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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(1): 122-131, ene. 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554155

ABSTRACT

In tradition al Mexican medicine, plants from the Montanoa genus, family Asteraceae ( Montanoa tomentosa , Montanoa grandiflora , and Montanoa frutescens ) have been used to induce labor owing to their uterotonic properties like those produced by oxytocin (OXT). However, w hether infusions of these plants can activate hypothalamic OXT - producing neurons is unknown. To test this possibility, five independent groups of Wistar rats (n=4) were included: intact, vehicle, and three groups that received 50 mg/kg p.o. of M. tomentosa , M. grandiflora , and M. frutescens infusions, respectively. Ninety min after treatment, the brains were obtained and processed using double - labeled immunohistochemistry for Fos protein and oxytocin (Fos/OXT - ir). Rats that received Montanoa infusions had s ignificantly greater number of Fos/OXT - ir cells in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei, with respect to intact and vehicle groups. These findings demonstrate that Montanoa infusions activated OXT neurons, an effect that may be related to the reported pharmacological properties.


En la medicina tradicional mexicana, plantas del género Montanoa , familia Asteraceae ( Montanoa tomentosa , Montanoa grandiflora y Montanoa frutescens ), se han utilizado para inducir el parto debido a sus propiedades uterotónicas, aparentemente similares a las producidas por la hormona oxitocina (OXT). Sin embargo, se desconoce si las infusiones de estas plantas pueden activar neuronas hipotalámicas productoras de OXT. Para probar esta posibilidad, se incluyeron cinco grupos independientes (n=4): intacto, vehículo y tres grupos que recibieron 50 mg/kg p.o. de infusiones de M. tomentosa , M. grandiflora , y M. frute scens , respectivamente. Noventa minutos después del tratamiento, los cerebros fueron obtenidos y procesados por doble marcaje de inmunohistoquímica para la proteína Fos y oxitocina (Fos/OXT - ir). Las ratas que recibieron infusiones de Montanoa aumentaron si gnificativamente el número de células Fos/OXT - ir en los núcleos paraventricular (PVN) y supraóptico (SON), respecto a los grupos intacto y vehículo. Estos hallazgos demuestran que las infusiones de Montanoa activan neuronas de OXT, lo que podría estar rela cionado con sus propiedades farmacológicas


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Montanoa/metabolism , Montanoa/chemistry , Oxytocin , Oxytocin/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Neurons/metabolism
2.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 103-112, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010655

ABSTRACT

Neuronomodulation refers to the modulation of neural conduction and synaptic transmission (i.e., the conduction process involved in synaptic transmission) of excitable neurons via changes in the membrane potential in response to chemical substances, from spillover neurotransmitters to paracrine or endocrine hormones circulating in the blood. Neuronomodulation can be direct or indirect, depending on the transduction pathways from the ligand binding site to the ion pore, either on the same molecule, i.e. the ion channel, or through an intermediate step on different molecules. The major players in direct neuronomodulation are ligand-gated or voltage-gated ion channels. The key process of direct neuronomodulation is the binding and chemoactivation of ligand-gated or voltage-gated ion channels, either orthosterically or allosterically, by various ligands. Indirect neuronomodulation involves metabotropic receptor-mediated slow potentials, where steroid hormones, cytokines, and chemokines can implement these actions. Elucidating neuronomodulation is of great significance for understanding the physiological mechanisms of brain function, and the occurrence and treatment of diseases.


Subject(s)
Ligands , Neurons/metabolism , Synaptic Transmission/physiology , Ion Channels/metabolism , Hormones/metabolism
3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 245-260, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971567

ABSTRACT

Defensive behaviors induced by innate fear or Pavlovian fear conditioning are crucial for animals to avoid threats and ensure survival. The zona incerta (ZI) has been demonstrated to play important roles in fear learning and fear memory, as well as modulating auditory-induced innate defensive behavior. However, whether the neuronal subtypes in the ZI and specific circuits can mediate the innate fear response is largely unknown. Here, we found that somatostatin (SST)-positive neurons in the rostral ZI of mice were activated by a visual innate fear stimulus. Optogenetic inhibition of SST-positive neurons in the rostral ZI resulted in reduced flight responses to an overhead looming stimulus. Optogenetic activation of SST-positive neurons in the rostral ZI induced fear-like defensive behavior including increased immobility and bradycardia. In addition, we demonstrated that manipulation of the GABAergic projections from SST-positive neurons in the rostral ZI to the downstream nucleus reuniens (Re) mediated fear-like defensive behavior. Retrograde trans-synaptic tracing also revealed looming stimulus-activated neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) that projected to the Re-projecting SST-positive neurons in the rostral ZI (SC-ZIrSST-Re pathway). Together, our study elucidates the function of SST-positive neurons in the rostral ZI and the SC-ZIrSST-Re tri-synaptic circuit in mediating the innate fear response.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Zona Incerta/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Fear/physiology , Somatostatin/metabolism
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 194-212, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971540

ABSTRACT

Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a serious and common complication of stroke, which seriously affects the rehabilitation of stroke patients. To date, the pathogenesis of PSD is unclear and effective treatments remain unavailable. Here, we established a mouse model of PSD through photothrombosis-induced focal ischemia. By using a combination of brain imaging, transcriptome sequencing, and bioinformatics analysis, we found that the hippocampus of PSD mice had a significantly lower metabolic level than other brain regions. RNA sequencing revealed a significant reduction of miR34b-3p, which was expressed in hippocampal neurons and inhibited the translation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). Furthermore, silencing eIF4E inactivated microglia, inhibited neuroinflammation, and abolished the depression-like behaviors in PSD mice. Together, our data demonstrated that insufficient miR34b-3p after stroke cannot inhibit eIF4E translation, which causes PSD by the activation of microglia in the hippocampus. Therefore, miR34b-3p and eIF4E may serve as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of PSD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Depression , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Stroke/metabolism
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4150-4167, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008018

ABSTRACT

The neurotrophin-tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating the balance of excitation and inhibition in the primary visual cortex (V1). Previous studies have revealed its mechanism of regulating the level of cortical excitability by increasing the efficiency of excitatory transmission, but it has not been elucidated how TrkB receptors regulate the balance of excitation and inhibition through the inhibitory system, which in turn affects visual cortex function. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate how the TrkB signaling pathway specifically regulates the most important inhibitory neuron-PV neurons affects the visual cortex function of mice. The expression of TrkB receptor on PV neurons in the V1 region was specifically reduced by the virus, the functional changes of inhibitory and excitatory neurons in the primary visual cortex were recorded by multi-channel electrophysiological in vivo. The orientation discrimination ability of mice was tested by behavioral experiments, and altered orientation discrimination ability of mice was tested by behavioral experiments. The results showed that reduced expression of TrkB receptors on PV inhibitory neurons in primary visual cortex significantly increased the response intensity of excitatory neurons, reduced the orientation discrimination ability of inhibitory and excitatory neurons, and increased the signal-to-noise ratio, but the orientation discrimination ability at the individual level in mice showed a decrease. These results suggest that the TrkB signaling pathway does not modulate the function of PV neurons solely by increasing excitatory transmission targeting PV neurons, and its effect on neuronal signal-to-noise ratio is not due to enhancement of the inhibitory system.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Receptor, trkB/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Signal Transduction
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3772-3786, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007992

ABSTRACT

Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is an essential part of the peripheral nervous system and the hub of the peripheral sensory afferent. The dynamic changes of neuronal cells and their gene expression during the development of dorsal root ganglion have been studied through single-cell RNAseq analysis, while the dynamic changes of non-neuronal cells have not been systematically studied. Using single cell RNA sequencing technology, we conducted a research on the non-neuronal cells in the dorsal root ganglia of rats at different developmental stage. In this study, primary cell suspension was obtained from using the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs, L4-L5) of ten 7-day-old rats and three 3-month-old rats. The 10×Genomics platform was used for single cell dissociation and RNA sequencing. Twenty cell subsets were acquired through cluster dimension reduction analysis, and the marker genes of different types of cells in DRG were identified according to previous researches about DRG single cell transcriptome sequencing. In order to find out the non-neuronal cell subsets with significant differences at different development stage, the cells were classified into different cell types according to markers collected from previous researches. We performed pseudotime analysis of 4 types Schwann cells. It was found that subtype Ⅱ Schwann cells emerged firstly, and then were subtype Ⅲ Schwann cells and subtype Ⅳ Schwann cells, while subtype Ⅰ Schwann cells existed during the whole development procedure. Pseudotime analysis indicated the essential genes influencing cell fate of different subtypes of Schwann cell in DRG, such as Ntrk2 and Pmp2, which affected cell fate of Schwann cells during the development period. GO analysis of differential expressed genes showed that the up-regulated genes, such as Cst3 and Spp1, were closely related to biological process of tissue homeostasis and multi-multicellular organism process. The down regulated key genes, such as Col3a1 and Col4a1, had close relationship with the progress of extracellular structure organization and negative regulation of cell adhesion. This suggested that the expression of genes enhancing cell homestasis increased, while the expression of related genes regulating ECM-receptor interaction pathway decreased during the development. The discovery provided valuable information and brand-new perspectives for the study on the physical and developmental mechanism of Schwann cell as well as the non-neuronal cell changes in DRG at different developmental stage. The differential gene expression results provided crucial references for the mechanism of somatosensory maturation during development.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Ganglia, Spinal/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transcriptome , Neurons/metabolism , Schwann Cells/physiology
7.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1683-1702, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010651

ABSTRACT

Parvalbumin interneurons belong to the major types of GABAergic interneurons. Although the distribution and pathological alterations of parvalbumin interneuron somata have been widely studied, the distribution and vulnerability of the neurites and fibers extending from parvalbumin interneurons have not been detailly interrogated. Through the Cre recombinase-reporter system, we visualized parvalbumin-positive fibers and thoroughly investigated their spatial distribution in the mouse brain. We found that parvalbumin fibers are widely distributed in the brain with specific morphological characteristics in different regions, among which the cortex and thalamus exhibited the most intense parvalbumin signals. In regions such as the striatum and optic tract, even long-range thick parvalbumin projections were detected. Furthermore, in mouse models of temporal lobe epilepsy and Parkinson's disease, parvalbumin fibers suffered both massive and subtle morphological alterations. Our study provides an overview of parvalbumin fibers in the brain and emphasizes the potential pathological implications of parvalbumin fiber alterations.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/pathology , Parvalbumins/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/pathology , Neurons/metabolism , Interneurons/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Brain/pathology
8.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1605-1622, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010649

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is a common, chronic neurological disorder that has been associated with impaired neurodevelopment and immunity. The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is involved in seizures via an unknown mechanism. Here, we first determined the expression pattern and distribution of the CXCR5 gene in the mouse brain during different stages of development and the brain tissue of patients with epilepsy. Subsequently, we found that the knockdown of CXCR5 increased the susceptibility of mice to pentylenetetrazol- and kainic acid-induced seizures, whereas CXCR5 overexpression had the opposite effect. CXCR5 knockdown in mouse embryos via viral vector electrotransfer negatively influenced the motility and multipolar-to-bipolar transition of migratory neurons. Using a human-derived induced an in vitro multipotential stem cell neurodevelopmental model, we determined that CXCR5 regulates neuronal migration and polarization by stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton during various stages of neurodevelopment. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the knockdown of CXCR5 induced neuronal hyperexcitability, resulting in an increased number of seizures. Finally, our results suggested that CXCR5 deficiency triggers seizure-related electrical activity through a previously unknown mechanism, namely, the disruption of neuronal polarity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Actin Cytoskeleton/metabolism , Actins/metabolism , Epilepsy/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, CXCR5/metabolism , Seizures/metabolism
9.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1512-1532, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010641

ABSTRACT

The histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (EZH2)-mediated trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) regulates neural stem cell proliferation and fate specificity through silencing different gene sets in the central nervous system. Here, we explored the function of EZH2 in early post-mitotic neurons by generating a neuron-specific Ezh2 conditional knockout mouse line. The results showed that a lack of neuronal EZH2 led to delayed neuronal migration, more complex dendritic arborization, and increased dendritic spine density. Transcriptome analysis revealed that neuronal EZH2-regulated genes are related to neuronal morphogenesis. In particular, the gene encoding p21-activated kinase 3 (Pak3) was identified as a target gene suppressed by EZH2 and H3K27me3, and expression of the dominant negative Pak3 reversed Ezh2 knockout-induced higher dendritic spine density. Finally, the lack of neuronal EZH2 resulted in impaired memory behaviors in adult mice. Our results demonstrated that neuronal EZH2 acts to control multiple steps of neuronal morphogenesis during development, and has long-lasting effects on cognitive function in adult mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Protein/metabolism , Histone Methyltransferases/metabolism , Histones/genetics , Morphogenesis , Neuronal Plasticity , Neurons/metabolism
10.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1411-1425, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010621

ABSTRACT

L-dopa (l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a debilitating complication of dopamine replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease. The potential contribution of striatal D2 receptor (D2R)-positive neurons and downstream circuits in the pathophysiology of LID remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of striatal D2R+ neurons and downstream globus pallidus externa (GPe) neurons in a rat model of LID. Intrastriatal administration of raclopride, a D2R antagonist, significantly inhibited dyskinetic behavior, while intrastriatal administration of pramipexole, a D2-like receptor agonist, yielded aggravation of dyskinesia in LID rats. Fiber photometry revealed the overinhibition of striatal D2R+ neurons and hyperactivity of downstream GPe neurons during the dyskinetic phase of LID rats. In contrast, the striatal D2R+ neurons showed intermittent synchronized overactivity in the decay phase of dyskinesia. Consistent with the above findings, optogenetic activation of striatal D2R+ neurons or their projections in the GPe was adequate to suppress most of the dyskinetic behaviors of LID rats. Our data demonstrate that the aberrant activity of striatal D2R+ neurons and downstream GPe neurons is a decisive mechanism mediating dyskinetic symptoms in LID rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Levodopa/toxicity , Dopamine , Parkinsonian Disorders/drug therapy , Oxidopamine , Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced , Corpus Striatum/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, Dopamine D2/metabolism , Antiparkinson Agents/toxicity
11.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1481-1496, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010614

ABSTRACT

The discovery of neuroglobin (Ngb), a brain- or neuron-specific member of the hemoglobin family, has revolutionized our understanding of brain oxygen metabolism. Currently, how Ngb plays such a role remains far from clear. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which Ngb might facilitate neuronal oxygenation upon hypoxia or anemia. We found that Ngb was present in, co-localized to, and co-migrated with mitochondria in the cell body and neurites of neurons. Hypoxia induced a sudden and prominent migration of Ngb towards the cytoplasmic membrane (CM) or cell surface in living neurons, and this was accompanied by the mitochondria. In vivo, hypotonic and anemic hypoxia induced a reversible Ngb migration toward the CM in cerebral cortical neurons in rat brains but did not alter the expression level of Ngb or its cytoplasm/mitochondria ratio. Knock-down of Ngb by RNA interference significantly diminished respiratory succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ATPase activity in neuronal N2a cells. Over-expression of Ngb enhanced SDH activity in N2a cells upon hypoxia. Mutation of Ngb at its oxygen-binding site (His64) significantly increased SDH activity and reduced ATPase activity in N2a cells. Taken together, Ngb was physically and functionally linked to mitochondria. In response to an insufficient oxygen supply, Ngb migrated towards the source of oxygen to facilitate neuronal oxygenation. This novel mechanism of neuronal respiration provides new insights into the understanding and treatment of neurological diseases such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease and diseases that cause hypoxia in the brain such as anemia.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Neuroglobin/metabolism , Globins/metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Oxygen , Anemia/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism
12.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1210-1228, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010607

ABSTRACT

The chronic use of morphine and other opioids is associated with opioid-induced hypersensitivity (OIH) and analgesic tolerance. Among the different forms of OIH and tolerance, the opioid receptors and cell types mediating opioid-induced mechanical allodynia and anti-allodynic tolerance remain unresolved. Here we demonstrated that the loss of peripheral μ-opioid receptors (MORs) or MOR-expressing neurons attenuated thermal tolerance, but did not affect the expression and maintenance of morphine-induced mechanical allodynia and anti-allodynic tolerance. To confirm this result, we made dorsal root ganglia-dorsal roots-sagittal spinal cord slice preparations and recorded low-threshold Aβ-fiber stimulation-evoked inputs and outputs in superficial dorsal horn neurons. Consistent with the behavioral results, peripheral MOR loss did not prevent the opening of Aβ mechanical allodynia pathways in the spinal dorsal horn. Therefore, the peripheral MOR signaling pathway may not be an optimal target for preventing mechanical OIH and analgesic tolerance. Future studies should focus more on central mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Morphine/pharmacology , Hyperalgesia/metabolism , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Neurons/metabolism , Signal Transduction
13.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1193-1209, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010606

ABSTRACT

The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) is one of the morphologically and functionally defined centers that engage in the autonomic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Phenotypically-characterized NTS neurons have been implicated in the differential regulation of blood pressure (BP). Here, we investigated whether phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT)-expressing NTS (NTSPNMT) neurons contribute to the control of BP. We demonstrate that photostimulation of NTSPNMT neurons has variable effects on BP. A depressor response was produced during optogenetic stimulation of NTSPNMT neurons projecting to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, lateral parabrachial nucleus, and caudal ventrolateral medulla. Conversely, photostimulation of NTSPNMT neurons projecting to the rostral ventrolateral medulla produced a robust pressor response and bradycardia. In addition, genetic ablation of both NTSPNMT neurons and those projecting to the rostral ventrolateral medulla impaired the arterial baroreflex. Overall, we revealed the neuronal phenotype- and circuit-specific mechanisms underlying the contribution of NTSPNMT neurons to the regulation of BP.


Subject(s)
Solitary Nucleus/metabolism , Blood Pressure/physiology , Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 540-550, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982723

ABSTRACT

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. One important aspect of ALS pathogenesis is superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutant-mediated mitochondrial toxicity, leading to apoptosis in neurons. This study aimed to evaluate the neural protective synergistic effects of ginsenosides Rg1 (G-Rg1) and conditioned medium (CM) on a mutational SOD1 cell model, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that the contents of nerve growth factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor significantly increased in CM after human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) were exposed to neuron differentiation reagents for seven days. CM or G-Rg1 decreased the apoptotic rate of SOD1G93A-NSC34 cells to a certain extent, but their combination brought about the least apoptosis, compared with CM or G-Rg1 alone. Further research showed that the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was upregulated in all the treatment groups. Proteins associated with mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, such as Bax, caspase 9 (Cas-9), and cytochrome c (Cyt c), were downregulated. Furthermore, CM or G-Rg1 also inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway by reducing the phosphorylation of p65 and IκBα. CM/G-Rg1 or their combination also reduced the apoptotic rate induced by betulinic acid (BetA), an agonist of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In summary, the combination of CM and G-Rg1 effectively reduced the apoptosis of SOD1G93A-NSC34 cells through suppressing the NF-κB/Bcl-2 signaling pathway (Fig. 1 is a graphical representation of the abstract).


Subject(s)
Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase-1 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons/metabolism , Apoptosis
15.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 731-744, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982448

ABSTRACT

Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important neuromodulator in various cognitive functions. However, it is unclear how ACh influences neural circuit dynamics by altering cellular properties. Here, we investigated how ACh influences reverberatory activity in cultured neuronal networks. We found that ACh suppressed the occurrence of evoked reverberation at low to moderate doses, but to a much lesser extent at high doses. Moreover, high doses of ACh caused a longer duration of evoked reverberation, and a higher occurrence of spontaneous activity. With whole-cell recording from single neurons, we found that ACh inhibited excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) while elevating neuronal firing in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, all ACh-induced cellular and network changes were blocked by muscarinic, but not nicotinic receptor antagonists. With computational modeling, we found that simulated changes in EPSCs and the excitability of single cells mimicking the effects of ACh indeed modulated the evoked network reverberation similar to experimental observations. Thus, ACh modulates network dynamics in a biphasic fashion, probably by inhibiting excitatory synaptic transmission and facilitating neuronal excitability through muscarinic signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Cholinergic Agents/pharmacology , Acetylcholine/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Synaptic Transmission/physiology
16.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1131-1145, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982446

ABSTRACT

Heterozygous loss-of-function variants of FOXP4 are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) that exhibit delayed speech development, intellectual disability, and congenital abnormalities. The etiology of NDDs is unclear. Here we found that FOXP4 and N-cadherin are expressed in the nuclei and apical end-feet of radial glial cells (RGCs), respectively, in the mouse neocortex during early gestation. Knockdown or dominant-negative inhibition of Foxp4 abolishes the apical condensation of N-cadherin in RGCs and the integrity of neuroepithelium in the ventricular zone (VZ). Inhibition of Foxp4 leads to impeded radial migration of cortical neurons and ectopic neurogenesis from the proliferating VZ. The ectopic differentiation and deficient migration disappear when N-cadherin is over-expressed in RGCs. The data indicate that Foxp4 is essential for N-cadherin-based adherens junctions, the loss of which leads to periventricular heterotopias. We hypothesize that FOXP4 variant-associated NDDs may be caused by disruption of the adherens junctions and malformation of the cerebral cortex.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Ependymoglial Cells/physiology , Cadherins , Neurons/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Movement
17.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 576-588, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982430

ABSTRACT

Autapses selectively form in specific cell types in many brain regions. Previous studies have also found putative autapses in principal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) in the striatum. However, it remains unclear whether these neurons indeed form physiologically functional autapses. We applied whole-cell recording in striatal slices and identified autaptic cells by the occurrence of prolonged asynchronous release (AR) of neurotransmitters after bursts of high-frequency action potentials (APs). Surprisingly, we found no autaptic AR in SPNs, even in the presence of Sr2+. However, robust autaptic AR was recorded in parvalbumin (PV)-expressing neurons. The autaptic responses were mediated by GABAA receptors and their strength was dependent on AP frequency and number. Further computer simulations suggest that autapses regulate spiking activity in PV cells by providing self-inhibition and thus shape network oscillations. Together, our results indicate that PV neurons, but not SPNs, form functional autapses, which may play important roles in striatal functions.


Subject(s)
Parvalbumins/metabolism , Corpus Striatum/metabolism , Interneurons/physiology , Neurons/metabolism , Neostriatum
18.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 881-892, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982411

ABSTRACT

Mutations in genes encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins (PSs) cause familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder strongly associated with aging. It is currently unknown whether and how AD risks affect early brain development, and to what extent subtle synaptic pathology may occur prior to overt hallmark AD pathology. Transgenic mutant APP/PS1 over-expression mouse lines are key tools for studying the molecular mechanisms of AD pathogenesis. Among these lines, the 5XFAD mice rapidly develop key features of AD pathology and have proven utility in studying amyloid plaque formation and amyloid β (Aβ)-induced neurodegeneration. We reasoned that transgenic mutant APP/PS1 over-expression in 5XFAD mice may lead to neurodevelopmental defects in early cortical neurons, and performed detailed synaptic physiological characterization of layer 5 (L5) neurons from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of 5XFAD and wild-type littermate controls. L5 PFC neurons from 5XFAD mice show early APP/Aβ immunolabeling. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording at an early post-weaning age (P22-30) revealed functional impairments; although 5XFAD PFC-L5 neurons exhibited similar membrane properties, they were intrinsically less excitable. In addition, these neurons received smaller amplitude and frequency of miniature excitatory synaptic inputs. These functional disturbances were further corroborated by decreased dendritic spine density and spine head volumes that indicated impaired synapse maturation. Slice biotinylation followed by Western blot analysis of PFC-L5 tissue revealed that 5XFAD mice showed reduced synaptic AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 and decreased synaptic NMDA receptor subunit GluN2A. Consistent with this, patch-clamp recording of the evoked L23>L5 synaptic responses revealed a reduced AMPA/NMDA receptor current ratio, and an increased level of AMPAR-lacking silent synapses. These results suggest that transgenic mutant forms of APP/PS1 overexpression in 5XFAD mice leads to early developmental defects of cortical circuits, which could contribute to the age-dependent synaptic pathology and neurodegeneration later in life.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism , Mice, Transgenic , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, AMPA/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal
19.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 50-59, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970290

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Exposure to high intensity, low frequency noise (HI-LFN) causes vibroacoustic disease (VAD), with memory deficit as a primary non-auditory symptomatic effect of VAD. However, the underlying mechanism of the memory deficit is unknown. This study aimed to characterize potential mechanisms involving morphological changes of neurons and nerve fibers in the hippocampus, after exposure to HI-LFN.@*METHODS@#Adult wild-type and transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 4 knockout (TRPV4-/-) mice were used for construction of the HI-LFN injury model. The new object recognition task and the Morris water maze test were used to measure the memory of these animals. Hemoxylin and eosin and immunofluorescence staining were used to examine morphological changes of the hippocampus after exposure to HI-LFN.@*RESULTS@#The expression of TRPV4 was significantly upregulated in the hippocampus after HI-LFN exposure. Furthermore, memory deficits correlated with lower densities of neurons and neurofilament-positive nerve fibers in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) and dentate gyrus (DG) hippocampal areas in wild-type mice. However, TRPV4-/- mice showed better performance in memory tests and more integrated neurofilament-positive nerve fibers in the CA1 and DG areas after HI-LFN exposure.@*CONCLUSION@#TRPV4 up-regulation induced neurofilament positive nerve fiber injury in the hippocampus, which was a possible mechanism for memory impairment and cognitive decline resulting from HI-LFN exposure. Together, these results identified a promising therapeutic target for treating cognitive dysfunction in VAD patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , TRPV Cation Channels/metabolism , Intermediate Filaments/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Memory Disorders/metabolism
20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 841-856, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939846

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is a common and severe brain disease affecting >65 million people worldwide. Recent studies have shown that kinesin superfamily motor protein 17 (KIF17) is expressed in neurons and is involved in regulating the dendrite-targeted transport of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B). However, the effect of KIF17 on epileptic seizures remains to be explored. We found that KIF17 was mainly expressed in neurons and that its expression was increased in epileptic brain tissue. In the kainic acid (KA)-induced epilepsy mouse model, KIF17 overexpression increased the severity of epileptic activity, whereas KIF17 knockdown had the opposite effect. In electrophysiological tests, KIF17 regulated excitatory synaptic transmission, potentially due to KIF17-mediated NR2B membrane expression. In addition, this report provides the first demonstration that KIF17 is modified by SUMOylation (SUMO, small ubiquitin-like modifier), which plays a vital role in the stabilization and maintenance of KIF17 in epilepsy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Epilepsy/metabolism , Kinesins/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Seizures/metabolism
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