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1.
Rev. Ciênc. Saúde ; 13(3): 23-30, 20230921.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1510835

ABSTRACT

Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the viability of adult human neural cells in culture obtained from traumatized brain tissues collected in emergency surgery procedures. Methods: Exploratory, descriptive, quantitative and cross-sectional study evaluating samples obtained from patients who underwent traumatic brain injury with extrusion of brain tissue submitted to cell culture in a standardized medium, being preserved during 168h. After observation under phase contrast microscopy and immunohistochemical processing for neuronal (MAP-2) and glial (GFAP) markers, morphometric parameters of neural cells (cell body area, dendritic field length and fractal dimension) were evaluated using ImageJ software, with data obtained after 24, 72 and 168h being compared using non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test, followed by Dunn's post hoc test. Results: The explant of the nervous tissue revealed a consolidated pattern of cell migration into the culture medium. Cell proliferation, upon reaching confluence, presented an aspect of cellular distribution juxtaposed along the culture medium at all time points analyzed. Both neurons and glial cells remained viable after 168h in culture, with their morphologies not varying significantly throughout the time points evaluated. Immunohistochemistry for MAP-2 showed a relatively well-preserved cytoskeletal organization. GFAP immunoreactivity revealed activated astrocytes especially at the later time point. Conclusions: Our results point out the viability of cell culture from traumatized human nervous tissue, opening up perspectives for the use of substances of natural origin that may contribute neuroprotectively to neuronal maintenance in culture, allowing future translational approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Brain Injuries , Cell Culture Techniques , Neurons , Wounds and Injuries , Traumatology , Immunohistochemistry
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e20467, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439510

ABSTRACT

Abstract Prolonged overexposure to catecholamines causes toxicity, usually credited to continuous adrenoceptor stimulation, autoxidation, and the formation of reactive pro-oxidant species. Non-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were used to study the possible contribution of oxidative stress in adrenaline (ADR)-induced neurotoxicity, as a model to predict the toxicity of this catecholamine to peripheral nerves. Cells were exposed to several concentrations of ADR (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1mM) and two cytotoxicity assays [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction] were performed at several time-points (24, 48, and 96h). The cytotoxicity of ADR was concentration- and time-dependent in both assays, since the lowest concentration tested (0.1mM) also caused significant cytotoxicity at 96h. N-acetyl-cysteine (1mM), a precursor of glutathione synthesis, prevented ADR-induced toxicity elicited by 0.5mM and 0.25mM ADR following a 96-h exposure, while the antioxidant Tiron (100µM) was non-protective. In conclusion, ADR led to mitochondrial distress and ultimately cell death in non-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, possibly because of ADR oxidation products. The involvement of such processes in the catecholamine-induced peripheral neuropathy requires further analysis.


Subject(s)
Epinephrine/agonists , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/classification , Toxicity , Neurons/classification , Peripheral Nerves/abnormalities , Bromides/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology
3.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 15: 11997, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1518479

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: construir um modelo que explique a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde entre adolescentes escolares a partir do instrumento KIDSCREEN-27 por meio da criação de uma rede neural artificial. Método: estudo transversal e analítico com 635 adolescentes utilizando-se o KIDSCREEN-27. Foi desenvolvida uma rede neural artificial com quatro camadas para avaliar a variável qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde por meio da média das respostas. Para as três primeiras camadas de neurônios foi utilizada função logística como função de transferência e para a ativação foi utilizada função linear. Resultados: a rede neural alcançou acurácia de 98,96% e quando comparadas as dimensões do KIDSCREEN-27 com sexo e prática de atividades físicas todas apresentaram associação estatística significativa, exceto as dimensões suporte social e grupo de pares e ambiente escolar. Conclusão: os resultados podem ter importantes consequências para a identificação de adolescentes em risco e o direcionamento de políticas públicas de saúde


Objective: to construct a model that explains the health-related quality of life among school adolescents from the KIDSCREEN-27 instrument through the creation of an artificial neural network. Method: cross-sectional and analytical study with 635 adolescents using KIDSCREEN-27. An artificial neural network with four layers was developed to evaluate the variable health-related quality of life by means of the mean responses. For the first three layers of neurons, logistic function was used as transfer function and linear function was used for activation. Results: the neural network reached accuracy of 98.96% and when compared the dimensions of kidscreen-27 with sex and practice of physical activities all presented significant statistical association, except the dimensions social support and peer group and school environment. Conclusion: the results may have important consequences for the identification of adolescents at risk and the direction of public health policies


Objetivo: construir un modelo que explique la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de los adolescentes escolares a partir del instrumento KIDSCREEN-27 a través de la creación de una red neuronal artificial. Método: estudio transversal y analítico con 635 adolescentes utilizando KIDSCREEN-27. Se desarrolló una red neuronal artificial con cuatro capas para evaluar la variable calidad de vida relacionada con la salud mediante las respuestas medias. Para las tres primeras capas de neuronas, la función logística se utilizó como función de transferencia y la función lineal se utilizó para la activación. Resultados: la red neuronal alcanzó una precisión del 98,96% y cuando se compararon las dimensiones de kidscreen-27 con el sexo y la práctica de actividades físicas todos presentaron una asociación estadística significativa, excepto las dimensiones de apoyo social y grupo de pares y entorno escolar. Conclusión:los resultados pueden tener consecuencias importantes para la identificación de adolescentes en riesgo y la orientación de las políticas de salud pública


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Quality of Life , Public Health , Adolescent Health , Neurons
4.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 540-550, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982723

ABSTRACT

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. One important aspect of ALS pathogenesis is superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutant-mediated mitochondrial toxicity, leading to apoptosis in neurons. This study aimed to evaluate the neural protective synergistic effects of ginsenosides Rg1 (G-Rg1) and conditioned medium (CM) on a mutational SOD1 cell model, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that the contents of nerve growth factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor significantly increased in CM after human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) were exposed to neuron differentiation reagents for seven days. CM or G-Rg1 decreased the apoptotic rate of SOD1G93A-NSC34 cells to a certain extent, but their combination brought about the least apoptosis, compared with CM or G-Rg1 alone. Further research showed that the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was upregulated in all the treatment groups. Proteins associated with mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, such as Bax, caspase 9 (Cas-9), and cytochrome c (Cyt c), were downregulated. Furthermore, CM or G-Rg1 also inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway by reducing the phosphorylation of p65 and IκBα. CM/G-Rg1 or their combination also reduced the apoptotic rate induced by betulinic acid (BetA), an agonist of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In summary, the combination of CM and G-Rg1 effectively reduced the apoptosis of SOD1G93A-NSC34 cells through suppressing the NF-κB/Bcl-2 signaling pathway (Fig. 1 is a graphical representation of the abstract).


Subject(s)
Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase-1 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons/metabolism , Apoptosis
5.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 238-261, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982533

ABSTRACT

Neurons migrate from their birthplaces to the destinations, and extending axons navigate to their synaptic targets by sensing various extracellular cues in spatiotemporally controlled manners. These evolutionally conserved guidance cues and their receptors regulate multiple aspects of neural development to establish the highly complex nervous system by mediating both short- and long-range cell-cell communications. Neuronal guidance genes (encoding cues, receptors, or downstream signal transducers) are critical not only for development of the nervous system but also for synaptic maintenance, remodeling, and function in the adult brain. One emerging theme is the combinatorial and complementary functions of relatively limited classes of neuronal guidance genes in multiple processes, including neuronal migration, axonal guidance, synaptogenesis, and circuit formation. Importantly, neuronal guidance genes also regulate cell migration and cell-cell communications outside the nervous system. We are just beginning to understand how cells integrate multiple guidance and adhesion signaling inputs to determine overall cellular/subcellular behavior and how aberrant guidance signaling in various cell types contributes to diverse human diseases, ranging from developmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders to cancer metastasis. We review classic studies and recent advances in understanding signaling mechanisms of the guidance genes as well as their roles in human diseases. Furthermore, we discuss the remaining challenges and therapeutic potentials of modulating neuronal guidance pathways in neural repair.


Subject(s)
Humans , Axon Guidance/genetics , Neurons , Axons/metabolism , Signal Transduction/genetics , Cell Communication
6.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 817-831, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982451

ABSTRACT

Predatory hunting is an important type of innate behavior evolutionarily conserved across the animal kingdom. It is typically composed of a set of sequential actions, including prey search, pursuit, attack, and consumption. This behavior is subject to control by the nervous system. Early studies used toads as a model to probe the neuroethology of hunting, which led to the proposal of a sensory-triggered release mechanism for hunting actions. More recent studies have used genetically-trackable zebrafish and rodents and have made breakthrough discoveries in the neuroethology and neurocircuits underlying this behavior. Here, we review the sophisticated neurocircuitry involved in hunting and summarize the detailed mechanism for the circuitry to encode various aspects of hunting neuroethology, including sensory processing, sensorimotor transformation, motivation, and sequential encoding of hunting actions. We also discuss the overlapping brain circuits for hunting and feeding and point out the limitations of current studies. We propose that hunting is an ideal behavioral paradigm in which to study the neuroethology of motivated behaviors, which may shed new light on epidemic disorders, including binge-eating, obesity, and obsessive-compulsive disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zebrafish , Hunting , Predatory Behavior/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Motivation
7.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 994-1008, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982450

ABSTRACT

Evading or escaping from predators is one of the most crucial issues for survival across the animal kingdom. The timely detection of predators and the initiation of appropriate fight-or-flight responses are innate capabilities of the nervous system. Here we review recent progress in our understanding of innate visually-triggered defensive behaviors and the underlying neural circuit mechanisms, and a comparison among vinegar flies, zebrafish, and mice is included. This overview covers the anatomical and functional aspects of the neural circuits involved in this process, including visual threat processing and identification, the selection of appropriate behavioral responses, and the initiation of these innate defensive behaviors. The emphasis of this review is on the early stages of this pathway, namely, threat identification from complex visual inputs and how behavioral choices are influenced by differences in visual threats. We also briefly cover how the innate defensive response is processed centrally. Based on these summaries, we discuss coding strategies for visual threats and propose a common prototypical pathway for rapid innate defensive responses.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Zebrafish , Neurons/physiology , Visual Perception/physiology
8.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 731-744, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982448

ABSTRACT

Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important neuromodulator in various cognitive functions. However, it is unclear how ACh influences neural circuit dynamics by altering cellular properties. Here, we investigated how ACh influences reverberatory activity in cultured neuronal networks. We found that ACh suppressed the occurrence of evoked reverberation at low to moderate doses, but to a much lesser extent at high doses. Moreover, high doses of ACh caused a longer duration of evoked reverberation, and a higher occurrence of spontaneous activity. With whole-cell recording from single neurons, we found that ACh inhibited excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) while elevating neuronal firing in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, all ACh-induced cellular and network changes were blocked by muscarinic, but not nicotinic receptor antagonists. With computational modeling, we found that simulated changes in EPSCs and the excitability of single cells mimicking the effects of ACh indeed modulated the evoked network reverberation similar to experimental observations. Thus, ACh modulates network dynamics in a biphasic fashion, probably by inhibiting excitatory synaptic transmission and facilitating neuronal excitability through muscarinic signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Cholinergic Agents/pharmacology , Acetylcholine/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Synaptic Transmission/physiology
9.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1131-1145, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982446

ABSTRACT

Heterozygous loss-of-function variants of FOXP4 are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) that exhibit delayed speech development, intellectual disability, and congenital abnormalities. The etiology of NDDs is unclear. Here we found that FOXP4 and N-cadherin are expressed in the nuclei and apical end-feet of radial glial cells (RGCs), respectively, in the mouse neocortex during early gestation. Knockdown or dominant-negative inhibition of Foxp4 abolishes the apical condensation of N-cadherin in RGCs and the integrity of neuroepithelium in the ventricular zone (VZ). Inhibition of Foxp4 leads to impeded radial migration of cortical neurons and ectopic neurogenesis from the proliferating VZ. The ectopic differentiation and deficient migration disappear when N-cadherin is over-expressed in RGCs. The data indicate that Foxp4 is essential for N-cadherin-based adherens junctions, the loss of which leads to periventricular heterotopias. We hypothesize that FOXP4 variant-associated NDDs may be caused by disruption of the adherens junctions and malformation of the cerebral cortex.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Ependymoglial Cells/physiology , Cadherins , Neurons/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Movement
10.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 962-972, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982443

ABSTRACT

The anterior auditory field (AAF) is a core region of the auditory cortex and plays a vital role in discrimination tasks. However, the role of the AAF corticostriatal neurons in frequency discrimination remains unclear. Here, we used c-Fos staining, fiber photometry recording, and pharmacogenetic manipulation to investigate the function of the AAF corticostriatal neurons in a frequency discrimination task. c-Fos staining and fiber photometry recording revealed that the activity of AAF pyramidal neurons was significantly elevated during the frequency discrimination task. Pharmacogenetic inhibition of AAF pyramidal neurons significantly impaired frequency discrimination. In addition, histological results revealed that AAF pyramidal neurons send strong projections to the striatum. Moreover, pharmacogenetic suppression of the striatal projections from pyramidal neurons in the AAF significantly disrupted the frequency discrimination. Collectively, our findings show that AAF pyramidal neurons, particularly the AAF-striatum projections, play a crucial role in frequency discrimination behavior.


Subject(s)
Acoustic Stimulation/methods , Neurons/physiology , Auditory Cortex/physiology , Auditory Perception , Pyramidal Cells
11.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 793-807, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982434

ABSTRACT

Itch is an unpleasant sensation that provokes the desire to scratch. While acute itch serves as a protective system to warn the body of external irritating agents, chronic itch is a debilitating but poorly-treated clinical disease leading to repetitive scratching and skin lesions. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of chronic itch remain mysterious. Here, we identified a cell type-dependent role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in controlling chronic itch-related excessive scratching behaviors in mice. Moreover, we delineated a neural circuit originating from excitatory neurons of the ACC to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that was critically involved in chronic itch. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the ACC→VTA circuit also selectively modulated histaminergic acute itch. Finally, the ACC neurons were shown to predominantly innervate the non-dopaminergic neurons of the VTA. Taken together, our findings uncover a cortex-midbrain circuit for chronic itch-evoked scratching behaviors and shed novel insights on therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Gyrus Cinguli/physiology , Pruritus/pathology , Mesencephalon , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Neurons/pathology
12.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 589-601, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982432

ABSTRACT

The parabrachial nucleus (PBN) integrates interoceptive and exteroceptive information to control various behavioral and physiological processes including breathing, emotion, and sleep/wake regulation through the neural circuits that connect to the forebrain and the brainstem. However, the precise identity and function of distinct PBN subpopulations are still largely unknown. Here, we leveraged molecular characterization, retrograde tracing, optogenetics, chemogenetics, and electrocortical recording approaches to identify a small subpopulation of neurotensin-expressing neurons in the PBN that largely project to the emotional control regions in the forebrain, rather than the medulla. Their activation induces freezing and anxiety-like behaviors, which in turn result in tachypnea. In addition, optogenetic and chemogenetic manipulations of these neurons revealed their function in promoting wakefulness and maintaining sleep architecture. We propose that these neurons comprise a PBN subpopulation with specific gene expression, connectivity, and function, which play essential roles in behavioral and physiological regulation.


Subject(s)
Parabrachial Nucleus/physiology , Wakefulness/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Emotions , Sleep
13.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 576-588, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982430

ABSTRACT

Autapses selectively form in specific cell types in many brain regions. Previous studies have also found putative autapses in principal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) in the striatum. However, it remains unclear whether these neurons indeed form physiologically functional autapses. We applied whole-cell recording in striatal slices and identified autaptic cells by the occurrence of prolonged asynchronous release (AR) of neurotransmitters after bursts of high-frequency action potentials (APs). Surprisingly, we found no autaptic AR in SPNs, even in the presence of Sr2+. However, robust autaptic AR was recorded in parvalbumin (PV)-expressing neurons. The autaptic responses were mediated by GABAA receptors and their strength was dependent on AP frequency and number. Further computer simulations suggest that autapses regulate spiking activity in PV cells by providing self-inhibition and thus shape network oscillations. Together, our results indicate that PV neurons, but not SPNs, form functional autapses, which may play important roles in striatal functions.


Subject(s)
Parvalbumins/metabolism , Corpus Striatum/metabolism , Interneurons/physiology , Neurons/metabolism , Neostriatum
14.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 602-616, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982426

ABSTRACT

Methcathinone (MCAT) belongs to the designer drugs called synthetic cathinones, which are abused worldwide for recreational purposes. It has strong stimulant effects, including enhanced euphoria, sensation, alertness, and empathy. However, little is known about how MCAT modulates neuronal activity in vivo. Here, we evaluated the effect of MCAT on neuronal activity with a series of functional approaches. C-Fos immunostaining showed that MCAT increased the number of activated neurons by 6-fold, especially in sensory and motor cortices, striatum, and midbrain motor nuclei. In vivo single-unit recording and two-photon Ca2+ imaging revealed that a large proportion of neurons increased spiking activity upon MCAT administration. Notably, MCAT induced a strong de-correlation of population activity and increased trial-to-trial reliability, specifically during a natural movie stimulus. It improved the information-processing efficiency by enhancing the single-neuron coding capacity, suggesting a cortical network mechanism of the enhanced perception produced by psychoactive stimulants.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Reproducibility of Results , Neurons , Sensation , Perception
15.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 845-862, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982425

ABSTRACT

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is well-known as a universal source of energy in living cells. Less known is that this molecule has a variety of important signaling functions: it activates a variety of specific metabotropic (P2Y) and ionotropic (P2X) receptors in neuronal and non-neuronal cell membranes. So, a wide variety of signaling functions well fits the ubiquitous presence of ATP in the tissues. Even more ubiquitous are protons. Apart from the unspecific interaction of protons with any protein, many physiological processes are affected by protons acting on specific ionotropic receptors-acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). Both protons (acidification) and ATP are locally elevated in various pathological states. Using these fundamentally important molecules as agonists, ASICs and P2X receptors signal a variety of major brain pathologies. Here we briefly outline the physiological roles of ASICs and P2X receptors, focusing on the brain pathologies involving these receptors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acid Sensing Ion Channels , Protons , Neurons , Brain Diseases , Adenosine Triphosphate/physiology
16.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 759-773, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982421

ABSTRACT

The perception of motion is an important function of vision. Neural wiring diagrams for extracting directional information have been obtained by connectome reconstruction. Direction selectivity in Drosophila is thought to originate in T4/T5 neurons through integrating inputs with different temporal filtering properties. Through genetic screening based on synaptic distribution, we isolated a new type of TmY neuron, termed TmY-ds, that form reciprocal synaptic connections with T4/T5 neurons. Its neurites responded to grating motion along the four cardinal directions and showed a variety of direction selectivity. Intriguingly, its direction selectivity originated from temporal filtering neurons rather than T4/T5. Genetic silencing and activation experiments showed that TmY-ds neurons are functionally upstream of T4/T5. Our results suggest that direction selectivity is generated in a tripartite circuit formed among these three neurons-temporal filtering, TmY-ds, and T4/T5 neurons, in which TmY-ds plays a role in the enhancement of direction selectivity in T4/T5 neurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Neurites , Drosophila , Neurons , Connectome
17.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 645-658, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982413

ABSTRACT

To understand how the nervous system develops from a small pool of progenitors during early embryonic development, it is fundamentally important to identify the diversity of neuronal subtypes, decode the origin of neuronal diversity, and uncover the principles governing neuronal specification across different regions. Recent single-cell analyses have systematically identified neuronal diversity at unprecedented scale and speed, leaving the deconstruction of spatiotemporal mechanisms for generating neuronal diversity an imperative and paramount challenge. In this review, we highlight three distinct strategies deployed by neural progenitors to produce diverse neuronal subtypes, including predetermined, stochastic, and cascade diversifying models, and elaborate how these strategies are implemented in distinct regions such as the neocortex, spinal cord, retina, and hypothalamus. Importantly, the identity of neural progenitors is defined by their spatial position and temporal patterning factors, and each type of progenitor cell gives rise to distinguishable cohorts of neuronal subtypes. Microenvironmental cues, spontaneous activity, and connectional pattern further reshape and diversify the fate of unspecialized neurons in particular regions. The illumination of how neuronal diversity is generated will pave the way for producing specific brain organoids to model human disease and desired neuronal subtypes for cell therapy, as well as understanding the organization of functional neural circuits and the evolution of the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neural Stem Cells/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Brain , Spinal Cord , Embryonic Development , Cell Differentiation/physiology
18.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 881-892, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982411

ABSTRACT

Mutations in genes encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins (PSs) cause familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder strongly associated with aging. It is currently unknown whether and how AD risks affect early brain development, and to what extent subtle synaptic pathology may occur prior to overt hallmark AD pathology. Transgenic mutant APP/PS1 over-expression mouse lines are key tools for studying the molecular mechanisms of AD pathogenesis. Among these lines, the 5XFAD mice rapidly develop key features of AD pathology and have proven utility in studying amyloid plaque formation and amyloid β (Aβ)-induced neurodegeneration. We reasoned that transgenic mutant APP/PS1 over-expression in 5XFAD mice may lead to neurodevelopmental defects in early cortical neurons, and performed detailed synaptic physiological characterization of layer 5 (L5) neurons from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of 5XFAD and wild-type littermate controls. L5 PFC neurons from 5XFAD mice show early APP/Aβ immunolabeling. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording at an early post-weaning age (P22-30) revealed functional impairments; although 5XFAD PFC-L5 neurons exhibited similar membrane properties, they were intrinsically less excitable. In addition, these neurons received smaller amplitude and frequency of miniature excitatory synaptic inputs. These functional disturbances were further corroborated by decreased dendritic spine density and spine head volumes that indicated impaired synapse maturation. Slice biotinylation followed by Western blot analysis of PFC-L5 tissue revealed that 5XFAD mice showed reduced synaptic AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 and decreased synaptic NMDA receptor subunit GluN2A. Consistent with this, patch-clamp recording of the evoked L23>L5 synaptic responses revealed a reduced AMPA/NMDA receptor current ratio, and an increased level of AMPAR-lacking silent synapses. These results suggest that transgenic mutant forms of APP/PS1 overexpression in 5XFAD mice leads to early developmental defects of cortical circuits, which could contribute to the age-dependent synaptic pathology and neurodegeneration later in life.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism , Mice, Transgenic , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, AMPA/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal
19.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 526-537, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982319

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces neuron transdifferentiation of adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCCs) and consequently downregulates the secretion of epinephrine (EPI), which may be involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Mammalian achaete scute-homologous 1 (MASH1), a key regulator of neurogenesis in the nervous system, has been proved to be elevated in AMCCs with neuron transdifferentiation in vivo. This study aims to explore the role of MASH1 in the process of neuron transdifferentiation of AMCCs and the mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Rat AMCCs were isolated and cultured. AMCCs were transfected with siMASH1 or MASH1 overexpression plasmid, then were stimulated with NGF and/or dexamethasone, PD98059 (a MAPK kinase-1 inhibitor) for 48 hours. Morphological changes were observed using light and electron microscope. Phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT, the key enzyme for epinephrine synthesis) and tyrosine hydroxylase were detected by immunofluorescence. Western blotting was used to test the protein levels of PNMT, MASH1, peripherin (neuronal markers), extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK), phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinases (pERK), and JMJD3. Real-time RT-PCR was applied to analyze the mRNA levels of MASH1 and JMJD3. EPI levels in the cellular supernatant were measured using ELISA.@*RESULTS@#Cells with both tyrosine hydroxylase and PNMT positive by immunofluorescence were proved to be AMCCs. Exposure to NGF, AMCCs exhibited neurite-like processes concomitant with increases in pERK/ERK, peripherin, and MASH1 levels (all P<0.05). Additionally, impairment of endocrine phenotype was proved by a signifcant decrease in the PNMT level and the secretion of EPI from AMCCs (all P<0.01). MASH1 interference reversed the effect of NGF, causing increases in the levels of PNMT and EPI, conversely reduced the peripherin level and cell processes (all P<0.01). MASH1 overexpression significantly increased the number of cell processes and peripherin level, while decreased the levels of PNMT and EPI (all P<0.01). Compared with the NGF group, the levels of MASH1, JMJD3 protein and mRNA in AMCCs in the NGF+PD98059 group were decreased (all P<0.05). After treatment with PD98059 and dexamethasone, the effect of NGF on promoting the transdifferentiation of AMCCs was inhibited, and the number of cell processes and EPI levels were decreased (both P<0.05). In addition, the activity of the pERK/MASH1 pathway activated by NGF was also inhibited.@*CONCLUSIONS@#MASH1 is the key factor in neuron transdifferentiation of AMCCs. NGF-induced neuron transdifferentiation is probably mediated via pERK/MASH1 signaling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Adrenal Medulla , Cell Transdifferentiation , Chromaffin Cells , Dexamethasone , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Mammals , Nerve Growth Factor , Neurons , Peripherins , Protein Kinases , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
20.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 604-609, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981906

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the protective effect of resveratrol (RSV) on improving cognitive function in severely burned rats and its possible mechanism. Methods 18 male SD rats aged 18-20 months were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, model group and RSV group, with 6 rats in each group. After successful modeling, the rats in RSV group were gavaged once daily with RSV (20 mg/kg). Meanwhile, the rats in control group and model group were gavaged once daily with an equal volume of sodium chloride solution. After 4 weeks, the cognitive function of all rats was estimated by Step-down Test. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) protein in serum of rats were detected by ELISA. The expression of IL-6, TNF-α mRNA and protein were estimated by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The apoptosis of hippocampal neurons was tested by terminal deoxynuclectidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay (TUNEL). The expression of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway-related proteins in hippocampus were assessed by Western blotting. Results Compared with the rats in model group, rats in RSV group exhibited improved cognitive function. Consistently, the rats in RSV group had a reduced concentration of TNF-α and IL-6 in serum, decreased mRNA and protein expressions of TNF-α and IL-6 in hippocampus, and decreased apoptosis rate and relative expression of p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65 and p-JNK/JNK in hippocampal neurons. Conclusion RSV alleviates inflammatory response and hippocampal neuronal apoptosis by inhibiting NF-κB/JNK pathway, thereby improving cognitive function in severely burned rats.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Burns/drug therapy , Cognition/drug effects , Hippocampus/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Neurons/drug effects , Apoptosis
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