diferente do previamente relatado em outras populações brasileiras. Embora o número de pacientes tenha sido pequeno, HLA específicos foram associados com suscetibilidade aumentada a NMO para HLA-DRB1*04:05, *16:02. Os alelos HLA classe I HLA*02:08 e *30:09, HLA-B*08:04 e *35:04 tiveram associação antes da correção de Bonferroni.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Genes, MHC Class I/genetics , Neuromyelitis Optica/genetics , Genes, MHC Class II/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Alleles , HLA Antigens/genetics , Reference Values , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gene Frequency , Genotype
12.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 25(1): 5-18, mar. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003745

ABSTRACT

La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es la enfermedad inflamatorio-desmielinizante del Sistema nervioso central más prevalente en adultos. La resonancia magnética (RM) juega un rol cada vez más importante en el estudio de esta patología, en especial en su diagnóstico precoz, por lo que la diferenciación imagenológica de variantes frecuentes e infrecuentes de EM con otras patologías de sustancia blanca que comprometen encéfalo y médula espinal es esencial. Mediante una revisión pictórica se ilustrarán características típicas en RM del compromiso por EM y de variantes menos habituales de lesión desmielinizante, y se ilustrarán hallazgos característicos de lesiones relacionadas a vasculopatías inflamatorias y no inflamatorias, encefalomielitis diseminada aguda (ADEM), neuromielitis óptica (NMO) y enfermedades vasculares de la médula espinal que pueden simular EM, con énfasis en el diagnóstico diferencial radiológico.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in adult population. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an increasingly important role, especially in early diagnosis, so the imaging differentiation of frequent and infrequent variants of MS with other white matter diseases of brain and spinal cord is essential. Through a pictorial essay we show typical MR features of MS and more infrequent variants of demyelinating lesions and illustrate characteristic imaging findings of inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathies, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and vascular diseases of spinal cord that may simulate MS, with emphasis on imaging differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Neuromyelitis Optica/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnostic imaging , Susac Syndrome/diagnostic imaging
14.
Rev. salud bosque ; 9(1): 98-105, 2019. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1103095

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Devic, también conocido como trastorno del espectro de la neuromielitis óptica (NMOSD, por sus sigla en inglés), es considerado una enfermedad inflamatoria, desmielinizante y autoinmune del sistema nervioso central que afecta en su mayoría los nervios ópticos, el quiasma óptico y la médula espinal. Si bien en algunos casos se puede simular un cuadro clínico similar a esclerosis múltiple, hoy en día se conocen aspectos imagenológicos, inmunológicos y patológicos que permiten establecer las diferencias entre estas dos entidades. Se presenta el caso de una mujer adulta mayor con antecedente de síndrome de Sjögren en manejo ambulatorio con corticoide y azatioprina, quien ingresa por cuadro clínico de mes y medio de evolución consistente en disestesias de predominio en miembros inferiores, alteración de la marcha y compromiso visual. Ante el compromiso neurológico, se decide realizar imágenes diagnósticas y perfil inmunológico, con reportes de resonancia magnética nuclear cervical y torácica con contraste que evidencian mielitis multifocal por compromiso cervical y torácico a nivel de C4 en T7-T8 con hiperdensidad centromedular sin realce, además de autoanticuerpos séricos dirigidos contra el canal acuaporínico (AQP4) positivos, dando así el diagnóstico de NMOSD.Se inició manejo con pulsos de metilprednisolona concomitantemente con plasmaféresis completando cinco sesiones. Sin embargo, ante la persistencia del cuadro clínico se inició manejo con un agente biológico selectivo que bloquea la actividad de los linfocitos B tipo rituximab con resolución parcial de los síntomas. Se discute, además, la evolución clínica e imagenológica de este caso ejemplar, así como los avances más notables en el diagnóstico y manejo


Devic's Syndrome, known as Optic Neuromyelitis Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD), is considered an inflammatory, demyelinating and autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that mainly affects the optic nerves, the optic chiasm and the spinal cord. Although the said syndrome can sometimes simulate multiple sclerosis (MS), nowadays there are imagining, immunological and pathological aspects that allow to establish the differences between these two entities. In the present paper, the case an older adult woman with a history of Sjögren's syndrome in ambulatory care with corticosteroid and azathioprine, who is admitted for a month and a half of evolution consisting of dysesthesias of predominance in the lower limbs, ambulation impairment and visual compromise is presented . In view of the neurological compromise, it was decided to perform diagnostic imaging and immunological profile. The imaging suggested a report of cervical and thoracic MRI with contrast with evidence of multifocal myelitis due to cervical and thoracic involvement at the level of C4 and T7-T8, with a report of serum autoantibodies directed against the positive aquaporic channel (AQP4). All of the above is consistent with the diagnosis of Devic Syndrome or NMOSD. Treatment was implemented through methylprednisolone pulses alternated with plasmapheresis. Five sessions of the said treatment were completed. Given the persistence of the clinical picture, treatment with rituximab was initiated resulting in partial improvement of the symptoms. The clinical and imaging evolution of this case is also discussed, as well as breakingthrough advan-ces in its diagnosis and management


O síndrome de Devic, convencido cómo Transtorno do espectro da neuromielite ótica ou NMOSD pelo Nome em ingles é considerado uma doença inflamatória, desmielinizante e autoimune do sistema nervioso central (SNC) que afeta principalmente os nervos óticos, o quiasma ótico e a mêdula espinhal; embora em alguns casos pode se apresentar como sendo un caso clínico de esclerosis múltipla, hoje existem aspectos imagemológicos, inmunológicos e patológicos para diferenciar entre as duas condições. Apresentam-se o caso de una mulher idosa com antecedente de Síndrome de Sjögren com tratamento ambulatorio de corticoides, ingresada por quadro clínico de un mês e meio de evoluçao más disestêsias nos miembros inferiores com alteraçao para caminhada e comprometimento visual. Perante essa alteraçao neurológica, decide-se realizar imagens diagnósticas e perfil inmunológico com reporte de RMN cervical e torácica com contaste evidencia de mielitis multifocal por compromiso cervical e torácico a nivel de C4 e T7- T8 com hiperdensidade centromedular sem realce, reporte de autoanticuerpos séricos dirigidos contra o canal acuaporínico positivos, o diagnóstico foi Síndrome de Devic ou NMOSD. Perante esse scenário inicoou-se tratamento com pulsos de metlprednisolona junto con plasmaférese, por cinco sessões. No entanto, perante persistência do quadro clínico, inicoouse tratamento com agente biológico selectivo que bloqueia a atividade dos linfositos B tipo rituximab com resoluçao parcial dos síntomas. Discute-se a evoluçao clínica deste caso exemplar, mesmo cómo os avanços mais notáveis no diagnóstico e tratamento.IntroducciónEl síndrome de Devic, ahora conocido como trastor-no del espectro de la neuromielitis óptica (NMOSD, por su sigla en inglés), es una enfermedad inflamato-ria, desmielinizante y autoinmune del sistema nervioso central (SNC) que en su mayoría y de forma simultá-nea afecta los nervios ópticos, el quiasma óptico y la médula espinal (1). En los hallazgos imagenológicos en resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) cerebral se evi-dencian lesiones mielínicas trasversas extensas longi-tudinales en tres o más segmentos vertebrales (2).El NMOSD fue reportado por primera vez en el siglo XIX, hacia 1894, luego de un reporte de caso; en esa ocasión se nombró síndrome de Devic y se describió como una variante de esclerosis múltiple (EM) (3,4). Keywords: Devic syndrome. Optic neuromyelitis, multiple sclerosis, antiacuaporin 4 antibodies, methylprednisolone, corticoid, plasmapheresis, rituximab Palavras Chave: sindrome de Devic, neuromielite óptica, esclerosis múltipla, anticorpos antiacuaporina 4, metlprednisolona, corticoides, plasmaférese, rituximab.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Neuromyelitis Optica , Autoimmune Diseases , Simulation Technique
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-associated inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system and results in serious disability. Although many disease-modifying therapy drugs have been developed, these drugs have shown limited clinical efficacy and some adverse effects in previous studies, therefore, there has been reasonable need for less harmful and cost-effective therapeutics. Herein, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of sulforaphane (SFN) in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). METHODS: The EAE mice were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated EAE group and SFN-treated EAE group. After EAE mice induction by auto-immunization against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide, we evaluated EAE symptom scores and biochemical analyses such as infiltration of inflammatory cells and demyelination of the spinal cord. Furthermore, western blotting was performed using the spinal cords of EAE mice. RESULTS: In the behavioral study, the SFN-treated EAE mice showed favorable clinical scores compared with PBS-treated EAE mice at the 13th day (1.30 ± 0.15 vs. 1.90 ± 0.18; P = 0.043) and 14th day (1.80 ± 0.13 vs. 2.75 ± 0.17; P = 0.003). Additionally, the biochemical studies revealed that SFN treatment inhibited the inflammatory infiltration, demyelinating injury of the spinal cords, and the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the EAE mice. CONCLUSION: The SFN treatment showed anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in the EAE mice. Conclusively, this study suggests that SFN has neuroprotective effects via anti-inflammatory processing, so it could be a new therapeutic or nutritional supplement for MS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Central Nervous System , Demyelinating Diseases , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental , Mice , Multiple Sclerosis , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein , Neuromyelitis Optica , Neuroprotective Agents , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Spinal Cord , Treatment Outcome , Up-Regulation
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766814

ABSTRACT

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is generally known as selective involvement of central nervous system. However, in recent years, some evidences have been found that NMOSD invades other peripheral organs. Especially, skeletal muscle involvement of NMOSD has been documented scantily and further studies must be required. Here, we describe a patient who first had generalized fatigue, mild weakness, and myalgia with increased level of serum creatine kinase and was finally diagnosed with myopathy associated with NMOSD.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Creatine Kinase , Fatigue , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscular Diseases , Myalgia , Myotonia , Myotonic Disorders , Neuromyelitis Optica
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord involvement of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is rare in a young immunocompetent patient and can be misdiagnosed as an inflammatory demyelinating disease (IDD) of the central nervous system.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Brain , Central Nervous System , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Cervical Cord , Demyelinating Diseases , Drug Therapy , Electrons , Hand , Humans , Leukocytosis , Lymphoma , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Medulla Oblongata , Methotrexate , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis , Neuromyelitis Optica , Spinal Cord
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761293

ABSTRACT

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of central nervous system characterized by relapsing attacks that target the optic nerves and spinal cord, as well as aquaporin-4 (AQP4) enriched periventricular brain regions. The area postrema (AP), located in the dorsal medulla, is the chemosensitive vomiting center and has high AQP-4 expression. The AP syndrome with unexplained hiccups, nausea, and vomiting is one of the core clinical characteristics in the NMOSD and maybe the first presenting symptom. We experienced a 25-year-old woman presented with intractable vomiting, dizziness and oscillopsia. Upbeat nystagmus detected on the bedside examination led to comprehensive neurological workups including magnetic resonance imaging, and she was diagnosed as the AP syndrome. Ten months later, she experienced a recurrence as a longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis and the diagnosis was finally compatible with NMOSD without AQP4-IgG. NMOSD, especially the AP syndrome, should be considered in any dizzy patient with intractable vomiting, and detailed neuro-otologic and neuro-ophthalmologic examinations are warranted for the correct diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Area Postrema , Autoimmune Diseases , Brain , Central Nervous System , Diagnosis , Dizziness , Female , Hiccup , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myelitis, Transverse , Nausea , Neuromyelitis Optica , Nystagmus, Pathologic , Optic Nerve , Recurrence , Spinal Cord , Vomiting
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741296

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the clinical characteristics and course of optic neuritis (ON) and its association with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) in Korea. METHODS: In this retrospective case series, 125 eyes of 91 Korean patients with ON were included. The medical documents of adult patients with ON were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were assigned into idiopathic ON, NMOSD, and MS groups according to the presence of an association with NMOSD or MS for subgroup analysis. Clinical characteristics, disease course, and visual and systemic prognosis were analyzed. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up of 3.7 years, 73 patients were diagnosed as idiopathic ON, 14 patients were diagnosed as NMOSD, and four patients developed definite MS. At the final visit, there were 13 (13%) eyes out of 100 eyes with idiopathic ON, nine (43%) eyes out of 21 eyes with NMOSD, and one (25%) eye out of four eyes with MS had a severe visual loss of 20 / 200 or less. The mean Expanded Disability Status Scale was 3.1 ± 1.5 in NMOSD and 1.8 ± 1.5 in the MS group at the final visit. In the NMOSD group, 50% of patients showed severe visual loss in at least one eye or were unable to ambulate without assistance at the final visit (5.3 ± 4.4 years after the initial episode of ON). CONCLUSIONS: Fourteen percent of patients showed positive results for NMO-immunoglobulin G test and 50% of patients with NMOSD showed a severe visual loss in at least one eye or were unable to ambulate without assistance. The proportion of MS was relatively low in Korean ON patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Multiple Sclerosis , Neuromyelitis Optica , Optic Neuritis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
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