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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): e550-e553, oct. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292810

ABSTRACT

Las leucemias son las neoplasias malignas más frecuentes en la infancia; la leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) es la más frecuente. Desde principios de los 80, la adición de metotrexato intratecal a los esquemas de quimioterapia ha sido beneficiosa para prevenir la recidiva en el sistema nervioso central y evitar el uso de radioterapia. Su mecanismo de acción es la inhibición de la enzima dihidrofolato reductasa, por lo que posee múltiples efectos adversos (neurotoxicidad aguda, subaguda o crónica) después de la infusión intratecal o de dosis altas por vía intravenosa.Se presenta un paciente de 11 años con diagnóstico de LLA de línea T (LLA-T), que presenta hemiparesia faciobraquial y afasia de expresión de instauración aguda 8 días después de la administración intratecal de metotrexato. Luego de excluir otras patologías más frecuentes de origen vascular y la evolución típica del cuadro, con resolución espontánea ad integrum de los síntomas, se arribó al diagnóstico de encefalopatía subaguda reversible por metotrexato.


Leukemias are the most frequent malignant neoplasms in childhood; acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most frequent. The addition of intrathecal methotrexate to chemotherapy regimens has been beneficial in preventing relapse to the central nervous system and avoiding the use of radiation therapy. Due to its mechanism of action, by inhibiting the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, when it is used systemically, it has multiple expected adverse effects such as mucositis, myelosuppression and it has also been observed after intrathecal administration or high intravenous doses, acute, subacute neurotoxicity where stroke like syndrome is found. We present an 11-year-old patient diagnosed with T-ALL, who manifested after 8 days of intrathecal administration of methotrexate, faciobrachial hemiparesis and acute onset expression aphasia. The diagnosis of subacute encephalopathy reversible by methotrexate was reached by excluding other more frequent pathologies and the typical evolution, with spontaneously ad integrum resolution of the symptoms


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Stroke/chemically induced , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/adverse effects
2.
Infectio ; 25(1): 67-70, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154406

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por enterobacterias desencadena usualmente síntomas gastrointestinales caracterizados por vómito, diarrea y dolor abdominal, de severidad y curso variable. El compromiso extraintestinal esta descrito, inclusive sin las manifestaciones gastrointestinales clásicas lo que favorece diagnósticos y tratamientos tardíos pudiendo llegar a ser incapacitantes y letales. El síndrome de Ekiri, también denominado síndrome de encefalopatía letal tóxico, se caracteriza por una disfunción aguda del sistema nervioso central secundaria a infección por enterobacterias las cuales favorecen el desarrollo de microtrombos a nivel cerebral con inflamación mediada por el factor de necrosis tumoral α e IL- 1β y disfunción de la barrera hematoencefálica con una alta tasa de mortalidad. Dentro de nuestro conocimiento, presentamos el primer caso reportado en Colombia sobre el síndrome de Ekiri.


Abstract Gastrointestinal infection usually manifests with nausea, vomit and abdominal pain, all of them wit course and variable severity. Extrainstestinal compromise is described, even without gastrointestinal symptoms, what causes a delay on diagnosis and treatment, worsening the prognosis. Ekiri syndrome, also known as lethal toxic encephalopathy is characterized by an acute neurological dysfunction secondary to enterobacterial infection which favor thrombi development and local inflammation mediated by tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1β with blood brain barrier dysfunction and high mortality. As we know, we present the first Ekiri syndrome case reported in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Brain Diseases , Syndrome , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Diarrhea , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Escherichia coli , Nausea
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): e18-e25, feb. 2021. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147188

ABSTRACT

La hiperbilirrubinemia es el motivo más frecuente de consulta e internación en el período neonatal. Requiere la instauración oportuna de un tratamiento eficiente, ya que los recién nacidos son especialmente vulnerables a los daños que la bilirrubina puede causar en el sistema nervioso central, debido a características propias de esta etapa de la vida.La bilirrubina en altas concentraciones produce neurotoxicidad y estrés oxidativo. Sin embargo, estudios de biología molecular demuestran que la misma molécula se comporta como un potente antioxidante.El objetivo de esta actualización es revisar cuáles son los procesos por los que la bilirrubina genera daño celular y cuáles son sus efectos antioxidantes beneficiosos. Conocer estos mecanismos facilitaría una indicación más precisa de luminoterapia individualizada, eficaz y oportuna. Hasta nuevos avances científicos, la prescripción de este tratamiento debe ser orientada por consenso de expertos


Hyperbilirubinemia is the most common reason for consultation and hospitalization in the neonatal period. It requires a timely initiation of an effective treatment because newborn infants are especially vulnerable to damage caused by bilirubin in the central nervous system due to the characteristics typical of this stage of life.High bilirubin levels result in neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. However, molecular biology studies have demonstrated that bilirubin itself acts as a potent antioxidant.The objective of this update is to review the processes whereby bilirubin causes cell damage and determine its beneficial antioxidant effects. Knowing these mechanisms may facilitate a more accurate indication of a customized, effective, and timely phototherapy. Until new scientific advances are made, phototherapy should be prescribed based on expert consensus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Bilirubin , Oxidative Stress , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Antioxidants
4.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342398

ABSTRACT

Afr. J. Biomed. Res. Vol. 24 (May, 2021); 257- 263 Research Article Protective Effect of Alkaloid-rich Extract of Brimstone Tree (Morinda lucida) on Neurotoxicity in the Fruit-fly (Drosophila melanogaster) Model Nwanna E.E. Functional Food, Nutraceutical and Phytomedicine unit Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology Akure PMB 704, Nigeria ABSTRACT Brimstone plant is one of the medicinal plants found in Nigeria used in fore-lore medicine with little scientific information on its alkaloid constituents. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of alkaloid-rich compounds from the plant in manganese- induced (MgCl2) neurotoxicity in the fruit fly. In addition, alkaloid compounds will be characterized using gas chromatograph coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Alkaloid-rich extract was prepared by solvent extraction method, fruit flies were pre-treated with the extract (0.5 ­ 1.0mg/ml) in a fortified diet before induction with MgCl2. The survival rate and negative geotaxis were observed. Thereafter, the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, antioxidantive potentials in in -vivo reactive oxygen species (ROS) thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), total thiol content, nitric oxide (NO*), hydroxyl oxide (OH*) scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulphonic acid) (ABTs*) radical scavenging ability were carried out on the flies' homogenate. Results obtained revealed that the alkaloid-rich extract regulated the neuro-protective activity of AchE, reduced the reactive oxygen species level in the induced flies with an increased in antioxidantive potential, higher survival rate and increases in the life span of the flies with 50% reduction in the mortality rate. The GC-MS showed a total of (1.55/100mg) of different plant-derived alkaloids such as dicentrine, atropine, aporphine. These alkaloids-rich compounds were found to have anti-oxidative, anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti- cholinergic activities. In conclusion, this study suggests that alkaloids from brimstone plant could be the reason for the observed biological activities for the prevention of neuronal related complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sulfur , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Acetylcholinesterase , Drosophila Proteins , Alkaloids
5.
Med. U.P.B ; 39(2): 60-65, 21/10/2020. tab, Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1123583

ABSTRACT

Caso clínico de un hombre de 20 años, procedente de área rural de un municipio de Nariño, que consulta a un centro de salud después de 36 horas de haber ingerido de modo no intencional 20-30 mL de gramoxone (dicloruro de paraquat) mientras estaba en estado de embriaguez, con síntomas digestivos, hiperbilirrubinemia, elevación de azoados, leucocitosis y neutrofilia, por lo que es referido a un hospital de alta complejidad en la ciudad de Pasto. Durante su hospitalización, presenta epistaxis, falla renal con requerimiento de hemodiálisis, quemaduras orales, hipertermia y dos episodios de crisis convulsivas tónico-clónico generalizadas. Se toman paraclínicos: azoados, gases arteriales, electrolitos, glicemia, entre otros, cuyos resultados se enmarcan dentro de la normalidad durante los episodios convulsivos. Es relevante proporcionar elementos para construir un criterio clínico que explique el compromiso neurológico, ya que, es raro y complejo en intoxicaciones por herbicidas como el paraquat.


A clinical case of a 20 year-old man from a rural area of Llorente-Nariño, who consulted a local health center after 36 hours of accidental ingesting Gramoxone (paraquat dichloride, 20-30 mL), while under the influence of alcohol, that provoked digestive symptoms, hyperbilirubinemia, elevation of creatinine and hemogram with leukocytosis and neutrophilia, is referred to the third level of health attention in the city of Pasto. During the hospital course he presents epistaxis, kidney failure with need of hemodialysis, oral burns, hyperthermia and two episodes of convulsive seizures clonic-tonic generalized with arterial blood gases, electrolytes, glycemia and other para-clinics within normal ranges during the seizures. It's important to try to give elements to build a clinical criteria to explain neurologic compromise, because is exceptionally strange and complex this type of clinical presentation in cases of intoxication with paraquat.Keywords: paraquat; herbicides; poisoning; neurotoxicity syndromes.


Caso clínico de um homem de 20 anos, procedente de área rural de um munícipio de Nariño, que consulta a um centro de saúde depois de 36 horas de haver ingerido de modo não intencional 20-30 mL de gramoxone (dicloreto de Paraquat) enquanto estava em estado de embriaguez, com sintomas digestivos, hiperbilirrubinemia, elevação de azoados, leucocitose e neutrofilia, pelo que é referido a um hospital de alta complexidade na cidade de Pasto. Durante sua hospitalização, apresenta epistaxe, falha renal com requerimento de hemodiálise, queimaduras orais, hipertermia e dois episódios de crise convulsivas tônico-clônico generalizadas. Se tomam paraclínicos: azoados, gases arteriais, eletrólitos, glicemia, entre outros, cujos os resultados se quadram dentro da normalidade durante os episódios convulsivos. É relevante proporcionar elementos para construir um critério clínico que explique o compromisso neurológico, já que, é raro e complexo em intoxicações por herbicidas como o paraquat.


Subject(s)
Humans , Paraquat , Poisoning , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Herbicides
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(6): 443-450, June 2020. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1135645

ABSTRACT

Poisonous plants are a significant cause of death among adult cattle in Brazil. Plants that affect the central nervous system are widely spread throughout the Brazilian territory and comprise over 30 toxic species, including the genus Ipomoea, commonly associated with a lysosomal storage disease and a tremorgenic syndrome in livestock. We describe natural and experimental Ipomoea pes caprae poisoning in cattle from a herd in the Northside of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Affected cattle presented episodes of severe ataxia, abnormal posture followed by falling, muscular tremor, contraction, and spasticity, more prominent in the limbs, intensified by movement and forthcoming, and recumbence. Grossly, a substantial amount of leaves and petioles were found in the rumen. Histopathological examination showed degenerative neuronal changes, mostly in cerebellar Purkinje cells, which were confirmed with Bielschowsky silver. The characteristic clinical changes and mild histological lesion strongly suggested a tremorgenic syndrome. Lectin- immunohistochemistry evaluation reinforced this hypothesis; all lectins tested failed to react with affect neurons and Purkinje cells, which ruled out an underlying lysosomal storage disease. One calf given I. pes caprae leaves experimentally developed clinical signs similar to natural cases. On the 28th day of the experiment, the plant administration was suspended, and the calf recovered within four days. I. pes caprae's spontaneous tremorgenic syndrome in cattle is conditioned to exclusive feeding for several months. We were able to experimentally reproduce toxic clinical signs 12 days following the ingestion.(AU)


A intoxicação por plantas tóxicas está entre as três causas de morte mais importantes em bovinos adultos no Brasil. O grupo das plantas que causam alterações neurológicas, muito bem representada no país, encerra mais de trinta espécies tóxicas, entre as quais do gênero Ipomoea, amplamente distribuídas no território brasileiro. As plantas tóxicas desse gênero podem causar doenças do armazenamento ou síndrome tremorgênica. Descrevem-se a intoxicação natural e reprodução experimental por Ipomoea pes caprae em bovinos, verificada no norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram observados episódios de intensa ataxia locomotora, postura anormal seguida de queda, incapacidade de levantar-se, tremores, contrações, espasticidades musculares nos membros, intensificados após estimulação ou a simples aproximação e decúbito. Nos bovinos afetados há mais de 6 meses, os sinais clínicos tornavam-se permanentes. À necropsia havia apenas significativa quantidade de folhas e pecíolos da planta no rúmen. O estudo histopatológico evidenciou lesões neuronais degenerativas principalmente nos neurônios de Purkinje. A impregnação argêntica pela técnica de Bielschowsky ratificou esses achados microscópicos. As lesões histológicas sutis associadas ao quadro clínico indicam que trata-se de intoxicação tremorgênica. O fato de não haver nenhum armazenamento intracitoplasmático, confirmado pelo resultado do estudo lectino-histoquímico (não houve afinidade das lectinas Con-A, WGA e sWGA e de outras lectinas empregadas aos neurônios de Purkinje e outros neurônios afetados), é suficiente para descartar a possibilidade de tratar-se de doença do armazenamento. No bezerro intoxicado experimentalmente verificaram-se sinais clínicos semelhantes, entretanto, com a interrupção do fornecimento da planta no 28º dia, os sinais clínicos desapareceram após quatro dias. I. pes caprae causa síndrome tremorgênica espontânea em bovinos, quando ingerida como alimentação exclusiva durante períodos prolongados (muitos meses). Experimentalmente, os primeiros sinais clínicos da intoxicação foram reproduzidos após 12 dias de ingestão da planta.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Plant Poisoning/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/pathology , Ipomoea/poisoning , Tremor/etiology , Tremor/veterinary , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/veterinary
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(3): 155-157, Mar. 2020.
Article in English | ID: biblio-1135605

ABSTRACT

An approach for the diagnosis of an abamectin outbreak in calves in the field is described and discussed. In a Midwestern Brazilian property, nine out of a 52 newborn calves were affected and died, making up for morbidity, mortality, and lethality ratios of 17.3%, 17.3%, and 100%, respectively. Major clinical signs included tremors in various muscle groups, inability to stand, and difficult, wheezing breathing. Each affected calf had been treated subcutaneously with abamectin (0.4mg/kg/body weight). No lesions were found at necropsy or at histological examination. Major diseases of newborn calves were included in the differential diagnosis.(AU)


Uma abordagem para o diagnóstico de um surto de abamectina em bezerros a campo é descrita e discutida. Numa propriedade do Centro-Oeste brasileiro, nove de um lote de 52 bezerros de 3 dias de idade foram afetados e morreram, perfazendo quocientes de morbidade, mortalidade e letalidade, respectivamente, de 17,3%, 17,3% e 100%. Os principais sinais clínicos incluíam tremores em vários grupos musculares, incapacidade em se manter em pé, e respiração difícil e estertorosa. Cada bezerro afetado havia sido tratado por via subcutânea com abamectina, na dose de 0,4mg/kg/peso corporal. Não foram encontradas lesões na necropsia, nem no exame histológico. As principais doenças de bezerros recém-nascidos foram incluídas no diagnóstico diferencial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/diagnosis , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/veterinary , Acaricides/poisoning , Insecticides/poisoning , Anthelmintics/poisoning
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 169-176, Jan.-Feb. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1088908

ABSTRACT

O fipronil é um inseticida de toxicidade seletiva amplamente empregado na agricultura e na medicina veterinária. Porém, há relatos de efeitos neurotóxicos dessa substância, que geram prejuízos para vertebrados. Avaliou-se a atividade locomotora, a coordenação motora e a atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase cerebral em ratos expostos ao fipronil. Ratos Wistar machos adultos (n=15) receberam fipronil em dose de 30mg/kg, por via oral, durante 15 dias; o grupo controle (n=15) foi tratado com solução fisiológica, por via oral, no mesmo período. No 16° dia de experimentação, os animais foram submetidos aos testes de arena de campo aberto e hole board. No 17° dia, foram anestesiados e eutanasiados, procedendo-se à coleta de órgãos, e posteriormente foi feita a avaliação da AChE cerebral. A exposição ao fipronil não provocou alterações significativas sobre a coordenação motora e a atividade locomotora, porém gerou inibição significativa da atividade da acetilcolinesterase cerebral. Esses achados sugerem que o fipronil pode provocar efeitos neurotóxicos em curto prazo, os quais podem ser exacerbados caso a exposição seja prolongada.(AU)


Fipronil is a selective-toxicity insecticide widely used in agriculture and veterinary medicine. However, there are reports of neurotoxic effects of this substance, causing damages to vertebrates. We evaluated the locomotor activity, motor coordination and the activity of brain acetylcholinesterase in rats exposed to fipronil. Adult male Wistar rats (n= 15) received fipronil at a dose of 30mg/kg orally for 15 days; the Control group (n= 15) was treated with oral solution in the same period. On the 16th day of experimentation, the animals were submitted to the open field arena test and hole-board test. On the 17th day, they were anesthetized and euthanized, and organs were collected, and subsequently brain AChE was evaluated. Exposure to fipronil yielded no significant changes on motor coordination and locomotor activity but caused significant inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase activity. These findings suggest that fipronil may cause short-term neurotoxic effects, which may be exacerbated if exposure is prolonged.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pesticides/toxicity , Acetylcholinesterase/analysis , Pesticide Exposure , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/veterinary , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Rats, Wistar
9.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(4): 403-412, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041995

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives Intrathecal administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is more efficacious for post-operative pain management. Cyclooxygenase inhibiting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen, may be effective at lower intrathecal doses than parenteral ones. Preclinical safety regarding possible neurotoxicity associated with the intrathecal (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen was not evaluated. Here we analysed the neurotoxicity of intrathecally administered (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen in rats. Methods A randomized placebo-controlled experimental study was conducted. Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) aged 12-16 weeks were randomly divided into 2 treatments [100 and 800 µg (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen] and control (sterile water) groups. Intrathecal catheters were placed via the atlantoaxial space in anesthetized rats. Pinch-toe tests, motor function evaluations and histopathological examinations of the spinal cord and nerve roots were performed at days 3, 7 and 21. Spinal cord sections were evaluated by light microscopy for the dorsal axonal funiculus vacuolation, axonal myelin loss, neuronal chromatolysis, neuritis, meningeal inflammation, adhesions, and fibrosis. Results Rats in all the groups exhibited normal pinch-toe testing response (score = 0) and normal gait at each observed time (motor function evaluation score = 1). Neurotoxicity was higher with treatments on days 3 and 7 than that on day 21 (2, 3, 0, p = 0.044; 2, 5, 0, p = 0.029, respectively). On day 7, the total scores reflecting neuronal damage were higher in the 800 µg group than those in the 100 µg and Control Groups (5, 3, 0, p = 0.048, respectively). Conclusion Intrathecal (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen caused dose-dependent neurohistopathological changes in rats on days 3 and 7 after injection, suggesting that (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen should not be intrathecally administered.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos A administração intratecal de anti-inflamatórios não esteroides é mais eficaz no tratamento da dor pós-operatória. Anti-inflamatórios não esteroides, como o (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno, pode ser eficaz em doses intratecais inferiores às parenterais. A segurança pré-clínica relativa à possível neurotoxicidade associada ao (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno intratecal não foi avaliada. Neste estudo avaliamos a neurotoxicidade do (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno administrado por via intratecal em ratos. Métodos Conduzimos um estudo experimental randomizado e controlado por placebo em ratos Sprague-Dawley (250-300 g) com idades entre 12 e 16 semanas. Eles foram randomicamente divididos em dois grupos de tratamento [100 e 800 µg de (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno] e um de controle (água estéril). Cateteres intratecais foram colocados através do espaço atlantoaxial nos ratos anestesiados. Testes de pinça, avaliações da função motora e exames histopatológicos da medula espinhal e das raízes nervosas foram realizados nos dias 3, 7 e 21 do estudo. Os cortes da medula espinhal foram avaliados por microscopia de luz para vacuolização do funículo axonal dorsal, perda de mielina axonal, cromatólise neuronal, neurite, inflamação, aderências e fibrose das meninges. Resultados Em todos os grupos, os ratos exibiram resposta normal ao teste de pinça (pontuação = 0) e marcha normal em cada tempo observado (escore de avaliação da função motora = 1). A neurotoxicidade foi maior com os tratamentos nos dias 3 e 7 do que no dia 21 (2, 3, 0, p = 0,044; 2, 5, 0, p = 0,029, respectivamente). No dia 7, os escores totais refletindo o dano neuronal foram maiores no grupo com 800 µg que nos grupos com 100 µg e controle (5, 3, 0, p = 0,048, respectivamente). Conclusão A administração intratecal de (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno causou alterações neuro-histopatológicas dose-dependentes em ratos nos dias 3 e 7 após a aplicação e sugerindo que o (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno não deve ser administrado por via intratecal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/toxicity , Ketoprofen/toxicity , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Rats , Time Factors , Injections, Spinal , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Ketoprofen/administration & dosage , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although lead neurotoxicity is a known phenomenon, it can often be missed at a primary or secondary care level especially if detailed environmental exposure history is missed.@*METHODS@#This is an outbreak investigation where we observed 15 pediatric cases with neurologic signs and symptoms clustered in a slum area known for an unorganized artificial jewelry industry. Their clinical, biochemical, and epidemiological features were compared with 14 other children from the same region reporting with non-neurological symptoms who were considered as unmatched controls.@*RESULTS@#Cases with neurological manifestations had a higher in-house lead smelting activity [OR 7.2 (95% CI 1.4-38.3)] as compared to controls. Toddlers below 3 years of age were more vulnerable to the effects of lead.@*CONCLUSION@#This study emphasizes that many focal sources of lead poisoning still remain especially in the unorganized sector. In cases presenting with unexplained neurotoxicity, specific occupational and environmental inquiry for chemical poisoning, with special consideration for lead, should be actively pursued.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Air Pollution, Indoor , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , India , Epidemiology , Infant , Inhalation Exposure , Jewelry , Poisoning , Lead , Blood , Reference Standards , Lead Poisoning , Epidemiology , Pathology , Male , Metallurgy , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Epidemiology , Pathology , Poverty Areas , Risk Factors
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762262

ABSTRACT

Sugammadex provides fast and safe recovery from neuromuscular blockade without causing major adverse effects, and its clinical use is increasing. However, there are some reports on the potential risks of sugammadex, such as severe bradycardia, interactions with steroids, coagulopathy, and neuronal damage. Although these potential risks are not clearly proven, they are considered to be dose-dependent and occur more frequently with the free-form of sugammadex. Until further pieces of evidence are accumulated, it is prudent to be aware of these potential risks and avoid an overdose of sugammadex.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , Bradycardia , Drug Interactions , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neurons , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Steroids
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758411

ABSTRACT

Dioscorea tokoro has long been used in Korean traditional medicine as a pain killer and anti-inflammatory agent. A 53-year-old male who consumed water that had been boiled with raw tubers of D. tokoro as tea presented with numbness and spasm of both hands and feet. Laboratory results showed hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, and vitamin D insufficiency. During his hospital stay, colitis, acute kidney injury, and toxic encephalopathy developed. The patient received calcium gluconate intravenous infusion and oral calcium carbonate with alfacalcidol. His symptoms improved gradually, but hypocalcemia persisted despite the calcium supplementation. We suggest that ingestion of inappropriately prepared D. tokoro can cause symptomatic hypocalcemia in patients with unbalanced calcium homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Calcium , Calcium Carbonate , Calcium Gluconate , Colitis , Dioscorea , Eating , Foot , Hand , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypesthesia , Hypocalcemia , Hypoparathyroidism , Infusions, Intravenous , Length of Stay , Male , Medicine, Korean Traditional , Middle Aged , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Spasm , Tea , Vitamin D , Water
13.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047557

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Drogas antineoplásicas neurotóxicas estão frequentemente associadas à neuropatia periférica induzida por quimioterapia (NPIQ). Objetivo: Avaliar a evolução clínica dos pacientes expostos a tratamento antineoplásico potencialmente neurotóxico e identificar possíveis preditores clínicos e sociodemográficos para o desenvolvimento da NPIQ. Método: Estudo de coorte prospectiva com pacientes com diagnóstico de câncer de mama, ovário ou intestino em tratamento quimioterápico com paclitaxel, docetaxel ou oxaliplatina. Foram avaliados antes da quimioterapia (T1), no terceiro mês (T2) e 30-60 dias após interrupção do tratamento (T3). Todos responderam ao questionário de perfis sociodemográfico e clínico, foram avaliados por meio de exame clínico neurológico, pela escala de performance ECOG, escala hospitalar de ansiedade e depressão (HAD), escala de dor Short-cGuill, autorrelato de sintomas de NPIQ e avaliação com o questionário de neurotoxicidade induzida por antineoplásicos (CINQ). Resultados: Por meio de autorrelato, 75% da dos pacientes informaram apresentar sintomas de NPIQ. O CINQ evidenciou que 90% apresentaram algum grau de NPIQ em T2, enquanto 82,5% ainda persistiam em T3. Dor neuropática acometeu 42% da população (RR=1,429; IC95%=1,130-1,806). Os escores de ansiedade e depressão reduziram significativamente quando comparados ao início de tratamento (redução de 2,5 pontos na escala HAD, p<0,05). A capacidade funcional da população não mostrou alterações significativas. No T2, a escolaridade foi considerada preditora para autorrelato de sintomas de NPIQ (OR=1,314, IC95%=1,002-1,723, p=0,048). Conclusão:A baixa escolaridade pode comprometer a capacidade do paciente em relatar os sintomas da NPIQ. Este estudo chama a atenção para a necessidade de utilização de instrumentos específicos para detecção precoce da NPIQ.


Introduction: Neurotoxic antineoplastic drugs are frequently associated to chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Objective: To evaluate the clinical evolution of patients exposed to potentially neurotoxic antineoplastic treatment and to identify possible clinical and sociodemographic predictors for the development of CIPN. Method: Cohort prospective study with patients with breast, ovary or intestine diagnosis of cancer in chemotherapy treatment with paclitaxel, docetaxel or oxaliplatin. They were assessed before the chemotherapy (T1), in the third month (T2) and 30-60 days after the interruption of the treatment (T3). All the patients responded to the questionnaire of clinical and sociodemographic profiles, were evaluated through neurologic clinical exam, by the performance scale ECOG, by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - HAD, pain scale of Short-cGuill, self-report of symptoms of CIPN and evaluation with the questionnaire of antineoplastic-induced neurotoxicity (QAIN). Results: Through self-report, 75% of the patients presented symptoms of CIPN. The QAIN showed that 90% presented a certain degree of CIPN in T2, while 82.5% still persisted in T3. Neuropathic pain affected 42% of the population (RR = 1.429, CI95% = 1.130-1.806). Anxiety and depression scores significantly reduced when compared with the beginning of the treatment (reduction of 2.5 points in the scale HAD, p < 0.05). The functional capacity of the population did not show any significant change. The school level was considered a predictor of self-report of CIPN symptoms in T2 (OR = 1.314, CI95% = 1.002-1.723, p = 0.048). Conclusion: The low school level may taint the patient capacity to report CIPN symptoms. This study draws attention for the necessity to use specific instruments for early detection of CIPN.


Introducción: Los fármacos antineoplásicos neurotóxicos a menudo se asocian con neuropatía periférica inducida por quimioterapia (CIPN). Objetivo: Evaluar la evolución clínica de pacientes expuestos a tratamientos antineoplásicos potencialmente neurotóxicos e identificar posibles predictores clínicos y sociodemográficos para el desarrollo de CIPN. Método: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo con pacientes diagnosticadas con cáncer de mama, ovario o intestino sometidos a quimioterapia con paclitaxel, docetaxel u oxaliplatino. Se evaluaron antes de la quimioterapia (T1), en el tercer mes (T2) y 30-60 días después de la interrupción del tratamiento (T3). Todos respondieron el cuestionario de perfil sociodemográfico y clínico, se evaluaron mediante un examen neurológico clínico, la escala de rendimiento ECOG, la escala de ansiedad y depresión hospitalaria (HAD), la escala de dolor Short-cGuill, el autoinforme de los síntomas de CIPN y la evaluación con el cuestionario de neurotoxicidad inducida por antineoplásicos (CINQ). Resultados: Por autoinforme, el 75% de la población informó presentar síntomas de CIPN. El CINQ mostró que el 90% tenía algún grado de NPIQ en T2, mientras que el 82.5% aún persistía en T3. El dolor neuropático afectó al 42% de la población (RR = 1.429; IC del 95% = 1.130-1.806). Las puntuaciones de ansiedad y depresión disminuyeron significativamente en comparación con el valor inicial (reducción de 2.5 puntos HAD, p <0.05). La capacidad funcional de la población no mostró cambios significativos. En T2, la educación se consideró un predictor de síntomas CIPN autoinformados (OR=1.314, IC 95%=1.002-1.723, p=0,048). Conclusión: La baja educación puede comprometer la capacidad del paciente para informar los síntomas de CIPN. Este estudio llama la atención sobre la necesidad de utilizar instrumentos específicos para la detección temprana de CIPN.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Paclitaxel/therapeutic use , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Docetaxel/therapeutic use , Oxaliplatin/therapeutic use , Intestinal Neoplasms/drug therapy
14.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 54(4): 30-33, out.-dez. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-967836

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of neurotoxity associated to Colistin. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 29-year-old black male under treatment for urinary tract infection with identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae in urine culture resistant to all carbapenem antibiotics, presented visual turbidity, paresthesia on the face and upper left limb, slowed and discordant speech in the fourth day of Colistin use. Symptoms improved after reduction of the dose of colistin with adjustment for renal function, with complete reversion after discontinuation of the drug. CONCLUSIONS: Colistin-mediated neurotoxicity must be suspected in patients with altered mental status of unknown etiology and therapy promptly interrupted.


OBJETIVO: Descrever um caso de neurotoxidade associada à Colistina. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO (desnecessário repetição): Um homem negro de 29 anos sob tratamento para infecção do trato urinário com identificação de Klebsiella pneumoniae (escrever corretamente) em cultura de urina resistente a carbapenêmicos, apresentou turvação visual, parestesia em face e membro superior esquerdo, discurso lento e discordante na quarto dia de uso da Colistina. Os sintomas melhoraram após a redução da dose de colistina com ajuste para a função renal, com reversão completa após a descontinuação do fármaco. CONCLUSÕES: A neurotoxicidade mediada por colistina deve ser suspeitada em pacientes com estado mental alterado de etiologia desconhecida e a terapia prontamente interrompida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Colistin/adverse effects , Colistin/therapeutic use , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/diagnosis , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Paresthesia , Review Literature as Topic , Confusion , African Continental Ancestry Group
15.
Rev. méd. hered ; 29(4): 238-242, oct.-dic 2018. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1014329

ABSTRACT

La colistina o polimixina E es un antibiótico cuyo uso fue descontinuado por la toxicidad renal y neurológica relacionadas al uso de colistina sulfato. Estos efectos adversos han disminuido con el uso del profármaco colistimetato sódico. Actualmente el uso de colistina es más frecuente debido al incremento de infecciones ocasionadas por bacilos Gram negativos multirresistentes, sobre todo en las unidades de cuidados intensivos. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 50 años de edad con antecedente de consumo de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideos y corticoides, pos- operada de perforación gástrica que evolucionó con colecciones abdominales por Acinetobacter sp. multirresistente. Recibió 34 días de colistina endovenosa y desarrolló hiperpigmentación cutánea, ataxia (neurotoxicidad) y falla renal (nefrotoxicidad) de forma secuencial secundaria a la administración de colistina, los efectos adversos desaparecieron con la suspensión del antibiótico. (AU)


Colistin or polymycin E is an antibiotic that was discontinued due to its renal and neurologic toxicity related to its colistin sulfate content. These adverse effects have been reduced with the use of sodium colistemathe. There is currently a more frequent use of colistin due to an increase of multi-resistant Gram negative infections, particularly in intensive care units. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman with history of surgery due to gastric perforation, use of steroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, that developed intra-abdominal abscesses due to multidrug resistant Acinetobacter spp. She received 34 days of intravenous colistin and developed skin hyperpigmentation, ataxia and renal failure. These adverse effects disappeared with discontinuation of the drug. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Hyperpigmentation , Colistin/toxicity , Colistin/therapeutic use , Neurotoxicity Syndromes
16.
Rev. med. Rosario ; 84(2): 67-70, mayo-ago. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050943

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de páncreas resulta una de las patologías oncológicas con mayor índice de mortalidad en Argentina. Dadala importancia y prevalencia de esta afección, en los últimos años se han desarrollado varias alternativas de tratamiento que incluyen cirugía, radioterapia y quimioterapia endovenosa. El FOLFIRINOX es uno de los esquemas dequimioterapia de primera línea en los casos de neoadyuvancia y tumores avanzados. El esquema incluye dos drogasneurotóxicas: Oxaliplatino e Irinotecán. Se presentan dos casos de neurotoxicidad orofaríngea durante la infusiónde quimioterapia: un paciente masculino de 38 años y una femenina de 54. En ambos casos la neurotoxicidad fuereversible espontáneamente. Se plantea la disminución de la velocidad de infusión de oxaliplatino y la separación dela administración de ambas drogas como estrategia para la disminución de los efectos adversos(AU)


Pancreatic cancer is one of the oncological pathologies with the highest mortality rate in Argentina. Given the prevalenceof this condition, several treatments have been developed, including surgery, radiotherapy and intravenous chemotherapy.FOLFIRINOX is one of the first-line chemotherapy schemes in cases of neoadjuvant and advanced tumors. The schemeincludes two highly neurotoxic drugs: Oxaliplatin and Irinotecan. We present two cases of oropharyngeal neurotoxicityduring the chemotherapy infusion. A 38 years old male patient and 54 years old female patient. In both cases theoropharyngeal neurotoxicity was spontaneously reversible. The decrease in the rate of infusion of oxaliplatin and theseparation of the administration of both drugs was the strategy for the reduction of adverse effects(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Pancreatic Neoplasms/therapy , Drug Therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Dysarthria
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765902

ABSTRACT

Drug-induced seizures and delirium are common among patients with critical illnesses, especially those in an intensive care unit. With an increase in the use of potent, broad-spectrum antibiotics, the etiology for encephalopathy remains under-recognized. Antibiotics-induced nonconvulsive seizures should also be considered in patients with unexplained mental status, therefore continuous electroencephalography monitoring is often needed for its detection. Prompt discontinuation, substitution, or dose adjustment of the causative antibiotics might help improve prognosis. Also, antibiotics should be used with caution especially in patients with known epilepsy, central nervous system disorders, critical illnesses, or renal dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents , Brain Diseases , Central Nervous System Diseases , Critical Illness , Delirium , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Prognosis , Seizures
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Reliable biomarkers of delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS) after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are lacking. This study investigated the associations between potential serum markers and the development of DNS after acute CO poisoning. METHODS: Retrospective chart reviews were conducted for patients diagnosed with acute CO poisoning during a 28-month period. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of having developed DNS. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of DNS after CO poisoning. RESULTS: Of a total of 102 patients, 10 (9.8%) developed DNS. The levels of serum osmolarity, S100B protein, and serum lactate, as well as serum anion gap, were statistically significant in univariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that anion gap (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 to 1.88), serum lactate level (AOR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.26 to 2.75), and serum S100B protein level ([AOR, 7.02×10⁵; 95% CI, 4.56×10² to 9.00×10¹⁰] in model 1, [AOR, 3.69×10⁵; 95% CI, 2.49×10² to 2.71×10¹¹] in model 2) were independently associated with DNS development. CONCLUSION: Based on our preliminary results, serum lactate level, serum anion gap, and serum S100B protein level in the emergency department could be informative predictors of DNS development in patients with acute CO poisoning. These markers might have the potential to improve early recognition of DNS in patients with acute CO poisoning.


Subject(s)
Acid-Base Equilibrium , Biomarkers , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning , Carbon Monoxide , Carbon , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Lactic Acid , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Odds Ratio , Osmolar Concentration , Poisoning , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740137

ABSTRACT

Metronidazole is an antimicrobial agent widely used for the treatment of anaerobic infection or antibiotics-associated diarrhea. It is generally thought to be safe, but can induce reversible toxic encephalopathy in the case of excessive or cumulative over-dose. Metronidazole-induced encephalopathy generally demonstrates the characteristic features of typical lesion location and bilaterality on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We report a case of metronidazole-induced encephalopathy with the involvement of asymmetric white matter. To our knowledge, only a few cases have been reported with respect to white matter lesion characteristics on MRI with diffusion-weighted images.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Brain , Diarrhea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Metronidazole , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , White Matter
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Organic solvent-induced chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) is known as a non-progressive disorder that does not progress after diagnosis. The authors present a case those symptoms worsened after continued exposure to organic solvent after returning to work. Because such a case has not been reported in South Korea to the best of our knowledge, we intend to report this case along with literature review. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old man, who performed painting job at a large shipyard for 20 years, was receiving hospital treatment mainly for depression. During the inpatient treatment, severe cognitive impairment was identified, and he visited the occupational and environmental medicine outpatient clinic for assessing work relatedness. In 1984, at the age of 27, he began performing touch-up and spray painting as a shipyard painter. Before that he had not been exposure to any neurotoxic substances. In 2001, at the age of 44, after 15 years of exposure to mixed solvents including toluene, xylene and others, he was diagnosed with CTE International Solvent Workshop (ISW) type 2A. After 7 years of sick leave, he returned to work in 2006. And he repeated return-to-work and sick leave in the same job due to worsening of depressive symptoms. He had worked four times (2006–2010, 2011–2011, 2011–2011, 2016–2017) for a total of 5 years as a shipyard painter after first compensation. During the return-to-work period, the mean values of the mixed solvent index ranged from 0.57 to 2.15, and except for a one semiannual period, all mean values were above the standard value of 1. We excluded other diseases that can cause cognitive impairment like central nervous system diseases, brain injury, psychological diseases and metabolic diseases with physical examinations, laboratory tests, and brain image analysis. And finally, throughout neuropsychological tests, an overall deterioration in cognitive function was identified compared to 2002, and the deterioration types was similar to that often shown in the case of CTE; thus a diagnosis of CTE (ISW) type 3 was made. CONCLUSION: This case is showing that CTE can go on with continued exposure to mixed solvents. Appropriate “fitness to work” should be taken to prevent disease deterioration especially for the sick leave workers.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Brain , Brain Injuries , Central Nervous System Diseases , Cognition , Cognition Disorders , Compensation and Redress , Depression , Diagnosis , Education , Environmental Medicine , Humans , Inpatients , Korea , Metabolic Diseases , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Occupational Diseases , Paint , Paintings , Physical Examination , Return to Work , Sick Leave , Solvents , Toluene , Xylenes
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