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Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 857-870, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-949882


Neuroinflammation is a key contributor to the pathogenic cascades induced by hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insult in the neonatal brain. AD-16 is a novel anti-inflammatory compound, recently found to exert potent inhibition of the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators. In this study, we evaluated the effect of AD-16 on primary astrocytes and neurons under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro and in mice with neonatal HI brain injury in vivo. We demonstrated that AD-16 protected against OGD-induced astrocytic and neuronal cell injury. Single dose post-treatment with AD-16 (1 mg/kg) improved the neurobehavioral outcome and reduced the infarct volume with a therapeutic window of up to 6 h. Chronic administration reduced the mortality rate and preserved whole-brain morphology following neonatal HI. The in vitro and in vivo effects suggest that AD-16 offers promising therapeutic efficacy in attenuating the progression of HI brain injury and protecting against the associated mortality and morbidity.

Animals , Animals, Newborn , Astrocytes/pathology , Brain/pathology , Brain Injuries/pathology , Glucose , Hypoxia , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/drug therapy , Mice , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Oxygen/therapeutic use
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939794


OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the effect of echinacoside (ECH) on cognitive dysfunction in post cerebral stroke model rats.@*METHODS@#The post stroke cognitive impairment rat model was created by occlusion of the transient middle cerebral artery (MCAO). The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups by a random number table: the sham group (sham operation), the MCAO group (received operation for focal cerebral ischemia), and the ECH group (received operation for focal cerebral ischemia and ECH 50 mg/kg per day), with 6 rats in each group. The infarct volume and spatial learning were evaluated by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining and Morris water maze. The expression of α7nAChR in the hippocampus was detected by immunohistochemistry. The contents of acetylcholine (ACh), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), activities of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and catalase (CAT) were evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The neural apoptosis and autophagy were determined by TUNEL staining and LC3 staining, respectively.@*RESULTS@#ECH significantly lessened the brain infarct volume and ameliorated neurological deficit in infarct volume and water content (both P<0.01). Compared with MCAO rats, administration of ECH revealed shorter escape latency and long retention time at 7, 14 and 28 days (all P<0.01), increased the α7nAChR protein expression, ACh content, and ChAT activity, and decreased AChE activity in MCAO rats (all P<0.01). ECH significantly decreased MDA content and increased the GSH content, SOD, and CAT activities compared with MCAO rats (all P<0.05). ECH suppressed neuronal apoptosis by reducing TUNEL-positive cells and also enhanced autophagy in MCAO rats (all P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#ECH treatment helped improve cognitive impairment by attenuating neurological damage and enhancing autophagy in MCAO rats.

Acetylcholinesterase , Animals , Autophagy , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Cerebral Infarction , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Glutathione/metabolism , Glycosides , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Stroke/drug therapy , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 505-512, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-948575


The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of glutamate scavenger oxaloacetate (OA) combined with CGS21680, an adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonist, on acute traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to moderate-level TBI by controlled cortical impact, and then were treated with OA, CGS21680, or OA combined with CGS21680 at acute stage of TBI. At 24 h post TBI, neurological severity score, brain water content, glutamate concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), mRNA and protein levels of IL-1β and TNF-α, mRNA level and activity of glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase (GOT), and ATP level of brain tissue were detected. The results showed that neurological deficit, brain water content, glutamate concentration in CSF, and the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and TNF-α production were exacerbated in CGS21680 treated mice. Administrating OA suppressed the rise of both glutamate concentration in CSF and brain water content, and elevated the ATP level of cerebral tissue. More interestingly, neurological deficit, brain edema, glutamate concentration, IL-1β and TNF-α levels were ameliorated significantly in mice treated with OA combined with CGS21680. The combined treatment exhibited better therapeutic effects than single OA treatment. We also observed that GOT activity was enhanced in single CGS21680 treatment group, and both the GOT mRNA level and GOT activity were up-regulated in early-stage combined treatment group. These results suggest that A2AR can improve the efficiency of GOT and potentiate the ability of OA to metabolize glutamate. This may be the mechanism that A2AR activation in combination group augmented the neuroprotective effect of OA rather than aggravated the brain damages. Taken together, the present study provides a new insight for the clinical treatment of TBI with A2AR agonists and OA.

Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists/therapeutic use , Adenosine Triphosphate , Animals , Brain Injuries/metabolism , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/metabolism , Glutamic Acid , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Oxaloacetic Acid/therapeutic use , RNA, Messenger , Receptor, Adenosine A2A/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Water
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928942


OBJECTIVE@#To reveal the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of a mixture of the main components of Panax notoginseng saponins (TSPN) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) of cultured cortical neurons.@*METHODS@#The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays. The morphology of dendrites was detected by immunofluorescence. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was developed in rats as a model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by neurological scoring, tail suspension test, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Nissl stainings. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to measure the changes in the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.@*RESULTS@#MTT showed that TSPN (50, 25 and 12.5 µ g/mL) protected cortical neurons after OGD/R treatment (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays indicated that 25 µ g/mL TSPN decreased neuronal apoptosis (P<0.05), and immunofluorescence showed that 25 µ g/mL TSPN restored the dendritic morphology of damaged neurons (P<0.05). Moreover, 12.5 µ g/mL TSPN downregulated the expression of Beclin-1, Cleaved-caspase 3 and LC3B-II/LC3B-I, and upregulated the levels of phosphorylated (p)-Akt and p-mTOR (P<0.01 or P<0.05). In the MCAO model, 50 µ g/mL TSPN improved defective neurological behavior and reduced infarct volume (P<0.05). Moreover, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B in cerebral ischemic penumbra was downregulated after 50 µ g/mL TSPN treatment, whereas the p-mTOR level was upregulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#TSPN promoted neuronal survival and protected dendrite integrity after OGD/R and had a potential therapeutic effect by alleviating neurological deficits and reversing neuronal loss. TSPN promoted p-mTOR and inhibited Beclin-1 to alleviate ischemic damage, which may be the mechanism that underlies the neuroprotective activity of TSPN.

Animals , Beclin-1 , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Glucose , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Mammals/metabolism , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Oxygen , Panax notoginseng , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Saponins/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887880


Sevoflurane is one of the most commonly used inhaled anesthetics in obstetric and pediatric general anesthesia.According to related literature,this article reviews major possible mechanisms including myelin formation damage,nerve inflammation,cell apoptosis,oxidative stress,inhibition of histone acetylation,synapsis and receptor changes of sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in animal experiments.Furthermore,we summarize the neuroprotection effects and functioning mechanisms of anti-anemia medicine,plant-based drugs,alpha 2 adrenoceptor agonists and others,aiming to provide a basis for the brain protection of fetuses and infants during the perioperative period.

Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Animals , Apoptosis , Brain , Child , Female , Humans , Methyl Ethers , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress , Pregnancy , Sevoflurane
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(2): 218-224, Mar.-Apr. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089257


Current pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease (PD) is palliative and unable to modify the progression of neurodegeneration. Treatments that can improve patients' quality of life with fewer side effects are needed, but not yet available. Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic constituent of cannabis, has received considerable research attention in the last decade. In this context, we aimed to critically review the literature on potential therapeutic effects of CBD in PD and discuss clinical and preclinical evidence supporting the putative neuroprotective mechanisms of CBD. We searched MEDLINE (via PubMed) for indexed articles published in English from inception to 2019. The following keywords were used: cannabis; cannabidiol and neuroprotection; endocannabinoids and basal ganglia; Parkinson's animal models; Parkinson's history; Parkinson's and cannabidiol. Few studies addressed the biological bases for the purported effects of CBD on PD. Six preclinical studies showed neuroprotective effects, while three targeted the antidyskinetic effects of CBD. Three human studies have tested CBD in patients with PD: an open-label study, a case series, and a randomized controlled trial. These studies reported therapeutic effects of CBD on non-motor symptoms. Additional research is needed to elucidate the potential effectiveness of CBD in PD and the underlying mechanisms involved.

Humans , Animals , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Cannabidiol/therapeutic use , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Clinical Studies as Topic
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(5): 466-481, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283634


Neurodegeneration is a progressive loss of neurons both structurally and functionally causing neuronal cell death ultimately leading to development of various neurodegenerative diseases. Due to poor pharmacokinetic profile of neurotrophins, there still remains a challenge in their neurotrophic therapy where plants, bacteria and fungi, as natural products, could act as promising candidates against various neurological disorders by modulating the neurotrophic activity. Therefore, these natural products that mimic neurotrophins, could develop novel therapeutic approaches to herbal drug that can ameliorate neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and other associated neurological disorders. Taking into account the failure of strategies involving single neurotrophins for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, we propose a combination of small molecules of natural products that may work synergistically to restore neuronal functions, minimize side effects and target multiple pathways for a more effective treatment.

La neurodegeneración es una pérdida progresiva de neuronas, tanto estructural como funcional, que causa la muerte neuronal, lo que conduce al desarrollo de diversas enfermedades neurodegenerativas. Debido al pobre perfil farmacocinético de las neurotrofinas, existe un desafío en su terapia neurotrófica donde plantas, bacterias y hongos, como productos naturales, podrían actuar como candidatos contra diversos trastornos neurológicos al modular la actividad neurotrófica. Estos productos naturales que asemejan a las neurotrofinas podrían desarrollar enfoques terapéuticos novedosos como medicamentos a base de hierbas que pueden mejorar enfermedades neurodegenerativas como: Parkinson, Alzheimer y otros trastornos neurológicos asociados. Teniendo en cuenta el fracaso de las estrategias terapéuticas de neurotrofinas para las enfermedades neurodegenerativas, proponemos una combinación de pequeñas moléculas de productos naturales que pueden funcionar sinérgicamente para restaurar las funciones neuronales, minimizar los efectos secundarios y apuntar a múltiples vías para un tratamiento más efectivo.

Humans , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Signal Transduction , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy
Biol. Res ; 52: 28, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011430


BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a common disease that occurs during the perinatal period. The primary cause of neonatal HIE is related to fetal intrauterine anoxia. Carbamylated erythropoietin (CEPO), a derivative of erythropoietin (EPO), does not exert any erythropoietic effect; however, the neuroprotective effects resemble those of EPO. Previous studies have shown the potential benefits of CEPO on the central nervous system. The present study aimed to investigate the role of CEPO in neuronal apoptosis during intrauterine HIE and the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: To validate our hypothesis, we established an intrauterine HIE model by occluding the bilateral uteroovarian arteries of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared to the I/R group, neuronal apoptosis in the CEPO group was significantly lower at 4, 12, 24, and 48 h (P < 0.05). CEPO significantly inhibited CC3 expression (P < 0.05) during the early-stages after ischemia-reperfusion (0.5, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h), upregulated Bcl-2 expression, and downregulated Bax expression at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Carbamylated erythropoietin pretreatment inhibited the expression of proapoptotic protein CC3 in brain and regulated the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, resulting in reduced neuronal apoptosis and thus resulting in a protective effect on intrauterine HIE.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Erythropoietin/analogs & derivatives , Apoptosis/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/prevention & control , Time Factors , Erythropoietin/therapeutic use , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Disease Models, Animal
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(supl.2): 88-93, set. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-955021


Las encefalitis autoinmunes son un nuevo grupo de enfermedades de gran trascendencia clínica y terapéutica debido a la buena respuesta en gran parte de los casos a la terapia inmunomoduladora indicada, con un gran porcentaje de curación, sin secuelas neurológicas importantes (cognitivo, motor, crisis o movimientos involuntarios). En el año 2007 se demostró la presencia de auto anticuerpos neuronales en la patogenia de este grupo de enfermedades, con síntomas psicóticos y de movimientos involuntarios como indicadores de la enfermedad. La presente revisión enfatiza el salto crucial y el cambio de paradigmas suscitados tras el descubrimiento de estas encefalitis asociadas a anticuerpos.

Autoimmune encephalitis is a new group of diseases of great clinical and therapeutic importance due to the good response in most cases to the immunomodulatory therapy indicated, with a large percentage of healing without significant neurological effects (cognitive, motor, seizures or involuntary movements). Since 2007, the presence of neuronal autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of this group of diseases has been demonstrated, with psychotic symptoms and involuntary movements as clinical markers of the disease. The present review emphasizes the crucial leap and change of paradigms arising after the discovery of these encephalitis associated with antibodies.

Humans , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Hashimoto Disease/diagnosis , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Encephalitis/drug therapy , Hashimoto Disease/drug therapy , Hashimoto Disease/blood , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Antibodies/blood
Rev. bras. neurol ; 53(4): 27-37, out.-dez. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-876891


Introdução: A Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica (ELA) é definida como uma doença neurológica progressiva e inexorável, com cerca de 80% dos casos de etiologia desconhecida. Novos medicamentos têm emergido no tratamento de doenças neurodegenerativas, inclusive na ELA, redesenhando o modelo fisiopatológico. Dentre eles, destacam-se o uso da: Edaravone, Vitamina K2, Serina, Metilcobalamina, Pirroloquinolina quinona (PQQ), Ubiquinol e Glutationa. Especificamente na ELA, alguns já foram validados em estudos randomizados-controlados. Metodologia: Atualização da literatura (PUBMED, Medline) sobre a utilização desses fármacos em doenças neurológicas degenerativas, com enfoque para a Doença do Neurônio Motor (DNM-ELA), nos idiomas Português, Inglês, Espanhol e Francês, compreendidos entre os anos de (2010-2017). Discussão: A associação desses medicamentos tem mostrado resultados positivos em inúmeras doenças neurológicas. Alguns, como, por exemplo, a Metilcobalamina e o Edaravone,exerceriam mecanismos de ação capazes de interferir no processo de depleção dos neurônios motores da ponta anterior e do feixe piramidal em pacientes com ELA. Conclusão: Seria precipitado concluir que o uso associado desses fármacos poderia modificar ou mesmo restaurar os danos às unidades motoras; entretanto, faz-se necessário destacar seus mecanismos de ação e potencial capacidade de intervir na evolução da doença, principalmente, a partir de estudos em modelos fisiopatológico que culminam na degeneração dos neurônios motores.(AU)

Introduction: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is defined as a progressive and inexorable neurological disease, with about 80% of cases of unknown etiology. New drugs have emerged in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including ALS, redesigning the pathophysiological model. Among them, the use of: Edaravone, Vitamin K2, Serine, Methylcobalamin, Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), Ubiquinol and Glutathione are noteworthy. Specifically in ALS, some have been validated in randomized controlled trials. Methodology: Update of the literature (PUBMED, Medline) on the use of these drugs in degenerative neurological diseases, with a focus on Motor Neuron Disease (DNM-ELA) in the Portuguese, English, Spanish and French languages, of (2010-2017). Discussion: The association of these drugs has shown positive results in neurological diseases. Some, such as Methylcobalamin and Edaravone, would exert mechanisms of action capable of interfering in the process of depletion of the motor neurons of the anterior horn and pyramidal tracts in patients with ALS. Conclusion: It would be precipitate to conclude that the associated use of these drugs could modify or even restore damage to motor units; however, it is necessary to highlight its mechanisms of action and potential ability to intervene in the evolution of the disease, mainly from studies in pathophysiological models that culminate in the degeneration of motor neurons (AU)

Humans , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/physiopathology , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/drug therapy , Motor Neurons/pathology , Serine/therapeutic use , Vitamin K/therapeutic use , Review Literature as Topic , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(8): 515-522, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888317


ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the impact of epidemiological and clinical factors on the benefit of riluzole in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods The survival rate of 578 patients with ALS (1999-2011) was analyzed by descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier curves. Considering the median of the sample survival time (19 months), patients were divided in two groups: below (B19) and above the median (A19). Kaplan-Meier curves compared the survival rates of patients treated with riluzole and with patients who did not take the medication. Results Riluzole increased the survival rates of patients with lower limb onset who were diagnosed after the first appointment in B19. Patients with bulbar onset and diagnosed on the first, or after the first appointment showed higher survival rates in A19. Males lived longer than females in both groups. Conclusion Epidemiological and clinical factors influenced the benefit of riluzole in the survival rates of patients with ALS.

RESUMO Objetivo Investigar o impacto de fatores epidemiológicos e clínicos sobre o benefício do riluzole em pacientes com esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA). Métodos A sobrevida de 578 pacientes com ELA (1999-2011) foi analisada por estatística descritiva e curvas de Kaplan-Meier. Considerando a mediana do tempo de sobrevida (19 meses), a amostra foi subdividida em dois grupos: sobrevida abaixo (B19) e acima de 19 meses (A19). As curvas de Kaplan-Meier compararam a sobrevida de pacientes tratados com riluzole e com pacientes que não receberam tratamento. Resultados O riluzole aumentou a sobrevida de pacientes com início nos membros inferiores e diagnosticados após a primeira consulta no grupo B19. Pacientes com início bulbar e diagnosticados na primeira/ após a primeira consulta apresentaram maior sobrevida em A19. Os homens apresentaram sobrevida maior do que as mulheres. Conclusão Foram encontradas diferenças epidemiológicas e clínicas no benefício do riluzole em pacientes com ELA.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Riluzole/therapeutic use , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/mortality , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/drug therapy , Bulbar Palsy, Progressive/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Survival Rate , Prospective Studies , Electromyography , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/diagnosis
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(6): 387-393, June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838922


ABSTRACT Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects 1.3 million North Americans, with more than half occurring after trauma. In Brazil, few studies have evaluated the epidemiology of SCI with an estimated incidence of 16 to 26 per million per year. The final extent of the spinal cord damage results from primary and secondary mechanisms that start at the moment of the injury and go on for days, and even weeks, after the event. There is convincing evidence that hypotension contributes to secondary injury after acute SCI. Surgical decompression aims at relieving mechanical pressure on the microvascular circulation, therefore reducing hypoxia and ischemia. The role of methylprednisolone as a therapeutic option is still a matter of debate, however most guidelines do not recommend its regular use. Neuroprotective therapies aiming to reduce further injury have been studied and many others are underway. Neuroregenerative therapies are being extensively investigated, with cell based therapy being very promising.

RESUMO O traumatismo raquimedular (TRM) afeta 1.3 milhão de norte americanos, sendo mais da metade secundário a trauma.No Brasil, pouco estudos avaliaram sistematicamente a epidemiologia do TRM, mas estima-se uma incidência de 16 a 26 por milhão por ano. A extensão final do dano medular é resultante de mecanismos primários e secundários, que começam no momento do evento e prosseguem por dias e até semanas seguintes. Há fortes evidências de que a hipotensão contribua para danos secundários pós TRM. A cirurgia descompressiva visa a aliviar a compressão mecânica sobre a microcirculação, assim reduzindo isquemia e hipóxia. O papel da metilprednisolona no tratamento de pacientes com TRM é controverso, não sendo recomandada pela maior parte das diretrizes atuais. Terapias neuroprotetoras visando a reduzir injúria adicional foram e vêm sendo estudadas. Terapias neurorregenerativas estão sob investigação ampla, sendo a terapia celular uma forte promessa.

Humans , Spinal Cord Injuries/complications , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Trauma Severity Indices , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Decompression, Surgical
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(6): 583-593, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829717


Abstract This study was designed to investigate whether dexmedetomidine and thiopental have cerebral protective effects after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control group (Group C, n = 10), dexmedetomidine group (Group D, n = 10), thiopental group (Group T, n = 10). After all rats were anesthetized, they were intubated, then mechanically ventilated. A catheter was inserted into the right femoral artery for continuous mean arterial pressure, physiological parameters and blood sampling at baseline, 5 min after occlusion and 20 min after reperfusion. A catheter was inserted into the left femoral vein for intravenous (IV) medication administration. Right common carotid artery of each rat was isolated and clamped for 45 min. At the end of the duration common carotid artery were unclamped and the brain reperfusion was achieved for 90 min. Dexmedetomidine was administered for Group D IV infusion, and Group T received thiopental IV. According to histopathologic scores cerebral ischemia was documented in all rats in Group C, but no ischemia was found in three rats in Group T and in four rats in Group D. Grade 3 cerebral ischemia was documented in three rats in Group C, and in only one rat in both groups T and D. For histopathologic grades the difference between Group T and Group D was not significant (p > 0.05). But the differences between Group C and Group T (p < 0.05) and Group C and Group D (p < 0.01) were statically significant. In conclusion, we demonstrated that dexmedetomidine and thiopental have experimental histopathologic cerebral protective effects on experimental focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

Resumo Este estudo foi desenhado para investigar se dexmedetomidina e tiopental têm efeitos protetores cerebrais após isquemia cerebral focal em ratos. Trinta ratos da linhagem Sprague Dawley foram randomicamente alocados em três grupos: controle (Grupo C, n = 10), dexmedetomidina (Grupo D, n = 10) e tiopental (Grupo T, n = 10). Após a anestesia, foram intubados e ventilados mecanicamente. Um cateter foi inserido na artéria femoral direita para monitoração contínua da pressão arterial média (PAM) e dos parâmetros fisiológicos e para coleta de amostras de sangue na fase basal, 5 minutos após a oclusão e 20 minutos após a reperfusão. Um cateter foi inserido na veia femoral esquerda para administração intravenosa (IV) de medicamentos. A artéria carótida comum direita de cada rato foi isolada e pinçada durante 45 minutos. No fim dos 45 minutos, o pinçamento foi removido e a reperfusão do cérebro foi obtida por 90 minutos. Dexmedetomidina foi administrada por infusão IV no Grupo D e tiopental no Grupo T. De acordo com as pontuações histopatológicas, isquemia cerebral foi observada em todos os ratos do Grupo C, mas não foi encontrada em três ratos do Grupo T e em quatro ratos do Grupo D. O grau 3 de isquemia cerebral foi encontrada em três ratos do grupo C e em apenas um rato de ambos os grupos T e D. Para os graus histopatológicos, a diferença entre o Grupo T e o Grupo D não foi significativa (p > 0,05). Porém, as diferenças entre o Grupo C e o Grupo T (p < 0,05) e entre o Grupo C e o Grupo D (p < 0,01) foram estatisticamente significativas. Em conclusão, demonstramos que dexmedetomidina e tiopental têm efeitos histopatológicos protetores cerebrais sobre isquemia cerebral focal experimental em ratos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Thiopental/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Anesthesia
Rev. med. interna Guatem ; 20(3): 18-23, sept.-dic. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-994584


El evento cerebrovascular isquémico es una de las principales patologías crónicas de mayor prevalencia a nivel mundial, con tasas altas de mortalidad y discapacidad, con impacto significativo en el ámbito laboral, familiar, social, personal y sanitario. El campo de la neurocirugía endovascular se ha incorporado en las últimas décadas al manejo de enfermedades vasculares, siendo una de las opciones más eficientes para el tratamiento de las mismas por el impacto que tiene sobre la vida del paciente. El presente trabajo de revisión tiene como principal objetivo describir el abordaje de la enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica aguda, desde su enfoque endovascular, basado en evidencia científica actual y lineamientos vigentes. Se realizó un análisis de los resultados obtenidos en estudios clínicos y de los protocolos más recientes publicados en artículos de revisión de bibliotecas virtuales y revistas científicas con rigurosas normas de publicación. Conforme a la revisión realizada, el tratamiento de la enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica aguda puede abordarse de dos maneras dependiendo del tiempo transcurrido desde el inicio de los síntomas. Si únicamente han transcurrido 4.5 horas desde el inicio de los síntomas y el paciente cumple con criterios bien establecidos, el tratamiento de elección será trombólisis IV (tratamiento estándar). Si han transcurrido más de 4.5 horas (máximo 12 hrs.) o paciente presenta alguna contraindicación para recibir el tratamiento estándar, se deberá manejar con trombólisi intraarterial, trombólisis combinada, trombectomía mecánica o angioplastía con stent (cirugía de precisión); todos ellos definidos como tratamiento endovascular, según sea el caso. El tratamiento endovascular ha permitido ampliar el periodo de atención del evento cerebrovascular isquémico, demostrando su efectividad y reduciendo la discapacidad y mortalidad asociadas...(AU)

The ischemic cerebrovascular event is one of the most important chronic diseases because of its highest prevalence worldwide. It has high rates of mortality and disability, with a significant impact in the labor, family, social, personal and health areas. The field of endovascular neurosurgery has been incorporated in the last decades to the management of vascular diseases; being one of the most efficient options for their treatment because of its effect in patient´s life expectancy. The main objective of this review was to describe the endovascular approach to acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease based on current scientific evidence and guidelines. An analysis of clinical studies and recent protocols was done. According to this review, treatment of acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease can be approached in two ways depending on the time elapsed since the onset of symptoms. If only 4.5 hours have elapsed since the onset of symptoms and the patient meets all inclusion criteria, the treatment of choice will be IV thrombolysis (standard treatment). If more than 4.5 hours have elapsed (maximum 12 hours) or patient has any contraindication to receive standard treatment, it should be treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis, combined thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy or angioplasty with stenting; all defined as endovascular treatment. The endovascular treatment has allowed to extend the period of attention of the ischemic cerebrovascular event, demonstrating its effectiveness and reducing the associated disability and mortality...(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Stroke/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Neurosurgery/methods , Cytidine Diphosphate Choline/pharmacology , Guatemala
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(9): e5287, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788941


Inflammation plays a pivotal role in ischemic stroke, when activated microglia release excessive pro-inflammatory mediators. The inhibition of integrin αvβ3 improves outcomes in rat focal cerebral ischemia models. However, the mechanisms by which microglia are neuroprotective remain unclear. This study evaluated whether post-ischemic treatment with another integrin αvβ3 inhibitor, the cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide-cGRGDdvc (LXW7), alleviates cerebral ischemic injury. The anti-inflammatory effect of LXW7 in activated microglia within rat focal cerebral ischemia models was examined. A total of 108 Sprague-Dawley rats (250–280 g) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After 2 h, the rats were given an intravenous injection of LXW7 (100 μg/kg) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Neurological scores, infarct volumes, brain water content (BWC) and histology alterations were determined. The expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)], and Iba1-positive activated microglia, within peri-ischemic brain tissue, were assessed with ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Infarct volumes and BWC were significantly lower in LXW7-treated rats compared to those in the MCAO + PBS (control) group. The LXW7 treatment lowered the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. There was a reduction of Iba1-positive activated microglia, and the TNF-α and IL-1β expressions were attenuated. However, there was no difference in the Zea Longa scores between the ischemia and LXW7 groups. The results suggest that LXW7 protected against focal cerebral ischemia and attenuated inflammation in activated microglia. LXW7 may be neuroprotective during acute MCAO-induced brain damage and microglia-related neurodegenerative diseases.

Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Microglia/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 20(12): 3827-3838, Dez. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-770626


Resumo O processo de transição demográfica brasileiro tem levado a substancial envelhecimento populacional e a aumento na prevalência de síndromes demenciais, entre as quais se destaca a Doença de Alzheimer (DA). Desde 2002, o tratamento farmacológico da doença possui Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas (PCDT) específico e os medicamentos recomendados são de financiamento pelo Ministério da Saúde. O estudo investigou a aquisição dos medicamentos utilizados no tratamento da DA a partir do Sistema Integrado de Administração de Serviços Gerais, traçando um perfil evolutivo das quantidades adquiridas, gastos e preços praticados no período de 2008 a 2013. Foram analisados os dados relativos a todas as apresentações adquiridas, inclusive as ausentes do PCDT. Os preços unitários foram deflacionados para dezembro/2013, pelo IPCA. Foram compradas mais de 47 milhões de unidades e gastos R$ 90,1 milhões com medicamentos para DA. Destaca-se nos gastos a participação da rivastigmina em suas diversas apresentações. Medicamentos não indicados pelo PCDT representaram 3% dos gastos, com percentuais de compra associados ao atendimento de ações judiciais pouco expressivos. No período, ocorreu redução dos preços médios ponderados corrigidos de todos os medicamentos, mesmo dos não presentes no PCDT.

Abstract The demographic transition in Brazil has led to substantial aging of the population and an increased prevalence of age-related diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). The Brazilian Ministry of Health finances AD medication and, since 2002, a Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines (PCDT) for this condition have been made available. This study investigated the acquisition of medication for AD in the Integrated System of Administration of General Services (SIASG) database. A profile of purchases, expenditures and prices from 2008 to 2013 was prepared. All medication and forms of treatment of AD were investigated, including those not contained in the PCDT protocol. Unit prices were deflated to December 2013 by the IPCA (Brazilian Pricing Index). More than 47 million units of medication for AD were acquired and expenditures attained 90.1 million Brazilian reals. The purchase of the various administration routes of rivastigmine were in the forefront. Medication not listed in the protocol represented 3% of expenditures and purchases resulting from health litigation were negligible. Over the period, a reduction of corrected weighted average prices of PCDT and non-PCDT medication was observed.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Health Expenditures , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Brazil , Population Dynamics , Prevalence , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Alzheimer Disease/economics , Rivastigmine/therapeutic use
Invest. clín ; 56(4): 377-388, dic. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-829032


El ácido valproico, que además de ser un conocido antiepiléptico, una serie de trabajos en los últimos años lo proponen como un agente neuroprotector. En éste trabajo se investigó primeramente, si el ácido valproico protege a las neuronas del daño producido por el estrés oxidativo inducido por la isquemia-reperfusión en el cerebro de ratas sanas sometidas a la oclusión transitoria de la arteria cerebral media derecha; en segundo lugar, se indagó si este fármaco induce cambios en la expresión de Bcl-2 y caspasa 3-activada como un posible mecanismo de acción sobre la muerte celular del tipo apoptótico. La evaluación neurológica de los animales que fueron sometidos a isquemia/reperfusión y recibieron ácido valproico fue mejor que los que no lo recibieron. Por otro lado, los niveles de malondialdehído en el hemisferio cerebral derecho en las ratas tratadas con ácido valproico fueron inferiores a los del mismo hemisferio del grupo control, mientras la cantidad de proteínas carboniladas se redujeron un 67% en comparación al grupo control. Además, se encontró por western blot, que en homogeneizados de tejido cerebral de los animales sometidos a isquemia/reperfusión y que recibieron ácido valproico, hubo un aumento significativo de la densidad de las bandas correspondientes a Bcl-2 y una disminución de caspasa 3-activada en comparación a los que no fueron tratados con este fármaco. Se concluye que el tratamiento con ácido valproico previno el déficit neurológico en ratas sanas sometidas a isquemia-reperfusión, bloqueando el efecto de los radicales libres sobre lípidos y proteínas de la corteza cerebral afectada y se sugiere que posiblemente este fármaco interviene en la muerte por apoptosis inducida durante este tipo de lesión, pudiendo ser una alternativa terapéutica en el tratamiento de la isquemia cerebral.

Valproic acid, apart from being known as an anti-epileptic drug, has been proposed in the past few years, as a neuroprotective agent. The purpose of this study was to investigate firstly, if valproic acid protects the neurons from the damage produced by oxidative stress induced by ischemia-reperfusion in the brain of healthy rats, under the transitory occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery. Secondly it was studied if this antiepileptic drug induces changes on the expression of Bcl-2 and activated caspase-3 as a possible mechanism of action on apoptosis. The neurological evaluation of the animals that were subject to ischemia-reperfusion and received valproic acid was better than the ones who didn’t receive it. On another subject, the levels of malondialdehyde on the right cerebral hemisphere in the rats treated with valproic acid were below the levels of the control group in the same hemisphere, whereas the amount of carbonylated proteins was reduced by 67% compared to the control group. Besides, it was found by western blot, that in homogenized brain tissue of the animals under ischemia-reperfusion which received valproic acid, there was a rise on the density of the bands corresponding to Bcl-2, and a reduction of activated 3-capase in comparison to the ones who were not treated with the antiepileptic drug. It’s concluded that the treatment with valproic acid prevented the neurological deficit in healthy rats under Ischemia-reperfusion, blocking the effect of free radicals on lipids and proteins of the affected brain cortex, and it is suggested that the same drug intervenes on apoptosis induced during this type of damage, being able to be a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of cerebral ischemia.

Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Valproic Acid/therapeutic use , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/biosynthesis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/drug effects , Caspase 3/drug effects , Caspase 3/physiology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Clinics ; 70(10): 700-705, Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762955


OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the functional and histological effects of estrogen as a neuroprotective agent after a standard experimentally induced spinal cord lesion.METHODS:In this experimental study, 20 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one group with rats undergoing spinal cord injury (SCI) at T10 and receiving estrogen therapy with 17-beta estradiol (4mg/kg) immediately following the injury and after the placement of skin sutures and a control group with rats only subjected to SCI. A moderate standard experimentally induced SCI was produced using a computerized device that dropped a weight on the rat's spine from a height of 12.5 mm. Functional recovery was verified with the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale on the 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd days after injury and by quantifying the motor-evoked potential on the 42nd day after injury. Histopathological evaluation of the SCI area was performed after euthanasia on the 42nd day.RESULTS:The experimental group showed a significantly greater functional improvement from the 28th to the 42nd day of observation compared to the control group. The experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in the motor-evoked potential compared with the control group. The results of pathological histomorphometry evaluations showed a better neurological recovery in the experimental group, with respect to the proportion and diameter of the quantified nerve fibers.CONCLUSIONS:Estrogen administration provided benefits in neurological and functional motor recovery in rats with SCI beginning at the 28th day after injury.

Animals , Male , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Recovery of Function/drug effects , Spinal Cord Injuries/physiopathology , Analysis of Variance , Evoked Potentials, Motor/drug effects , Neurons/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Spinal Cord Injuries/drug therapy , Time Factors
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(6): 515-522, 06/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748224


We evaluated the effect of puerarin on spatial learning and memory ability of mice with chronic alcohol poisoning. A total of 30 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into model, puerarin, and control groups (n=10 each). The model group received 60% (v/v) ethanol by intragastric administration followed by intraperitoneal injection of normal saline 30 min later. The puerarin group received intragastric 60% ethanol followed by intraperitoneal puerarin 30 min later, and the control group received intragastric saline followed by intraperitoneal saline. Six weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and Tru Scan behavioral tests and immunofluorescence staining of cerebral cortex and hippocampal neurons (by Neu-N) and microglia (by Ib1) were conducted. Glutamic acid (Glu) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) in the cortex and hippocampus were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β were determined by ELISA. Compared with mice in the control group, escape latency and distance were prolonged, and spontaneous movement distance was shortened (P<0.05) by puerarin. The number of microglia was increased in both the cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01), and neurons were reduced only in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01) in puerarin-treated mice. In the model group, Glu and GABA levels decreased (P<0.05), and Glu/GABA, TNF-α, and IL-1β increased (P<0.01) with puerarin treatment, returning to near normal levels. In conclusion, puerarin protected against the effects of chronic alcohol poisoning on spatial learning and memory ability primarily because of anti-inflammatory activity and regulation of the balance of Glu and GABA.

Animals , Male , Ethanol/poisoning , Isoflavones/therapeutic use , Maze Learning/drug effects , Memory Disorders/prevention & control , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Spatial Memory/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Alcoholism/complications , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cerebral Cortex/chemistry , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Glutamic Acid/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Memory Disorders/chemically induced , Memory Disorders/drug therapy , Microglia/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/analysis
Clinics ; 70(1): 52-60, 1/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-735866


OBJECTIVES: Prevention of the development of paraplegia during the repair of the damage caused by descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysms remains an important issue. Therefore, we investigated the protective effect of atorvastatin on ischemia-induced spinal cord injury in a rabbit model. METHOD: Thirty-two rabbits were divided into the following four equally sized groups: group I (control), group II (ischemia-reperfusion), group III (atorvastatin treatment) and group IV (atorvastatin withdrawal). Spinal cord ischemia was induced by clamping the aorta both below the left renal artery and above the iliac bifurcation. Seventy-two hours postoperatively, the motor function of the lower limbs of each animal was evaluated according to the Tarlov score. Spinal cord and blood samples were obtained for histopathological and biochemical analyses. RESULTS: All of the rabbits in group II exhibited severe neurological deficits. Atorvastatin treatment (groups III and IV) significantly reduced the level of motor dysfunction. No significant differences were observed between the motor function scores of groups III and IV at the evaluated time points. Light microscopic examination of spinal cord tissue samples obtained at the 72nd hour of reperfusion indicated greater tissue preservation in groups III and IV than in group II. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the considerable neuroprotective effect of atorvastatin on the neurological, biochemical and histopathological status of rabbits with ischemia-induced spinal cord injury. Moreover, the acute withdrawal of atorvastatin therapy following the induction of spinal cord ischemia did not increase the neuronal damage in this rabbit model. .

Animals , Rabbits , Heptanoic Acids/therapeutic use , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Paraplegia/prevention & control , Pyrroles/therapeutic use , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Spinal Cord Ischemia/drug therapy , Atorvastatin , Biopsy , Disease Models, Animal , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Paraplegia/pathology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Spinal Cord Ischemia/pathology , Spinal Cord Ischemia/prevention & control , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Time Factors