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Health sci. dis ; 24(1): 17-25, 2023. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1411404


Introduction. Les pathologies neurochirurgicales sont un ensemble d'affections qui touche le cerveau, la moelle épinière, et les paires crâniennes nécessitant une prise en charge médico-chirurgicale. Leur incidence en Afrique sub-saharienne et plus particulièrement au Gabon est mal connue. Objectif. Décrire les aspects épidémiologiques et évolutifs des pathologies neurochirurgicales chez l'enfant de moins 5 ans à Libreville. Patients et méthodes. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective descriptive et analytique, multicentrique portant sur des patients de moins de 5ans pris en charge pour une affection neurochirurgicale de Janvier 2019 à Décembre 2021 à Libreville. Résultats. Sur 4811 enfants hospitalisés, 130 répondaient aux critères d'inclusion (prévalence : 2,7%). L'âge moyen était de 13,1 mois. Le sex-ratio était de 1,3. Les grossesses étaient mal suivies dans 72,2% des cas. Les pathologies neurochirurgicales malformatives représentaient 63,5%. L'hydrocéphalie était la plus observée dans 71,2%. Sur les 115 enfants, 71 ont bénéficié d'un traitement chirurgical, soit un taux de 61,7% et le taux de mortalité globale était de 6,1%. Dans le groupe des enfants présentant une malformation congénitale, 8,2% n'avaient pas été traités, le taux de mortalité était de 8,2%. Les complications à court termes étaient dominées par les infections. Conclusion. Les pathologies neurochirurgicales sont en fréquentes dans notre contexte. Une prise en charge immédiate reste de mise, nécessitant donc un plateau technique de pointe pour améliorer l'évolution à court terme voire à moyen et long terme de ces affections.

Introduction. Neurosurgical pathologies are a set of conditions that affect the brain, spinal cord, and cranial pairs requiring medical and surgical management. Their incidence in subSaharan Africa and more particularly in Gabon is poorly known. Objective. To describe the epidemiological and evolutionary aspects of neurosurgical pathologies in children under 5 years old in Libreville. Patients and methods. This is a retrospective descriptive and analytical, multicenter study of patients under 5 years of age treated for a neurosurgical condition from January 2019 to December 2021 in Libreville. Results. Of the 4811 hospitalized children, 130 met the inclusion criteria (prevalence of 2.7%) and 15 were excluded for incomplete records. The average age was 13.1 months. The age group of 28 days-1 year was the most observed. The sex ratio was 1.3. Pregnancies were poorly followed in 72.2% of cases. Malformative neurosurgical pathologies accounted for 63.5% of cases. Hydrocephalus was the most observed in 71.2%. Of the 115 children, 71 received surgical treatment, a rate of 61.7% and the overall mortality rate was 6.1%. In the group of children with congenital malformation, 8.2% had not been treated, the mortality rate was 8.2%. Short-term complications were dominated by infections. Conclusion. Neurosurgical pathologies are frequent in our context. Immediate care remains essential, therefore requiring a cutting-edge technical platform to improve the short-term or even medium- and long-term evolution of these conditions.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Spinal Dysraphism , Neurosurgical Procedures , Craniocerebral Trauma , Hydrocephalus , Neurosurgery
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1436965


Neurosurgical patients are the most critical ICU admissions. While advancements in neurosurgical ICUs (NICU) have improved outcomes of care globally, ICU mortality remains a major clinical issue in developing nations. This study evaluates ICU mortalities of neurosurgical patients in a general ICU setting at the UNIOSUN Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Method: Case records of neurosurgery patients who died in the ICU of UNIOSUN Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, South-Western, Nigeria from June 2012 to May 2022 were reviewed. Simple descriptive statistics of data on demographics, clinical diagnoses, management and outcome were done. Results: Mortality rate was 38.9% (84 of 216 admissions). Males were 67(79.8%) and the mean age was 41.5years (Range: 2-85years). The average duration of ICU stay was 3.5days (Range: 30minutes-20days). Most patients had severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) (62, 73.8%). This was followed by cerebrovascular diseases (12, 14.3%) and brain tumours (6, 7.1%). Two had brain abscess. One patient each had mixed subacute/chronic subdural haematoma and severe cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Of the 69 whose case files were found, 7(10.1%) had a diagnosis of brainstem death before eventual 'final' death after an average of 13.5 additional hours on mechanical life support. The identified secondary causes of death included raised ICP, sepsis, primary surgical haemorrhage, seizures, acute kidney injury, malignant hypertension, poor glycaemic control and aggressive blood pressure lowering. Only 1 patient had autopsy. Conclusion: Most ICU mortalities among neurosurgical patients were from severe TBI. The establishment of NICU is necessary to improve outcome of care of neurosurgical patients

Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures , Intensive Care Units , Spinal Cord Diseases , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Sepsis , Hypertension, Malignant
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 41(1): 76-84, 07/03/2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362091


Alcohol abuse has impacts on public health worldwide. Conservative treatment to achieve abstinence consists of detoxification combined with psychotherapy and the use of drugs, but it is estimated that only half of the individuals achieve long-term abstinence with the available treatments. In this sense, neurosurgery appears as a therapeutic proposal. The present study aimed to gather information about the circuitry related to alcohol use disorder (AUD), to describe possible surgical targets, and to establish whether a surgical approach could be a safe and effective treatment option. A systematic review of the literature was conducted and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. The 14 selected articles analyze ablative operations, deep brain stimulation (DBS), and a new procedure in which the patient is first submitted to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to evaluate their response, and later an implant is surgically positioned on the evaluated target to obtain more lasting results. The most relevant outcomes were found when the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) were used as targets, demonstrating a large reduction in alcohol intake and even its cessation. However, important side effects were observed, such as psychotic symptoms, right frontal venous infarction, seizures after implantation in the ACC and a hypomanic period after DBS in the NAcc, which could be reversed. Due to the lack of studies involving the surgical treatment of AUD, more clinical trials are needed to compare targets, to assess surgical techniques, and to estimate the safety of these techniques.

Deep Brain Stimulation/methods , Alcoholism/surgery , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/methods , Ablation Techniques/rehabilitation , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Gyrus Cinguli/surgery , Nucleus Accumbens/surgery
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 16(1): 28-36, ene. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362112


La craneotomía con paciente despierto (CPD) demanda un manejo multidisciplinario particular debido al componente de conciencia transoperatoria que aporta beneficios en la resección tumoral y preservación neurológica, pero también implica el manejo de los riesgos asociados a la necesidad de cooperación del paciente durante el procedimiento. En este trabajo se describen los beneficios y las complicaciones en pacientes operados bajo la modalidad de CPD. Además, se abordan los retos documentados tanto para el equipo profesional a cargo, como para los pacientes, los cuales tienen un rol activo durante la cirugía. En ese sentido, se exponen los criterios para la selección, preparación psicológica y neuropsicológica tanto previo como durante la cirugía. A su vez, se proponen las consideraciones para lograr un procedimiento exitoso y evitar las posibles secuelas psicológicas a largo plazo, como insumos para la protocolización de este tipo de procedimientos con base en nuestra experiencia.

Awake craniotomy (AC) requires a multidisciplinary management due to trans operative awareness, which benefits the tumor resection and neurologic preservation, but it also implies risks for the patient cooperation during the procedure. This article describes the benefits and complications in patients operated under AC. Besides, it approaches the documented challenges for both the professional team and patients, who have an active role during surgery. In this regard, the criteria for selection and psychological and neuropsychological preparation before and during surgery are set out. It suggests considerations to achieve a successful procedure and to avoid possible long- term psychological sequelae, as a resource for the protocol of this type of procedures based on our experience.

Humans , Wakefulness , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Craniotomy/methods , Postoperative Period , Patient Compliance , Conscience
repert. med. cir ; 31(1): 11-19, 2022.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363855


La neuroendoscopia es un procedimiento mínimamente invasivo que se desarrolló a principios del siglo pasado y tiene importancia en el campo de la neurocirugía, representa un método innovador ya que aporta una amplia visualización de las estructuras anatómicas con mínimo traumatismo del tejido nervioso, contribuyendo al diagnóstico y tratamiento de diversas afecciones intra y extracerebral. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica con el propósito de identificar, analizar y describir algunas patologías neuroquirúrgicas que se han tratado bajo neuroendoscopia, así como los aportes más relevantes en cirugía pediátrica y de columna, con el fin de exponer el impacto que ha tenido esta técnica en el desarrollo de la cirugía moderna.

Neuroendoscopy is a minimally-invasive procedure that was developed at the beginning of the last century and plays an important role in neurosurgery. It is an innovative method since it enables a broad visualization of the anatomical structures with minimal damage to the nervous tissue, contributing to the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of intra and extracerebral conditions. A bibliographic search was carried out to identify, analyze and describe some neurological pathologies that have been treated using neuroendoscopic surgery. The most relevant contributions to pediatric and spine surgery are also outlined to show the impact that this technique has had in the progress of modern surgery.

Neurosurgical Procedures , Neuroendoscopy , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Neurosurgery
Bull. méd. Owendo (En ligne) ; 20(51): 64-68, 2022.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1378393


Introduction : La Neurochirurgie au Mali reste une discipline relativement jeune par rapport aux autres spécialités chirurgicales. Le but de ce travail est de décrire le parcours des urgences neurochirurgicales admises au SAU de l'hôpital du Mali.Patient et méthodes : C'est une étude prospective transversale analytique qui s'est déroulée au SAU de l'hôpital du Mali sur une durée de 02 mois. Sont inclus dans cette étude, tous les patients admis au SAU et dont on a eu recours à un avis neurochirurgical. Nous avons recensé et analysé les données épidémiologiques, cliniques, paracliniques et thérapeutiques chez 82 patients. Résultats : Sur un total de 152 patients admis au SAU, il y'avait 82 cas pour lesquels un avis neurochirurgical a été demandé soit 53, 95 % des admissions. Parmi ces 82 patients, il y avait 50 cas de traumatismes crâniens, 20 cas de traumatismes du rachis, 08 cas d'accident vasculaire cérébral hémorragique (AVCH), 03 cas de suppurations intracrâniennes et 01 cas de tumeur cérébrale. Nous avons opéré 41 patients (50%) et mis en observation 32 patients (39,02%). Malgré nos efforts, 09 patients sont sortis contre avis médical ou par faute de moyens. Nous avons noté 03 cas de décès. Conclusion : La qualité des soins et l'accès aux soins sont très souvent considérés par les patients comme les éléments essentiels de la performance d'un système de santé. En tant que Etablissement Public Hospitalier (EPH) de niveau 3, il doit bénéficier d'un plateau technique adéquat et d'un personnel médical et paramédical suffisant afin d'assurer une prise en charge correcte des patients

Introduction : Neurosurgery in Mali remains a relatively young discipline compared to other surgical specialties.The aim of this study is to describe the course of neurosurgical emergencies in "Hôpital du Mali". Patients and methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional analytical study that took place at the emergency department of "hôpital du Mali" over a period of 02 months. Are included in this study, all the patients admitted in emergency for whom neurosurgical advice was sought. We identified and analyzed epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic data in 82 patients.Results: Out of a total of 152 patients admitted to our emergency unit, there were 82 cases for which a neurosurgical opinion was requested, ie 53.95% of admissions. Among these 82 patients, there were 50 cases of head trauma, 20 cases of spinal trauma, 08 cases of brain stroke, 03 cases of intracranial suppurations and 01 case of brain tumor. We operated on 41 patients (50%) and observed 32 patients (39.02%). Despite our efforts, 09 patients were released against medical advice or for lack of funds. We noted 03 cases of death. Conclusion: The quality of care and access to care are very often seen by patients as essential elements of the performance of a health system. As a level 3 public hospital, it must have an adequate technical platform and sufficient medical and paramedical staff to ensure correct patient care

Humans , Male , Female , Food Quality , Chief Executive Officers, Hospital , Purchasing, Hospital , Neurosurgical Procedures , Management Audit
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 512-519, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401813


Background: COVID-19 pandemic may decrease the quantum of care for patients with neurosurgical conditions. Objectives: To determine outpatient clinic (OPC) patient load, neurosurgical procedures volume and disease spectrum following the institution of a new care protocol during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and compare with previous practice data in our institution. Methods: A monocentric retrospective analysis of all patients requiring neurosurgical care over a 2-year period. Results: There was a 42.4% reduction in OPC attendance and 41.8% reduction in surgical procedures in 2020 compared to 2019. There was >60 percent reduction in the volume of surgery that was done at the onset and peak of the pandemic, but this has normalized in November 2020 despite the resurgence of COVID-19, after the institution of a new care protocol. Neurotrauma procedures (29.6%) were the most common neurosurgical operation in 2020 while congenital malformation surgery (37.3%) was the most common procedure performed in 2019. Conclusions: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic initially led to significant decrease in quantum and spectra of patients who presented at the OPC and for neurosurgical procedures. Instituted local protocol and Teleclinics, if added to clinical care armamentarium, may help to improve on the low patient attendance during pandemics

Outpatients , Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Neurosurgery , Neurosurgical Procedures , Nigeria
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(4): 349-360, 26/11/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362093


Introduction Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies provide a practical and anatomical way to reproduce precise tailored-made models of the patients and of the diseases. Those models can allow surgical planning, besides training and surgical simulation in the treatment of neurosurgical diseases. Objective The aim of the present article is to review the scenario of the development of different types of available 3D printing technologies, the processes involved in the creation of biomodels, and the application of those advances in the neurosurgical field. Methods We searched for papers that addressed the clinical application of 3D printing in neurosurgery on the PubMed, Ebsco, Web of Science, Scopus, and Science Direct databases. All papers related to the use of any additivemanufacturing technique were included in the present study. Results Studies involving 3D printing in neurosurgery are concentrated on threemain areas: (1) creation of anatomical tailored-made models for planning and training; (2) development of devices and materials for the treatment of neurosurgical diseases, and (3) biological implants for tissues engineering. Biomodels are extremely useful in several branches of neurosurgery, and their use in spinal, cerebrovascular, endovascular, neuro-oncological, neuropediatric, and functional surgeries can be highlighted. Conclusions Three-dimensional printing technologies are an exclusive way for direct replication of specific pathologies of the patient. It can identify the anatomical variation and provide a way for rapid construction of training models, allowing the medical resident and the experienced neurosurgeon to practice the surgical steps before the operation.

Computer-Aided Design , Neurosurgical Procedures/instrumentation , Printing, Three-Dimensional/instrumentation , Models, Anatomic , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/instrumentation , Tissue Engineering/instrumentation , Bioprinting/instrumentation
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(3): 284-287, 15/09/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362168


The COVID-19 pandemic has affected a large number of patients in all countries, overwhelming healthcare systems worldwide. In this scenario, surgical procedures became restricted, causing unacceptable delays in the treatment of certain pathologies, such as glioblastoma. Regarding this tumor with high morbidity and mortality, early surgical treatment is essential to increase the survival and quality of life of these patients. Association between COVID-19 and neurosurgical procedures is quite scarce in the literature, with a few reported cases. In the present study, we present a rare case of a patient undergoing surgical resection of glioblastoma with COVID-19.

Humans , Male , Aged , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Glioblastoma/surgery , COVID-19/drug therapy , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Glioblastoma/pathology , Glioblastoma/diagnostic imaging , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 29(3): 475-480, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347134


Resumen Los tumores de tronco encefálico representan alrededor del 10% al 20% de los tumores del sistema nervioso central en niños. El glioma intrínseco difuso es el más frecuente (80% de los casos) de este grupo de tumores, que se caracterizan por la mala evolución y una sobrevida corta. El diagnóstico se puede hacer por resonancia magnética (con espectroscopía) o por biopsia estereotáxica, un método controvertido, que permite el estudio inmunohistoquímico y molecular del tumor. La reflexión moral se focaliza en la indicación de biopsia para pacientes vulnerables y con mal pronóstico. Se analiza la cirugía desde el punto de vista ético, con base en el mejor interés del niño y en la actitud altruista del paciente y su familia.

Abstract Brainstem tumors represent about 10% to 20% of central nervous system tumors in children. Diffuse intrinsic glioma is the most frequent (80% of cases) in this group of tumors, characterized by poor prognosis and short survival. Diagnosis can be made by magnetic resonance (with spectroscopy) or by stereotactic biopsy, a controversial method that allows immunohistochemical and molecular study of the tumor. Moral reflection focuses on the indication of biopsy for vulnerable patients with a poor prognosis. Surgery is analyzed from an ethical point of view based on the best interests of the child and altruistic attitude of patient and family.

Resumo Os tumores de tronco encefálico representam cerca de 10% a 20% dos tumores do sistema nervoso central em crianças. O glioma intrínseco difuso é o mais frequente (80% dos casos) desse grupo de tumores, caracterizados pela má evolução e por uma curta sobrevida. O diagnóstico pode ser feito por ressonância magnética (com espectroscopia) ou por biópsia estereotáxica, um método controverso, que permite o estudo imunohistoquímico e molecular do tumor. A reflexão moral se concentra na indicação de biópsia para pacientes vulneráveis e com mau prognóstico. A cirurgia é analisada do ponto de vista ético com base no melhor interesse da criança e na atitude altruísta do paciente e da família.

Humans , Child , Neurosurgical Procedures/ethics , Brain Stem Neoplasms/surgery , Ethics, Clinical
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(2): 113-119, 15/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362174


Objective The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the usefulness of intraoperative ultrasound guidance as a technique for the assessment, in real time, of tumor resection and as a navigation aid during intra-axial brain lesion removal on patients admitted in the Neurosurgical Department at the Hospital Universitario de Caracas, Caracas, Venezuela, in 2018. Methods A total of 10 patients were enrolled, each with intra-axial brain lesions with no previous neurosurgical procedures and a mean age of 49 years old, ranging from 29 to 59 years old. Results A male predominance was observed with 7 cases (70%) over 3 female cases (30%). Six patients had lesions in the dominant hemisphere. The frontal lobe was the most commonly affected,with 5 cases, followed by the parietal lobe,with 4 cases. After craniotomy, ultrasound evaluation was performed previously to dural opening, during tumor resection and after tumor removal. The mean tumor size in axial, coronal and sagittal views was 3.72 cm, 3.08 cm and 3.00 cm, respectively, previously to dural opening with intraoperative ultrasound. The average tumor depth was 1.73 cm from the cerebral cortex. The location and removal duration from the beginning of the approach (ultrasound usage time) was 83.60 minutes, and the average surgery duration was 201 minutes. Navigation with intraoperative ultrasound served to resect intra-axial tumors more precisely and safely. There was no postoperative complication associated with the surgery in this series of cases. Conclusions Intraoperative ultrasound guidance for intra-axial subcortical tumor resection is a technique that serves as a surgical and anatomical orientation tool.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Monitoring, Intraoperative/methods , Ultrasonography , Neuronavigation/methods , Glioma/surgery , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Craniotomy/methods , Glioma/physiopathology , Glioma/diagnostic imaging
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(1): 59-63, mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1397688


Introducción: El entrenamiento y la cuidadosa planificación preoperatoria son importantes para el éxito de cualquier procedimiento neuroquirúrgico. Un modelo 3D de una lesión en base de cráneo ha probado ser de especial utilidad en evidenciar la disposición espacial específica del tumor, y sus relaciones, agregando factores que optimizan la planificación quirúrgica. Objetivos: Emular la práctica de Impresión 3D en nuestro medio y analizar su utilidad para la planificación quirúrgica. Presentación del caso: Paciente femenino de 41 años que concurre a la consulta por trastornos endócrinos, campimétricos y cefalea. Al examen paciente estaba lúcida, con pupilas intermedias hipo reactivas, hemianopsia bitemporal, movilizando 4 miembros sin déficit. En RM de cerebro se observa lesión espacio ocupante selar-supraselar con aspecto multilobulado, que invade cisterna interpeduncular y desplaza estructuras del tercer ventrículo. Intervención: La paciente fue sometida a cirugía resectiva por abordaje subfrontal, logrando resección macroscópica completa. Evolucionando posteriormente con GOS 5. Conclusión: La realización de modelos en impresión 3D provee importantes perspectivas para el abordaje a la lesión y constituyen una importante herramienta de bajo costo para neurocirujanos en formación. Destacamos la importancia de la interdisciplinariedad para el arribo a resultados favorables.

Introduction: Effective surgical training and careful preoperative planning are important for success in neurosurgical procedures. As a 3D printed skull base lesion model shows the specific spatial arrangement of a tumor, and its anatomical relations, we believe it could play an important role in surgical planning. Objectives: Emulate the practice of 3D Printing in our environment and analyze its usefulness for surgical planning. Case presentation: 41-year-old female patient who attends the consultation for endocrine, visual field disorders and headache. On examination, the patient was lucid, with hypo reactive intermediate pupils, bitemporal hemianopia, mobilizing 4 extremities without deficit. In MRI of the brain, a selar-suprasellar space-occupying lesion with a multilobed appearance is observed, which invades the interpeduncular cistern and displaces structures of the third ventricle. Intervention: The patient underwent resective surgery through a subfrontal approach, achieving complete macroscopic resection. Evolving later with GOS 5 Conclusion: 3D printing models provide to us important of perspectives for the approach to the lesion and constitute an important low-cost tool for neurosurgeons in training. We highlight the importance of interdisciplinarity for the arrival of favorable results.

Female , Neoplasms , Skull , Skull Base , Neurosurgical Procedures , Planning , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Neurosurgeons , Neurosurgery
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 562-574, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888749


The protection of language function is one of the major challenges of brain surgery. Over the past century, neurosurgeons have attempted to seek the optimal strategy for the preoperative and intraoperative identification of language-related brain regions. Neurosurgeons have investigated the neural mechanism of language, developed neurolinguistics theory, and provided unique evidence to further understand the neural basis of language functions by using intraoperative cortical and subcortical electrical stimulation. With the emergence of modern neuroscience techniques and dramatic advances in language models over the last 25 years, novel language mapping methods have been applied in the neurosurgical practice to help neurosurgeons protect the brain and reduce morbidity. The rapid advancements in brain-computer interface have provided the perfect platform for the combination of neurosurgery and neurolinguistics. In this review, the history of neurolinguistics models, advancements in modern technology, role of neurosurgery in language mapping, and modern language mapping methods (including noninvasive neuroimaging techniques and invasive cortical electroencephalogram) are presented.

Humans , Brain Mapping , Brain Neoplasms , Language , Neurosurgery , Neurosurgical Procedures
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 39(4): 249-255, 15/12/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362314


Introduction There are more than 1,500 hospital procedures included in the Brazilian Unified Healthcare System's (SUS, in the Portuguese acronym) table, which is the reference for service payment provided by establishments serving the public health network, and they are stagnant. The underfinancing of procedures is so dramatic that in some cases the amounts paid by the SUS are even lower than the taxes generated by the costs of the same procedures in Brazilian private hospitals. This article aims to compare the evolution of the compensation of neurosurgical procedures by calculating the percentile of the lag in the values transferred to both neurosurgeons and hospitals, according to the SUS table, establishing the ideal and real values according to the current inflation, in a retrospective 9-year comparison. Methodology This is an observational, comparative, retrospective study, based on the values of medical and hospital money transfers of 25 neurosurgical procedures in 2008, which were corrected according to the 2017 National Consumer Price Index (IPCA, in the Portuguese acronym). Results Through this study, from 2008 to 2017, the transfers of medical fees regarding neurosurgical techniques are almost completely outdated. As examples, we can mention: the external/subgaleal ventricular shunt, with a deficit of 43.6%; the electrode implant for brain stimulation, with - 41.67%; and decompressive craniotomy, with - 32.21% in relation to the corrected value. Only 4 of the 25 neurosurgeries present a value above that predicted by the IPCA, one of them being cerebral aneurysm embolization larger than 1.5 cm with a narrow neck (þ 8.0%). Regarding the money transfers to hospitals, all procedures are 43.6% lower than expected, since there was no readjustment in the amounts paid to the institutions in the analyzed period. For example, in 2008, for the transposition of the cubital nerve, R$ 267.30 were transferred, and the same amount was maintained in 2017; and, for the surgical treatment of compressive syndrome in osteofibrous tunnel at carpal level (R$ 145.18), the amount also remained fixed throughout these 9 years. Conclusion Because they did not follow the evolution of the economy, in 80% of the surgeries, the neurosurgeons did not have their economic demands met regarding the procedures performed through SUS. And the data became even more alarming when the money transfers to hospitals were evaluated, since there was no evolution in the money transfers for any of the neurosurgeries evaluated.

Unified Health System , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Neurosurgical Procedures/economics , Inflation, Economic/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Fees, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Observational Study
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 39(4): 271-278, 15/12/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362322


Deep brain stimulation has become an option for advanced Parkinson's disease treatment since the 1990s, but the first reports are from Benabid's team, a French neurosurgeon, in the 1980s. The subthalamic nucleus (STN), more specifically its dorsolateral portion, is the most commonly stimulated brain area. One of the major aspects for a good surgical result is the accurate location of this target. Therefore, the present article aimed to identify landmarks that facilitate and refine the location of the STN using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) of the skull. In order to achieve this goal, a search for articles was performed using the PubMed and Science Direct online databases, and articles regarding the use of NMRI to target STN were included. The precise location of the dorsolateral portion of the STN is fundamental to achieve the best possible effect on motor symptoms and to minimize side effects. One of the most used location methods is the NMRI, associated or not with tomography or ventriculography. The location strategies can be classified as direct and indirect. Landmarks are among the indirect strategies, and the most important ones (red nucleus, Sukeroku sign, dent internal capsule sign, supramammillary commissure, mammillothalamic tract, and interpeduncular cistern) are described in the present article. The various landmarks can be combined to locate with more accuracy the dorsolateral portion of the STN and the ideal position of the electrodes to achieve the best possible clinical result.

Skull/anatomy & histology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Subthalamic Nucleus/surgery , Subthalamic Nucleus/diagnostic imaging , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Red Nucleus , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Deep Brain Stimulation/methods , Electrodes, Implanted , Interpeduncular Nucleus , Hypothalamus, Posterior
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 39(3): 192-196, 15/09/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362433


We know Kocher's name as an anatomical reference in neurosurgery. In fact, Theodor Kocher was a Swiss general surgeon, and his contributions were such that Kocher was honored in 1909 with the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology, and he was the first surgeon to receive this honor. Kocher participated in the initial scientific phase of medicine, livingwith names that are in history, as well as him; Langenbeck and Virchow, Lucke, Billroth, Horsley, Lister, Halstedt, Pasteur, Osler, Lawson Tait, Verneuil, and a long list and other icons of the time. The present account rescues the many important facets and contributions of the Swiss surgeonTheodor Kocher, and his relationship with several of them. Kocher's memory, surgical instruments and literary production are preserved in a small wing of the University of Bern. The present article highlights how intense Kocher's dedication to the medical field was.

History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , General Surgery/history , Neurosurgical Procedures/history , Epilepsy/surgery , Neurosurgeons/history , Surgical Instruments/history , Neurosurgery/history , Neurosurgery/instrumentation
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 39(3): 239-242, 15/09/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362440


Encephalocele is a protrusion of the central nervous system elements through a defect in the dura mater and in the cranium. The prevalence of encephalocele ranges from 0.08 to 0.5 per 1,000 births. The posterior encephaloceles are more common in North America and Europe, while frontal defect is frequently found in Asia. The present paper describes a 26-year-old male patient presenting with cerebrospinal fluid leak and meningitis symptoms. He was diagnosed with congenital nasoethmoidal encephalocele and treated surgically using a supraorbital approach without complications.

Humans , Male , Adult , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Encephalocele/surgery , Ethmoid Bone/surgery , Nasal Cavity/surgery , Orbit/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Skull/abnormalities , Craniotomy/methods , Encephalocele/diagnostic imaging , Meningitis