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1.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(2): 177-185, March-Apr. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439592

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The precise underlying mechanism of antioxidant effects of dexmedetomidine-induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia has not yet been fully elucidated. Activation of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) represents a major antioxidant-defense mechanism. Therefore, we determined whether dexmedetomidine increases Nrf2/HO-1 expression after global transient cerebral ischemia and assessed the involvement of Protein Kinase C (PKC) in the dexmedetomidine-related antioxidant mechanism. Methods Thirty-eight rats were randomly assigned to five groups: sham (n = 6), ischemic (n = 8), chelerythrine (a PKC inhibitor; 5 mg.kg-1 IV administered 30 min before cerebral ischemia) (n = 8), dexmedetomidine (100 µg.kg-1 IP administered 30 min before cerebral ischemia (n = 8), and dexmedetomidine + chelerythrine (n = 8). Global transient cerebral ischemia (10 min) was applied in all groups, except the sham group; histopathologic changes and levels of nuclear Nrf2 and cytoplasmic HO-1 were examined 24 hours after ischemia insult. Results We found fewer necrotic and apoptotic cells in the dexmedetomidine group relative to the ischemic group (p< 0.01) and significantly higher Nrf2 and HO-1 levels in the dexmedetomidine group than in the ischemic group (p< 0.01). Additionally, chelerythrine co-administration with dexmedetomidine attenuated the dexmedetomidine-induced increases in Nrf2 and HO-1 levels (p< 0.05 and p< 0.01, respectively) and diminished its beneficial neuroprotective effects. Conclusion Preischemic dexmedetomidine administration elicited neuroprotection against global transient cerebral ischemia in rats by increasing Nrf2/HO-1 expression partly via PKC signaling, suggesting that this is the antioxidant mechanism underlying dexmedetomidine-mediated neuroprotection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Protein Kinase C/pharmacology , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Oxidative Stress , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase-1/pharmacology , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3848-3854, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981517

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effect of tetramethylpyrazine on mice after spinal cord injury and its mechanism. Seventy-five female C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, namely, a sham operation group, a model group, a tetramethylpyrazine low-dose group(25 mg·kg~(-1)), a tetramethylpyrazine medium-dose group(50 mg·kg~(-1)), and a tetramethylpyrazine high-dose group(100 mg·kg~(-1)), with 15 mice in each group. Modified Rivlin method was used to establish the mouse model of acute spinal cord injury. After 14 d of tetramethylpyrazine intervention, the motor function of hind limbs of mice was evaluated by basso mouse scale(BMS) and inclined plate test. The levels of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6), and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) in the spinal cord homogenate were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe the histology of the spinal cord, and Nissl's staining was used to observe the changes in the number of neurons. Western blot and immunofluorescence method were used to detect the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP) and C3 protein. Tetramethylpyrazine significantly improved the motor function of the hind limbs of mice after spinal cord injury, and the BMS score and inclined plate test score of the tetramethylpyrazine high-dose group were significantly higher than those of the model group(P<0.01). The levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in spinal cord homogenate of the tetramethylpyrazine high-dose group were significantly decreased(P<0.01). After tetramethylpyrazine treatment, the spinal cord morphology recovered, the number of Nissl bodies increased obviously with regular shape, and the loss of neurons decreased. As compared with the model group, the expression of GFAP and C3 protein was significantly decreased(P<0.05,P<0.01) in tetramethylpyrazine high-dose group. In conclusion, tetramethylpyrazine can promote the improvement of motor function and play a neuroprotective role in mice after spinal cord injury, and its mechanism may be related to inhibiting inflammatory response and improving the hyperplasia of glial scar.


Subject(s)
Rats , Mice , Female , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spinal Cord Injuries/genetics , Spinal Cord/metabolism
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1927-1935, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981412

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the neuroprotective mechanism of ginsenoside Re(GS-Re) on drosophila model of Parkinson's disease(PD) induced by rotenone(Rot). To be specific, Rot was used to induce PD in drosophilas. Then the drosophilas were grouped and respectively treated(GS-Re: 0.1, 0.4, 1.6 mmol·L~(-1); L-dopa: 80 μmol·L~(-1)). Life span and crawling ability of drosophilas were determined. The brain antioxidant activity [content of catalase(CAT), malondialdehyde(MDA), reactive oxygen species(ROS), superoxide dismutase(SOD)], dopamine(DA) content, and mitochondrial function [content of adenosine triphosphate(ATP), NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit B8(NDUFB8) Ⅰ activity, succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit B(SDHB) Ⅱ activity] were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The number of DA neurons in the brains of drosophilas was measured with the immunofluorescence method. The levels of NDUFB8 Ⅰ, SDHB Ⅱ, cytochrome C(Cyt C), nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2(Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 2(Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-assaciated X protein(Bax), and cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 in the brain were detected by Western blot. The results showed that model group [475 μmol·L~(-1) Rot(IC_(50))] demonstrated significantly low survival rate, obvious dyskinesia, small number of neurons and low DA content in the brain, high ROS level and MDA content, low content of SOD and CAT, significantly low ATP content, NDUFB8 Ⅰ activity, and SDHB Ⅱ activity, significantly low expression of NDUFB8 Ⅰ, SDHB Ⅱ, and Bcl-2/Bax, large amount of Cyt C released from mitochondria to cytoplasm, low nuclear transfer of Nrf2, and significantly high expression of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 compared with the control group. GS-Re(0.1, 0.4, and 1.6 mmol·L~(-1)) significantly improved the survival rate of PD drosophilas, alleviated the dyskinesia, increased DA content, reduced the loss of DA neurons, ROS level, and MDA content in brain, improved content of SOD and CAT and antioxidant activity in brain, maintained mitochondrial homeostasis(significantly increased ATP content and activity of NDUFB8 Ⅰ and SDHB Ⅱ, significantly up-regulated expression of NDUFB8 Ⅰ, SDHB Ⅱ, and Bcl-2/Bax), significantly reduced the expression of Cyt C, increased the nuclear transfer of Nrf2, and down-regulated the expression of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3. In conclusion, GS-Re can significantly relieve the Rot-induced cerebral neurotoxicity in drosophilas. The mechanism may be that GS-Re activates Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway by maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis, improves antioxidant capacity of brain neurons, then inhibits mitochondria-mediated caspase-3 signaling pathway, and the apoptosis of neuronal cells, thereby exerting the neuroprotective effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/genetics , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Drosophila/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Apoptosis , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacology
4.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 873-879, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009152

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanism of cytosolic phospholipase A2(cPLA2) inhibitor to improve neurological function after spinal cord injury (SCI).@*METHODS@#Thirty-six 3 months old female SD rats, with body mass (280±20) g, were divided into three groups (n=12):sham group, SCI group, and SCI+ arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone(AACOCF3) group. Balloon compression SCI model was established in all three groups. In the sham model group, the spinal cord compression model was created after the balloon was placed without pressure treatment, and the remaining two groups were pressurized with the balloon for 48 h. After successful modeling, rats in the SCI+AACOCF3 group were injected intraperitoneally with AACOCF3, a specific inhibitor of cPLA2. The remaining two groups of rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline. The animals were sacrificed in batches on 7 and 14 days after modeling, respectively. And the damaged spinal cord tissues were sampled for pathomorphological observation, to detect the expression of cPLA2 and various autophagic fluxPrelated molecules and test the recovery of motor function.@*RESULTS@#Spinal cord histomorphometry examination showed that the spinal cord tissue in the sham group was structurally intact, with normal numbers and morphology of neurons and glial cells. In the SCI group, spinal cord tissue fractures with large and prominent spinal cord cavities were seen. In the SCI+AACOCF3 group, the spinal cord tissue was more intact than in the SCI group, with more fused spinal cord cavities, more surviving neurons, and less glial cell hyperplasia. Western blot showed that the sham group had the lowest protein expression of LC3-Ⅱ, Beclin 1, p62, and cPLA2 compared with the SCI and SCI+AACOCF3 groups (P<0.05) and the highest protein expression of LC3-Ⅰ (P<0.05). P62 and cPLA2 expression in the SCI group were higher than in the SCI+AACOCF3 group (P<0.05). Behavioral observations showed that the time corresponding to BBB exercise scores was significantly lower in both the SCI and SCI+AACOCF3 groups than in the sham group (P<0.05). Scores at 3, 7, and 14 days after pressurization were higher in the SCI+AACOCF3 group than in the SCI group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#cPLA2 inhibitors can reduce neuronal damage secondary to SCI, promote neurological recovery and improve motor function by improving lysosomal membrane permeability and regulating autophagic flux.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Spinal Cord Injuries/drug therapy , Spinal Cord Compression
5.
Biol. Res ; 56: 27-27, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The underlying mechanism of Parkinson's disease are still unidentified, but excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation are considered key actors. Proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors involved in the control of numerous pathways. Specifically, PPARß/δ is recognized as an oxidative stress sensor, and we have previously reported that it plays a detrimental role in neurodegeneration. METHODS: Basing on this concept, in this work, we tested the potential effects of a specific PPARß/δ antagonist (GSK0660) in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease. Specifically, live-cell imaging, gene expression, Western blot, proteasome analyses, mitochondrial and bioenergetic studies were performed. Since we obtained promising results, we tested this antagonist in a 6-hydroxydopamine hemilesioned mouse model. In the animal model, behavioral tests, histological analysis, immunofluorescence and western blot of substantia nigra and striatum upon GSK0660 were assayed. RESULTS: Our findings suggested that PPARß/δ antagonist has neuroprotective potential due to neurotrophic support, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative effects paralleled to an amelioration of mitochondria and proteasome activity. These findings are strongly supported also by the siRNA results demonstrating that by silencing PPARß/δ a significative rescue of the dopaminergic neurons was obtained, thus indicating an involvement of PPARß/δ in PD's pathogenesis. Interestingly, in the animal model, GSK0660 treatment confirmed neuroprotective effects observed in the in vitro studies. Neuroprotective effects were highlighted by the behavioural performance and apomorphine rotation tests amelioration and the reduction of dopaminergic neuronal loss. These data were also confirmed by imaging and western blotting, indeed, the tested compound decreased astrogliosis and activated microglia, concomitant with an upregulation of neuroprotective pathways. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, PPARß/δ antagonist displayed neuroprotective activities against 6-hydroxydopamine detrimental effects both in vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease, suggesting that it may represent a novel therapeutic approach for this disorder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , PPAR-beta , Oxidopamine , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
6.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 333-352, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939569

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms underlying exercise-induced neuroprotective effects after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remained elusive, and there is a lack of effective treatments for TBI. In this study, we investigated the effects of an integrative approach of exercise and Yisaipu (TNFR-IgG fusion protein, TNF inhibitor) in a mouse TBI model. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to a sedentary group or a group that followed a voluntary exercise regimen. The effects of 6-week prophylactic preconditioning exercise (PE) alone or in combination with post-TBI Yisaipu treatment on moderate TBI associated deficits were examined. The results showed that combined treatments of PE and post-TBI Yisaipu were superior to single treatments on reducing sensorimotor and gait dysfunctions in mice. These functional improvements were accompanied by reduced systemic inflammation largely via decreased serum TNF-α, boosted autophagic flux, and mitigated lesion volume after TBI. Given these neuroprotective effects, composite approaches such as a combination of exercise and TNF inhibitor may be a promising strategy for facilitating functional recovery from TBI and are worth further investigation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Recovery of Function , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(8): e360804, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339007

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a common complication of cerebral vascular disease. Hydrogen has been reported to alleviate early brain injury (EBI) through oxidative stress injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and autophagy. Autophagy is a programmed cell death mechanism that plays a vital role in neuronal cell death after SAH. However, the precise role of autophagy in hydrogen-mediated neuroprotection following SAH has not been confirmed. Methods: In the present study, the objective was to investigate the neuroprotective effects and potential molecular mechanisms of hydrogen-rich saline in SAH-induced EBI by regulating neural autophagy in the C57BL/6 mice model. Mortality, neurological score, brain water content, ROS, malondialdehyde (MDA), and neuronal death were evaluated. Results: The results show that hydrogen-rich saline treatment markedly increased the survival rate and neurological score, increased neuron survival, downregulated the autophagy protein expression of Beclin-1 and LC3, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. That indicates that hydrogen-rich saline-mediated inhibition of autophagy and ER stress ameliorate neuronal death after SAH. The neuroprotective capacity of hydrogen-rich saline is partly dependent on the ROS/Nrf2/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that hydrogen-rich saline improves neurological outcomes in mice and reduces neuronal death by protecting against neural autophagy and ER stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Brain Injuries , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy , Brain , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis , Oxidative Stress , Hydrogen/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(10): e361002, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349867

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a major cause of death and disability with a huge economic burden worldwide. Cerebrolysin (CBL) has been previously used as a nootropic drug. Necroptosis is a programmed cell death mechanism that plays a vital role in neuronal cell death after ICH. However, the precise role of necroptosis in CBL neuroprotection following ICH has not been confirmed. Methods: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects and potential molecular mechanisms of CBL in ICH-induced early brain injury (EBI) by regulating neural necroptosis in the C57BL/6 mice model. Mortality, neurological score, brain water content, and neuronal death were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, Evans blue extravasation, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The results show that CBL treatment markedly increased the survival rate, neurological score, and neuron survival, and downregulated the protein expression of RIP1 and RIP3, which indicated that CBL-mediated inhibition of necroptosis, and ameliorated neuronal death after ICH. The neuroprotective capacity of CBL is partly dependent on the Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway. Conclusions: CBL improves neurological outcomes in mice and reduces neuronal death by protecting against neural necroptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Necroptosis , Signal Transduction , Cerebral Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Apoptosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Neuroprotection , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/pharmacology , Amino Acids , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neurons/metabolism
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 380-387, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878984

ABSTRACT

One new and two known dammarane-type saponins were isolated from the leaves of Gynostemma pentaphyllum using various chromatographic methods. Their structures were identified by HR-ESI-MS,~( 1)H-NMR, ~(13)C-NMR, 2 D-NMR spectra as 2α,3β,12β,20,24(S)-tetrahdroxydammar-25-en-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside(1, a new compound, namely gypenoside J5) and 2α,3β,12β,20,24(R)-tetrahdroxydammar-25-en-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside(2) and 2α,3β,12β,20-tetrahydroxy-25-hydroperoxy-dammar-23-en-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)][β-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-O-[β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucopy-ranoside(3), respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 were a pair of C-24 epimers. All compounds showed weak cytotoxicity agxinst H1299, HepG2, PC-3, SH-SY5 Y cancer cell lines. However, they exerted protective effect against SH-SY5 Y cellular damage induced by H_2O_2 dose-dependently, of which compound 1 displayed the strongest antioxidant effect. The present study suggested that G. pentaphyllum has antioxidative potential and the saponins from G. pentaphyllum are considered as the active compounds with neuroprotecitve effect.


Subject(s)
Gynostemma , Molecular Structure , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Saponins/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e10498, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153543

ABSTRACT

It is known that neuronal apoptosis contributes to pathology of cerebral ischemia injury. Zonisamide (ZNS) has shown anti-apoptosis effects in recent studies. The present study investigated whether the anti-apoptotic effect can account for the neuroprotective action of ZNS on cerebral ischemia. Neuronal cells were maintained under oxygen-glucose deprivation conditions to simulate cerebral ischemia and treated with ZNS simultaneously. The apoptosis of the cells and expression of apoptosis-related proteins were investigated by flow cytometry and western blot analysis, respectively. A cerebral ischemia mouse model was created via middle cerebral artery occlusion, and the mice were treated with ZNS. Neurological deficit scores and infarct volumes of the cerebral ischemia mice were measured. The apoptosis status of the neuronal cells was evaluated by TUNEL staining. In vitro, the ZNS treatment inhibited both the apoptosis of the neuronal cells and apoptosis-related protein expression (caspase-3, caspase-8, and calpain-1) induced by the oxygen-glucose deprivation. The anti-apoptosis effect of ZNS could occur through the blocking of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, ZNS treatment significantly ameliorated neurological deficits and reduced infarct volumes in the cerebral ischemia mice model. In this study, ZNS exerted neuroprotective effects by inhibition of apoptosis in neuronal cells in cerebral ischemia. Therefore, ZNS might be a promising therapy for cerebral ischemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Zonisamide/pharmacology
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 523-529, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098282

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the morphometric and the pattern of protein and gene expression related to the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in experimental focal cerebral ischemia and the hole of neuroprotection with hypothermia and ketoprofen. For this analysis, 120 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (20 animals each): control - no surgery (20 animals); sham - simulation of surgery (20 animals); ischemic - focal ischemia for 1 hour, without reperfusion (80 animals) and divided into four subgroups with 20 animals each: ischemic + intraischemic hypothermia; ischemic + previous intravenous ketoprofen, and ischemic + hypothermia and ketoprofen. The infarct volume was measured using morphometric analysis of infarct areas defined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and the patterns of expression of the apoptosis genes (Fas, c-Flip, caspase-8 and caspase-3) and the apoptosis protein caspase-3 were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Hypo expression of genes of extrinsic pathway of apoptosis was observed: Fas receptor, c-Flip and caspase-8 in the ischemics areas. Increases in the gene and protein caspase-3 in the ischemic areas were also observed, and these increases were reduced by hypothermia and ketoprofen, also noted in the morphometric study. The caspases-3 increase suggests that this gene plays an important role in apoptosis, probably culminating in cell death and that the neuroprotective effect of hypothermia and ketoprofen is involved.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la morfometría y el patrón de expresión de proteínas y genes relacionados con la vía apoptótica extrínseca en la isquemia cerebral focal experimental y el agujero de neuroprotección con hipotermia y ketoprofeno. Se dividieron aleatoriamente 120 ratas en 3 grupos (20 animales cada uno): control - sin cirugía (20 animales); simulación - simulación de cirugía (20 animales); isquemia isquemia focal durante 1 hora, sin reperfusión (80 animales) y dividida en cuatro subgrupos con 20 animales cada uno: isquemia + hipotermia intraisquémica; isquemia + ketoprofeno intravenoso previo, e isquemia + hipotermia y ketoprofeno. El volumen del infarto se midió utilizando un análisis morfométrico de áreas de infarto definidas por cloruro de trifenil tetrazolio y los patrones de expresión de los genes de apoptosis (Fas, c-Flip, caspase-8 y caspase-3) y la proteína de apoptosis caspase-3 fueron evaluados por PCR cuantitativa en tiempo real e inmunohistoquímica, respectivamente. Se observó hipoexpresión de genes de la vía extrínseca de la apoptosis: receptor Fas, c-Flip y caspasa-8 en las áreas isquémicas. También se observaron aumentos en el gen y la proteína caspasa-3 en las áreas isquémicas y estos aumentos se redujeron por hipotermia y ketoprofeno, también observado por estudio morfométrico. El aumento de caspasas-3 sugiere que este gen tiene un papel importante en la apoptosis, y probable causa de muerte celular, involucrando el efecto neuroprotector de la hipotermia y el ketoprofeno.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Brain Ischemia/genetics , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Ketoprofen/pharmacology , Apoptosis/genetics , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Caspase 3/genetics , Caspase 8/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hypothermia, Induced
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190072, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132180

ABSTRACT

Abstract In live organisms, there is a balance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their neutralization. The increased level of these species leads to a condition called redox imbalance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective action of isobenzofuranones in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons subjected to redox imbalance. To accomplish this, MTT and LIVE/DEAD assays were initially performed. In the cultures pretreated with isobenzofuranones 1 and 2, there was a higher number of live cells when compared to that in the untreated ones. Regarding redox imbalance, there was a significant increase in the intracellular levels of ROS. The cultures pretreated with isobenzofuranones showed a reduction in ROS levels. Lipid peroxidation caused by oxidative damage was significantly reduced in the cultures pretreated with isobenzofuranones 1 and 2. Taken together, these data show the ability of isobenzofuranones 1 and 2 to significantly minimize cytotoxicity, cell death, intracellular levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation induced by redox imbalance. These results suggest that isobenzofuranones 1 and 2 represent a possible alternative therapy for the neurodegenerative disturbances that are triggered by ROS production increases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Hydrogen Peroxide , Benzofurans/chemical synthesis , Cell Death , Primary Cell Culture , Hippocampus/cytology , Neurons/metabolism
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(4): e202000406, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130636

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the role of Rosmarinic acid (RA) in the prevention of traumatic brain injury and the immunohistochemical analysis of IBA-1 and GFAP expressions. Methods Healthy male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups consisting of 10 rats. Groups were as follows; control group, traumatic brain injury (TBI) group, and TBI+RA group. After traumatic brain injury, blood samples were taken from the animals and analyzed with various biochemical markers. And then IBA-1 and GFAP expressions were evaluated immunohistochemically. Results Significant results were obtained in all biochemical parameters between groups. Immunohistochemical sections showed IBA-1 not only in microglia and macrophage activity but also in degenerative neurons in blood vessel endothelial cells. However, GFAP reaction and post-traumatic rosmarinic acid administration showed positive expression in astrocytes with regular structure around the blood vessel. Conclusion Rosmarinic acid in blood vessel endothelial cells showed that preserving the integrity of astrocytic structure in the blood brain barrier may be an important antioxidant.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Calcium-Binding Proteins/analysis , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Craniotomy/methods , Depsides/pharmacology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/prevention & control , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/analysis , Microfilament Proteins/analysis , Reference Values , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Astrocytes/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/surgery , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/pathology , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis
14.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 459-479, sept. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008268

ABSTRACT

Neuronal cell damage is often caused by prolonged misuse of Methylphenidate (MPH). Topiramate (TPM) carries neuroprotective properties but its assumed mechanism remains unclear. The present study evaluates in vivo role of various doses of TPM and its mechanism against MPH-induced motor activity and related behavior disorder. Thus, we used domoic acid (DOM), bicuculline (BIC), Ketamine (KET), Yohimibine (YOH) and Haloperidole (HAL) as AMPA/kainite, GABAA, NMDA, ɑ2 adrenergic and D2 of dopamine receptor antagonists respectively. Open Field Test (OFT), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Forced Swim Test (FST) were used to study motor activity, anxiety and depression level. TPM (100 and 120 mg/kg) reduced MPH-induced rise and inhibited MPH-induced promotion in motor activity disturbance, anxiety and depression. Pretreatment of animals with KET, HAL, YOH and BIC inhibited TPM- improves anxiety and depression through the interacting with Dopaminergic, GABAA, NMDA and ɑ2-adrenergic receptors.


El daño a las células neuronales a menudo es causado por el uso prolongado de metilfenidato (MPH). El topiramato (TPM) tiene propiedades neuroprotectoras, pero su mecanismo de acción no es claro. El presente estudio evalúa el papel in vivo de varias dosis de TPM y su mecanismo contra la actividad motora inducida por MPH y el trastorno de comportamiento relacionado. Utilizamos ácido domoico (DOM), bicuculina (BIC), ketamina (KET), yohimbina (YOH) y haloperidol (HAL), así como antagonistas AMPA/kainato, GABAA, NMDA, ɑ2-adrenérgico y D2 dopaminérgicos, respectivamente. Se utilizaron las pruebas de campo abierto (OFT), elevación de laberinto (EPM) y natación forzada (FST) para estudiar la actividad motora, la ansiedad y el nivel de depresión. El TPM (100 y 120 mg/kg) redujo el aumento inducido por MPH e inhibió la promoción inducida por MPH en la alteración de la actividad motora, la ansiedad y la depresión. El tratamiento previo de animales con KET, HAL, YOH y BIC inhibió el TPM, mejora la ansiedad y la depresión a través de la interacción con los receptores dopaminérgicos, GABAA, NMDA y ɑ2-adrenérgico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Topiramate/pharmacology , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Methylphenidate/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism , Mental Disorders/chemically induced , Motor Activity/drug effects
15.
Rev. invest. clín ; 71(2): 116-123, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289677

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Adenosine A1 receptor (AA1R) is widely present in the central nervous system, exerting brain protective antiepileptic effects, mainly by binding corresponding G proteins. We evaluated the neuroprotective effects of AA1R on hippocampal neuronal injury after lithium chloride-pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in rats. Materials and Methods A total of 60 male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 15/group): normal control, epilepsy, epilepsy + AA1R antagonist (DPCPX), and epilepsy + AA1R agonist (2-CAdo). An epilepsy model was established through kindling by lithium chloride-pilocarpine. The four groups were observed on days 1, 14, and 30. Pathological and morphological changes of hippocampal neurons were observed by HE staining; apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. Caspase-3 and GABA receptor expressions were detected by Western blot. Results In the hippocampal CA3 area of the epilepsy group, the cellular structure was not neatly arranged, and some neurons were swelling, thick, and incomplete. Compared with the epilepsy group at the same time point, cells in the epilepsy + DPCPX group had an increased distortion, disorganization, edema, cytoplasmic vacuoles, and degeneration. In the epilepsy + 2-CAdo group, cell arrangement was regular and orderly, and structural damages were lessened. Compared with the normal control group at the same time point, the epilepsy group underwent evident neuronal apoptosis, with a significantly higher apoptotic index (AI) (p < 0.05). Compared with the epilepsy group, the neuronal apoptosis of the epilepsy + DPCPX group was boosted, and the AI significantly increased (p < 0.05). The neuronal apoptosis of the epilepsy + 2-CAdo group was inhibited, and the AI significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Compared with the epilepsy group, the caspase-3 expression levels of the epilepsy + DPCPX group on days 14 and 30 were significantly upregulated (p < 0.05), but those of the epilepsy + 2-CAdo group were significantly downregulated (p < 0.05). Conclusions AA1R abated cell edema and reduced apoptosis, exerting neuroprotective effects on hippocampal neuronal injury after lithium chloride-pilocarpine-induced epilepsy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Hippocampus/drug effects , Pilocarpine/toxicity , Time Factors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/drug effects , Lithium Chloride/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/pathology , Neurons/pathology
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(1): 39-46, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983876

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: We investigated the protective effect of the extract of the Camellia japonica L. flower on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: The rat ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 minutes and reperfusion for 48 hours. The animals received an intravenous injection once a day of 20, 40, 80 mg/kg extract of C. japonica for three consecutive days before the ischemia reperfusion. The learning and memory function, the infarct volume, serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level and lactate dehydrogenase activity, and extravasation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) into cerebral parenchyma were assessed as the cell damage index. Results: Pretreatment with extract of C. japonica markedly reduced the infarct volume, serum malondialdehyde level and lactate dehydrogenase activity, and markedly inhibited the extravasation of IgG. Moreover, pretreatment with extract of C. japonica may also inhibit the learning and memory deficits induced by an ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conclusion: It was concluded that pretreatment with extract of C. japonica has a protective effect on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigamos o efeito protetor do extrato da flor de Camellia japonica L. (ECJ) na lesão de reperfusão isquêmica cerebral (I/R) em ratos. Métodos: A lesão de I/R de rato foi induzida por uma oclusão da artéria cerebral média por 90 minutos e reperfusão por 48 horas. Os animais receberam uma injeção intravenosa uma vez ao dia de 20, 40, 80 mg/kg de ECJ por três dias consecutivos antes da I/R. A função de aprendizagem e memória, o volume do infarto, o nível sérico de malondialdeído (MDA), a atividade da desidrogenase láctica e o extravasamento de imunoglobulina (IgG) no parênquima cerebral foram avaliados como índices de dano celular. Resultados: O pré-tratamento com ECJ reduziu acentuadamente o volume do infarto, o nível sérico de MDA e a atividade da desidrogenase láctica, e inibiu marcadamente o extravasamento de IgG. Além disso, o pré-tratamento com ECJ também poderia inibir os déficits de aprendizado e memória induzidos pela lesão de I/R. Conclusão: O pré-tratamento com ECJ tem um efeito protetor contra lesão cerebral de I/R em ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Camellia/chemistry , Swimming/physiology , Time Factors , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Nimodipine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/analysis , Malondialdehyde/blood
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4219-4224, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008283

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive and therapeutic effects of Erzhi Pills on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine( MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease( PD) in mice,and explore its possible mechanism of action. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with MPTP( 30 mg·kg-1,0. 01 m L·g-1) once daily to induce PD for 8 days. In the treatment group,Erzhi Pills were given by intragastric administration( 2. 5 g·kg-1,once daily for 30 days). The normal group received an equal volume of normalsaline. In terms of behavior,the limb movement coordination ability of the mice was detected by climbing,hanging and swimming experiments. The spatial learning and memory ability of the mice was detected by Morris water maze test. The content of MDA,as well as the activity of GSH-PX and SOD were determined in mice serum. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression levels of TH,MAOB and apoptosis-related factors CHOP and caspase-12 in brain tissues. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of TH in section of brain tissues in mice. The results showed that in behavioral aspects,as compared with the model group,the scores of limb movement ability as well as scores of spatial learning and memory ability were significantly improved in the treatment groups( P<0. 05). In terms of serological indicators,as compared with the model group,the activities of SOD and GSH-PX were significantly increased in the serum of treatment groups,and the content of MDA was significantly decreased( P<0. 05). The results of Western blot showed that as compared with the model group,the protein levels of TH in the brain tissues of the mice in treatment group were significantly up-regulated,while the protein levels of MAOB and apoptosis-related factors CHOP and caspase-12 were significantly down-regulated( P<0. 05). The results of immunohistochemistry showed that the number of TH positive cells in the brain tissues of the mice in the treatment group was significantly increased as compared with the model group( P<0. 05). In summary,Erzhi Pills have a certain preventive and therapeutic effect on MPTP-induced PD mice,which can significantly improve the limb motor coordination ability and spatial learning and memory ability of PD mice. Its mechanism may be related to down-regulating the expression of apoptosis-related factors CHOP and caspase-12,reducing the dopaminergic neuron damage and inhibiting dopaminergic neuronal apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Parkinson Disease , Substantia Nigra
18.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(12): e201901205, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054687

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the effects of huperzine A (HupA) on hippocampal inflammatory response and neurotrophic factors in aged rats after anesthesia. Methods Thirty-six Sprague Dawley rats (20-22 months old) were randomly divided into control, isofluran, and isoflurane+HupA groups; 12 rats in each group. The isoflurane+HupA group was intraperitoneally injected with 0.2 mg/kg of HupA. After 30 min, isoflurane inhalation anesthesia was performed in the isoflurane and isoflurane+HupA groups. After 24 h from anesthesia, Morris water maze experiment and open-field test were performed. Hippocampal inflammatory and neurotrophic factors were determined. Results Compared with isoflurane group, in isofluran+HupA group the escape latency of rats was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), the original platform quadrant residence time and traversing times were significantly increased (P < 0.05), the central area residence time was significantly increased (P < 0.05), the hippocampal tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6 and interleukin 1β levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the hippocampal nerve growth factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Conclusion HupA may alleviate the cognitive impairment in rats after isoflurane anesthesia by decreasing inflammatory factors and increasing hippocampal neurotrophic factors in hippocampus tissue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Hippocampus/drug effects , Nerve Growth Factors/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Interleukin-6/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Maze Learning , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Hippocampus/metabolism , Isoflurane/adverse effects , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Nerve Growth Factors/analysis
19.
Clinics ; 74: e674, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019700

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and erythropoietin (EPO) in experimental acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. METHODS: Using standardized equipment, namely, a New York University (NYU) Impactor, a SCI was produced in 50 Wistar rats using a 10-g weight drop from a 12.5-mm height. The rats were divided into the following 5 groups of 10 animals each: "Group EPO", treated with erythropoietin only; "Group EPO + IL-6", treated with both substances; "Group IL-6", receiving IL-6 administration only; "Group Placebo", receiving a placebo solution; and "Group Sham", submitted to an incomplete procedure (only laminectomy, without SCI). All drugs and the placebo solution were administered intraperitoneally for three weeks. The animals were followed up for 42 days. Functional motor recovery was monitored by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale on days 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. Motor-evoked potential tests were performed on the 42nd day. Histological analysis was performed after euthanasia. RESULTS: The group receiving EPO exhibited superior functional motor results on the BBB scale. IL-6 administration alone was not superior to the placebo treatment, and the IL-6 combination with EPO yielded worse results than did EPO alone. CONCLUSIONS: Using EPO after acute SCI in rats yielded benefits in functional recovery. The combination of EPO and IL-6 showed benefits, but with inferior results compared to those of isolated EPO; moreover, isolated use of IL-6 resulted in no benefit.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spinal Cord Injuries/drug therapy , Erythropoietin/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/therapeutic use , Evoked Potentials, Motor/drug effects , Spinal Cord Injuries/pathology , Erythropoietin/pharmacology , Interleukin-6/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Recovery of Function/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(2): 117-124, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886260

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To observe the efficacy of phosphocreatine pre-administration (PCr-PA) on X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), the second mitochondia-derived activator of caspase (Smac) and apoptosis in the ischemic penumbra of rats with focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI). Methods: A total of 60 healthy male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=20): group A (the sham operation group), group B <intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg (10 mg/ml) of saline before preparing the ischemia-reperfusion (IR) model>, and group C <intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg (10 mg/ml) of PCr immediately before preparing the IR model>. After 24 h for reperfusion, the neurological function was evaluated and the tissue was sampled to detect expression of XIAP, Smac and caspase-3 positive cells in the ischemic penumbra so as to observe the apoptosis. Results: Compared with group B, neurological deficit scores, numbers of apoptotic cells, expression of Smac,caspase-9 and the numbers of Caspase-3 positive cells were decreased while expression of XIAP were increased in the ischemic penumbra of group C. Conclusions: Phosphocreatine pre-administration may elicit neuroprotective effects in the brain by increasing expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, reducing expression of second mitochondia-derived activator of caspase, and inhibiting the apoptosis in the ischemic penumbra.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Phosphocreatine/pharmacology , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein/metabolism , Random Allocation , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Caspase 3/metabolism
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