Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 326
Filter
1.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 26(2): 148-153, jul.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1150022

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los agentes antipsicóticos son considerados como el principal tratamiento farmacológico para el manejo de mantenimiento y el tratamiento de casos agudos de la esquizofrenia y otros trastornos mentales. Estos medicamentos están clasificados en dos grupos: los antipsicóticos de primera generación o antipsicóticos típicos (AT) y los antipsicóticos de segunda generación o antipsicóticos atípicos (AA). En relación con el uso de los antipsicóticos típicos (AT), se han descrito importantes efectos adversos, sobre todo síntomas extrapiramidales (EPS), lo cual ha relegado su uso y fomenta el mayor empleo en la práctica clínica de los antipsicóticos atípicos (AA) gracias a la adecuada efectividad clínica demostrada hasta el momento. Sin embargo, estos medicamentos están asociados con diferentes alteraciones metabólicas, entre las cuales se encuentra un mayor riesgo de diabetes; para lo cual se han propuesto varios mecanismos etiopatogénicos. En esta revisión narrativa, se presenta un resumen actualizado de la literatura de los últimos 5 años sobre el uso de antipsicóticos atípicos y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2, haciendo énfasis en las diferentes hipótesis reportadas hasta el momento que involucran el aumento de peso y diferentes efectos mediados por hormonas, receptores de neurotransmisores y neuropéptidos que impactan en la génesis de los estados hiperglucémicos y de insulinorresistencia.


Abstract Antipsychotic agents are currently considered as the main pharmacological treatment that helps the maintenance management of acute schizophrenia and other mental disorders. These drugs are classified into two groups: First-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) or typical antipsychotics, and Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) also known as atypical antipsychotics (AAP). In relation to the use of typical antipsychotics, some relevant adverse effects have been described, especially in terms of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), which has downgraded their use and encourages the treatment of atypical antipsychotics (AAP) due to the adequate clinical effectiveness demonstrated so far in the practice. However, these drugs have been associated with different metabolic alterations such as the increased risk of suffering from diabetes; thus, several etiopathogenic mechanisms have been proposed. In this narrative review, we seek to present an updated summary of the literature of the last five years about the use of atypical antipsychotics and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here it has been emphasized the different hypotheses reported so far that involve weight gain and different effects mediated by hormones, neurotransmitter receptors, and neuropeptides that impact on the genesis of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance states


Subject(s)
Humans , Therapeutics/adverse effects , Antipsychotic Agents , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Schizophrenia , Neuropeptides , Insulin Resistance , Acute Disease , Hormones , Hyperglycemia
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811071

ABSTRACT

Since the airways are constantly exposed to various pathogens and foreign antigens, various kinds of cells in the airways—including structural cells and immune cells—interact to form a precise defense system against pathogens and antigens that involve both innate immunity and acquired immunity. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play critical roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, defense against pathogens and the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, especially at body surface mucosal sites such as the airways. ILCs are activated mainly by cytokines, lipid mediators and neuropeptides that are produced by surrounding cells, and they produce large amounts of cytokines that result in inflammation. In addition, ILCs can change their phenotype in response to stimuli from surrounding cells, which enables them to respond promptly to microenvironmental changes. ILCs exhibit substantial heterogeneity, with different phenotypes and functions depending on the organ and type of inflammation, presumably because of differences in microenvironments. Thus, ILCs may be a sensitive detector of microenvironmental changes, and analysis of their phenotype and function at local sites may enable us to better understand the microenvironment in airway diseases. In this review, we aimed to identify molecules that either positively or negatively influence the function and/or plasticity of ILCs and the sources of the molecules in the airways in order to examine the pathophysiology of airway inflammatory diseases and facilitate the issues to be solved.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Cellular Microenvironment , Cytokines , Homeostasis , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Lymphocytes , Neuropeptides , Phenotype , Plastics , Population Characteristics , Respiratory Tract Diseases
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828937

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of taurolithocholic acid (tLCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on the expression of aorexigenic neuropeptide in mouse hypothalamus GT1-7 cells.@*METHODS@#Mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells were treated with culture medium containing 10% FBS (control group, =3) or with 10 nmol/L, 100 nmol/L, 1 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L tLCA (tLCA group, =3) or CDCA (CDCA group, =3) for 12, 24 or 48 h. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the expression levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in the cells, and the production levels of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) were assessed using an ELISA kit. Signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation (p-STAT3), threonine kinase phosphorylation (p-AKT), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (TGR5) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) protein were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Western blotting results showed that mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells expressed two bile acid receptors, TGR5 and FXR, whose expressions were regulated by bile acids. Real-time PCR showed that the expression of POMC mRNA was significantly increased in the cells after treatment with 10 μmol/L tLCA or CDCA for 24 h. POMC-derived anorexigenic peptide α-MSH increased significantly in GT1-7 cells after treatment with 10 μmol/L tLCA or CDCA for 24 h. Treatment of the cells with tLCA or CDCA significantly increased the expressions of intracellular signaling proteins including p-STAT3, p-AKT and SOCS3.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells express bile acid receptors TGR5 and FXR. Bile acids tLCA or CDCA can promote the expression of POMC mRNA and increase the production of the anorexigenic peptide α-MSH. The intracellular signaling proteins p-AKT, p-STAT3 and SOCS3 are likely involved in bile acid-induced anorexigenic peptide production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Acids and Salts , Chenodeoxycholic Acid , Hypothalamus , Mice , Neuropeptides , Phosphorylation , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Signal Transduction , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Protein
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of taurolithocholic acid (tLCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on the expression of aorexigenic neuropeptide in mouse hypothalamus GT1-7 cells.@*METHODS@#Mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells were treated with culture medium containing 10% FBS (control group, =3) or with 10 nmol/L, 100 nmol/L, 1 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L tLCA (tLCA group, =3) or CDCA (CDCA group, =3) for 12, 24 or 48 h. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the expression levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in the cells, and the production levels of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) were assessed using an ELISA kit. Signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation (p-STAT3), threonine kinase phosphorylation (p-AKT), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (TGR5) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) protein were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Western blotting results showed that mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells expressed two bile acid receptors, TGR5 and FXR, whose expressions were regulated by bile acids. Real-time PCR showed that the expression of POMC mRNA was significantly increased in the cells after treatment with 10 μmol/L tLCA or CDCA for 24 h. POMC-derived anorexigenic peptide α-MSH increased significantly in GT1-7 cells after treatment with 10 μmol/L tLCA or CDCA for 24 h. Treatment of the cells with tLCA or CDCA significantly increased the expressions of intracellular signaling proteins including p-STAT3, p-AKT and SOCS3.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells express bile acid receptors TGR5 and FXR. Bile acids tLCA or CDCA can promote the expression of POMC mRNA and increase the production of the anorexigenic peptide α-MSH. The intracellular signaling proteins p-AKT, p-STAT3 and SOCS3 are likely involved in bile acid-induced anorexigenic peptide production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Chenodeoxycholic Acid , Pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation , Hypothalamus , Cell Biology , Mice , Neuropeptides , Genetics , Metabolism , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Genetics , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Protein , Metabolism , Taurolithocholic Acid , Pharmacology , alpha-MSH , Genetics
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827413

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the role of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 2 (TRPM2) in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury of mouse (HIRI) and the possible mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Sixty adult male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: a sham group (S group), a HIRI model group (M group), a TRPM2 adenovirus interference vector group (T group), and a TRPM2 adenovirus control vector group (C group) (=15 in each group). The liver tissues of mice before perfusion were obtained. The efficiency of adenovirus infection was detected by fluorescence microscopy, and the silencing efficiency of adenovirus against TRPM2 was detected by real-time PCR.The abdominal aorta blood and liver tissues were collected from mice at 2, 4 and 8 h after reperfusion. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum of mice were detected. Hepatic pathological changes were examined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The protein expression of TRPM2 and Rac family small GTPase 1 (RAC1) in liver tissues was detected by Western blotting. Changes of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities in liver tissues were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.@*RESULTS@#A strong signal of green fluorescence was observed in the liver tissues of mice in the T and C groups compared to the S or M group. Compared with the S, M or C group, the expression of TRPM2 mRNA in liver tissue in the T group was significantly down-regulated (all <0.05). The morphology of hepatocytes was normal in the S group under light microscope.Hepatic sinus dilatation, congestion, hepatocyte degeneration, central necrosis of lobule, and massive inflammatory granulocyte infiltration were observed in the M and C group, respectively. The degree of hepatocyte damage in the T group was significantly reduced compared with that in the M and C group, respectively. Compared with the S group, the serum ALT and AST activities in the M, T and C groups were significantly increased at 2, 4 and 8 h after reperfusion (all <0.05). Compared with the M or C group, the serum ALT and AST activities in the T group were significantly lower in serum of mice at 2, 4, and 8 h after reperfusion (all <0.05). Compared with the M or C group, the serum SOD activity in the T group was significantly increased at 2, 4, and 8 h after reperfusion (all <0.05), while the serum MDA and MPO activities were significantly decreased (all <0.05). The protein expression of TRPM2 and RAC1 in liver tissues in the T group were significantly lower than those in the M and C groups at 2, 4 and 8 h after reperfusion (all <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Pretreatment with TRPM2 adenovirus interference vector can effectively silence TRPM2 gene expression in liver tissues of mice and attenuate HIRI, which may be related to inhibiting oxidative stress and reducing the expression of RAC1 protein.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Liver , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neuropeptides , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury , TRPM Cation Channels , Genetics , Transient Receptor Potential Channels , rac1 GTP-Binding Protein
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(12): 881-887, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055207

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) increases the storage capacity of synapses in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Irisin is a myokine generated from FNDC5 (a gene precursor) during exercise. Although intra-cornu ammonis 1 administration of irisin fortifies LTP in mice with Alzheimer's disease, the effects of intra-DG injection of irisin on the LTP in rats remains to be elucidated in vivo. In this study, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (saline), irisin (0.5, 1, and 1.5 μg/rat), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). After treatment, the population spike (PS) amplitude and slope of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) were measured in the DG of rats in vivo. Moreover, following completion of the experiments, the stimulating and recording sites in the hippocampus were confirmed histologically from brain sections. Furthermore, biochemical assays like malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS) were evaluated (the antioxidant markers were analyzed in the plasma). Our results suggest that all doses of irisin (0.5, 1, 1.5 μg/rat) caused an increase in the EPSP slope and PS amplitude when compared with the control group. In addition, the results obtained showed that irisin decreased TOS and MDA levels while increasing TAC levels as a marker of lipid peroxidation in plasma. The present report provides direct evidence that irisin affects the activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus.


RESUMO A indução de potenciação de longo prazo (LTP) aumenta a capacidade de armazenamento das sinapses no giro denteado (DG) do hipocampo. A irisina é uma miocina gerada a partir do FNDC5 (um precursor genético) durante o exercício. Embora a administração intra-Cornu Ammonis1 de irisina fortaleça a LTP em camundongos com doença de Alzheimer, os efeitos da injeção intra-denteada de irisina sobre a LTP em ratos ainda precisam ser elucidados in vivo. Neste estudo, ratos Wistar machos foram divididos aleatoriamente em um grupo controle (solução salina), irisina (0,5, 1 e 1,5 μg / rato) e dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO). Após o tratamento, a amplitude do pico populacional (PS) e a variação dos potenciais pós-sinápticos excitatórios (EPSP) foram medidos no DG de ratos in vivo. Além disso, após a conclusão das experiências, os locais de estimulação e registro no hipocampo foram confirmados histologicamente a partir de secções do cérebro. Adicionalmente, ensaios bioquímicos como malondialdeído (MDA), capacidade antioxidante total (TAC) e status oxidante total (TOS) foram avaliados (os marcadores antioxidantes foram analisados no plasma). Nossos resultados sugerem que todas as doses de irisina (0,5, 1, 1,5 μg / rato) causaram um aumento na variação da EPSP e na amplitude da PS quando comparadas com o grupo controle. Além disso, os resultados obtidos mostraram que a irisina diminuiu os níveis de TOS e MDA, enquanto aumentou os níveis de TAC como um marcador da peroxidação lipídica no plasma. O presente estudo fornece evidências diretas de que a irisina afeta a plasticidade sináptica dependente de atividade no DG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Neuropeptides/administration & dosage , Fibronectins/administration & dosage , Long-Term Potentiation/drug effects , Dentate Gyrus/drug effects , Microinjections/methods , Reference Values , Time Factors , Lipid Peroxidation , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/analysis , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/drug effects , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/blood , Antioxidants/analysis
8.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(9): 1188-1192, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041067

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE We aimed to explore the effects of neuropeptides ghrelin, obestatin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on seizures and plasma concentrations of neuroinflammation biomarkers including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance-P (SP), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in rats. METHODS Ghrelin (80 µg/kg), obestatin (1 µg/kg), VIP (25 ng/kg) or saline were administered to rats intraperitoneally 30 min before pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 50 mg/kg) injections. Stages of epileptic seizures were evaluated by Racine's scale, and plasma CGRP, SP, and IL-1β concentrations were measured using ELISA. RESULTS Both obestatin and VIP shortened onset-time of generalized tonic-clonic seizure, respectively, moreover VIP also shortened the onset-time of first myoclonic-jerk induced by PTZ. While PTZ increased plasma CGRP, SP and IL-1β concentrations, ghrelin reduced the increases evoked by PTZ. While VIP further increased PTZ-evoked CGRP levels, it diminished IL-1β concentrations. However, obestatin did not change CGRP, SP, and IL-1β concentrations. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that ghrelin acts as an anticonvulsant, obestatin acts as a proconvulsant, and VIP has dual action on epilepsy. Receptors of those neuropeptides may be promising targets for epilepsy treatment.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Nosso objetivo foi explorar os efeitos dos neuropeptídeos grelina, obestatina e peptídeo intestinal vasoativo (VIP) nas convulsões e concentrações plasmáticas de biomarcadores neuroinflamatórios, incluindo peptídeo relacionado ao gene da calcitonina (CGRP), substância-P (SP) e interleucina-1 beta (IL-1β) em convulsões induzidas por pentilenotetrazol em ratos. MÉTODOS Grelina (80 µg/kg), obestatina (1 µg/kg), VIP (25 ng/kg) ou solução salina foram administrados a ratos intraperitonealmente 30 minutos antes de injeções de pentilenotetrazol (PTZ, 50 mg/kg). Os estágios das crises epilépticas foram avaliados pela escala de Racine e as concentrações plasmáticas de CGRP, SP e IL-1β foram medidas usando Elisa. RESULTADOS Tanto a obestatina quanto o VIP encurtaram o tempo de início da crise tônico-clônica generalizada, respectivamente. Além disso, o VIP também encurtou o tempo de início do primeiro impulso mioclônico induzido por PTZ. Enquanto o PTZ aumentou as concentrações plasmáticas de CGRP, SP e IL-1β, a grelina reduziu os aumentos evocados por PTZ. Enquanto o VIP aumenta ainda mais os níveis de CGRP evocados por PTZ, diminui as concentrações de IL-1β. No entanto, a obestatina não alterou as concentrações de CGRP, SP e IL-1β. CONCLUSÃO Nossos resultados sugerem que a grelina tem anticonvulsivante, a obestatina tem proconvulsivante e o VIP tem ação dupla na epilepsia. Receptores desses neuropeptídeos podem ser alvos promissores para o tratamento da epilepsia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pentylenetetrazole/adverse effects , Seizures/chemically induced , Neuropeptides/adverse effects , Convulsants/adverse effects , Peptide Hormones/pharmacology , Seizures/metabolism , Time Factors , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide/pharmacology , Biomarkers/blood , Random Allocation , Substance P/adverse effects , Substance P/blood , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/adverse effects , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/blood , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-1beta/adverse effects , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Ghrelin/pharmacology , Inflammation , Myoclonus
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787417

ABSTRACT

Neuropeptide oxytocin serves as a neuromodulator in the brain and as a hormone in the body. Oxytocin as a hypothalamic hormone causes contractions during the second and third stages of labor and lets milk come out during breast feeding. As a neuromodulator, oxytocin that influences social affiliative behavior plays an important role in social cognition and emotional learning. Recent studies showed that oxytocin affects basic fear learning and fear extinction precess in a social context. Furthermore, oxytocin has anxiolytic and stress-dampening effects when combined with social support, i.e. a safety stimuli. Also, oxytocin enhances basic emotional learning precesses of both acquisition and extinction of an emotional content while simultaneously decreasing pain experiences. Oxytocin has involvement in attachment, and is shown to improve positive affective behavior in romantic relations. Social buffering effects that social touch and emotional and physical intimacy play crucial roles in coping with negative effects are assumed to be mediated through brain oxytocin mechanisms. Researches indicate that oxytocin significantly inhibits hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in response to stress, and consequently reduces cortisol levels. Conversely, exposure to stress triggers the release of intrahypothalamic and plasma oxytocin. These results suggest that oxytocin may be a new pavement in treating post-traumatic stress disorder and depression.


Subject(s)
Brain , Breast Feeding , Cognition , Depression , Hydrocortisone , Learning , Linear Energy Transfer , Milk , Neuropeptides , Neurotransmitter Agents , Oxytocin , Plasma , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
10.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 34-46, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775468

ABSTRACT

Intermedin/adrenomedullin-2 (IMD/AM2), a member of the calcitonin gene-related peptide/AM family, plays an important role in protecting the cardiovascular system. However, its role in the enhanced sympathoexcitation in obesity-related hypertension is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of IMD in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus on sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sympathetic activation in obesity-related hypertensive (OH) rats induced by a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Acute experiments were performed under anesthesia. The dynamic alterations of sympathetic outflow were evaluated as changes in renal SNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to specific drugs. Male rats were fed a control diet (12% kcal as fat) or a high-fat diet (42% kcal as fat) for 12 weeks to induce OH. The results showed that IMD protein in the PVN was downregulated, but Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and plasma norepinephrine (NE, indicating sympathetic hyperactivity) levels, and systolic blood pressure were increased in OH rats. LPS (0.5 µg/50 nL)-induced enhancement of renal SNA and MAP was greater in OH rats than in obese or control rats. Bilateral PVN microinjection of IMD (50 pmol) caused greater decreases in renal SNA and MAP in OH rats than in control rats, and inhibited LPS-induced sympathetic activation, and these were effectively prevented in OH rats by pretreatment with the AM receptor antagonist AM22-52. The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor U0126 in the PVN partially reversed the LPS-induced enhancement of SNA. However, IMD in the PVN decreased the LPS-induced ERK activation, which was also effectively prevented by AM22-52. Chronic IMD administration resulted in significant reductions in the plasma NE level and blood pressure in OH rats. Moreover, IMD lowered the TLR4 protein expression and ERK activation in the PVN, and decreased the LPS-induced sympathetic overactivity. These results indicate that IMD in the PVN attenuates SNA and hypertension, and decreases the ERK activation implicated in the LPS-induced enhancement of SNA in OH rats, and this is mediated by AM receptors.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin , Metabolism , Animals , Blood Pressure , Physiology , Hypertension , Lipopolysaccharides , Pharmacology , Male , Neuropeptides , Metabolism , Obesity , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Adrenomedullin , Metabolism , Sympathetic Nervous System , Metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Metabolism
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766554

ABSTRACT

Over the last 5 years, the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety has approved four anti-obesity drugs for long-term weight management. In this review, the mechanisms of action and clinical applications of lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion, liraglutide, and phentermine/topiramate have been clarified. Lorcaserin stimulates proopiomelanocortin/cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Naltrexone/bupropion reduces body weight by controlling the hedonic reward system of food intake. The hypophagic effect of liraglutide depends on the direct activation of the proopiomelanocortin/cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript neurons and indirect suppression of neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide neurons through gammaaminobutyric acid-dependent signaling, with an additional thermogenic effect. Phentermine/topiramate induces weight loss by elevating the norepinephrine levels in the hypothalamus, reducing energy deposition in the adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, and elevating the corticotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus. In patients with high cardiovascular risks or type 2 diabetes mellitus, lorcaserin and liraglutide are appropriate. In patients with mood disorders, naltrexone/bupropion could be considered as the first choice of therapy. Notably, lorcaserin and liraglutide are neutral in the aspect of sleep disorder. In case of obese individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, liraglutide or phentermine/topiramate would be selected as the treatment option. These four drugs should be used after considering the patients' co-morbidities of obesity.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Anti-Obesity Agents , Arcuate Nucleus of Hypothalamus , Body Weight , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Eating , Humans , Hypothalamus , Korea , Liraglutide , Mood Disorders , Muscle, Skeletal , Neurons , Neuropeptides , Norepinephrine , Obesity , Pharmacology , Reward , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Sleep Wake Disorders , Weight Loss
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762158

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the impact of short-term haze exposure on nasal inflammation in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Thirty-three healthy university students were assessed for nasal symptoms, nasal patency, upper and lower respiratory tract nitric oxide (NO) as well as inflammatory mediators and neuropeptides in nasal secretions before and after a 5-day haze episode. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), and cytokines in the supernatants were examined. RESULTS: Mild nasal symptoms were reported by some participants during the haze episode. Objective measures of nasal patency demonstrated that nasal airway resistance was significantly increased from baseline levels, while nasal cavity volume and minimum cross-sectional area were significantly decreased. Similarly, the levels of nasal and exhaled NO, eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17, IL-8, substance P, nerve growth factor and vasoactive intestinal peptides in nasal secretions were significantly increased from baseline values following the haze episode. In contrast, the levels of interferon-γ, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β and neuropeptide Y were significantly decreased. Incubation with 0.1-10 μg/mL PM(2.5) significantly increased release of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8 and IL-10 from PBMCs. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term haze exposure may lead to nasal inflammation and hypersensitivity in healthy subjects predominantly by Th2 cytokine-mediated immune responses.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Airway Resistance , Cytokines , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , Nasal Cavity , Nerve Growth Factor , Neuropeptide Y , Neuropeptides , Nitric Oxide , Particulate Matter , Peptides , Respiratory System , Substance P
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761820

ABSTRACT

Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and its receptor, nociceptin opioid peptide (NOP) receptor, are localized in brain areas implicated in depression including the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, habenula, and monoaminergic nuclei in the brain stem. N/OFQ inhibits neuronal excitability of monoaminergic neurons and monoamine release from their terminals by activation of G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K⁺ channels and inhibition of voltage sensitive calcium channels, respectively. Therefore, NOP receptor antagonists have been proposed as a potential antidepressant. Indeed, mounting evidence shows that NOP receptor antagonists have antidepressant-like effects in various preclinical animal models of depression, and recent clinical studies again confirmed the idea that blockade of NOP receptor signaling could provide a novel strategy for the treatment of depression. In this review, we describe the pharmacological effects of N/OFQ in relation to depression and explore the possible mechanism of NOP receptor antagonists as potential antidepressants.


Subject(s)
Amygdala , Antidepressive Agents , Brain , Brain Stem , Calcium Channels , Depression , Habenula , Models, Animal , Neurons , Neuropeptides , Opioid Peptides , Receptors, Drug , Septal Nuclei
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741923

ABSTRACT

To conceptualize a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral treatment model of panic disorder (PD), it is necessary to completely integrate behavioral, psychophysiological, neurobiological, and genetic data. Molecular genetic research on PD is specifically focused on neurotransmitters, including serotonin, neuropeptides, glucocorticoids, and neurotrophins. Although pharmacological interventions for PD are currently available, the need for more effective, faster-acting, and more tolerable pharmacological interventions is unmet. Thus, glutamatergic receptor modulators, orexin receptor antagonists, corticotrophin-releasing factor 1 receptor antagonists, and other novel mechanism-based anti-panic therapeutics have been proposed. Research on the neural correlates of PD is focused on the dysfunctional “cross-talk” between emotional drive (limbic structure) and cognitive inhibition (prefrontal cortex) and the fear circuit, which includes the amygdala-hippocampus-prefrontal axis. The neural perspective regarding PD supports the idea that cognitive-behavioral therapy normalizes alterations in top-down cognitive processing, including increased threat expectancy and attention to threat. Consistent with the concept of “personalized medicine,” it is speculated that Research Domain Criteria can enlighten further treatments targeting dysfunctions underlying PD more precisely and provide us with better definitions of moderators used to identify subgroups according to different responses to treatment. Structuring of the “negative valence systems” domain, which includes fear/anxiety, is required to define PD. Therefore, targeting glutamate- and orexin-related molecular mechanisms associated with the fear circuit, which includes the amygdala-hippocampus-prefrontal cortex axis, is required to define a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral treatment model of PD.


Subject(s)
Glucocorticoids , Molecular Biology , Nerve Growth Factors , Neuropeptides , Neurotransmitter Agents , Orexin Receptor Antagonists , Panic Disorder , Panic , Serotonin
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773807

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of prenatal mobile phone exposure on the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and doublecortin (DCX) in dentate gyrus of offspring rats.@*METHODS@#The rat model of prenatal mobile phone exposure was established and there were three groups including control group, short term maternal exposure group and long term maternal exposure group(=6). From pregnant day 1 to day 17, pregnant rats in long term and short term maternal exposure group were exposed to an mobile phone in talking mode for 6 h/d and 24 h/d, respectively. Length of pregnancy, maternal body weight gain, litter size and pup's body weight were observed. The cell morphology in dentate gyrus of offspring rats at the age of 1 month was studied by cresyl violet staining. The immunohistochemical expression of PCNA and DCX in dentate gyrus of rat offspring were detected, and the expression of DCX and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus of rat offspring were evaluated by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#There was no difference in length of pregnancy, maternal body weight gain, litter size and pup's body weight among three groups. The morphological changes of pyramidal cells in the polymorphic layer and DCX-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were obvious in rat offspring of long term maternal exposure group. There were less PCNA-positive cells in dentate gyrus and decreased expression of DCX and BDNF in hippocampus by Western blot in long term maternal exposure group compared with control and short term maternal exposure group (all <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Long term prenatal mobile phone exposure might inhibit the expression of PCNA and DCX in dentate gyrus of rat offspring by down-regulating BDNF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Metabolism , Cell Phone , Dentate Gyrus , Metabolism , Female , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Microtubule-Associated Proteins , Metabolism , Neuropeptides , Metabolism , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Metabolism , Radio Waves , Rats
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773640

ABSTRACT

The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of puerarin on angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibroblast proliferation and to explore the molecular mechanisms of action. Considering the role of HO in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation, we hypothesized that modulating catalase activity would be a potential target in regulating the redox-sensitive pathways. Our results showed that the activation of Rac1 was dependent on the levels of intracellular HO. Puerarin blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)1/2, abolished activator protein (AP)-1 binding activity, and eventually attenuated cardiac fibroblast proliferation through the inhibition of HO-dependent Rac1 activation. Further studies revealed that angiotensin II treatment resulted in decreased catalase protein expression and enzyme activity, which was disrupted by puerarin via the upregulation of catalase protein expression at the transcriptional level and the prolonged protein degradation. These findings indicated that the anti-proliferation mechanism of puerarin was mainly through blocking angiontensin II-triggered downregulation of catalase expression and HO-dependent Rac1 activation.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II , Pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers , Pharmacology , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Catalase , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Metabolism , Fibroblasts , Gene Expression Regulation , Heart , Hydrogen Peroxide , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Isoflavones , Pharmacology , Mice , Myocardium , Cell Biology , Metabolism , NADPH Oxidases , Metabolism , Neuropeptides , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Metabolism , Transcriptional Activation , rac1 GTP-Binding Protein , Metabolism
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715333

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The urinary bladder (UB) is innervated by both sensory and autonomic nerves. Recent studies have shown that sensory neuropeptides induced contractions in the detrusor muscle. Therefore, in a mouse model, we investigated the presence of interactions between the submucosal sensory nerves and the autonomic nerves that regulate the motor function of the detrusor muscle. METHODS: UB samples from male C57BL/6 mice were isolated, cut into strips, and mounted in an organ bath. Dose-response curves to norepinephrine and phenylephrine were studied in UB strips with and without mucosa, and the effects of preincubation with a receptor antagonist and various drugs on relaxation were also studied using tissue bath myography. RESULTS: Phenylephrine-induced relaxation of the UB strips showed concentration-related effects. This relaxation appeared in both mucosa-intact and mucosa-denuded UB strips, and was significantly inhibited by lidocaine, silodosin, and guanethidine (an adrenergic neuronal blocker). Meanwhile, phenylephrine-induced relaxation was inhibited by pretreatment with propranolol and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)–depletory capsaicin in UB strips with and without mucosa. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that phenylephrine activates the α-1A adrenergic receptor (AR) of the sensory nerve, and then activates capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves to release an unknown substance that facilitates the release of norepinephrine from adrenergic nerves. Subsequently, norepinephrine stimulates β-ARs in the detrusor muscle in mice, leading to neurogenic relaxation of the UB. Further animal and human studies are required to prove this concept and to validate its clinical usefulness.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic Neurons , Animals , Autonomic Pathways , Baths , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Capsaicin , Guanethidine , Humans , Lidocaine , Male , Mice , Mucous Membrane , Myography , Neuropeptides , Norepinephrine , Phenylephrine , Propranolol , Receptors, Adrenergic , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 , Relaxation , Urinary Bladder
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812430

ABSTRACT

The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of puerarin on angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibroblast proliferation and to explore the molecular mechanisms of action. Considering the role of HO in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation, we hypothesized that modulating catalase activity would be a potential target in regulating the redox-sensitive pathways. Our results showed that the activation of Rac1 was dependent on the levels of intracellular HO. Puerarin blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)1/2, abolished activator protein (AP)-1 binding activity, and eventually attenuated cardiac fibroblast proliferation through the inhibition of HO-dependent Rac1 activation. Further studies revealed that angiotensin II treatment resulted in decreased catalase protein expression and enzyme activity, which was disrupted by puerarin via the upregulation of catalase protein expression at the transcriptional level and the prolonged protein degradation. These findings indicated that the anti-proliferation mechanism of puerarin was mainly through blocking angiontensin II-triggered downregulation of catalase expression and HO-dependent Rac1 activation.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II , Pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers , Pharmacology , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Catalase , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Metabolism , Fibroblasts , Gene Expression Regulation , Heart , Hydrogen Peroxide , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Isoflavones , Pharmacology , Mice , Myocardium , Cell Biology , Metabolism , NADPH Oxidases , Metabolism , Neuropeptides , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Metabolism , Transcriptional Activation , rac1 GTP-Binding Protein , Metabolism
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 689-695, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690555

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Glehnia littoralis has been used for traditional Asian medicine, which has diverse therapeutic activities. However, studies regarding neurogenic effects of G. littoralis have not yet been considered. Therefore, in this study, we examined effects of G. littoralis extract on cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and the maturation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult mice.</p><p><b>Methods</b>A total of 39 male ICR mice (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to vehicle-treated and 100 and 200 mg/kg G. littoralis extract-treated groups (n = 13 in each group). Vehicle and G. littoralis extract were orally administrated for 28 days. To examine neurogenic effects of G. littoralis extract, we performed immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU, an indicator for cell proliferation) and doublecortin (DCX, an immature neuronal marker) and double immunofluorescence staining for BrdU and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN, a mature neuronal marker). In addition, we examined expressional changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its major receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) using Western blotting analysis.</p><p><b>Results</b>Treatment with 200 mg/kg, not 100 mg/kg, significantly increased number of BrdU-immunoreactive () and DCX cells (48.0 ± 3.1 and 72.0 ± 3.8 cells/section, respectively) in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) and BrdU/NeuN cells (17.0 ± 1.5 cells/section) in the granule cell layer as well as in the SGZ. In addition, protein levels of BDNF and TrkB (about 232% and 244% of the vehicle-treated group, respectively) were significantly increased in the DG of the mice treated with 200 mg/kg of G. littoralis extract.</p><p><b>Conclusion</b>G. littoralis extract promots cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and neuronal maturation in the hippocampal DG, and neurogenic effects might be closely related to increases of BDNF and TrkB proteins by G. littoralis extract treatment.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apiaceae , Chemistry , Blotting, Western , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Dentate Gyrus , Cell Biology , Hippocampus , Cell Biology , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Mice , Microtubule-Associated Proteins , Metabolism , Neurogenesis , Neuropeptides , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Receptor, trkB , Metabolism
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The interplay between neurogenesis and angiogenesis is crucial during the development mediated by neuro-angiogenic morphogens. In particular, the angiogenic activity of neuropeptides and their role in tissue regeneration have long been investigated for better understanding of their biological mechanisms and further applications. However, there have been few studies for direct comparison of angiogenic activities of neuropeptides for in vitro and in vivo models. In this study, we report that direct comparison of the angiogenic activities of neuropeptide Y, secretoneurin, and substance P (SP) immobilized on hydrogels in in vitro and in vivo experiments. METHODS: A hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel is prepared by utilizing acrylated hyaluronic acid and thiolated peptides as a crosslinker and angiogenic factors, respectively. Angiogenic activities of three neuropeptides are evaluated not only by in vitro angiogenic and gene expression assays, but also by an in vivo chronic myocardial infarction model. RESULTS: The comparison of in vitro angiogenic activities of three peptides demonstrates that the SP-immobilized hydrogel shows a higher degree of cell network formation and angiogenic-specific genes than those of the other peptides and the control case. In addition, a three-dimensional angiogenic assay illustrates that more sprouting is observable in the SP group. Evaluation of regenerative activity in the chronic myocardial infarction model reveals that all three peptideimmobilized hydrogels induce increased cardiac function as well as structural regeneration. Among all the cases, the SP group provided the highest regenerative activity both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: In our comparison study, the SP-immobilized hydrogel shows the highest angiogenic activity and tissue regeneration among the test groups. This result suggests that nerve regeneration factors help angiogenesis in damaged tissues, which also highlights the importance of the neuro-angiogenic peptides as an element of tissue regeneration.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inducing Agents , Gene Expression , Hyaluronic Acid , Hydrogels , Hydrogels , In Vitro Techniques , Myocardial Infarction , Nerve Regeneration , Neurogenesis , Neuropeptide Y , Neuropeptides , Peptides , Regeneration , Substance P
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL