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1.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 205, ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), LIVECS | ID: biblio-1102879

ABSTRACT

La Parálisis Cerebral (PC) es un conjunto de alteraciones motrices no progresivas en la población infantojuvenil, ocasionadas por lesión ­a nivel cerebral- de neuronas o fibras de esa vía, de sus aferencias o de las que la modulan; para su diagnóstico deben conocerse otras patologías también frecuentes y que pueden incidir simultánea o causalmente en la motricidad del paciente; la resultante sería disfunción motora tanto voluntaria como involuntaria, refleja o con propósito, de la postura y/o del tono muscular. Objetivo: detectar errores innatos metabólicos (EIM) que causan o se asocian con PC en una serie significativa. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo-interpretativo, se revisaron los expedientes clínicos del Centro de Parálisis Cerebral de Caracas, en cuyos diagnósticos se presentaron ambas alteraciones, entre los años 1988 y 2018. Resultados: De las 2.000 historias clínicas revisadas, el exámen clínico y las pruebas de laboratorio permitieron seleccionar 174 casos de EIM. Conclusiones: Se tipificaron los errores innatos metabólicos en diez formas clínicas distintas, se evidenciaron en pacientes con PC atendidos en un centro público de Caracas, es posible que la casuística sea varias veces mayor en Venezuela dado que ya no se aplica la pesquisa en los centros de atención pública(AU)


Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a set of non-progressive motor alterations in the child and youth population, caused by injury - at the brain level - of neurons or fibers of that pathway, their afferences or those that modulate it; for its diagnosis, other pathologies that are also frequent and that can simultaneously or causally affect the motor skills of the same patient must be known; The result would be both voluntary and involuntary motor dysfunction, reflected or with purpose, of posture and / or muscle tone. Objective: to detect inborn metabolic errors (EIM) that cause or are associated with CP in a significant series. Methods: Descriptive-interpretive study, we reviewed the clinical records of the Cerebral Palsy Center of Caracas, in whose diagnoses both alterations were presented, between the years 1988 and 2018. Results: Of the 2,000 clinical histories reviewed, the clinical examination and tests Laboratory tests allowed the selection of 174 cases of IMD. Conclusions: Inborn metabolic errors were typified in ten different clinical forms, they were evidenced in patients with CP treated in a public center in Caracas, it is possible that the casuistry is several times greater in Venezuela since the investigation is no longer applied in the centers of public attention(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cerebral Palsy/pathology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Neurons/metabolism , Pediatrics , Nervous System Diseases
2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 748-753, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-21837

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The pathophysiology of discogenic low back pain is not fully understood. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels are associated with primary sensory nerve transmission, and the NaV1.7 channel has emerged as an analgesic target. Previously, we found increased NaV1.7 expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating injured discs. This study aimed to examine the effect of blocking NaV1.7 on sensory nerves after disc injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat DRG neurons innervating the L5/6 disc were labeled with Fluoro-Gold (FG) neurotracer. Twenty-four rats underwent intervertebral disc puncture (puncture group) and 12 rats underwent sham surgery (non-puncture group). The injury group was divided into a saline infusion group (puncture+saline group) and a NaV1.7 inhibition group, injected with anti-NaV1.7 antibody (puncture+anti-NaV1.7 group); n=12 per group. Seven and 14 days post-surgery, L1 to L6 DRGs were harvested and immunostained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) (an inflammatory pain marker), and the proportion of CGRP-immunoreactive (IR) DRG neurons of all FG-positive neurons was evaluated. RESULTS: The ratio of CGRP-IR DRG neurons to total FG-labeled neurons in the puncture+saline group significantly increased at 7 and 14 days, compared with the non-puncture group, respectively (p<0.05). Application of anti-NaV1.7 into the disc significantly decreased the ratio of CGRP-IR DRG neurons to total FG-labeled neurons after disc puncture at 7 and 14 days (40% and 37%, respectively; p<0.05). CONCLUSION: NaV1.7 antibody suppressed CGRP expression in disc DRG neurons. Anti-NaV1.7 antibody is a potential therapeutic target for pain control in patients with lumbar disc degeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Ganglia, Spinal/metabolism , Intervertebral Disc/drug effects , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/metabolism , Low Back Pain/physiopathology , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Male , /metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Pain/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stilbamidines
3.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(3): 109-117, May-Jun/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-751407

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The indirect bonding technique optimizes fixed appliance installation at the orthodontic office, ensuring precise bracket positioning, among other advantages. In this laboratory clinical phase, material and methods employed in creating the transfer tray are decisive to accuracy. OBJECTIVE: This article describes a simple, efficient and reproducible indirect bonding technique that allows the procedure to be carried out successfully. Variables influencing the orthodontic bonding are analyzed and discussed in order to aid professionals wishing to adopt the indirect bonding technique routinely in their clinical practice. .


INTRODUÇÃO: a técnica de colagem indireta prioriza a otimização do procedimento de montagem do aparelho fixo na clínica ortodôntica, assegurando, entre outras, vantagens relacionadas à precisão no posicionamento dos braquetes. Nesse procedimento clínico laboratorial, o material e o método de confecção da moldeira de transferência são determinantes no quesito precisão. OBJETIVO: este artigo descreve uma técnica de colagem indireta simples, eficiente e reprodutível, para que o procedimento possa ser realizado com sucesso. Variáveis que exercem influência sobre o procedimento são analisadas e discutidas, a fim de auxiliar o profissional a adotar, de forma rotineira, a técnica de colagem indireta em sua prática clínica. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Ion Channels/metabolism , Patch-Clamp Techniques/methods , Cerebral Cortex/cytology , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Ion Channel Gating , Ion Channels/chemistry , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/chemistry , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism
4.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(3): 597-606, 03/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-744836

ABSTRACT

Foi avaliada a associação entre menopausa e insônia e a influência de variáveis socioeconômicas e psicossociais, em estudo transversal com 2.190 funcionárias de uma universidade (Estudo Pró-Saúde), a partir de um questionário autopreenchível com variáveis sobre menopausa, insônia, transtorno mental comum, eventos de vida estressantes, apoio social e variáveis socioeconômicas. Odds ratios foram calculados por meio de regressão logística multivariada, com desfecho politômico. Após ajuste para potenciais confundidoras sociodemográficas, mulheres na menopausa há mais de 60 meses apresentaram maior chance de reportar queixas de sono frequentes (OR entre 1,53 e 1,86) do que as que estavam na menopausa há menos de 60 meses. Após os ajustes, no primeiro grupo, para as variáveis psicossociais, a magnitude dos ORs reduziu para 1,53 (IC95%: 0,92-2,52) para dificuldade em iniciar o sono, 1,81 (IC95%: 1,09-2,98) para dificuldade em manter o sono e 1,71 (IC95%: 1,08-2,73) para queixa geral de insônia. Fatores psicossociais podem mediar a manifestação da insônia em mulheres na menopausa.


This study evaluated the association between insomnia and menopausal status and the influence of socioeconomic and psychosocial variables on this association in a cross-sectional analysis of 2,190 university employees (the Pró-Saúde Study). A self-administered questionnaire was used, covering menopausal status, complaints of insomnia, common mental disorders, stressful life events, social support, and socioeconomic variables. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression with a polytomous outcome. After adjusting for potential socio-demographic confounders, women who had entered menopause more than 60 months previously were more likely to report complaints with sleep (OR 1.53-1.86) as compared to women in menopause for less than 60 months. After adjusting for psychosocial variables, in the first group the ORs decreased to 1.53 (95%CI: 0.92-2.52) for difficulty initiating sleep, 1.81 (95%CI: 1.09-2.98) for difficulty maintaining sleep, and 1.71 (95%CI: 1.08-2.73) for general complaints of insomnia. Psychosocial factors can mediate the manifestation of insomnia among menopausal women.


En este estudio se evaluó la asociación entre insomnio y menopausia y la influencia de las variables socioeconómicas y psicosociales, en un estudio transversal con 2.190 mujeres de una universidad (Estudio Pro-Salud), a partir de un cuestionario autoadministrado con variables de la menopausia, insomnio, trastornos mentales, situaciones de estrés vital, apoyo social y variables socioeconómicas. Se calcularon los odds ratio mediante regresión logística multivariante con desenlace politómico. Después de ajustar por factores de confusión sociodemográficos potenciales, las mujeres menopáusicas desde hace más de 60 meses fueron más propensas a reportar quejas frecuentes de sueño (OR entre 1,53 y 1,86) que las menopáusicas hace menos de 60 meses. Después de los ajustes, en el primer grupo, para las variables psicosociales la magnitud de los OR se redujo a 1,53 (IC95%: 0,92-2,52) para la dificultad para iniciar el sueño, un 1,81 (IC95%: 1,09-2,98) para mantener el sueño y un 1,71 (IC95%: 1,08-2,73) para las quejas de insomnio en general. Los factores psicosociales pueden mediar en la manifestación del insomnio en las mujeres menopáusicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Drosophila Proteins/metabolism , Microfilament Proteins/metabolism , Microtubules/metabolism , Neurogenesis , Neurons/metabolism , Pseudopodia/metabolism , Actins/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Cerebral Cortex/embryology , Drosophila , Drosophila Proteins/genetics , /metabolism , Growth Cones/metabolism , Mutation , Microfilament Proteins/genetics , RNA Interference
5.
Colomb. med ; 46(1): 19-25, Jan.-Mar. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-753531

ABSTRACT

Background: Prefrontal cortex (PFC) represents the highest level of integration and control of psychic and behavioral states. Several dysfunctions such as autism, hyperactivity disorders, depression, and schizophrenia have been related with alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Among the cortical layers of the PFC, layer II shows a particular vertical pattern of organization, the highest cell density and the biggest non-pyramidal/pyramidal neuronal ratio. We currently characterized the layer II cytoarchitecture in human areas 10, 24, and 46. Objective: We focused particularly on the inhibitory neurons taking into account that these cells are involved in sustained firing (SF) after stimuli disappearance. Methods: Postmortem samples from five subjects who died by causes different to central nervous system diseases were studied. Immunohistochemistry for the neuronal markers, NeuN, parvalbumin (PV), calbindin (CB), and calretinin (CR) were used. NeuN targeted the total neuronal population while the rest of the markers specifically the interneurons. Results: Cell density and soma size were statically different between areas 10, 46, 24 when using NeuN. Layer II of area 46 showed the highest cell density. Regarding interneurons, PV+-cells of area 46 showed the highest density and size, in accordance to the proposal of a dual origin of the cerebral cortex. Interhemispheric asymmetries were not identified between homologue areas. Conclusion: First, our findings suggest that layer II of area 46 exhibits the most powerful inhibitory system compared to the other prefrontal areas analyzed. This feature is not only characteristic of the PFC but also supports a particular role of layer II of area 46 in SF. Additionally, known functional asymmetries between hemispheres might not be supported by morphological asymmetries.


Antecedentes: La corteza prefrontal (CPF) representa el nivel más alto de integración y control de funciones psíquicas y comportamentales. Varias patologías como autismo, desórdenes de hiperactividad, depresión y esquizofrenia se han relacionado con alteraciones de la CPF. La lámina II de las áreas que constituyen la CPF posee un patrón de organización vertical, una alta densidad celular y la mayor proporción de neuronas no-piramidal/piramidal. Sin embargo, la distribución del componente inhibitorio en estas regiones no se ha descrito. Objetivo: En el presente estudio nos propusimos caracterizar la lámina II de las áreas 10, 24 y 46 del humano, particularmente su componente inhibitorio teniendo en mente su participación en procesos de actividad sostenida relevantes cuando desaparece el estímulo. Métodos: Se utilizaron muestras de cinco sujetos que fallecieron por causas diferentes a enfermedades del sistema nervioso. Se tomaron secciones de las áreas 10, 24 y 46 de Brodmann y se procesaron con los anticuerpos contra NeuN para determinar la población neuronal total y contra Parvalbumina (PV), Calbindina (CB) y Calretinina (CR) para analizar la población de interneuronas. Resultados: Los resultados no mostraron diferencias interhemisféricas entre las áreas. Sin embargo, las tres áreas seleccionadas son significativamente diferentes entre sí en todos los parámetros analizados. El área 46 posee la mayor densidad y tamaño de interneuronas positivas para PV. Conclusiones: La ausencia de asimetrías morfológicas no permite explicar las asimetrías funcionales. La lámina II del área 46 posee el sistema inhibitorio más poderoso. Teniendo en cuenta la arquitectura modular de las capas supragranulares, este sistema inhibitorio subyace a la actividad sostenida, eje fundamental de la memoria operativa.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Interneurons/cytology , Neurons/metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex/cytology , Antigens, Nuclear/metabolism , /metabolism , Calbindins/metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Parvalbumins/metabolism
6.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 37(3): 133-139, Mar. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-746672

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar la sobrevida de pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer gástrico en 2009-2010 en el Perú. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de tipo cohorte retrospectivo de pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer gástrico registrados en el Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (SNVE) de la Dirección General de Epidemiología (DGE) y del Registro de Hechos Vitales (RHV) de la Oficina General de Estadística e Informática (OGEI) para los años 2009-2010. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 3 568 pacientes del SNVE, 51,5% eran hombres y 48,5% eran mujeres; la media de edad fue 63,9 años, 60,07% tenían 60 años o más. Se halló que 33,6% tenía adenocarcinoma de tipo intestinal, 18,7% tenía carcinoma de tipo difuso y 4,1% tenía linfoma gástrico primario. La sobrevida global fue de 29,7 ± 0,8 meses y fue mejor para los menores de 60 años (P = 0,034), para las mujeres (P = 0,014) y para el adenocarcinoma de tipo intestinal (P < 0,001). No hubo diferencias (P = 0,713) entre la sobrevida de los pacientes con linfoma gástrico y aquellos con adenocarcinoma. Para evaluar la tasa de mortalidad se incluyeron 6 069 registros de pacientes del RHV, la tasa de mortalidad nacional fue de 10,3 por cada 100 000 habitantes y las regiones con mayor mortalidad fueron Huánuco, Huancavelica y Junín. CONCLUSIONES: La sobrevida general fue de 29,7 ± 0,8 meses, las mujeres, los menores de 60 años y los pacientes con adenocarcinoma de tipo intestinal tienen mejor sobrevida. La mayor mortalidad por cáncer gástrico se concentra en las regiones más pobres del Perú, donde es probable que las condiciones de vida faciliten la alta transmisibilidad de Helicobacter pylori.


OBJECTIVE: Determine the survival rate of patients diagnosed with stomach cancer in 2009-2010 in Peru. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients diagnosed with stomach cancer registered in the National Epidemiological Surveillance System (SNVE) of the Directorate General of Epidemiology (DGE) and the Register of Vital Statistics (RHV) of the General Office of Statistics and Information (OGEI) for the years 2009-2010. RESULTS: 3 568 patients of the SNVE were included; 51.5% were men and 48.5% were women; the average age was 63.9 years; 60.07% were 60 years old or older. It was found that 33.6% had intestinal type adenocarcinoma, 18.7% had diffuse type carcinoma, and 4.1% had primary gastric lymphoma. The overall survival rate was 29.7 ± 0.8 months and was better for those under 60 years (P = 0.034), for women (P = 0.014) and for intestinal type adenocarcinoma (P< 0.001). There was no difference (P = 0.713) between the survival rate of gastric lymphomas and adenocarcinomas. In order to evaluate mortality, 6 069 patient records from the RHV were included; national mortality was 10.3 per 100 000 population; the regions with the highest mortality were Huánuco, Huancavelica, and Junín. CONCLUSIONS: The general survival rate was 29.7 ± 0.8 months; women, those under 60 years, and patients with intestinal type adenocarcinoma had better survival rates. The highest mortality from stomach cancer is concentrated in the poorest regions of Peru, where it is probable that living conditions facilitate the high communicability of Helicobacter pylori.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Amyloid beta-Peptides/physiology , Astrocytes/cytology , Biopolymers/physiology , Neurons/cytology , Astrocytes/enzymology , Astrocytes/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , /metabolism , Enzyme Activation , Neurons/enzymology , Neurons/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
7.
Salud colect ; 11(1): 99-114, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-746687

ABSTRACT

El Consejo Federal de Medicina de Brasil (CFM) -órgano normativo y fiscalizador del ejercicio ético de la medicina- prohibió, en 2008, la participación de médicos brasileños en investigaciones que utilizaran placebo para enfermedades con tratamiento eficaz y efectivo, en contraposición a la Declaración de Helsinki, que permite su uso en condiciones metodológicamente justificadas. Con el objetivo de verificar si la normativa ética del CFM modificó el uso de placebo en ensayos clínicos de fase III en Brasil, se analizaron varias características de sus registros en el ClinicalTrials.gov, en los períodos de 2003 a 2007 y de 2009 a 2013. Se concluye que: a) la normativa promulgada por el CFM en 2008 fue ineficaz y prevaleció la posición adoptada por la Declaración de Helsinki; b) el patrocinio de ensayos con placebo por parte de la industria farmacéutica multinacional fue significativo; c) predominaron las investigaciones de fármacos para enfermedades crónicas, y fueron poco significativas para las enfermedades postergadas, de importancia para Brasil.


In 2008, Brazil's Federal Council of Medicine [Conselho Federal de Medicina] (CFM) - regulatory and supervisory agency on the ethical practice of medicine - banned the participation of Brazilian doctors in studies using placebos for diseases with efficient and effective treatment. This position differs with the Helsinki Declaration, which allows the use of placebos in methodologically justified conditions. To ascertain whether the CMF's ethical regulation modified the use of placebos in phase III clinical trials in Brazil, characteristics of the records in ClinicalTrials.gov were researched in the periods from 2003 to 2007 and from 2009 to 2013. The conclusions reached were: a) the regulations issued by the CFM in 2008 were ineffective and the position adopted by the Helsinki Declaration prevails; b) there was significant sponsorship by the multinational pharmaceutical industry of trials with placebos; c) the research was predominantly on new drugs for chronic diseases, with little study done of the neglected diseases which are of great importance to Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/genetics , Heme/deficiency , Nerve Degeneration/genetics , Neurons/metabolism , Porphyrias/complications , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspases/drug effects , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cell Survival/genetics , Collagen Type XI/drug effects , Collagen Type XI/metabolism , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/drug effects , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/genetics , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/metabolism , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Down-Regulation/physiology , Enzyme Inhibitors , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Heptanoates , Heme/biosynthesis , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , Membrane Proteins/drug effects , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nerve Degeneration/metabolism , Nerve Degeneration/physiopathology , Nerve Tissue Proteins/drug effects , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/drug effects , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/genetics , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/pathology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases , Porphyrias/metabolism , Porphyrias/physiopathology , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/drug effects , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SMN Complex Proteins , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Up-Regulation/physiology , Vesicular Transport Proteins/drug effects , Vesicular Transport Proteins/genetics , Vesicular Transport Proteins/metabolism
8.
Braz. dent. j ; 26(1): 86-88, Jan-Feb/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-735838

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a case of osteonecrosis of the jaw related to zoledronic acid (5 mg) administered once yearly to treat osteoporosis. A 79-year-old woman who has been treated for osteoporosis for 5 years with 5 applications of zoledronic acid was referred for evaluation. The patient had been submitted to dental implant placement and there was no osseointegration. On clinical examination, suppuration and exposed bone on the alveolar ridge were observed. Radiographic examination revealed an osteolytic area and bone sequestration. Both clinical and radiological features were suggestive of osteonecrosis. The treatment consisted of surgery to remove the affected bone completely. The patient is asymptomatic at 9 months after surgery. Dentists and oral surgeons should be alert to the possibility of osteonecrosis related to the use of once-yearly injections of zoledronic acid for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.


O presente estudo teve como objetivo apresentar um caso de osteonecrose dos maxilares associada ao uso de ácido zoledrônico (5 mg) administrado uma vez ao ano para tratar a osteoporose. Uma mulher de 79 anos de idade estava em tratamento de osteoporose por 5 anos com 5 aplicações do ácido zoledrônico foi encaminhada para nossa avaliação. A paciente tinha sido submetida à colocação de implante dental e não houve osseointegração. Ao exame clínico, supuração e osso exposto no rebordo alveolar foram observados. Os exames radiográficos revelaram uma área osteolítica e sequestro ósseo. Ambos os aspectos clínicos e radiográficos eram sugestivos de osteonecrose. O tratamento consistiu de cirurgia para remover todo o osso afetado. A paciente está assintomática há 9 meses (desde a cirurgia). Cirurgiões-dentistas e cirurgiões orais devem estar atentos para a possibilidade de osteonecrose relacionada ao uso de injeções anuais de ácido zoledrônico para tratamento da osteoporose pós-menopausa.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Brain/pathology , Cell Differentiation , Encephalitis/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Brain/metabolism , Encephalitis/metabolism , Fetus/metabolism , Fetus/pathology , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , Neuroglia/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
9.
Salud pública Méx ; 57(1): 4-13, ene.-feb. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-736456

ABSTRACT

Objective. To describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Materials and methods. Data were from 45 241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the following: 1) expenditure on all food and at restaurants, and 2) frequency of consumption of comida corrida or restaurant food and street food. Results. Food expenditure and consumption of food prepared away from home were positively associated with socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and urban vs. rural residence (p<0.001 for all relationships in bivariate analyses). Conclusions. Consumption of food prepared outside home may be an important part of the diet among urban Mexican adults and those with high socioeconomic status and educational attainment.


Objetivo. Describir los gastos en alimentos y el consumo de alimentos preparados fuera de casa en población mexicana. Material y métodos. Los datos fueron de 45 241 adultos mexicanos en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición de 2006, representativa al nivel nacional. Se utilizaron estadísticas descriptivas y regresión linear y logística para estimar la relación entre el lugar de residencia, el nivel educativo y el nivel socioeconómico, con el gasto en todos los alimentos y en restaurantes, y con la frecuencia de consumo de comida corrida, en restaurantes y de la calle. Resultados. El gasto en alimentos y el consumo de alimentos preparados se asociaron positivamente con el nivel socioeconómico, el nivel educativo y la residencia rural (p<0,001 para todas las relaciones). Conclusiones. El consumo de alimentos preparados puede ser una parte importante de la dieta de los adultos urbanos y de aquéllos con altos niveles socioeconómicos y educativos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels/chemistry , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Tyrosine/chemistry , Anisomycin/chemistry , Antibodies/chemistry , Behavior , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , CHO Cells , DNA , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electrophysiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels/physiology , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Heart Atria/metabolism , Heart Ventricles/cytology , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Immunoblotting , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Muscle Cells/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Plasmids/metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Sciatic Nerve/metabolism , Spinal Cord/pathology , Xenopus laevis
10.
Salud pública Méx ; 57(1): 22-28, ene.-feb. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-736458

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Explicar la variación de la desnutrición infantil (DI), entendida como baja talla para la edad (0 a 5 años) entre 1999 y 2006. Material y métodos. Se emplearon estimaciones estatales de DI y diversos indicadores que reflejan las probables causas subyacentes del fenómeno como la pobreza, el producto per cápita estatal, la educación de las mujeres y los accesos a infraestructura de salud y de drenaje. Para el análisis de datos se utilizaron los métodos de regresión con datos panel de efectos fijos y aleatorios. Resultados. Se encontró que la carencia de salud y drenaje, así como la pobreza, empeoran la DI, mientras que la educación de las mujeres la disminuye. Conclusiones. El estudio muestra que las variables de infraestructura explican en buena parte la variación reciente de la DI entre estados, y que el crecimiento económico no es una condición suficiente para reducir la DI.


Objective. Explain the variation in child malnutrition (CM), understood as low height for age (0 to 5 years old) for the period 1999-2006. Materials and methods. State estimations of child malnutrition and several indicators of subjacent probable causes of CM were employed, such as poverty indices, state product per capita, women scholar attainment and access to health and the sewage system. Panel data regression analysis with fixed and random effects were used to analyze the data. Results. The results indicate that the lack to access to health and sewage systems and poverty worsen CM, whereas women education helps to diminish CM. Conclusion. The study shows that infrastructure variables explain a significant part of the recent variation in DI across Mexican states, and that economic growth is not a sufficient condition to diminish DI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Brain/metabolism , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels/biosynthesis , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels/genetics , Neurons/metabolism , Baclofen/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , In Vitro Techniques , Mice, Knockout , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/ultrastructure
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 132-139, 02/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-741181

ABSTRACT

The effects of tamoxifen (TAM) on anxiety and depression-like behavior in ovariectomized (OVX) and naïve female rats were investigated. The animals were divided into Sham-TAM, OVX-TAM, Sham and OVX groups. Tamoxifen (1 mg/kg) was administered for 4 weeks. In the forced swimming test, the immobility times in the OVX and Sham-TAM groups were higher than in the Sham group. In the open field, the numbers of central crossings in the OVX and Sham-TAM groups were lower than the number in the Sham group, and the number of peripheral crossings in the OVX group was lower than the number in the Sham group. In the elevated plus maze, the numbers of entries to the open arm among the animals in the Sham-TAM and OVX groups were lower than the number in the Sham group, while the number of entries to the open arm in the OVX-TAM group was higher than the number in the OVX group. It was shown that deletion of ovarian hormones induced anxiety and depression-like behavior. Administration of tamoxifen in naïve rats led to anxiety and depression-like behavior that was comparable with the effects of ovarian hormone deletion. It can be suggested that tamoxifen antagonizes the effects of ovarian hormones. It also seems that tamoxifen has anxiolytic effects on ovariectomized rats.


Foram investigados os efeitos do tamoxifeno (TAM) no comportamento semelhante a ansiedade de depressão de ratas ooforectomizadas (OVX) e controles. Os animais foram divididos em Sham-TAM, OVX-TAM, Sham e OVX groups. Tamoxifeno (1 mg/kg) foi administrado por quatro semanas. No teste de natação forçada, os tempos de imobilidade nos grupos OVX e Sham-TAM foram maiores que aqueles do grupo Sham. No campo aberto, os números de cruzamento no centro nos grupos OVX e Sham-TAM foram menores que aquele do grupo Sham, e o número dos cruzamentos na periferia no grupo OVX foi menor que o número no grupo Sham. No labirinto elevado, os números de entradas com braços abertos entre os animais nos grupos Sham-TAM e OVX foram menores do que aqueles do grupo Sham, enquanto o número de entradas com os braços abertos no grupo OVX-TAM foi maior que aquele no grupo OVX. Foi observado que a deleção dos hormônios ovarianos induziu comportamento similar a ansiedade e depressão. A administração de tamoxifeno em ratos controle induziu a um comportamento que era comparável aos efeitos da deleção do hormônio ovariano. Pode ser sugerido que o tamoxifeno antagoniza os efeitos dos hormônios ovarianos. Parece também que o tamoxifeno tem efeito ansiolítico nas ratas ooforectomizadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cocaine/pharmacology , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/metabolism , Dendrites/drug effects , Dendrites/metabolism , Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors/pharmacology , Nucleus Accumbens/drug effects , Nucleus Accumbens/enzymology , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Microscopy, Confocal , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/metabolism , Purines/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-147137

ABSTRACT

The long-term storage of memory requires the finely tuned coordination of intracellular signaling with the transcriptional, translational and epigenetic regulations of gene expression. Among the epigenetic mechanisms, however, we know relatively little about the involvement of chromatin remodeling-dependent control of gene expression in cognitive brain functions, compared with our knowledge of other such mechanisms (for example, histone modifications and DNA methylation). A few recent studies have implicated the Brm/Brg-associated factor (BAF) chromatin-remodeling complex, a mammalian homolog of the yeast Swi/Snf complex, in neuronal structural/functional plasticity and memory formation. The BAF complex was previously known to have a critical role in neurodevelopment, but these recent findings indicate that it also contributes to both cognitive functions in the adult brain and human mental disorders characterized by intellectual disability. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the BAF complexes, introduce recent research findings that link their functions to memory formation, and speculate on the yet-unknown molecular mechanisms that may be relevant to these processes.


Subject(s)
Actins/metabolism , Animals , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/metabolism , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Learning , Memory , Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Protein Binding , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors/metabolism
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1036-1043, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-150480

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with permanent neurological damage, and treatment thereof with a single modality often does not provide sufficient therapeutic outcomes. Therefore, a strategy that combines two or more techniques might show better therapeutic effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we designed a combined treatment strategy based on neural stem cells (NSCs) introduced via a neuronal cell type-inducible transgene expression system (NSE::) controlled by a neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter to maximize therapeutic efficiency and neuronal differentiation. The luciferase gene was chosen to confirm whether this combined system was working properly prior to using a therapeutic gene. The luciferase expression levels of NSCs introduced via the neuronal cell type-inducible luciferase expression system (NSE::Luci) or via a general luciferase expressing system (SV::Luci) were measured and compared in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: NSCs introduced via the neuronal cell type-inducible luciferase expressing system (NSE::Luci-NSCs) showed a high level of luciferase expression, compared to NSCs introduced via a general luciferase expressing system (SV::Luci-NSCs). Interestingly, the luciferase expression level of NSE::Luci-NSCs increased greatly after differentiation into neurons. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that a neuronal cell type-inducible gene expression system is suitable for introducing NSCs in combined treatment strategies. We suggest that the proposed strategy may be a promising tool for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, including SCI.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation/genetics , Gene Expression , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genetic Therapy , Humans , Luciferases/genetics , Neural Stem Cells , Neurons/metabolism , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase/metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , Stem Cells/metabolism
14.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-186434

ABSTRACT

N-acetylglucosamine kinase (GlcNAc kinase or NAGK) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme in mammalian cells. Recent studies have shown that NAGK has an essential structural, non-enzymatic role in the upregulation of dendritogenesis. In this study, we conducted yeast two-hybrid screening to search for NAGK-binding proteins and found a specific interaction between NAGK and dynein light-chain roadblock type 1 (DYNLRB1). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) on hippocampal neurons using antibodies against NAGK and DYNLRB1 or dynein heavy chain showed some colocalization, which was increased by treating the live cells with a crosslinker. A proximity ligation assay (PLA) of NAGK-dynein followed by tubulin ICC showed the localization of PLA signals on microtubule fibers at dendritic branch points. NAGK-dynein PLA combined with Golgi ICC showed the colocalization of PLA signals with somal Golgi facing the apical dendrite and with Golgi outposts in dendritic branch points and distensions. NAGK-Golgi PLA followed by tubulin or DYNLRB1 ICC showed that PLA signals colocalize with DYNLRB1 at dendritic branch points and at somal Golgi, indicating a tripartite interaction between NAGK, dynein and Golgi. Finally, the ectopic introduction of a small peptide derived from the C-terminal amino acids 74-96 of DYNLRB1 resulted in the stunting of hippocampal neuron dendrites in culture. Our data indicate that the NAGK-dynein-Golgi tripartite interaction at dendritic branch points functions to regulate dendritic growth and/or branching.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Cytoplasmic Dyneins/chemistry , Dendrites/metabolism , Golgi Apparatus/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Hippocampus , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Neurons/metabolism , Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/metabolism , Protein Interaction Maps , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tubulin
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1307-1315, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-185890

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The TWIK-related spinal cord K+ channel (TRESK) has recently been discovered and plays an important role in nociceptor excitability in the pain pathway. Because there have been no reports on the TRESK expression or its function in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in neuropathic pain, we analyzed TRESK expression in the spinal dorsal horn in a spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established a SNL mouse model by using the L5-6 spinal nerves ligation. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry to investigate TRESK expression in the dorsal horn and L5 dorsal rot ganglion (DRG). RESULTS: The SNL group showed significantly higher expression of TRESK in the ipsilateral dorsal horn under pain, but low expression in L5 DRG. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed that immunoreactivity of TRESK was mostly restricted in neuronal cells, and that synapse markers GAD67 and VGlut2 appeared to be associated with TRESK expression. We were unable to find a significant association between TRESK and calcineurin by double immunofluorescence. CONCLUSION: TRESK in spinal cord neurons may contribute to the development of neuropathic pain following injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Hyperalgesia , Ligation , Male , Neuralgia/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Nociceptors , Pain/metabolism , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn/metabolism , Spinal Nerves/injuries
16.
Colomb. med ; 45(4): 154-161, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-747586

ABSTRACT

Background: The information of gene expression obtained from databases, have made possible the extraction and analysis of data related with several molecular processes involving not only in brain homeostasis but its disruption in some neuropathologies; principally in Down syndrome and the Alzheimer disease. Objective: To correlate the levels of transcription of 19 genes located in the Down Syndrome Critical Region (DSCR) with their expression in several substructures of normal human brain. Methods: There were obtained expression profiles of 19 DSCR genes in 42 brain substructures, from gene expression values available at the database of the human brain of the Brain Atlas of the Allen Institute for Brain Sciences", (http://human.brain-map.org/). The co-expression patterns of DSCR genes in brain were calculated by using multivariate statistical methods. Results: Highest levels of gene expression were registered at caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens and putamen among central areas of cerebral cortex. Increased expression levels of RCAN1 that encode by a protein involved in signal transduction process of the CNS were recorded for PCP4 that participates in the binding to calmodulin and TTC3; a protein that is associated with differentiation of neurons. That previously identified brain structures play a crucial role in the learning process, in different class of memory and in motor skills. Conclusion: The precise regulation of DSCR gene expression is crucial to maintain the brain homeostasis, especially in those areas with high levels of gene expression associated with a remarkable process of learning and cognition.


Introducción: La información de la expresión de genes consignada en bases de datos, ha permitido extraer y analizar información acerca procesos moleculares implicados tanto en la homeostasis cerebral y su alteración en algunas neuropatologías. Objetivos: Correlacionar los niveles de transcripción de 19 genes localizados en la región crítica del cromosoma 21, asociada a Síndrome de Down (DSCR), con la localización cerebral y su coexpresión en diferentes subestructuras del cerebro humano. Métodos: A partir de valores de expresión génica disponibles en la base de datos del proyecto cerebro humano del Atlas del Cerebro del "Allen Institute for Brain Sciences" (http://human.brain-map.org/), se construyeron perfiles de expresión de 19 genes DSCR en 42 subestructuras cerebrales. Además, utilizando métodos estadísticos multivariados se analizaron los patrones de coexpresión de genes DSCR en el cerebro normal. Resultados: En el núcleo caudado, el núcleo accumbens y el putamen además de las Áreas centrales 2, 3 y 4, se determinaron los valores de expresión más elevados para los genes incluidos RCAN1, que codifica para una proteína involucrada en el proceso de transducción de señales de SNC; PCP4 cuya proteína interviene en la unión a la calmodulina y TTC3 una proteína que interviene en la diferenciación de neuronas. Las subestructuras identificadas con una elevada expresión de estos genes, están asociadas con procesos de aprendizaje, en diferentes tipos de memoria y habilidades motoras. Conclusiones: La regulación de la expresión de los genes DSCR es clave para mantener la homeostasis cerebral, especialmente en aquellas áreas de mayor expresión, las cuales están asociadas con procesos sumamente importantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain/physiology , Down Syndrome/genetics , Gene Expression , Brain/physiopathology , Cell Differentiation , Databases, Factual , Homeostasis , Multivariate Analysis , Neurons/metabolism
17.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-17803

ABSTRACT

Chronic neuroinflammation is an integral pathological feature of major neurodegenerative diseases. The recruitment of microglia to affected brain regions and the activation of these cells are the major events leading to disease-associated neuroinflammation. In a previous study, we showed that neuron-released alpha-synuclein can activate microglia through activating the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) pathway, resulting in proinflammatory responses. However, it is not clear whether other signaling pathways are involved in the migration and activation of microglia in response to neuron-released alpha-synuclein. In the current study, we demonstrated that TLR2 activation is not sufficient for all of the changes manifested by microglia in response to neuron-released alpha-synuclein. Specifically, the migration of and morphological changes in microglia, triggered by neuron-released alpha-synuclein, did not require the activation of TLR2, whereas increased proliferation and production of cytokines were strictly under the control of TLR2. Construction of a hypothetical signaling network using computational tools and experimental validation with various peptide inhibitors showed that beta1-integrin was necessary for both the morphological changes and the migration. However, neither proliferation nor cytokine production by microglia was dependent on the activation of beta1-integrin. These results suggest that beta1-integrin signaling is specifically responsible for the recruitment of microglia to the disease-affected brain regions, where neurons most likely release relatively high levels of alpha-synuclein.


Subject(s)
Animals , Integrin beta1/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cells, Cultured , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microglia/drug effects , Neurons/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , alpha-Synuclein/pharmacology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-72394

ABSTRACT

The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been reported to have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated RAGE levels in the hippocampus and cortex of a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD) using western blotting and immunohistochemical double-labeling to assess cellular localization. Analysis of western blots showed that there were no differences in the hippocampal and cortical RAGE levels in 10-month-old adult 3xTg-AD mice, but significant increases in RAGE expression were found in the 22- to 24-month-old aged 3xTg-AD mice compared with those of age-matched controls. RAGE-positive immunoreactivity was observed primarily in neurons of aged 3xTg-AD mice with very little labeling in non-neuronal cells, with the notable exception of RAGE presence in astrocytes in the hippocampal area CA1. In addition, RAGE signals were co-localized with the intracellular amyloid precursor protein (APP)/amyloid beta (Abeta) but not with the extracellular APP/Abeta. In aged 3xTg-AD mice, expression of human tau was observed in the hippocampal area CA1 and co-localized with RAGE signals. The increased presence of RAGE in the 3xTg-AD animal model showing critical aspects of AD neuropathology indicates that RAGE may contribute to cellular dysfunction in the AD brain.


Subject(s)
Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Animals , Astrocytes/metabolism , CA1 Region, Hippocampal/growth & development , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , tau Proteins/genetics
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Dec; 51(12): 1086-1093
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-150296

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide plays a role in a series of neurobiological functions, underlying behaviour and memory. The functional role of nNOS derived nitric oxide in cognitive functions is elusive. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole, against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced cognitive impairment in rats. Learning and memory behaviour was assessed using Morris water maze and elevated plus maze. 7-nitroindazole (25 mg/kg, ip) was administered as prophylactically (30 min before intracerebroventricular streptozotocin injection on day 1) and therapeutically (30 min before the assessment of memory by Morris water maze on day 15). Intracerebroventricular streptozotocin produced significant cognitive deficits coupled with alterations in biochemical indices.These behavioural and biochemical changes were significantly prevented by prophylactic treatment of 7-nitroindazole. However, therapeutic intervention of 7-nitroindazole did not show any significant reversal. The results suggests that 7-nitroindazole can be effective in the protection of dementiainduced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin only when given prophylactically but not therapeutically.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/chemically induced , Alzheimer Disease/enzymology , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Animals , Cognition Disorders/chemically induced , Cognition Disorders/enzymology , Cognition Disorders/pathology , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Humans , Indazoles/administration & dosage , Male , Maze Learning/drug effects , Maze Learning/physiology , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/pathology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/metabolism , Rats , Streptozocin/toxicity
20.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Dec; 51(12): 1070-1078
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-150294

ABSTRACT

Mother-offspring interaction begins before birth. The foetus is particularly vulnerable to environmental insults and stress. The body responds by releasing excess of the stress hormone cortisol, which acts on glucocorticoid receptors. Hippocampus in the brain is rich in glucocorticoid receptors and therefore susceptible to stress. The stress effects are reduced when the animals are placed under a model wooden pyramid. The present study was to first explore the effects of prenatal restraint-stress on the plasma corticosterone levels and the dendritic arborisation of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of the offspring. Further, to test whether the pyramid environment would alter these effects, as housing under a pyramid is known to reduce the stress effects, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were restrained for 9 h per day from gestation day 7 until parturition in a wire-mesh restrainer. Plasma corticosterone levels were found to be significantly increased. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the apical and the basal total dendritic branching points and intersections of the CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. The results thus suggest that, housing in the pyramid dramatically reduces prenatal stress effects in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , CA3 Region, Hippocampal/metabolism , CA3 Region, Hippocampal/physiology , Corticosterone/blood , Dendrites/metabolism , Dendrites/physiology , Female , Housing , Hydrocortisone/blood , Maternal-Fetal Relations/physiology , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/physiology , Pregnancy , Pyramidal Cells/metabolism , Rats , Stress, Psychological
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