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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 50-57, May. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Molecular brain therapies require the development of molecular switches to control gene expression in a limited and regulated manner in time and space. Light-switchable gene systems allow precise control of gene expression with an enhanced spatio-temporal resolution compared to chemical inducers. In this work, we adapted the existing light-switchable Light-On system into a lentiviral platform, which consists of two modules: (i) one for the expression of the blue light-switchable transactivator GAVPO and (ii) a second module containing an inducible-UAS promoter (UAS) modulated by a light-activated GAVPO. RESULTS: In the HEK293-T cell line transfected with this lentiviral plasmids system, the expression of the reporter mCherry increased between 4 to 5 fold after light induction. A time expression analysis after light induction during 24 h revealed that mRNA levels continuously increased up to 9 h, while protein levels increased throughout the experiment. Finally, transduction of cultured rat hippocampal neurons with this dual Light-On lentiviral system showed that CDNF, a potential therapeutic trophic factor, was induced only in cells exposed to blue light. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the optimized lentiviral platform of the Light-On system provides an efficient way to control gene expression in neurons, suggesting that this platform could potentially be used in biomedical and neuroscience research, and eventually in brain therapies for neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation , Optogenetics/methods , Light , Neurons/metabolism , Immunoblotting , Gene Expression , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Lentivirus
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879412

ABSTRACT

Perineuronal nets (PNNs) is a complex network composed of highly condensed extracellular matrix molecules surrounding neurons. It plays an important role in maintaining the performance of neurons and protecting them from harmful substances. However, after spinal cord injury, PNNs forms a physical barrier that surrounds the neuron and limits neuroplasticity, impedes axonal regeneration and myelin formation, and promotes local neuroinflammatory uptake. This paper mainly describes the composition and function of PNNs of neurons and its regulatory effects on axonal regeneration, myelin formation and neuroinflammation after spinal cord injury.


Subject(s)
Axons , Extracellular Matrix , Humans , Nerve Regeneration , Neuronal Plasticity , Neurons , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880620

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the effect of etomidate on the neuronal activity of ventral thalamic reuniens nucleus and the underlying mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Whole-cell patch clamp method was used to explore the effect of etomidate on the activity of ventral thalamic reuniens neurons in the acute brain slices obtained from 4-5 weeks old C57BL/6J mice. The electrophysiological characteristics of ventral thalamic reuniens neurons were recorded in the current clamp mode, and then the effects of etomidate (0.5, 2.0, 8.0 μmol/L etomidate groups) and intralipid (intralipid group) on the discharge frequency and membrane potential of ventral thalamic reuniens neurons were recorded. During the experiment, the ventral thalamic reuniens neuron firing rates (RNFRs) were recorded as F@*RESULTS@#In the intralipid group, there was no significant difference among the F@*CONCLUSIONS@#Etomidate can inhibit the activity of ventral thalamic reuniens neurons in concentration-dependent manner, and which is reversible. Etomidate with sub-anesthetic concentration inhibits the activity of ventral thalamic reuniens neurons via targeting the GABA


Subject(s)
Animals , Etomidate/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neurons , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Receptors, GABA-A
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on the expression of Dynein heavy chain (DHC) and Dynactin in the cytoplasm of fetal rat cerebral cortical neurons cultured @*METHODS@#Primary cerebral cortical neurons of fetal rats were cultured @*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the mRNA expression levels of DHC and Dynactin among the three groups at all time points (@*CONCLUSIONS@#DEX affects the protein expression of DHC and Dynactin in the fetal rat cerebral cortical neurons cultured


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytoplasm , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Dynactin Complex/genetics , Dyneins , Neurons , Rats
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879890

ABSTRACT

Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) remains an important cause of neonatal death and disability in infants and young children, but it has a complex mechanism and lacks specific treatment methods. As a new type of programmed cell death, ferroptosis has gradually attracted more and more attention as a new therapeutic target. This article reviews the research advances in abnormal iron metabolism, glutamate antiporter dysfunction, and abnormal lipid peroxide regulation which are closely associated with ferroptosis and HIBD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Brain , Child , Child, Preschool , Ferroptosis , Humans , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Infant, Newborn , Neurons
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879849

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the role and mechanism of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in mouse neuronal development.@*METHODS@#The mice with Synapsin1-Cre recombinase were bred with @*RESULTS@#The mice with @*CONCLUSIONS@#Deletion of


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Histone Deacetylase 1/genetics , Histone Deacetylase 2 , Histone Deacetylases/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Neurons/metabolism , Signal Transduction
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(5): e10717, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180740

ABSTRACT

Scorpion venom is a Chinese medicine for epilepsy treatment, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP), a peptide isolated from the venom of Buthus martensii Karsch, has an anti-epileptic effect by reducing seizure behavior according to a modified Racine scale. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of SVHRP on temporal lobe epilepsy. The hippocampus and hippocampal neurons from kainic acid-induced epileptic rats were treated with SVHRP at different doses and duration. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting were used to detect the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), stromal interaction molecule (STIM), and calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (ORAI1). In the hippocampal tissues and primary hippocampal neuron cultures, SVHRP treatment resulted in increased mRNA and protein levels of BDNF and NPY under the epileptic condition. The upregulation of BDNF and NPY expression was positively correlated with the dose level and treatment duration of SVHRP in hippocampal tissues from kainic acid-induced epileptic rats. On the other hand, no significant changes in the levels of CREB, STIM, or ORAI1 were observed. SVHRP may exhibit an anti-epileptic effect by upregulating the expression of BDNF and NPY in the epileptic hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Scorpion Venoms/toxicity , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Peptides , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Hippocampus/metabolism , Kainic Acid/toxicity , Neurons
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(5): e9665, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153550

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the effect of microRNA (miR)-146a inhibition on regulating cell apoptosis, total neurite outgrowth, inflammation, and STAT1/MYC pathway in Alzheimer's disease (AD). PC12 and cortical neuron cellular AD models were constructed by Aβ1-42 insult. For the former model, nerve growth factor (NGF) stimulation was previously conducted. miR-146a inhibitor and negative-control (NC) inhibitor were transfected into the two cellular AD models, and then cells were named miR-inhibitor group and NC-inhibitor group, respectively. After transfection, cell apoptosis, total neurite outgrowth, supernatant inflammation cytokines, and STAT1/MYC pathway were detected. miR-146a expression was similar between PC12 cellular AD model and control cells (NGF-stimulated PC12 cells), while miR-146a expression was increased in cortical neuron cellular AD model compared with control cells (rat embryo primary cortical neurons). In both PC12 and cortical neuron cellular AD models, miR-146a expression was reduced in miR-inhibitor group compared with NC-inhibitor group after transfection. Furthermore, cell apoptosis was attenuated, while total neurite outgrowth was elevated in miR-inhibitor group compared with NC-inhibitor group. As for supernatant inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-17 levels were lower in miR-inhibitor group than in NC-inhibitor group. Additionally, STAT1 and c-Myc mRNA and protein expressions were attenuated in miR-inhibitor group compared with NC-inhibitor group. In conclusion, miR-146a potentially represented a viable therapeutic target for AD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , MicroRNAs/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , PC12 Cells , Apoptosis , STAT1 Transcription Factor , Neuronal Outgrowth , Inflammation , Neurons
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879269

ABSTRACT

As a noninvasive neuromodulation technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is widely used in the clinical treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases, but the mechanism of its action is still unclear. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of different frequencies of magnetic stimulation (MS) on neuronal excitability and voltage-gated potassium channels in the


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Magnetic Phenomena , Mental Disorders , Mice , Neurons , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878317

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In the present study, the ABCA1 was used as a label to capture specific exosomes, the level of ABCA1-labeled exosomal microRNA-135a (miR-135a) was evaluated for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially in patients with early stages of AD.@*Methods@#This is a preliminary research focused on the levels of ABCA1 in WBCs, RBCs, HT-22 cells, and neuron cells. The diagnostic value of ABCA1-labeled exosomal miR-135a was examined using the CSF and serum of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice, and 152 patients with SCD, 131 patients with MCI, 198 patients with DAT, and 30 control subjects.@*Results@#The level of ABCA1 exosomes harvested from HT-22 cells and neuron culture medium was significantly higher compared to that of RBCs and WBCs ( @*Conclusion@#This study outlines a method to capture specific exosomes and detect them using immunological methods, which is more efficient for early diagnosis of AD.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1/cerebrospinal fluid , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/cerebrospinal fluid , Animals , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Cell Line , Cognitive Dysfunction/cerebrospinal fluid , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Exosomes , Female , Humans , Leukocytes/metabolism , Male , Mice, Transgenic , MicroRNAs/blood , Neurons/metabolism
11.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 306-314, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878259

ABSTRACT

In recent years, fiber photometry has been widely used in the field of neuroscience as an important technique for recording the activity of neurons in the specific nuclei of freely moving animal. This review summarized the application of single-channel, multi-channel, and multi-color fiber photometry techniques in the neuroscience research of cognition, behavior, psychology and neurological diseases. In addition, it briefly introduced the applications of fiber photometry combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging technology, and fiber photometry combined with probe technology in the neuroscience research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neurons , Photometry
12.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 295-305, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878258

ABSTRACT

Cortical GABAergic inhibitory neurons are composed of three major classes, each expressing parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM) and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A (Htr3a), respectively. Htr3a


Subject(s)
Animals , Interneurons/metabolism , Mice , Neurons/metabolism , Parvalbumins/metabolism , Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3/genetics , Serotonin , Somatostatin/metabolism
13.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 217-222, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878250

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence demonstrates that the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) neurons serve as central respiratory chemoreceptors, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain undefined. The present study investigated the expression of acid-sensitive ether-à-go-go-gene-like (Elk, Kv12) channels in the NTS of mice. Immunofluorescence staining was used to observe the distribution and cellular localization of the Kv12 channels in NTS neurons. Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) were used to evaluate protein and mRNA expression levels of Kv12 channels. The results showed that all of the three members (Kv12.1, Kv12.2, Kv12.3) of the Kv12 channel family were expressed in NTS neurons, and their expressions were co-localized with paired-like homeobox 2b gene (Phox2b) expression. The expression of Kv12.1 mRNA was the largest, whereas the expression of Kv12.3 was the least in the NTS. The results suggest Kv12 channels are expressed in Phox2b-expressing neurons in the NTS of mice, which provides molecular evidence for pH sensitivity in Phox2b-expressing NTS neurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Neurons , Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated , Solitary Nucleus , Transcription Factors/genetics
14.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 17-25, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878231

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to determine the effect of acute cerebral ischemia on the protein expression level of silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 3 (Sirt3) in the neurons and clarify the pathological role of Sirt3 in acute cerebral ischemia. The mice with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons with oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) were used as acute cerebral ischemia models in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Sirt3 overexpression was induced in rat hippocampal neurons by lentivirus transfection. Western blot was utilized to measure the changes in Sirt3 protein expression level. CCK8 assay was used to detect cell viability. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect mitochondrial function. Transmission electron microscope was used to detect mitochondrial autophagy. The results showed that, compared with the normoxia group, hippocampal neurons from OGD1 h/reoxygenation 2 h (R2 h) and OGD1 h/R12 h groups exhibited down-regulated Sirt3 protein expression levels. Compared with contralateral normal brain tissue, the ipsilateral penumbra region from MCAO1 h/reperfusion 24 h (R24 h) and MCAO1 h/R72 h groups exhibited down-regulated Sirt3 protein expression levels, while there was no significant difference between the Sirt3 protein levels on both sides of sham group. OGD1 h/R12 h treatment damaged mitochondrial function, activated mitochondrial autophagy and reduced cell viability in hippocampal neurons, whereas Sirt3 over-expression attenuated the above damage effects of OGD1 h/R12 h treatment. These results suggest that acute cerebral ischemia results in a decrease in Sirt3 protein level. Sirt3 overexpression can alleviate acute cerebral ischemia-induced neural injuries by improving the mitochondrial function. The current study sheds light on a novel strategy against neural injuries caused by acute cerebral ischemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Ischemia , Down-Regulation , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Mice , Mitochondria , Neurons/metabolism , Rats , Reperfusion Injury , Sirtuin 3/metabolism , Sirtuins
15.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 1-9, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878229

ABSTRACT

Astrocytes are a heterogenous group of macroglia present in all regions of the brain and play critical roles in many aspects of brain development, function and disease. Previous studies suggest that the B-cell lymphoma-2 associated X protein (BAX)-dependent apoptosis plays essential roles in regulating neuronal number and achieving optimal excitation/inhibition ratio. The aim of the present paper was to study whether BAX regulates astrocyte distribution in a region-specific manner. Immunofluorescence staining of SOX9 was used to analyze and compare astrocyte density in primary somatosensory cortex, motor cortex, retrosplenial cortex and hippocampus in heterozygous and homozygous BAX knockout mice at age of six weeks when cortical development has finished and glia development has reached a relatively steady state. The results showed that astrocyte density varied significantly among different cortical subdivisions and between cortex and hippocampus. In contrast to the significant increase in GABAergic interneurons, the overall and region-specific astrocyte density remained unchanged in the cortex when BAX was absent. Interestingly, a significant reduction of astrocyte density was observed in the hippocampus of BAX knockout mice. These data suggest that BAX differentially regulates neurons and astrocytes in cortex as well as astrocytes in different brain regions during development. This study provided important information about the regional heterogeneity of astrocyte distribution and the potential contribution of BAX gene during development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astrocytes , Hippocampus , Interneurons , Mice , Neurons , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/genetics
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877570

ABSTRACT

The feasibility and prospect of viral tracers and mediating functional components are explored in study on brain effect of acupuncture. In the paper, proceeding with viral tracers, the viral tracers used to analyze the structure of specific neural circuits are introduced, as well as their mediated probes, optical/chemical genetics techniques, Cre-LoxP systems, etc. The viral tracers and their functional components can not only mark specifically nerve cells or neural circuits, but also interfere with the function of specific types of neurons or nuclei. They solve some disadvantage of traditional nerve tracing method that only describes the morphology of neurons of one brain region and the simple projection among brain regions, and the indirect and non-specific absorption. The viral tracers and their functional components play the important approach to decoding the mechanism on brain effect of acupuncture when introduced in experimental acupuncture so as to provide an in vivo, real-time and intuitive novel method for a further analysis of neurobiological mechanism on brain effect of acupuncture.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Brain , Neurons
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1463-1472, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134463

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is an accessory organ involved on the olfactory pathway, that detects pheromones and emits signals in order to modulate social and reproductive behavior. The VNO stem cells replace neurons throughout life. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize cells derived from the vomeronasal organ from New Zealand rabbits. Five male rabbits with 120 days were used for cell isolation and culture. Results: VNO-derived cells presented labelling for proliferation (PCNA), undifferentiated profile (Nanog), neuronal (GFAP), mesenchymal stem cells (CD73, CD90 and CD105 and Stro-1). Also, presence of cytoskeletal (Vimentin, b-tubulin and CK-18) and absence of hematopoietic markers (CD34, CD117 and CD45) both by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. By PCR it was possible to verify the expression of some undifferentiated profile (Oct-4), neuronal (Nestin) and mesenchymal (CD73, CD105 and Vimentin) genes. Functionally, VNO-derived cells differentiate in vitro into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes, and presented no tumorigenic potential when injected to Balb/c nu/nu mice. In conclusion, the rabbit VNO-derived cells have a profile that could be supportive to VNO olfactory/neuroreceptor epithelium by delivering factors to epithelial turnover or even by differentiation into epithelial cells to replacement of commissural epithelium.


RESUMEN: El órgano vomeronasal (OVN) es un órgano accesorio de la vía olfatoria, que detecta feromonas y emite señales que afectan la modulación del comportamiento social y reproductivo. Las células madre OVN reemplazan las neuronas durante toda la vida. El objetivo de este estudio fue aislar y caracterizar células derivadas del órgano vomeronasal de conejos raza Nueva Zelanda. Para el aislamiento y el cultivo celular se utilizaron cinco conejos machos con una edad de 120 días. Las células del OVN presentaron etiquetado para la proliferación (PCNA), un perfil indiferenciado (Nanog), neuronal (GFAP), células madre mesenquimales (CD73, CD90 y CD105 y Stro-1). Además, se ob- servó presencia de citoesqueleto (Vimentina, β-tubulina y CK-18) y ausencia de marcadores hematopoyéticos (CD34, CD117 y CD45) tanto por inmunofluorescencia como por citometría de flujo. Me- diante PCR fue posible verificar la expresión de algunos genes de perfil indiferenciado (Oct-4), neuronal (Nestin) y mesenquimatoso (CD73, CD105 y Vimentin). Las células derivadas del OVN se diferencian in vitro en adipocitos, osteocitos y condrocitos, y no presentan un potencial tumorigénico al ser infiltrados en ratones Balb / c nu / nu. En conclusión, las células derivadas de OVN de conejo tienen un perfil que podría ser compatible con el epitelio olfatorio / neurorreceptor de OVN transmitiendo factores al recambio epitelial o incluso mediante la diferenciación en células epiteliales para reemplazar el epitelio comisural.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Vomeronasal Organ/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Olfactory Bulb/cytology , Stem Cells/physiology , Olfactory Mucosa/cytology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Flow Cytometry , Neurons/physiology
18.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 205, ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1102879

ABSTRACT

La Parálisis Cerebral (PC) es un conjunto de alteraciones motrices no progresivas en la población infantojuvenil, ocasionadas por lesión ­a nivel cerebral- de neuronas o fibras de esa vía, de sus aferencias o de las que la modulan; para su diagnóstico deben conocerse otras patologías también frecuentes y que pueden incidir simultánea o causalmente en la motricidad del paciente; la resultante sería disfunción motora tanto voluntaria como involuntaria, refleja o con propósito, de la postura y/o del tono muscular. Objetivo: detectar errores innatos metabólicos (EIM) que causan o se asocian con PC en una serie significativa. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo-interpretativo, se revisaron los expedientes clínicos del Centro de Parálisis Cerebral de Caracas, en cuyos diagnósticos se presentaron ambas alteraciones, entre los años 1988 y 2018. Resultados: De las 2.000 historias clínicas revisadas, el exámen clínico y las pruebas de laboratorio permitieron seleccionar 174 casos de EIM. Conclusiones: Se tipificaron los errores innatos metabólicos en diez formas clínicas distintas, se evidenciaron en pacientes con PC atendidos en un centro público de Caracas, es posible que la casuística sea varias veces mayor en Venezuela dado que ya no se aplica la pesquisa en los centros de atención pública(AU)


Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a set of non-progressive motor alterations in the child and youth population, caused by injury - at the brain level - of neurons or fibers of that pathway, their afferences or those that modulate it; for its diagnosis, other pathologies that are also frequent and that can simultaneously or causally affect the motor skills of the same patient must be known; The result would be both voluntary and involuntary motor dysfunction, reflected or with purpose, of posture and / or muscle tone. Objective: to detect inborn metabolic errors (EIM) that cause or are associated with CP in a significant series. Methods: Descriptive-interpretive study, we reviewed the clinical records of the Cerebral Palsy Center of Caracas, in whose diagnoses both alterations were presented, between the years 1988 and 2018. Results: Of the 2,000 clinical histories reviewed, the clinical examination and tests Laboratory tests allowed the selection of 174 cases of IMD. Conclusions: Inborn metabolic errors were typified in ten different clinical forms, they were evidenced in patients with CP treated in a public center in Caracas, it is possible that the casuistry is several times greater in Venezuela since the investigation is no longer applied in the centers of public attention(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cerebral Palsy/pathology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Neurons/metabolism , Pediatrics , Nervous System Diseases
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(6): 493-500, June 2020. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | ID: biblio-1135643

ABSTRACT

There are no studies that characterize the enteric nervous system (ENS) bats. The organization and density of myenteric neurons may vary according to the animal species, as well as the segment of the digestive tube considered. The nitric oxide is one of the key neurotransmitters present in the myenteric neurons, acting as a mediator in the smooth muscle relaxation. These neurons are evidenced by immunohistochemistry of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) or by NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. In this sense, this study aimed to characterize the total neuronal population and subpopulation NADPH-d+ of the myenteric plexus present in the jejunum of the insectivore species Molossus rufus quantitatively. Five specimens were collected of M. rufus in a buffer area of the "Reserva Biológica das Perobas" in the microregion of Cianorte/PR. After the euthanasia, in a chamber saturated with isoflurane, segments were collected from the small intestine corresponding to the jejunum intended for two techniques for neuronal marking, Giemsa and NADPH-diaphorase, and a fragment to the histological technique of hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. All the procedures were approved by the "Comitê de Ética no Uso de Animais Unipar" (CEUA - protocol No. 34347/2017) and the "Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade" (ICMBio - protocol No. 60061-1) The histological sections allowed to highlight the location of the myenteric plexus between the longitudinal and circular layers of the muscular tunic. The myenteric plexus had an average of total neuronal population (neurons Giemsa+) of 279.23 neurons/mm2, being the nitrergic neurons (neurons NADPH-d+) represented 20.4% of this total population, with an average of 58.14 neuron/mm2. Therefore, the collected data are consistent with previous studies in other mammalian species concerning the location of the myenteric plexus, as well as the neural myenteric proportion NADPH-d+ compared with the population of neurons Giemsa+. The gaps in the knowledge of ENS of bats limits comparative intraspecific and interspecific studies.(AU)


Não há estudos que caracterizem o sistema nervoso entérico (SNE) destes animais, configurando uma lacuna no conhecimento quanto à biologia destes indivíduos. A organização e densidade dos neurônios mientéricos podem variar de acordo com a espécie animal bem como o segmento do tubo digestório considerado. O óxido nítrico é um dos principais neurotransmissores presentes nos neurônios mientéricos, atuando como mediador no relaxamento do músculo liso gastrointestinal, de modo que estes neurônios são evidenciados igualmente pela imunohistoquímica da óxido nítrico-sintase (NOS) ou pela histoquímica da NADPH-diaforase. Neste sentido, objetivou-se caracterizar quantitativamente a população neuronal total e subpopulação NADPH-d+ do plexo mientérico presente no jejuno da espécie Molossus rufus de hábito alimentar insetívoro. Foram coletados cinco espécimes de M. rufus em área de amortecimento da Reserva Biológica das Perobas na microrregião de Cianorte/PR. Após a eutanásia, em câmara saturada com isoflurano, foram coletados segmentos do intestino delgado correspondentes ao jejuno destinados a duas técnicas para marcação neuronal, Giemsa e NADPH-diaforase e, um fragmento para a técnica histológica de hematoxilina-eosina e tricômio de Masson. Todos os procedimentos realizados foram aprovados pelo Comitê de Ética no Uso de Animais da Unipar (CEUA - protocolo nº 34347/2017) e pelo Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio - protocolo nº 60061-1) Os cortes histológicos possibilitaram evidenciar a localização do plexo mientérico entre os estratos longitudinal e circular da túnica muscular. Neurônios Giemsa+ apresentaram uma média de 279,23 neurônios/mm2, já os neurônios nitrérgicos apresentaram em média 20,4% da população neuronal mientérica total, sendo evidenciados 58,14 neurônios NADPH-d+/mm2. Portanto, os dados coletados mostram-se condizentes com estudos anteriores em outras espécies de mamíferos quanto à localização do plexo mientérico, bem como, a proporção neuronal mientérica NADPH-d+ comparada com a população de neurônios Giemsa+. As lacunas existentes quanto ao conhecimento do SNE de morcegos limita possíveis inferências em comparativo intraespecífico e interespecífico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Chiroptera/anatomy & histology , Enteric Nervous System/anatomy & histology , Myenteric Plexus/anatomy & histology , Neurons
20.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 58(1): 50-60, mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115470

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Este artículo presenta avances de la medicina regenerativa y la ingeniería de tejidos orientados a la regeneración de neuronas, de axones y nervios. Revisamos las técnicas que existen actualmente, las más utilizas o prometedoras, en la búsqueda de avances para regenerar este tipo de tejidos. Objetivo: Con esta revisión queremos describir el conocimiento actual sobre la medicina regenerativa y la ingeniería de tejidos orientados a la reparación de tejidos nerviosos. Metodología: Para desarrollar esta revisión se realizó una búsqueda de artículos entre los años 2007 y el 2018, la búsqueda se restringió a los artículos que incluyeran dentro de sus palabras clave; Ingeniería tisular, Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Medicina regenerativa, Regeneración axonal, Regeneración neuronal, Regeneración tisular. Con el fin de seleccionar los artículos más adecuados, se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva en bases de datos como Springer, Medline Ebsco y Science direct. Conclusiones: Se mencionan técnicas como implantación de injertos, terapia celular y terapia molecular e implantación de andamios 3D para regeneración de neuronas, axones y nervios; a partir de esta revisión pudimos observar que estas técnicas en su mayoría funcionan mejor cuando se combinan, aprovechando las ventajas de cada una para promover la regeneración de los diferentes tejidos nerviosos.


Introduction: This article presents advances in regenerative medicine aimed at the regeneration of nervous and neuronal tissue, focusing on regeneration of neurons, axons and nerve regeneration. We will review the techniques that currently exist, the most used or promising, in the search of advances to regenerate this type of tissues. Objective: With this review we want to describe the current knowledge about regenerative medicine and tissue engineering oriented to nerve tissue repair. Methodology: To carry out this review, a search of articles was carried out between 2007 and 2018, the search was restricted to the articles that they included within their keywords; Tissue Engineering, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Regenerative Medicine, Axonal Regeneration, Neuronal Regeneration, Tissue Regeneration. We will mention about techniques such as implantation. Conclusions: with this review we could observe that most of the mentioned techniques work better when combined, taking advantage of each one to promote a greater regeneration of the different tissues.


Subject(s)
Axons , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Tissue Engineering , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Nerve Tissue , Neurons
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