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1.
Rev. enferm. Cent.-Oeste Min ; 13: 4763, jun. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1437036

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: mapear como o cuidado desenvolvimental prestado aos recém nascidos pré-termos tem sido desenvolvido nas unidades de terapia intensiva neonatal com a finalidade de sintetizar as evidências científicas atuais. Métodos: revisão de escopo com busca realizada em novembro de 2022 nas bases MEDLINE, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, CINAHL, Embase e Web of Science. Foram incluídos estudos que retratavam o cuidado desenvolvimental nas unidades neonatais, nos últimos cinco anos, sem restrição de idioma. Resultados: incluíram-se sete artigos e os principais temas foram: contato pele a pele, controle do ruído e luminosidade, participação da família e sensibilização e treinamento da equipe. Conclusão: esses cuidados contribuem para o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor do prematuro, melhoram a assistência e reduzem a morbimortalidade e o tempo de internação.


Objective: To map the evolution of developmental care provided to preterm newborns in Neonatal Intensive Care Units to synthesize current scientific evidence. Methods: Bibliographic search for a scoping review was conducted in November 2022 on the MEDLINE, Virtual Health Library, CINAHL, Embase and Web of Science databases. Studies discussing developmental care in neonatal units in the past five years, without language restriction, were included. Results: The scoping review included articles, whose main topics were skin-to-skin contact, noise and light control, family participation, and team awareness and training. Conclusion: Developmental care practices contribute to the neuropsychomotor development of preterm infants, improve care, reduce morbidity and mortality, and the length of hospitalization.


Objetivo: mapear cómo se ha desarrollado la atención del desarrollo brindada a los recién nacidos pretérmino en las unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales para sintetizar la evidencia científica actual. Métodos: revisión de alcance realizada en noviembre de 2022 mediante búsquedas en las bases de datos MEDLINE, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, CINAHL, Embase y Web of Science. Se incluyeron estudios que trataron la atención del desarrollo en unidades neonatales, en los últimos cinco años, sin restricción de idioma. Resultados: se incluyeron siete artículos y los temas principales fueron contacto piel con piel, control de luz y ruido, participación familiar y sensibilización y entrenamiento del equipo. Conclusión: estos cuidados contribuyen al desarrollo neuropsicomotor de los prematuros, mejoran la asistencia y reducen la morbimortalidad y la estancia hospitalaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Child Development , Neuroprotection , Nursing Care
2.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 236-244, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982677

ABSTRACT

Cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid that was once largely disregarded, is currently the subject of significant medicinal study. CBD is found in Cannabis sativa, and has a myriad of neuropharmacological impacts on the central nervous system, including the capacity to reduce neuroinflammation, protein misfolding and oxidative stress. On the other hand, it is well established that CBD generates its biological effects without exerting a large amount of intrinsic activity upon cannabinoid receptors. Because of this, CBD does not produce undesirable psychotropic effects that are typical of marijuana derivatives. Nonetheless, CBD displays the exceptional potential to become a supplementary medicine in various neurological diseases. Currently, many clinical trials are being conducted to investigate this possibility. This review focuses on the therapeutic effects of CBD in managing neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. Overall, this review aims to build a stronger understanding of CBD and provide guidance for future fundamental scientific and clinical investigations, opening a new therapeutic window for neuroprotection. Please cite this article as: Tambe SM, Mali S, Amin PD, Oliveira M. Neuroprotective potential of Cannabidiol: Molecular mechanisms and clinical implications. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(3): 236-244.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cannabidiol/therapeutic use , Neuroprotection , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Cannabis , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 554-573, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982400

ABSTRACT

Over the past few decades, complementary and alternative treatments have become increasingly popular worldwide. The purported therapeutic characteristics of natural products have come under increased scrutiny both in vitro and in vivo as part of efforts to legitimize their usage. One such product is tea tree oil (TTO), a volatile essential oil primarily obtained from the native Australian plant, Melaleuca alternifolia, which has diverse traditional and industrial applications such as topical preparations for the treatment of skin infections. Its anti-inflammatory-linked immunomodulatory actions have also been reported. This systematic review focuses on the anti-inflammatory effects of TTO and its main components that have shown strong immunomodulatory potential. An extensive literature search was performed electronically for data curation on worldwide accepted scientific databases, such as Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and esteemed publishers such as Elsevier, Springer, Frontiers, and Taylor & Francis. Considering that the majority of pharmacological studies were conducted on crude oils only, the extracted data were critically analyzed to gain further insight into the prospects of TTO being used as a neuroprotective agent by drug formulation or dietary supplement. In addition, the active constituents contributing to the activity of TTO have not been well justified, and the core mechanisms need to be unveiled especially for anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects leading to neuroprotection. Therefore, this review attempts to correlate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity of TTO with its neuroprotective mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Tea Tree Oil/therapeutic use , Melaleuca , Neuroprotection , Drug Repositioning , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Australia , Oils, Volatile , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4201-4207, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008616

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the neuroprotective effect of bilobalide(BB) and the mechanisms such as inhibiting inflammatory response in macrophage/microglia, promoting neurotrophic factor secretion, and interfering with the activation and differentiation of peripheral CD4~+ T cells. BB of different concentration(12.5, 25, 50, 100 μg·mL~(-1)) was used to treat the RAW264.7 and BV2 cells for 24 h. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT) assay and cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) were employed to detect the cytotoxicity of BB and appropriate concentration was selected for further experiment. Lipopolysaccharide(LPS) was applied to elicit inflammation in RAW264.7 and BV2 cells, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages(BMDMs), and primary microglia, respectively. The effect of BB on cell proliferation and secretion of inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Spleen monocytes of C57BL/6 female mice(7-8 weeks old) were isolated, and CD4~+ T cells were separated by magnetic beads under sterile conditions. Th17 cells were induced by CD3/CD28 and the conditioned medium for eliciting the inflammation in BMDMs. The content of IL-17 cytokines in the supernatant was detected by ELISA to determine the effect on the activation and differentiation of CD4~+ T cells. In addition, PC12 cells were incubated with the conditioned medium for eliciting inflammation in BMDMs and primary microglia and the count and morphology of cells were observed. The cytoto-xicity was determined by lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) assay. The result showed that BB with the concentration of 12.5-100 μg·mL~(-1) had no toxicity to RAW264.7 and BV2 cells, and had no significant effect on the activity of cell model with low inflammation. The 50 μg·mL~(-1) BB was selected for further experiment, and the results indicated that BB inhibited LPS-induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The experiment on CD4~+ T cells showed that the conditioned medium for LPS-induced inflammation in BMDMs promoted the activation and differentiation of CD4~+ T cells, while the conditioned medium of the experimental group with BB intervention reduced the activation and differentiation of CD4~+ T cells. In addition, BB also enhanced the release of neurotrophic factors from BMDMs and primary microglia. The conditioned medium after BB intervention can significantly reduce the death of PC12 neurons, inhibit neuronal damage, and protect neurons. To sum up, BB plays a neuroprotective role by inhibiting macrophage and microglia-mediated inflammatory response and promoting neurotrophic factors.


Subject(s)
Female , Rats , Mice , Animals , Bilobalides/pharmacology , Neuroprotection , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Macrophages/metabolism , Microglia , Cytokines/metabolism , Nerve Growth Factors/pharmacology , Inflammation/metabolism
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e21530, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420486

ABSTRACT

Abstract Therapeutically, piracetam has been used for decades as a cognitive enhancer for memory- related neuronal disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective potential of piracetam on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced neuronal deficit using both in-vitro and in-vivo experimental models. For the in-vitro analysis, EOC-20 murine microglial cells were induced with a neuronal toxicity of 100 µg/ml of LPS, and the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) productions were determined. For in-vivo neuroprotective analysis, groups of mice were treated orally with two doses of piracetam (200 and 400 mg/kg) for 30 days. Neuronal toxicity was induced by four intraperitoneal injections of LPS (250 µg/kg/day). The malondialdehyde (MDA) level was measured for oxidative stress, and catalase reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GRD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined as the antioxidant parameters. The result of the cell viability study was that pre-treatment with piracetam significantly protected the LPS-induced cell loss, and attenuated the ROS generation and NO production in LPS-induced EOC-20 cells. Moreover, the treatment of piracetam significantly reduced the MDA levels and improved catalase, GSH, GRD, and SOD activities in LPS-induced mice brains. The overall results from this study supported the neuroprotective effects of piracetam against LPS-induced neuronal toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Piracetam/analysis , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Neuroprotection/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Cerebrum/abnormalities , Neuroinflammatory Diseases/chemically induced , Antioxidants/adverse effects
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19472, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384016

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and antigenotoxic effect with the neuroprotective activity of Glaucium corniculatum methanol and water extracts rich in rutin and quercetin flavonoids. Neuroprotective activity in terms of cell survival and development against oxidative damage was measured by MTT assay and microscopic analysis in H2O2-induced NGF-differentiated PC12 (dPC12) cells. QRT-PCR and western blot hybridization method was employed for the determination of AChE inhibition of the extracts in the same cell model, and the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects were identified with Comet assay with human lymphocytes. H2O2-induced vitality loss in dPC12 cells was inhibited in pre-treated cells with these plant extracts. Moreover, extracts stimulated neurite formation and prevented the oxidative stress-induced reduction in neurite growth. In general, it was determined that G. corniculatum methanol extract containing higher amounts of rutin and quercetin was more effective than water extract in terms of AChE inhibitory, antigenotoxic and also neuroprotective effect. In this study, it was shown for the first time that both AChE inhibitory and antigenotoxic effects of G. corniculatum may be effective in neuroprotection and it's protective and therapeutic effects against neurodegeneration may be related to the flavonoid content.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/agonists , Papaveraceae/classification , Neuroprotection , Pain/classification , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Neuroprotective Agents
7.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 410-418, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To reveal the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of a mixture of the main components of Panax notoginseng saponins (TSPN) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) of cultured cortical neurons.@*METHODS@#The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays. The morphology of dendrites was detected by immunofluorescence. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was developed in rats as a model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by neurological scoring, tail suspension test, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Nissl stainings. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to measure the changes in the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.@*RESULTS@#MTT showed that TSPN (50, 25 and 12.5 µ g/mL) protected cortical neurons after OGD/R treatment (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays indicated that 25 µ g/mL TSPN decreased neuronal apoptosis (P<0.05), and immunofluorescence showed that 25 µ g/mL TSPN restored the dendritic morphology of damaged neurons (P<0.05). Moreover, 12.5 µ g/mL TSPN downregulated the expression of Beclin-1, Cleaved-caspase 3 and LC3B-II/LC3B-I, and upregulated the levels of phosphorylated (p)-Akt and p-mTOR (P<0.01 or P<0.05). In the MCAO model, 50 µ g/mL TSPN improved defective neurological behavior and reduced infarct volume (P<0.05). Moreover, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B in cerebral ischemic penumbra was downregulated after 50 µ g/mL TSPN treatment, whereas the p-mTOR level was upregulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#TSPN promoted neuronal survival and protected dendrite integrity after OGD/R and had a potential therapeutic effect by alleviating neurological deficits and reversing neuronal loss. TSPN promoted p-mTOR and inhibited Beclin-1 to alleviate ischemic damage, which may be the mechanism that underlies the neuroprotective activity of TSPN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Beclin-1 , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Glucose , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Mammals/metabolism , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Oxygen , Panax notoginseng , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Saponins/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
8.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 469-476, jul.-set. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347303

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Desde a instituição da circulação extracorpórea, há cinco décadas, a lesão cerebral decorrente desse procedimento durante cirurgias cardiovasculares tem sido uma complicação frequente. Não existe uma causa única de lesão cerebral pelo uso de circulação extracorpórea, porém se sabe que acomete cerca de 70% dos pacientes submetidos a esse procedimento. A avaliação da pressão intracraniana é um dos métodos que podem orientar os cuidados com os pacientes submetidos a procedimentos associados com distúrbios neurológicos. Este artigo descreve dois casos de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardiovascular com circulação extracorpórea, para os quais os procedimentos de neuroproteção na fase pós-operatória foram guiados pelos achados relacionados ao formato das ondas de pressão intracraniana, obtidos por meio de um método não invasivo de monitoramento.


ABSTRACT Brain injury caused by extracorporeal circulation during cardiovascular surgical procedures has been a recurring complication since the implementation of extracorporeal circulation five decades ago. There is no unique cause of brain injury due to the use of extracorporeal circulation, but it is known that brain injury affects about 70% of patients who undergo this procedure. Intracranial pressure assessment is one method that can guide the management of patients undergoing procedures associated with neurological disturbances. This study describes two cases of patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery with extracorporeal circulation in whom clinical protocols for neuroprotection in the postoperative phase were guided by intracranial pressure waveform findings obtained with a novel noninvasive intracranial pressure monitoring method.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Circulation , Neuroprotection , Intensive Care Units
10.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e52932, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368494

ABSTRACT

Unravelling the efficacy of gut biome has a major impact on health. An unbalanced microbiome composition is linked to many common illnesses such as gut dysbiosis, mental deformities and immunological imbalance. An optimistic influence on the gut biome can be made by consumingprobiotics. This would stimulate neuroprotection and immunomodulation intended by heavy metals pollution. Lead is a major source of neurotoxin that can induce neural deformities. Lactobacillusspecies isolated from curd were characterized to confirm its specificity. Zebra fish was reared at standard conditions and preclinical assessment on the intensity of induced neurotoxin lead was performed. The embryo toxic assay, immunomodulation effects and animal behavioural models endorsed the consequence of neurotoxicity. Different concentrations of bacterial isolate with standard antidepressant was considered for analysing the vigour of toxicity and its influence on cognitive behaviour by novel tank diving method. The restrain in the animal behaviour was also conferred by all the test samples with a decreased bottom dwelling time which was authenticated with haematology and histopathological studies. The alterations in morphology of the lymphocytes were balanced by the treated test samples. This study paves a twofold potential of probiotic as neuroprotectant and immune modulator against heavy metal toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Zebrafish , Probiotics/analysis , Neuroprotection/immunology , Brain-Gut Axis/immunology , Lead/analysis , Bacteria/virology , Congenital Abnormalities/virology , Lymphocytes/microbiology , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Toxicity , Immunomodulation/immunology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Lactobacillus/immunology
11.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 30211, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291269

ABSTRACT

O sulfato de magnésio tem sido utilizado em obstetrícia por décadas e milhares de mulheres já foram incluídas em ensaios clínicos que estudaram sua eficácia em uma variedade de condições gestacionais. Os principais usos do medicamento na atual prática obstétrica incluem prevenção e tratamento de convulsões eclâmpticas, prolongamento da gravidez para administração antenatal de corticosteroides e neuroproteção fetal na iminência de interrupção prematura da gravidez. Em função da alta qualidade e da consistência dos resultados de importantes ensaios clínicos, a indicação do sulfato de magnésio para profilaxia e terapia das convulsões eclâmpticas está bem estabelecida. Entretanto, tal unanimidade não ocorre com relação ao seu emprego como tocolítico, tanto pela discussão sobre sua efetividade quanto pelas doses mais altas usualmente utilizadas para esse fim. Em relação à importância do sulfato de magnésio como agente neuroprotetor fetal, a paralisia cerebral é a causa mais comum de deficiência motora na infância e tem como fator de risco mais importante a prematuridade, cuja incidência tem aumentado significativamente. Diretrizes nacionais e internacionais mais recentes, baseadas em resultados de ensaios clínicos randomizados e metanálises de boa qualidade, mostraram que a administração antenatal de sulfato de magnésio na iminência de parto pré-termo precoce é uma intervenção eficiente, viável, segura, com boa relação custo-benefício e pode contribuir para a melhoria dos desfechos neurológicos neonatais.


Magnesium sulfate has been used in obstetrics for decades and thousands of women have already been included in clinical trials that have studied its effectiveness in a variety of gestational conditions. The main uses of the drug in current obstetrical practice include prevention and treatment of eclamptic seizures, prolongation of pregnancy for antenatal administration of corticosteroids, and fetal neuroprotection in the imminence of premature termination of pregnancy. Because of the high quality and consistency of the results of important clinical trials, the indication of magnesium sulfate for prophylaxis and therapy of eclamptic seizures is well established. However, such unanimity does not occur regarding its use as tocolytic, either by the discussion of its effectiveness or by the higher doses usually used for this purpose. Regarding the importance of magnesium sulfate as a fetal neuroprotective agent, cerebral palsy is the most common cause of motor deficits in childhood and has a significantly higher incidence of prematurity as a major risk factor. More recent national and international guidelines, based on results from randomized controlled trials and good quality meta-analyzes, have shown that the antenatal administration of magnesium sulfate at the imminence of early preterm delivery is a cost-effective, viable, efficient intervention and safe and can contribute to the improvement of neonatal neurological outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Obstetrics , Tocolysis , Cerebral Palsy , Eclampsia/drug therapy , Neuroprotection , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Magnesium
12.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 9(1): 1-7, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367562

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of the ethanolic extract obtained from red algae marine Meristiella echinocarpa (Areschougiaceae) ­ EEMe. Methods: EEMe was used in doses ranging from 10 to 40 mg/kg, administered intraperitoneally in mice. Behavioral tests were performed to assess locomotor activity (open field), anxiety (elevated plus maze), depression (tail suspension), and motor coordination (rota-rod). The anticonvulsant effect of the algae extract was evaluated in two models of seizures induced by strychnine and pentylenetetrazol. The level of oxidative stress was also evaluated in the following brain areas: the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. Statistical analysis was performed applying ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni test. Results: EEMe reduced significantly the number of crossing (36%) and rearing (54%) in the open field test and increased 1.3x the immobility time in the tail suspension test. In brain areas EEMe also reduced significantly malondialdehyde levels (striatum: 45%, hippocampus: 38%, prefrontal cortex: 37%) and nitrite levels (striatum: 72%, hippocampus: 79%, prefrontal cortex: 63%), and increased the reduced-glutathione levels (striatum: 72%, hippocampus: 73%, prefrontal cortex: 42%). In addition, the extract significantly prolonged the latency of seizures induced by strychnine (38%) or pentylenetetrazol (57%), and the latency of death induced by pentylenetetrazol (6.1x). Conclusion: EEMe exhibits antioxidant and anticonvulsant effects, probably involving GABAergic and glycinergic pathways.


Objetivos: este estudo teve como objetivo investigar os efeitos neuroprotetores do extrato etanólico da alga marinha vermelha Meristiella echinocarpa (Areschougiaceae) - EEMe. Métodos: EEMe foi utilizado em doses que variaram de 10 a 40 mg/kg, administrados via intraperitoneal em camundongos. Foram realizados testes comportamentais que avaliaram a atividade locomotora (campo aberto), a ansiedade (labirinto em cruz elevado), a depressão (suspensão em cauda) e a coordenação motora (rota-rod). O efeito anticonvulsivante do extrato da alga foi avaliado em dois modelos de convulsões por estricnina e pentilenotetrazol. Foi também realizada a avaliação do nível de estresse oxidativo nas seguintes áreas cerebrais: córtex pré-frontal, hipocampo e corpo estriado. A análise estatística foi realizada, aplicando a ANOVA seguida do teste de Bonferroni. Resultados: o EEMe reduziu, significativamente, o número de cruzamentos (36%) e o número de rearing (54%) no teste de campo aberto e aumentou, em 1,3x, o tempo de imobilidade no teste de suspensão pela cauda. Nas áreas cerebrais, o EEMe também reduziu, significativamente, os níveis de malondialdeído (estriado: 45%, hipocampo: 38%, córtex pré-frontal: 37%) e os níveis de nitrito (estriado: 72%, hipocampo: 79%, córtex pré-frontal: 63%) e aumentou a glutationa reduzida (estriado: 72%, hipocampo: 73%, córtex pré-frontal: 42%). Além disso, o EEMe prolongou, significativamente, a latência das convulsões induzidas por estricnina (38%) ou pentilenotetrazol (57%), e a latência da morte induzida por pentilenetetrazol (6,1x). Conclusão: o EEMe apresenta efeitos antioxidantes e anticonvulsivantes, provavelmente envolvendo as vias GABAérgica e glicinérgica.


Subject(s)
Seaweed , Strychnine , Seizures , Neuroprotective Agents , Neuroprotection , Motor Activity , Anticonvulsants
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(10): e361002, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349867

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a major cause of death and disability with a huge economic burden worldwide. Cerebrolysin (CBL) has been previously used as a nootropic drug. Necroptosis is a programmed cell death mechanism that plays a vital role in neuronal cell death after ICH. However, the precise role of necroptosis in CBL neuroprotection following ICH has not been confirmed. Methods: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects and potential molecular mechanisms of CBL in ICH-induced early brain injury (EBI) by regulating neural necroptosis in the C57BL/6 mice model. Mortality, neurological score, brain water content, and neuronal death were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, Evans blue extravasation, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The results show that CBL treatment markedly increased the survival rate, neurological score, and neuron survival, and downregulated the protein expression of RIP1 and RIP3, which indicated that CBL-mediated inhibition of necroptosis, and ameliorated neuronal death after ICH. The neuroprotective capacity of CBL is partly dependent on the Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway. Conclusions: CBL improves neurological outcomes in mice and reduces neuronal death by protecting against neural necroptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Necroptosis , Signal Transduction , Cerebral Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Apoptosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Neuroprotection , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/pharmacology , Amino Acids , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neurons/metabolism
14.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1412-1426, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922631

ABSTRACT

Endogenously eliminating the hematoma is a favorable strategy in addressing intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study sought to determine the role of retinoid X receptor-α (RXR-α) in the context of hematoma absorption after ICH. Our results showed that pharmacologically activating RXR-α with bexarotene significantly accelerated hematoma clearance and alleviated neurological dysfunction after ICH. RXR-α was expressed in microglia/macrophages, neurons, and astrocytes. Mechanistically, bexarotene promoted the nuclear translocation of RXR-α and PPAR-γ, as well as reducing neuroinflammation by modulating microglia/macrophage reprograming from the M1 into the M2 phenotype. Furthermore, all the beneficial effects of RXR-α in ICH were reversed by the PPAR-γ inhibitor GW9662. In conclusion, the pharmacological activation of RXR-α confers robust neuroprotection against ICH by accelerating hematoma clearance and repolarizing microglia/macrophages towards the M2 phenotype through PPAR-γ-related mechanisms. Our data support the notion that RXR-α might be a promising therapeutic target for ICH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anilides/pharmacology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hematoma/drug therapy , Macrophages , Microglia , Neuroprotection , PPAR gamma , Retinoid X Receptor alpha
15.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200171, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279405

ABSTRACT

Background Solitary wasp venoms may be a rich source of neuroactive substances, since their venoms are used for paralyzing preys. We have been exploring bioactive constituents of solitary wasp venoms and, in this study, the component profile of the venom from a solitary scoliid wasp, Scolia decorata ventralis, was investigated through a comprehensive analysis using LC-MS. Two peptides were synthesized, and their neuroprotective properties were evaluated. Methods A reverse-phase HPLC connected to ESI-MS was used for LC-MS analyses. Online mass fingerprinting was performed from TIC, and data-dependent tandem mass spectrometry gave the MS/MS spectra. The sequences of two major peptide components were determined by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis, confirmed by solid phase synthesis. Using the synthetic peptides, biological activities were assessed. Cell integrity tests and neuroprotection analyzes using H2O2 as an oxidative stress inducer were performed for both peptides. Results Online mass fingerprinting revealed that the venom contains 123 components, and the MS/MS analysis resulted in 33 full sequences of peptide components. The two main peptides, α-scoliidine (DYVTVKGFSPLR) and β-scoliidine (DYVTVKGFSPLRKA), present homology with the bradykinin C-terminal. Despite this, both peptides did not behave as substrates or inhibitors of ACE, indicating that they do not interact with this metallopeptidase. In further studies, β-scoliidine, but not α -scoliidine, showed protective effects against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells through integrity and metabolism cell assays. Interestingly, β-scoliidine has the extension of the KA dipeptide at the C-terminal in comparison with α-scoliidine. Conclusion Comprehensive LC-MS and MS/MS analyses from the Scolia decorata ventralis venom displayed the component profile of this venom. β-scoliidine showed an effective cytoprotective effect, probably due to the observed increase in the number of cells. This is the first report of solitary wasp venom peptides showing neuroprotective activity.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peptides/classification , Wasp Venoms , Wasps/metabolism , Neuroprotection , Oxidative Stress , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
16.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 109-116, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877177

ABSTRACT

@#Background and Objectives. Neuroprotection agents may help improve the outcomes of large vessel ischemic stroke. This study aims to explore the role of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO), with its well-documented anti-oxidant properties, in neuroprotection after transient occlusion of the extracranial internal carotid artery in a rat model of stroke. Methods. Twenty-three Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: 1) control group (n=11) given distilled water, and 2) treatment group (n=12) given virgin coconut oil at 5.15 ml/kg body weight for seven days. Subsequently, the rats underwent transient right extracranial internal carotid artery occlusion (EICAO) for 5 minutes using non-traumatic aneurysm clips. At 4 and 24 hours after EICAO, the animals were examined for neurologic deficits by an observer blinded to treatment groups, then sacrificed. Eight brain specimens (4 from each group) were subjected to histopathologic examination (H & E staining) while the rest of the specimens were processed using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining to determine infarct size and area of hemispheric edema. Results. VCO treatment significantly improved the severity of neurologic deficit (1.42 ± 2.31) compared to the control distilled water group (4.09 ± 2.59) 24 hours after EICAO. Whereas, infarct size and percent hemispheric edema did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusion. Prophylactic treatment of VCO is protective against EICAO-induced neurologic deficits in a rat model. VCO shows great potential as a neuroprotective agent for large vessel ischemic stroke. However, more studies are necessary to elucidate the neuroprotective mechanisms of VCO therapy in ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Palm Oil , Oxidants , Antioxidants , Neuroprotection , Ischemia , Stroke
17.
Rev Chil Anest ; 50(4): 576-581, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526286

ABSTRACT

Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol/remifentanil appears in the literatura as a good option for neurosurgical patients who have increased intracranial pressure (ICP),risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), need for neuromonitoring, and in those with impaired brain self-regulation. On the other hand, in patients with normal neurological status, normal ICP, a technique with volatile (halogenated) agents plus an opiiid can be used. This review describes two anesthetic techniques available for use in neurosurgery, highlighting the neurophysiological changes, advantages and disadvantages of each technique. MATERIAL AND METHOD: PubMed search engine was used for bibliographic search. DISCUSSION: The search for an ideal anesthetic in neurosurgery is still a matter of debate. There are numerous investigations aimed at finding an optimal agent that ensure the coupling between cerebral flow (CBF) and metabolism, keeping self-regulation intact without increasing the CBF and intracerebral pressure (ICP). CONCLUSIONS: Both anesthetic techniques, TIVA and volatile agents (halogenated), can be used in neurosurgical procedures and should provide neuroprotection, brain relaxation and a rapid awakening.


La anestesia total endovenosa (TIVA) con propofol/remifentanilo aparece en la literatura como una buena opción para pacientes neuroquirúrgicos que tienen aumento de la presión intracraneana (PIC), riesgo de náuseas y vómitos posoperatorios (NVPO), necesidad de neuromonitoreo, y en aquellos con alteración de la autorregulación cerebral. Por otra parte, en pacientes con estado neurológico normal, PIC normal puede usarse una técnica con agentes volátiles (halogenados) más un opioide. Esta revisión describe dos técnicas anestésicas disponibles para su uso en neurocirugía, destaca los cambios neurofisiológicos, ventajas y desventajas de cada técnica. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Para búsqueda bibliográfica se usó buscador PubMed. DISCUSIÓN: La búsqueda de un anestésico ideal en neurocirugía sigue siendo tema de debate. Existen numerosas investigaciones destinadas a buscar un agente óptimo que asegure el acoplamiento entre flujo sanguíneo cerebral (FSC) y metabolismo, manteniendo la autorregulación intacta sin aumentar el FSC y presión intracerebral (PIC). CONCLUSIONES: Ambas técnicas anestésicas, TIVA y agentes volátiles (halogenados), pueden ser usadas en procedimientos neuroquirúrgicos y deben brindar neuroprotección, relajación cerebral y un despertar rápido.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Anesthesia, Inhalation/methods , Anesthesia, Intravenous/methods , Anesthetics, Intravenous/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/chemically induced , Neuroprotection , Nervous System/drug effects
18.
Rev. chil. anest ; 50(1): 126-158, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512436

ABSTRACT

According to different publications, the neurological level most frequently involved in traumatic spinal cord injury is cervical (16%-75%), followed by thoracic (16%-36%) and lumbar (9%-17%). The abrupt interruption of nerve conduction at the spinal level causes spinal shock, characterized by an acute neurological, hemodynamic, respiratory and urinary compromise, which associates with thermoregulation problems. Neurological repercussions are characterized by a motor compromise, evidenced as flaccid paralysis with areflexia, sensory damage, abolition of sympathetic activity and loss of adaptive reflexes in the territory located below the lesion. The management of traumatic spinal cord, both, isolated or associated with multiple trauma, must begin at the scene of the accident. The current trend is towards a selective immobilization identifiying the group of patients in whom it will have a real benefit. Clinical features of spinal shock and other clinical aspects of the spinal cord injury are described in detail. Diagnosis should include a complete neurological examination including imaging studies. The type of image of choice is computerized axial tomography (CT). Different treatment alternatives are analyzed, including early or delayed descompressive surgery, methylprednisolone, neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. Finally, anesthetic management is described, the objective of which should be to reduce the movement of the lesion area (especially during positioning and the laryngoscopy and intubation maneuver) and to maintain the medullary perfusion pressure within normal limits. Postoperative care should focus on pain management, prevention of thromboembolic events and weaning from mechanical ventilation.


El nivel neurológico más frecuentemente comprometido en las lesiones raquimedulares por trauma es el cervical (16%-75%), seguido del torácico (16%-36%) y lumbar (9%-17%) según diferentes publicaciones. La brusca interrupción de la conducción nerviosa a nivel medular origina el cuadro de medular, caracterizado por un agudo compromiso neurológico, hemodinámico, respiratorio y urinario, asociado a problemas de termorregulación, con repercusiones neurológicas caracterizadas por un compromiso motor que se manifiesta como una parálisis fláccida con arreflexia, daño sensitivo, desaparición de la actividad simpática y pérdida de reflejos de adaptación en el territorio ubicado por debajo de la lesión. El manejo del trauna raquimedular asociado o no a politraumatismo debe inicirse en la escena del accidente; la tendencia actual es hacia una inmovilización selectiva, haciendo una identificación del grupo de pacientes en los que tendrá un real beneficio. Se describe detalladamente el cuadro de medular o espinal y otros aspectos clínicos de la sección medular. El diagnóstico debe incluir un examen neurológico completo y estudios de imagenología; el tipo de imagen de elección es la tomografía axial computarizada (TAC). Se analizan las diferentes alternativas de tratamiento: cirugía descompresiva precoz o diferida, metilprednisolona, neuroprotección y neurorregeneración. Finalmente se detalla el manejo anestésico, cuyo objetivo debe perseguir el menor movimiento de la zona de la lesión (especialmente durante el posicionamiento y la maniobra de laringoscopía e intubación) y el mantenimiento de la presión de perfusión medular dentro de los límites más estables posilbes. Los cuidados posoperatorios deben estar dirigidos especialmente al manejo de la analgesia, la prevención de la enfermedad tromboembólica y la desconexión de la ventilación mecánica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Cord Injuries/diagnosis , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , Postoperative Care , Spinal Cord Injuries/physiopathology , Blood Circulation , Body Temperature , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Decompression, Surgical , Airway Management , Arterial Pressure , Neuroprotection , Intubation , Anesthesia
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2223-2232, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142318

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da ω-conotoxina MVIIC e das células-tronco mesenquimais (CTM) de forma isolada e sua associação nos ratos submetidos ao trauma medular agudo (TMA). Trinta Rattus novergicus, linhagem Wistar, três meses de idade, foram distribuídos igualmente em cinco grupos experimentais: controle negativo (CN), controle positivo (CP), ω-conotoxina MVIIC (MVIIC), células-tronco mesenquimais da medula óssea (CTM-MO) e associação (MVIIC + CTM-MO). O grupo CN foi submetido à laminectomia sem trauma medular, e os grupos CP, MVIIC, CTM-MO e MVIIC + CTM-MO foram submetidos ao trauma medular contusivo. O grupo CP recebeu, uma hora após o TMA, 10µL de PBS estéril, e os grupos MVIIC e MVIIC + CTM-MO receberam 10µL de PBS contendo 20pmol da ω-conotoxina MVIIC, todos por via intratecal. Os grupos CTM-MO e MVIIC + CTM-MO receberam, 24 horas após, 1x106 de CTM via intravenosa. Avaliou-se a recuperação da função locomotora até o sétimo dia pós-trauma. Os animais tratados com MVIIC + CTM-MO obtiveram recuperação motora após o trauma medular agudo (P<0,05). Conclui-se que essa associação apresentou efeito neuroprotetor com melhora na função locomotora em ratos Wistar.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of isolated ω-conotoxin MVIIC and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and its association in rats submitted to acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Thirty Rattus norvegicus, Wistar strain, three-month-old rats were randomly distributed in five experimental groups with six animals: negative control (CN), positive control (CP), ω-conotoxin MVIIC (MVIIC), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (CTM-MO) and the association (MVIIC + CTM-MO). The CN group underwent laminectomy without spinal cord trauma, and groups CP, MVIIC, CTM-MO and MVIIC + CTM-MO were submitted to contusive spinal cord trauma. The CP group received 10µl of PBS one hour after SCI, and groups MVIIC and MVIIC + CTM-MO received 10µl of PBS containing 20pmol of ω-conotoxin MVIIC, both intrathecally. Groups CTM-MO and MVIIC + CTM-MO received 1x106 of MSCs intravenously 24 hours later. The recovery of locomotor function was evaluated up to seven days post-injury. The animals treated with MVIIC + CTM-MO obtained motor recovery after SCI (P<0.05). It is concluded that this association showed neuroprotective effect with improvements in locomotor function in Wistar rats.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Spinal Cord Injuries/rehabilitation , Calcium Channel Blockers , omega-Conotoxins/therapeutic use , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/veterinary , Neuroprotection , Rats, Wistar
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(5): 269-276, May 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131707

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Malfunctioning or damaged mitochondria result in altered energy metabolism, redox equilibrium, and cellular dynamics and is a central point in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to identify mitochondrial genetic susceptibility markers for neurodegenerative diseases. Potential markers include the respiratory chain enzymes Riboflavin kinase (RFK), Flavin adenine dinucleotide synthetase (FAD), Succinate dehydrogenase B subunit (SDHB), and Cytochrome C1 (CYC1). These enzymes are associated with neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. Objective: To test if variants in genes RFK, FAD, SDHB and CYC1 deviate from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) in different human mitochondrial haplogroups. Methods: Sequence variants in genes RFK, FAD, SDHB and CYC1 of 2,504 non-affected individuals of the 1,000 genomes project were used for mitochondrial haplogroup assessment and HWE calculations in different mitochondrial haplogroups. Results: We show that RFK variants deviate from HWE in haplogroups G, H, L, V and W, variants of FAD in haplogroups B, J, L, U, and C, variants of SDHB in relation to the C, W, and A and CYC1 variants in B, L, U, D, and T. HWE deviation indicates action of selective pressures and genetic drift. Conclusions: HWE deviation of particular variants in relation to global populational HWE, could be, at least in part, associated with the differential susceptibility of specific populations and ethnicities to neurodegenerative diseases. Our data might contribute to the epidemiology and diagnostic/prognostic methods for neurodegenerative diseases.


RESUMO Introdução: Mitocôndrias defeituosas ou danificadas resultam em alterações do metabolismo energético, equilíbrio redox e dinâmica celular e são, portanto, identificadas como o ponto central da patogênese em muitos distúrbios neurológicos, como a doença de Alzheimer, a doença de Parkinson, a doença de Huntington e a Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica. Portanto, é de fundamental importância identificar marcadores de susceptibilidade genética mitocondrial para doenças neurodegenerativas. Entre os potenciais marcadores relevantes estão as enzimas da cadeia respiratória riboflavina quinase (RFK), flavina adenina dinucleotídeo sintetase (FAD), succinato desidrogenase subunidade B (SDHB) e citocromo C1 (CYC1). Estas enzimas estão associadas à neuroproteção e à neurodegeneração. Objetivo: Testar se variantes nas sequências dos genes RFK, FAD, SDHB e CYC1 desviam do Equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg (HWE) em diferentes haplogrupos mitocondriais humanos. Métodos: Neste trabalho utilizamos os variantes nos genes RFK, FAD, SDHB e CYC1 de sequências de 2.504 indivíduos não afetados do projeto de 1.000 genomas para o cálculo dos valores de HWE em diferentes haplogrupos mitocondriais. Resultados: As variantes de RFK desviam de HWE nos haplogrupos G, H, L, V e W, variantes de FAD nos haplogrupos B, J, L, U e C, variantes de SDHB em relação às variantes C, W e A e CYC1 em B, L, U, D e T. O desvio de HWE indica a ação de pressões seletivas e desvio genético. Conclusões: O desvio do HWE de variantes particulares em relação ao HWE populacional global poderia estar, pelo menos em parte, associado à suscetibilidade diferencial de populações e etnias específicas a doenças neurodegenerativas. Nossos dados podem contribuir para a epidemiologia e métodos diagnósticos/prognósticos para doenças neurodegenerativas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Energy Metabolism , Neuroprotection , Mitochondria/chemistry
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