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Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(5): 307-310, May 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131699


Abstract Professor Andrew John Lees, from the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, a neurological hospital in Queen Square, London, UK, has contributed in a stupendous way to the development of the field of movement disorders in Brazil, with a constant and intense participation in numerous congresses and scientific meetings of this specialty since 1983.

Resumo O professor Andrew Lees, do National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, Londres, Reino Unido, tem contribuído de maneira estupenda para o desenvolvimento da área dos distúrbios do movimento no Brasil, com uma participação constante e intensa em inúmeros congressos e encontros científicos desta especialidade, desde o ano de 1983.

History, 20th Century , Neurology , Neurosurgery , Brazil , Neurosurgical Procedures , Hospitals , London
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): 400-406, 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114914


La reconstrucción de nervios periféricos con aloinjertos nerviosos acelulares humanos en neurocirugía ha sido bastante estudiada estableciendo su predictibilidad y éxito en intervenciones principalmente en los nervios digitales de las manos. En cirugía maxilofacial existe una creciente investigación para poder restaurar el nervio alveolar inferior en cirugías de resección mandibular en donde la extirpación de esta estructura nerviosa es inevitable. El objetivo de esta publicación es mostrar un reporte de un caso en donde se realizó la reconstrucción del nervio alveolar inferior con aloinjerto de nervio acelular humano (Avance® Nerve Graft, Axogen) con microcirugía para poder proveer de sensibilidad a la región de la cara afectada en un paciente reconstruido con un injerto de fíbula microvascularizada posterior a una hemimandibulectomía por ameloblastoma plexiforme.

The reconstruction of peripheral nerves with allografts of human acellular nerves in neurosurgery is well studied, establishing its predictability and success in interventions mainly in the digital nerves of the hands. In maxillofacial surgery there is a growing investigation to be able to restore the inferior alveolar nerve in mandibular resection surgeries where the removal of this nervous structure is inevitable. The objective of this publication is to show a case report in which the reconstruction of the inferior alveolar nerve was performed with human acellular nerve allograft (Avance® Nerve Graft, Axogen) with microsurgery in order to provide sensitivity to the region of the affected face in a reconstructed patient with a microvascularized bone fibula graft after hemimandibulectomy due to plexiform ameloblastoma.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Peripheral Nerves/transplantation , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Mandibular Nerve/surgery , Allografts
Clinics ; 75: e1973, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133348


OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze the incidence and epidemiological, angiographic, and surgical aspects associated with incomplete clipping of brain aneurysms in a cohort of patients undergoing microsurgical treatment. METHODS: The medical record data of patients who underwent microsurgery for cerebral aneurysm treatment and postoperative digital subtraction angiography, treated at the same teaching hospital between 2014 and 2019, were retrospectively analyzed. The studied variables involved epidemiological and clinical data, as well as neurological status and findings on neuroimaging. The time elapsed between hemorrhage and microsurgical treatment, data on the neurosurgical procedure employed for aneurysm occlusion, and factors associated with the treated aneurysm, specifically location and size, were also evaluated. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen patients were submitted to 139 neurosurgical procedures, in which 167 aneurysms were clipped. The overall rate of residual injury was 23%. Smoking (odds ratio [OR]: 3.38, 95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 1.372-8.300, p=0.008), lesion size >10 mm (OR: 5.136, CI95%: 2.240-11.779, p<0.001) and surgery duration >6 h (OR: 8.667, CI95%: 2.713-27.681, p<0.001) were found to significantly impact incomplete aneurysm occlusion in the univariate analyses. CONCLUSION: Incomplete microsurgical aneurysm occlusion is associated with aneurysm size, complexity, and current smoking status. Currently, there is no consensus on postoperative assessment of clipped aneurysms, hindering the correct assessment of treatment outcomes.

Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Intracranial Aneurysm/epidemiology , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neurosurgical Procedures , Microsurgery
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1270383


Background. Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect (NTD) that has an increased risk of fatal and disabling effects if not repaired early, i.e. within the first 24 to 48 hours of life. Its diagnosis holds an increased burden for the patient and the caregiver owing to secondary complications. The effects of the disease are detrimental even with early repair, because of the long-term disabling nature of the disease.Objective. This retrospective study aimed to assess the effects of demographics, immediate post-surgical complications and impact of time to surgical intervention on the outcome of neonates with open SB (OSB) admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital (IALCH) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (SA), between January 2011 and December 2015.Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted at the NICU of IALCH. All neonates diagnosed with SB were identified. The study period was from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2015. Data were collected from the IALCH electronic database. All neonates with SB admitted to the IALCH NICU were included; any patient who presented beyond the neonatal period (i.e. >28 days) was excluded from the study. Data collected included maternal demographics. Additionally, neonatal history was reviewed and post surgery complications evaluated. Outpatient management post discharge was reviewed.Results. One hundred and fifty neonates were included (58% male). The mean (standard deviation) maternal age was 26.7 (6.6) years. Only 10% had an antenatal diagnosis of OSB. Seventy-eight percent were born at term and 22% prematurely. The lumbar/sacral region was the most commonly affected. More males (14%) had thoraco/lumbar lesions than females (7.8%). Forty-eight percent presented before 3 days of life (early presentation). In the late-presentation group, there was an association with wound sepsis (p=0.003). Twenty-five percent were repaired between days 0 and 3 of life and 75% after 3 days. Postoperative complications in patients whose open SBs were repaired beyond 3 days of life were not statistically significant compared with those with early repair; all were p>0.05. There was a borderline association of prolonged hospitalisation with wound sepsis (p=0.07). Long-term outcomes showed that 68% had lower limb dysfunction, 18% urological complications, 14% limb deformity, and 11% hydrocephalus. A minority had psychomotor (7%) and developmental (15%) disorders. Ten percent required readmission secondary to shunt complications, and 7% died. Conclusion. SB remains a significant disease burden that affects outcome and survival of neonates in SA. Lack of good antenatal care, which includes early ultrasound and timely referral to centres, are barriers to good outcomes. Long-term follow-up is also necessary to prevent morbidity

Infant, Newborn , Neural Tube Defects , Neurosurgical Procedures/complications , Neurosurgical Procedures/epidemiology , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , South Africa , Spinal Dysraphism
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(6): 483-492, dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056757


Las infecciones asociadas a procedimientos neuroquiró;ºrgicos son complicaciones graves que contribuyen a la morbimortalidad de los pacientes neurocríticos, así como tambín a la prolongació;n de la estancia en la UTI y/o en el hospital. El diagnó;stico es complejo ya que no se dispone de gold standard y se apoya en la sospecha clínica, las alteraciones físico-químicas del líquido cefalorraquídeo y el aislamiento microbiano. El tratamiento debe ser precoz y guiado por la epidemiología local. La duració;n dependerá del microorganismo causal, su sensibilidad y la disponibilidad de tratamientos antibió;ticos efectivos en el sitio de la infecció;n. La implementació;n de medidas de prevenció;n con evidencia demostrada minimiza el riesgo de infecció;n. Esta puesta al día intersociedades SADI-SATI presenta datos epidemioló;gicos (internacionales y locales), mó;©todos diagnó;sticos, tratamiento, y pautas de prevenció;n, considerando las publicaciones más relevantes de los ó;ºltimos aó;±os sobre el tema.

Infections associated with neurosurgical procedures are serious complications that contribute to the morbidity and mortality of neurocritical patients, as well as to the prolongation of the stay in the ICU and the hospital. The diagnosis is complex since there is no gold standard, so it is based on clinical suspicion, CSF physical-chemical examination, and microbial isolation. Treatment should be initiated early, guided by local epidemiology. The duration will depend on the causative microorganism, its sensitivity and the availability of antibiotic treatments that are effective at the site of infection. The implementation of preventive measures with proven efficacy minimizes the risk of infection. This SADI-SATI intersociety update reviews relevant data recently published on this area at the national at international level regarding epidemiology, diagnostic methodologies, therapeutic approaches, and prevention guidelines.

Humans , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Meningitis, Bacterial/etiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Neurosurgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cerebral Ventriculitis/etiology , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Cerebrospinal Fluid/microbiology , Risk Factors , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Meningitis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Cerebral Ventriculitis/diagnosis , Cerebral Ventriculitis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 71(6): 578-584, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058322


Resumen La migraña afecta a un porcentaje importante de la población y los síntomas pueden interferir con calidad de vida de manera importante. A pesar de los avances en el manejo médico, existe una proporción de pacientes que no responden adecuadamente a la intervención farmacológica. En los últimos años, se han planteado nuevos enfoques en el tratamiento de la migraña. Éstos se basan en la teoría que ramas sensoriales extracraneales del trigémino y de los nervios espinales cervicales pueden irritarse, atraparse o comprimirse en algún punto a lo largo de su trayecto, generándose una cascada de eventos fisiológicos que finalmente resulta en la migraña. Se ha demostrado que la inyección diagnóstica y terapéutica de toxina botulínica y la descompresión quirúrgica de estos puntos gatillos reducen o eliminan las migrañas en pacientes que no responden adecuadamente a la intervención farmacológica y siguen sintomáticos. La evidencia que respalda la eficacia y seguridad de la descompresión quirúrgica de los puntos de gatillos periféricos se está acumulando rápidamente, y la tasa de éxito general de la cirugía se acerca a 90%. Este trabajo revisa la evidencia clínica y pretende proporcionar un artículo sobre el estado actual de la técnica en el tratamiento quirúrgico de las migrañas.

Migraine headaches affect a significant percentage of the population and the symptoms can interfere with quality of life in an important way. Despite advances in medical management, there is a proportion of patients who do not respond adequately to the pharmacological intervention. In recent years, new approaches have been proposed in the treatment of migraine. These are based on the theory that extracranial sensory branches of the trigeminal and cervical spinal nerves can become irritated, trapped or compressed at some point along their path, generating a cascade of physiological events that ultimately results in migraine. It has been shown that the diagnostic and therapeutic injection of botulinum toxin and the surgical decompression of these trigger points reduce or eliminate migraines in patients who do not respond adequately to the pharmacological intervention and remain symptomatic. The evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of surgical decompression of peripheral trigger points is rapidly accumulating, and the overall success rate of surgery approaches 90%. This paper reviews the clinical evidence and aims to provide an article on the current state of the art in the surgical treatment of migraines.

Humans , Decompression, Surgical/methods , Migraine Disorders/surgery , Vascular Surgical Procedures/methods , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Trigger Points/surgery , Migraine Disorders/drug therapy
Rev. medica electron ; 41(5): 1230-1241, sept.-oct. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094125


RESUMEN A pesar de los avances en radioterapia, quimioterapia y los tratamientos de resección quirúrgica agresiva en el glioblastoma multiforme, el pronóstico sigue siendo sombrío. Con la presente revisión se describen, en un marco actual, las principales alternativas de tratamiento del glioblastoma multiforme. Se revisaron los principales artículos publicados en inglés, en revistas de alto impacto a nivel mundial, acerca de los principales avances en el tratamiento de este tumor. Se abordaron los importantes progresos neuroquirúrgicos en la resección del glioblastoma así como las implicaciones de las células madres tumorales en la génesis y control de la proliferación tumoral y el efecto de la hipoxia sobre la dinámica celular tumoral. Se explican las alteraciones del ADN que ocasionan tumorogénesis y las mutaciones del PTEN en el glioblastoma (AU).

SUMMARY Despite advances in radiotherapy, chemotherapy and aggressive surgical resection treatments in glioblastoma multiforme, the prognosis remains discouraging. With the current review, the main alternatives for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme are described in a current context. The authors reviewed the main articles published in English, in high impact journals worldwide, on the main advances in the treatment of this tumor. The main neurosurgical advances in the resection of glioblastoma were addressed, as well as the implications of tumor stem cells in the genesis and control of tumor proliferation, as well as the effect of hypoxia on tumor cell dynamics. DNA alterations causing tumor genesis and PTEN mutations in glioblastoma are also explained (AU).

Humans , Glioblastoma/therapy , Glioma/therapy , Glioblastoma/surgery , Neurosurgical Procedures , Glioma/surgery
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 47(3): 194-197, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1013889


Abstract We present the case of an adult with an extensive left frontal meningioma. He was scheduled for resection by craniotomy. During the surgery we used the density spectral array (DSA) and asymmetry obtained from Bispectral Index VISTA Monitoring System Bilateral. We observed a power increase in low frequency (0.1-1 Hz) and alpha bands (8-12 Hz) in the left hemisphere, where the meningioma was located. In this case, DSA was useful during and after the surgery because it provided information about the hemisphere with maximum brain activity and its subsequent normalization, which may reflect the effectiveness of the surgery.

Resumen Presentamos el caso de un paciente adulto con diagnóstico de un meningioma extenso a nivel frontal izquierdo, que fue programado para exéresis mediante craneotomía. Durante la cirugía se utilizó la Matriz de Densidad Espectral (MDE) y la asimetría obtenida del Sistema de Monitorización VISTATM del Índice Biespectral Bilateral (BVMS). Se observó un aumento de potencia en las bandas de baja frecuencia (0.1-1Hz) y en las bandas alfa (812 Hz) del hemisferio cerebral izquierdo, donde se encontraba el meningioma. En este caso la MDE demostró su utilidad durante y después de la cirugía, al proporcionar información sobre el hemisferio con registro de máxima actividad cerebral y su posterior normalización, reflejando así la efectividad de la cirugía.

Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Postoperative Care , Craniotomy , Meningioma , Neurosurgical Procedures , Electroencephalography , Consciousness Monitors
Rev. bras. neurol ; 55(3): 13-21, jul.-set. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022900


INTRODUÇÃO: A espasticidade pode ser considerada como uma das mais impactantes alterações secundárias à paralisia cerebral. Nos últimos anos, a Rizotomia Dorsal Seletiva (RDS) tem sido destacada como um procedimento cirúrgico eficaz para o tratamento da espasticidade dos membros inferiores de crianças com paralisia cerebral. OBJETIVOS: Verificar por meio de uma revisão sistemática da literatura os efeitos em médio e longo prazo, da RDS sobre a função motora grossa e a marcha em crianças e adolescentes com paralisia cerebral. Além de averiguar se existe um consenso na literatura sobre os critérios de indicação da RDS. MÉTODOS: Uma pesquisa foi realizada na rede internacional nos bancos de dados de acordo com os seguintes critérios de inclusão: (1) desenho: estudos envolvendo o acompanhamento pós-operatório longitudinal; (2) população: crianças e adolescentes com paralisia cerebral espástica; (3) intervenção: RDS; (4) grupo controle com intervenção diferente ou sem intervenção; (5) desfecho: melhora da função motora, melhora da espasticidade e desempenho da marcha. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrado um total de seis artigos que preencheram os critérios de inclusão e foram utilizados nesta revisão. Nos estudos analisados, foram observadas melhoras significativas na variável cinemática da marcha com diminuição da espasticidade no grupo RDS. CONCLUSÃO: A RDS diminui a espasticidade com efeitos positivos sobre a função motora grossa e a marcha de crianças e adolescentes com paralisia cerebral, porém estudos adicionais são necessários para esclarecer a eficácia da RDS aplicada em grupos musculares de membros inferiores.

INTRODUCTION: Spasticity can be considered one of the most striking alterations secondary to cerebral palsy. In recent years, Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy (SDR) has been highlighted as an effective surgical procedure for the treatment of lower limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. OBJECTIVES: To verify through a systematic review of the literature the medium and long-term effects of SDR on gross motor function and gait in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Secondarily, to verify if there is a consensus in the literature on the criteria to indicate SDR. METHODS: A search was performed in the international network databases according to the following inclusion criteria: (1) design: studies involving longitudinal postoperative follow-up; (2) population: children and adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy; (3) intervention: SDR; (4) control group with different intervention or without intervention; (5) outcome: improvement of motor function, improvement of spasticity and gait performance. RESULTS: A total of six articles were found that met the inclusion criteria and were used in this review. In the studies analyzed, significant improvements were observed in the kinematic gait variable with decreased spasticity in the SDR group. CONCLUSION: SDR decreases spasticity with positive effects on gross motor function and gait of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy, but additional studies are needed to elucidate the efficacy of RDS applied to lower limb muscle groups.

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Cerebral Palsy/surgery , Cerebral Palsy/diagnosis , Cerebral Palsy/rehabilitation , Rhizotomy/methods , Neurosurgical Procedures , Muscle Spasticity/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Gait Analysis
Dolor ; 29(71): 36-40, jul. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118184


El dolor crónico postoperatorio de cirugía de columna lumbar tiene una incidencia entre un 10-50 por ciento de los pacientes postoperados, siendo de difícil manejo. Se ha denominado síndrome de fracaso de cirugía espinal lumbar (FBSS) a aquellos pacientes que han sido beneficiarios de una cirugía del raquis lumbosacro y en quienes no se logra una mejoría de manera satisfactoria, presentando dolor crónico lumbar, siendo su incidencia de alrededor de un 20 por ciento, y debido a una mala evolución del proceso de recuperación que puede ocasionar fibrosis en el canal medular. Existen diversas alternativas terapéuticas para afrontar este problema, donde destacan el tratamiento farmacológico, medicina física y el abordaje intervencionista no quirúrgico y quirúrgico implementados últimamente, con el fin de disminuir de manera efectiva el dolor en este grupo de pacientes. Sin embargo, a pesar de las terapias combinadas, existe un grupo de pacientes que debe ser sometido a una nueva intervención quirúrgica con resultados poco promisorios.

Chronic postoperative pain of lumbar spine surgery has an incidence between 10-50 percent of postoperative patients, being difficult to manage. The Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS) has been referred to those patients who have been beneficiaries of lumbosacral spinal surgery and who do not achieve a satisfactory improvement, presenting chronic lumbar pain with an incidence around 20 percent and due to a poor evolution of the recovery process that can cause fibrosis in the medullary canal. There are several therapeutic alternatives to address this problem, which highlights the pharmacological treatment, physical medicine and the non-surgical and surgical intervention approach recently implemented, in order to effectively reduce pain in this group of patients. However, despite the combination therapies, there is a group of patients that must undergo a new surgical intervention with little promising results.

Humans , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Low Back Pain/etiology , Low Back Pain/therapy , Failed Back Surgery Syndrome/complications , Failed Back Surgery Syndrome/therapy , Neurosurgical Procedures/adverse effects , Chronic Pain , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery
Rev. bras. ortop ; 54(3): 233-240, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013728


Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most frequent and incapacitating pathologies today, especially of the knee. Among the possible approaches for knee OA, the neurotomy of the genicular nerves by radiofrequency (RF) has been gaining prominence. However, as this is a relatively new procedure, indications for its implementation are still unclear. The objective of the present reviewis to identify the main indications of the use of RF for the treatment of knee OA in themedical literature. A review of the literature was performed in January 2018 through a search in the PubMed, ClinicalKey and Google Scholar databases. After reviewing themain articles on the subject, it was concluded that the main indications of the use of RF for the treatment of kneeOAwere:OA Kellgren-Lawrence grades 3 and 4, withmoderate to severe pain and failure of conservative treatment, mainly in elderly people; persistence of pain even after total knee arthroplasty (TKA); patients with an indication for TKAwho refuse to undergo surgical treatment.

Resumo A osteoartrite é uma das patologias mais frequentes e incapacitantes na atualidade, principalmente do joelho. Dentre as abordagens possíveis para osteoartrite, a neurotomia dos nervos geniculares por radiofrequência vem se destacando. Todavia, por se tratar de um procedimento relativamente novo, as indicações para realização ainda não estão bem definidas. O principal objetivo desta revisão foi identificar as principais indicações do uso da radiofrequência para o tratamento da osteoartrite do joelho na literatura médica. Foi realizada revisão da literatura em janeiro de 2018, através de pesquisa nas bases de dados PubMed, Clinicalkey e Google Scholar. Após revisão dos principais artigos no assunto, foi concluído que as principais indicações do uso da radiofrequência para o tratamento da osteoartrite do joelho foram: pacientes com osteoartrite grau 3 e 4 da classificação de Kellgren-Lawrence, com dor de moderada a severa e falha do tratamento conservador, principalmente idosos; persistência da dor, mesmo após realizado artroplastia total de joelho; pacientes com indicação de artroplastia total de joelho e que se recusam a submeter-se ao tratamento cirúrgico.

Osteoarthritis , Radio Waves , Rhizotomy , Neurosurgical Procedures , Knee , Knee Joint
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 368-381, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004274


RESUMEN Introducción: el traumatismo encefalocraneano es una causa frecuente de mortalidad y morbilidad. Según datos epidemiológicos aporta la mayor cantidad de fallecidos en menores de 45 años a nivel mundial. Objetivo: caracterizar el trauma craneoencefálico desde el punto de vista clínico-quirúrgico, neuroimagenológico y por neuromonitorización en los pacientes investigados. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal, en el Servicio de Neurocirugía del Hospital Provincial Clínico Quirúrgico Docente José Ramón López Tabrane y Comandante Faustino Pérez Hernández, de Matanzas, durante el periodo comprendido entre enero del 2016 a enero del 2018. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino con el 71,7% de los casos, la mayor prevalencia estuvo en edades inferiores a 48 años con el 80,1 %. La mayor cantidad presentaba un traumatismo encefalocraneano leve con el 56% de los casos seguido del traumatismo encefalocraneano moderado y severo con el 29% y 15% de los casos respectivamente. Predominaron las fracturas lineales (45,8%), seguido de las contusiones sin efecto de masa y los hematomas subdurales con el 24,2% y 23,3%. La mayoría de los pacientes presentó una escala de Marshall II con el 40,8%. Las cifras de presión intracraneal entre de 20-40 mmHg se presentó con mayor frecuencia (44,4 %). Conclusiones: la mitad de los pacientes neuromonitorizados presentaron una saturación del golfo de la vena yugular dentro de parámetros normales con el 50%. La operación más practicada fue la evacuación de hematomas subdurales con el 29,4%.

ABSTRACT Introduction: the encephalocranial trauma (ECT) is a frequent cause of mortality and morbidity. According to epidemiological data, it causes the highest number of deaths in people aged less than 45 years worldwide. Objective: to characterize the encephalocranial trauma from the clinical-surgical, neuroimaging and neuromonitoring point of view in the studied patients. Materials and methods: observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out in the Neurosurgery Service of the Provincial Teaching Surgical Clinical Hospitals "Jose Ramon Lopez Tabrane" and "Comandante Faustino Perez Hernandez", of Matanzas, during the period from January 2016 to January 2018. Results: male sex predominated with 71.7% of the cases; the highest prevalence was in ages below 48 years with 80.1%. Most of them presented a mild encephalocranial trauma with 56% of the cases followed by moderate and severe encephalocranial trauma with 29% and 15% of the cases respectively. Linear fractures predominated (45.8%), followed by contusions without mass effect and subdural hematomas with 24.2% and 23.3%. Most of patients presented a Marshall II scale with 40.8%. The intracranial pressure between 20-40 mmHg occurred more frequently (44.4%). Conclusions: half of the neuromonitored patients presented jugular vein gulf saturation within normal parameters with 50%. The most practiced operation was the evacuation of subdural hematomas with 29.4%.

Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures , Tomography, Spiral Computed , Craniocerebral Trauma/surgery , Craniocerebral Trauma/classification , Craniocerebral Trauma/mortality , Craniocerebral Trauma/epidemiology , Craniocerebral Trauma/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study , Craniocerebral Trauma/diagnosis
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 555-563, mar.-abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004288


RESUMEN Los quistes epidermoides constituyen el 1 % de los tumores intracraneales y el 7 % de los del ángulo pontocerebeloso. Los colesteatomas son lesiones benignas que se originan de restos de tejidos epitelial ectodérmicos que quedan en el sistema nervioso central, al cerrarse el tubo neural entre la tercera y quinta semana de gestación. Se trata de un paciente remitido de la Consulta de Neurooftalmología con crisis de cefalea y toma de los pares craneales III, IV, V, rama oftálmica desde hace 2 semanas. Se le realizaron estudios imagenológicos donde se constató un tumor hipodenso en región silviana frontotemporal izquierdo. Se interpretó como un quiste arcnoideo. Se le aplicó un bordaje pterional transilviano con apoyo neuroendoscópico y para sorpresa del equipo quirúrgico se abordó un tumor perlado solido identificado macroscópicamente como un colesteatoma silviano. Se resecó la totalidad del tumor cerebral.

ABSTRACT Epidermal inclusion cysts constitute 1% of the intracranial tumors and 7% of the cerebellopontine angle ones.Cholesteatoma are benign lesions originated from the remains of ectodermic epithelial tissues remaining in the central nervous system when the neural tube closes between the third and fifth week of pregnancy. The case deals with a patient remitted from the Neurophthalmologic Consultation with migraine crisis and lesion on the III, IV, V cranial nerves, ophthalmologic branch, for two weeks. Image studies were carried out, showing a hypo dense tumor in the left silvian frontotemporal region. It was taken as an arachnoid cyst. A pterional trans-silvian approach with neuroendoscopic support was applied, and the surgical team was surprised when they found a solid pearly tumor that was macroscopically identified as a silvian cholesteatoma. The cerebral tumor was totally resected.

Humans , Male , Aged , Cholesteatoma/surgery , Cholesteatoma/diagnosis , Neurosurgical Procedures , Craniotomy/methods , Neuroendoscopy , Epidermal Cyst/surgery , Epidermal Cyst/diagnosis , Blepharoptosis/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Exotropia/diagnosis , Tomography, Spiral Computed
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(3): 355-360, Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003039


SUMMARY OBJECT: To explore the treatment effect of the anterior medial neurovascular interval approach to coronal shear fractures of the distal humerus. METHODS: This prospective study included two female patients who were 30-64 years old, with a mean age of 47 years. Fractures were caused by falling from a bicycle. The time between the injury and operation was 1-2 days, with a mean time interval of 1.5 days. Two patients with coronal shear fracture of the distal humerus were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using anterior neurovascular interval approach. RESULTS: There were no intraoperative and postoperative neurological and vascular complications or infections, and the fracture was united. At 12 months after the surgery, the patient returned to work without pain, and with a normal range of motion for elbow and forearm rotation. The X-rays revealed excellent fracture union, no signs of heterotopic ossification, and no traumatic arthritis. According to Mayo's evaluation standards for elbow function, a score of 100 is excellent. CONCLUSIONS: The application of the anterior neurovascular interval approach of the elbow in the treatment of shear fracture of the articular surface of the distal humerus, particularly the trochlea of the humerus, can reduce the stripping of the soft tissue.

RESUMO OBJETIVO: Explorar o efeito do tratamento com uma abordagem anterior do intervalo neurovascular médio para fraturas de cisalhamento coronal da porção distal do úmero. METODOLOGIA: Este estudo prospectivo incluiu duas pacientes do sexo feminino de 30-64 anos de idade, com idade média de 47 anos. As fraturas foram causadas por quedas de bicicleta. O tempo entre a lesão e a operação foi de 1-2 dias, com um intervalo de tempo médio de 1,5 dias. Duas pacientes com cisalhamento coronal da porção distal do úmero foram tratadas com redução aberta e fixação interna utilizando a abordagem anterior do intervalo neurovascular. RESULTADOS: Não houve complicações neurológicas e vasculares intra e pós-operatórias, nem complicações ou infecções, e a fratura foi unida. Após 12 meses da cirurgia, as pacientes retornaram ao trabalho sem dor e com uma amplitude normal de movimento de rotação do antebraço e cotovelo. Os raios-X revelaram excelente união das fraturas, sem sinais de ossificação heterotópica e sem artrite traumática. De acordo com as diretrizes da clínica Mayo para avaliação da função do cotovelo, uma pontuação de 100 é considerada excelente. CONCLUSÃO: A aplicação da abordagem anterior do intervalo neurovascular do cotovelo no tratamento de uma fratura de cisalhamento da superfície articular da porção distal do úmero, especificamente da tróclea do úmero, pode reduzir o desgaste do tecido mole.

Humans , Female , Adult , Vascular Surgical Procedures/methods , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Elbow Joint/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Humeral Fractures/surgery , Humerus/injuries , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Humeral Fractures/physiopathology , Humerus/physiopathology , Medical Illustration , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(1): 73-80, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-990644


ABSTRACT Objevect: To evaluate the Nutritional Status (NS) and follow the Enteral Nutritional Therapy (ENT) of patients in neurosurgical intervention. Method: Cohort study in emergency or elective surgery patients with exclusive ENT. Anthropometric measurements (Arm Circumference (AC and Triceps Skinfold (TSF)) were measured on the first, seventh and 14th day. For the ENT monitoring, caloric/protein adequacy, fasting, inadvertent output of the enteral probe and residual gastric volume were used. Results: 80 patients, 78.7% in emergency surgery and 21.3% in elective surgery. There was a reduction in AC and Body Mass Index (BMI) (p>0.01), especially for the emergency group. The caloric/protein adequacy was higher in the emergency group (86.7% and 81.8%). Conclusion: The EN change was greater in the emergency group, even with better ENT adequacy. Changes in body composition are frequent in neurosurgical patients, regardless of the type of procedure.

RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar el Estado Nutricional (EN) y acompañar la Terapia Nutricional Enteral (TNE) de pacientes en intervención neuroquirúrgica. Método: Estudio tipo cohorte en pacientes de cirugía de urgencia o electiva, con TNE exclusiva. Se midieron medidas antropométricas (Circunferencia del Brazo (CB) y Pliegue Cutáneo Tricipital (PCT)) en el primer, séptimo y decimocuarto días. Para el monitoreo de la TNE: adecuación calórica/proteica, desayuno, salida inadvertida de la sonda enteral y volumen residual gástrico. Resultados: 80 pacientes, 78,7% en cirugía de urgencia y 21,3% en electiva. Hubo reducción de la CB y del Índice Masa Corporal (IMC) (p> 0,01), en especial para el grupo de urgencia. La adecuación calórica/proteica fue superior en el grupo de urgencia (86,7% y 81,8%). Conclusión: La alteración del EN fue más alta en el grupo de urgencia mismo con mejor adecuación de la TNE. La alteración de la composición corporal es frecuente en pacientes neuroquirúrgicos independientemente del tipo de procedimiento.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o Estado Nutricional (EN) e acompanhar a Terapia Nutricional Enteral (TNE) de pacientes em intervenção neurocirúrgica. Método: Estudo tipo coorte em pacientes de cirurgia de urgência ou eletiva, com TNE exclusiva. Foram aferidas medidas antropométricas (Circunferência do Braço (CB) e Dobra Cutânea Tricipital (DCT)) no primeiro, sétimo e 14º dia. Para o monitoramento da TNE, utilizou-se: adequação calórico/proteica, jejum, saída inadvertida da sonda enteral e volume residual gástrico. Resultados: 80 pacientes, 78,7% em cirurgia de urgência e 21,3% em eletiva. Houve redução da CB e do Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) (p>0,01), em especial para o grupo de urgência. A adequação calórica/proteica foi superior no grupo de urgência (86,7% e 81,8%). Conclusão: A alteração do EN foi maior no grupo de urgência mesmo com melhor adequação da TNE. A alteração da composição corporal é frequente em pacientes neurocirúrgicos, independentemente do tipo de procedimento.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Nutritional Status , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Body Mass Index , Anthropometry/methods , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Enteral Nutrition/standards , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/standards , Statistics, Nonparametric , Neurosurgical Procedures/standards , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Middle Aged
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 425-433, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776460


Fiber photometry is a sensitive and easy way to detect changes in fluorescent signals. The combination of fiber photometry with various fluorescent biomarkers has substantially advanced neuroscience research over the last decade. Despite the wide use of fiber photometry in biomedical fields, the lack of a detailed and comprehensive protocol has limited progress and sometimes complicated the interpretation of data. Here, we describe detailed procedures of fiber photometry for the long-term monitoring of neuronal activity in freely-behaving animals, including surgery, apparatus setup, data collection, and analysis.

Animals , Brain , Metabolism , Calcium Signaling , Female , Male , Mice , Neurons , Metabolism , Neurosurgical Procedures , Optical Fibers , Optical Imaging , Methods , Photometry , Methods
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813261


Intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare clinical histiocytosis proliferative disease. A 12-year-old boy with dizziness and headache for 1 month was admitted into Pediatric Neurosurgery of Xiangya Hospital, Central South University. The patient underwent total tumor resection and postoperative application of hormones and chemotherapy. During follow-up of 8 months, patient's condition was stable and no tumor recurrence was observed. For patient with a trend of tumor progression, stereotactic biopsy can help to confirm the diagnosis and determine the surgical strategy such as disposal of bone flaps. The treatment is mainly based on surgical intervention, supplemented by radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Without affecting the nerve function, the surgeon should try to completely resect the tumor.

Biopsy , Child , Histiocytosis, Sinus , Humans , Male , Neurosurgical Procedures , Postoperative Period
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813069


To explore the clinical characters, treatment and prognosis for pediatric optic pathway gliomas (OPGs).
 Methods: A total of 26 patients with OPGs, who were diagnosed and treated at Neurosurgery of Xiangya Hospital of Central South University between June 2010 and November 2017, were retrospectively reviewed, and their average age was 5.5 years old. The influential factors for patients' progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed.
 Results: All patients were classified into Type II and Type III based on Dodge classification and received surgery treatment. Vision was improved after surgery in 20 patients. Twenty-four patients (92.3%) were continually followed up, and 14 patients (58.3%) received post-radiation treatment. Twenty-one patients were still alive and 15 patients' symptoms were not progressed. The PFS and OS in patients received radiation therapy were better than those without radiation therapy (PFS: P<0.01; OS: P<0.05). The postoperative visual prognosis might be related to the choice of surgical approach.
 Conclusion: Treatment of children with OPGs should include surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. The eyesight protection in surgery is as important as tumor resection.

Child, Preschool , Disease-Free Survival , Glioma , Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788800


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the surgical results of the intradural transpetrosectomy for petrous apex meningiomas (PAMs). In addition, we describe the methods and techniques used to expose and manage superior petrous vein and greater superficial petrosal nerve.METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective study of 16 patients with PAMs operated by the senior author via the intradural transpetrosectomy between February 2012 to May 2017. We reviewed patient data regarding the general characteristics, surgical technique and surgery-related outcomes and adopted a combined follow-up strategy of clinic and telephone contacts to evaluate postoperative complications.RESULTS: Simpson grade I and II resection was performed in 10 out of 16 cases (62.5%), and grade III resection were reported in the remaining six cases (37.5%) with no resultant mortality. The mean Karnofsky Performance Status score was 85.6 preoperatively and improved to 91.9 postoperatively, with a mean follow-up period of 34.4 months (range, 6–66 months). Tumor recurrence was found in two patients and they underwent the second surgical operation.CONCLUSION: PAMs could be completely resected by the intradural transpetrosectomy with an improved survival rate and postoperative life quality. Superior petrous vein and greater superficial petrosal nerve should be managed properly in avoidance of postoperative complications. Finally, most meningioma inside cavernous sinus or adhered to brainstem could be totally removed without postoperative complications.

Brain Stem , Cavernous Sinus , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Karnofsky Performance Status , Meningioma , Mortality , Neurosurgical Procedures , Petrous Bone , Postoperative Complications , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Telephone , Veins