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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 45-50, feb. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430521

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neurotransmitter related to vasculogenesis during organ development. The vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is also required for vascular patterning during lung morphogenesis. CGRP is primarily found in organs and initially appears in pulmonary neuroendocrine cells during the early embryonic stage of lung development. However, the relationship between CGRP and VEGF-A during lung formation remains unclear. This study investigates CGRP and VEGF-A mRNA expressions in the embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular, and alveolar stages of lung development from embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) to postnatal day 5 (P5) through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization. Further, we analyzed the expression of CGRP via immunohistochemistry. The VEGF-A mRNA was mainly scattered across the whole lung body from E12.5. CGRP was found to be expressed in a few epithelial cells of the canalicular and the respiratory bronchiole of the lung from E12.5 to P5. An antisense probe for CGRP mRNA was strongly detected in the lung from E14.5 to E17.5. Endogenous CGRP may regulate the development of the embryonic alveoli from E14.5 to E17.5 in a temporal manner.


El péptido relacionado con el gen de la calcitonina (CGRP) es un neurotransmisor vinculado con la vasculogénesis durante el desarrollo de órganos. El factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular A (VEGF-A) también se requiere para el patrón vascular durante la morfogénesis pulmonar. El CGRP se encuentra principalmente en los órganos y aparece inicialmente en las células neuroendocrinas pulmonares durante la etapa embrionaria temprana del desarrollo pulmonar. Sin embargo, la relación entre CGRP y VEGF-A durante la formación de los pulmones sigue sin estar clara. Este estudio investiga las expresiones de ARNm de CGRP y VEGF-A en las etapas embrionaria, pseudoglandular, canalicular, sacular y alveolar del desarrollo pulmonar desde el día embrionario 12,5 (E12,5) hasta el día postnatal 5 (P5) a través de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa cuantitativa en tiempo real. (qRT-PCR) e hibridación in situ. Además, analizamos la expresión de CGRP mediante inmunohistoquímica. El ARNm de VEGF-A se dispersó principalmente por todo parénquima pulmonar desde E12,5. Se encontró que CGRP se expresaba en unas pocas células epiteliales de los bronquiolos canaliculares y respiratorios del pulmón desde E12,5 a P5. Se detectó fuertemente una sonda antisentido para ARNm de CGRP en el pulmón de E14,5 a E17,5. El CGRP endógeno puede regular el desarrollo de los alvéolos embrionarios de E14,5 a E17,5 de manera temporal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Lung/growth & development , Lung/embryology , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Neurotransmitter Agents , Neovascularization, Physiologic
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 853-860, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970557

ABSTRACT

The degeneration of monoaminergic system and the reduction of monoamine neurotransmitters(MNTs) are associated with the occurrence of a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases, becoming the key indicators for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Recent studies suggested gut microbiota could influence the occurrence, development, and treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases by directly or indirectly regulating the synthesis and metabolism of MNTs. Rich clinical experience has been accumulated in the amelioration and treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases by traditional Chinese medicines. The traditional oral administration method demonstrates obvious advantages in regulating gut microbiota. It provides a new idea for explaining the pharmacodynamic material basis and mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines in ameliorating neuropsychiatric disease by improving the levels of MNTs via gut microbiota regulation. Focusing on three common neuropsychiatric diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and major depression, we summarized the pathways of gut microbiota in regulating the levels of MNTs and the paradigms of traditional Chinese medicines in ameliorating neuropsychiatric diseases via the "bacteria-gut-brain axis", aiming to provide ideas for the development of drugs and treatment schemes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Administration, Oral , Alzheimer Disease , Brain-Gut Axis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Neurotransmitter Agents
3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1009-1026, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982449

ABSTRACT

Anxiety disorders are currently a major psychiatric and social problem, the mechanisms of which have been only partially elucidated. The hippocampus serves as a major target of stress mediators and is closely related to anxiety modulation. Yet so far, its complex anatomy has been a challenge for research on the mechanisms of anxiety regulation. Recent advances in imaging, virus tracking, and optogenetics/chemogenetics have permitted elucidation of the activity, connectivity, and function of specific cell types within the hippocampus and its connected brain regions, providing mechanistic insights into the elaborate organization of the hippocampal circuitry underlying anxiety. Studies of hippocampal neurotransmitter systems, including glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic systems, have contributed to the interpretation of the underlying neural mechanisms of anxiety. Neuropeptides and neuroinflammatory factors are also involved in anxiety modulation. This review comprehensively summarizes the hippocampal mechanisms associated with anxiety modulation, based on molecular, cellular, and circuit properties, to provide tailored targets for future anxiety treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hippocampus/physiology , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Neurotransmitter Agents , Neuropeptides
4.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 191-196, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of umbilical moxibustion therapy on phobic behavior and the contents of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in different brain regions of the stress-model rats and explore the potential mechanism of umbilical moxibustion on phobic behavior.@*METHODS@#Among 50 Wistar male rats, 45 rates were selected and randomly divided into a control group, a model group and an umbilical moxibustion group, 15 rats in each one; and the rest 5 rats were used for preparing the model of electric shock. The bystander electroshock method was adopted to prepare phobic stress model in the model group and the umbilical moxibustion group. After modeling, the intervention with umbilical moxibustion started in the umbilical moxibustion group, in which, the ginger-isolated moxibustion was applied at "Shenque" (CV 8), once daily, 2 cones for 20 min each time, for consecutively 21 days. After modeling and intervention completed, the rats in each group were subjected to the open field test to evaluate the state of fear. After intervention, the Morris water maze test and fear conditioning test were performed to evaluate the changes in learning and memory ability and the state of fear. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the contents of NE, DA and 5-HT in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus were determined.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the horizontal and vertical activity scores were lower (P<0.01), the number of stool particles was increased (P<0.01), the escape latency was prolonged (P<0.01), the times of target quadrant were reduced (P<0.01), and the freezing time was prolonged (P<0.05) in the rats of the model group. The horizontal and vertical activity scores were increased (P<0.05), the number of stool particles was reduced (P<0.05), the escape latency was shortened (P<0.05, P<0.01), the times of target quadrant were increased (P<0.05), and the freezing time was shortened (P<0.05) in the rats of the umbilical moxibustion group when compared with the model group. The trend search strategy was adopted in the control group and the umbilical moxibustion group, while the random search strategy was used in rats of the model group. Compared with the control group, the contents of NE, DA and 5-HT in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus were reduced (P<0.01) in the model group. In the umbilical moxibustion group, the contents of NE, DA and 5-HT in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01) when compared with the model group.@*CONCLUSION@#Umbilical moxibustion can effectively relieve the state of fear and learning and memory impairment of phobic stress model rats, which may be related to the up-regulation of contents of brain neurotransmitters, i.e. NE, DA, and 5-HT.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Moxibustion , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats, Wistar , Serotonin , Hippocampus , Dopamine , Norepinephrine , Neurotransmitter Agents
5.
Rev. psiquiatr. Urug ; 86(2): 55-61, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1412357

ABSTRACT

Se realiza una revisión de estudios de resonancia magnética integral y funcional, así como estudios bioquímicos en pacientes con y sin ideas suicidas. Estos estudios en pacientes con alto riesgo de suicidio presentan una disminución de volúmenes corticales en la corteza prefrontal dorso y ventrolateral. Lo importante de estos estudios es que resultan de la comparación con pacientes deprimidos con bajo riesgo de suicidio. Los estudios de resonancia magnética funcional mostraron una hipofuncionalidad del lóbulo prefrontal en los pacientes depresivos con ideas suicidas severas, que se observa como una disminución del flujo sanguíneo cerebral en las áreas lateral y ventral. Se observa una disminución del metabolismo de serotonina, en clara relación con la severidad de las ideas de muerte, también con un foco en la región lateroventral prefrontal. Dado que las funciones de la corteza prefrontal afirman al individuo en su perspectiva vital, disfunciones como las descritas debilitan la coordinación y organización del apego a la vida, quedando, por el contrario, la posibilidad de la búsqueda de la muerte. Se concluye que los pacientes depresivos con ideas suicidas tienen una alta vulnerabilidad para el intento de suicidio por la afectación de las zonas prefrontales.


A review of functional integral magnetic resonance and biochemical data from patients with and without suicidal ideation is presented. Patients with high suicidal risk show a decrease in cortical volume in ventrolateral and dorsal prefrontal cortex. These studies are compared to those of depressed patients with low suicidal risk. Functional magnetic resonance in depressed patients with severe suicidal ideation show an hypo functional prefrontal lobe, seen as a decrease in blood flow in lateral and ventral areas. There is a decrease in serotonin metabolism, clearly related to the severity of suicidal ideation, also in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. As prefrontal cortex functions enhance vital perspectives, such dysfunctions weaken coordination and organization of attachment to life, making search for death a possibility. Authors conclude that depressed patients with suicidal ideation have a high vulnerability for suicidal intent due to changes in prefrontal areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Suicide, Attempted , Prefrontal Cortex/physiopathology , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism , Depression/physiopathology , Suicidal Ideation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Depression/metabolism
6.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(4): 250-253, dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1426694

ABSTRACT

La neuromodulación es una práctica médica implementada desde hace más de cuatro décadas. En lo que respecta a la Neurocirugía, cumple un papel en el tratamiento de diversas patologías (Parkinson, distonías, epilepsia, etc.) y con un gran potencial para aplicarlas en otras (trastorno obsesivo compulsivo [TOC], dolor pélvico). Es por ello que, en los últimos años, se cuadruplicaron las inversiones de empresas biotecnológicas en este campo por la demanda y aplicación de la terapia. La neuromodulación abarca también otras especialidades, como por ejemplo Otorrinolaringología (ORL) en implantes cocleares, Cardiología con diversos modelos de marcapasos cardíacos, Endocrinología con bombas de infusión de medicamentos, Uroginecología en incontinencia, etcétera. Nuestra institución aplica en su práctica clínica todas estas técnicas, y cumple una función jerárquica como centro de referencia en educación y políticas sanitarias. Por estos aspectos, sumados a su infraestructura, personal profesional y enfoque sanitario, puede ser considerada como un Centro de Neuromodulación referente en la región. (AU)


Neuromodulation is a medical practice established for more than forty years. In the neurosurgical field it plays a role in the treatment of different diseases (Parkinson, Dystonia, Epilepsy, etc) and has a great potential to apply in other pathologies (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Pelvic pain). In the last years the biotechnological industry has quadrupled the investment in this field because of the demand and therapy application. Neuromodulation encompasses other specialities, for example otorhinolaryngology in cochlear implants, in cardiology with different models of pacemakers, endocrinology with implanted infusion pumps, urological gynecology in incontinence treatments, etc. Our institution applies all these techniques in its clinical practice, having a hierarchical role as a reference center in education and health policies. Due to these aspects, added to its infrastructure, professional staff and health approach, it can be considered as a reference Neuromodulation Center in the region. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Neurotransmitter Agents/therapeutic use , Deep Brain Stimulation , Chronic Pain/therapy , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/therapy , Pain Management/methods , Functional Status
7.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 586-593, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effect of Yixin Ningshen Tablet (YXNS) on comorbidity of myocardial infarction (MI) and depression in rats and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#The Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups with 7 rats in each group according to their weights, including control, model, fluoxetine (FLXT, 10 mg/kg), low-dose YXNS (LYXNS, 100 mg/kg), and high-dose YXNS (HYXNS, 300 mg/kg) groups. All rats were pretreated with corresponding drugs for 12 weeks. The rat model of MI and depression was constructed by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery and chronic mild stress stimulation. The echocardiography, sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test were performed. Myocardial infarction (MI) area and myocardial apoptosis was also detected. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT), and norepinephrine (NE) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The proteins of adenosine 5'-monophosphate -activated protein kinase (AMPK), p-AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) in heart were detected by Western blot analysis. The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), and kynureninase (KYNU) in hippocampus were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model group, the cardiac function of rats treated with YXNS improved significantly (P<0.01). Meanwhile, YXNS effectively reduced MI size and cardiomyocytes apoptosis of rats (P<0.01 or P<0.05), promoted AMPK phosphorylation, and increased PGC-1α protein expression (P<0.01 or P<0.05). HYXNS significantly increased locomotor activity of rats, decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, and increased the serum levels of 5-HT, NE, ACTH, and CORT (all P<0.05). Moreover, HYXNS decreased the mRNA expressions of IDO1, KMO and KYNU (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#YXNS can relieve MI by enhancing myocardial energy metabolism. Meanwhile, YXNS can alleviate depression by resisting inflammation and increasing availability of monoamine neurotransmitters. It may be used as a potential drug to treat comorbidity of MI and depression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Comorbidity , Depression/drug therapy , Energy Metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Neurotransmitter Agents , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin/metabolism , Tablets , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
8.
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 1-5, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927888

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of PM2.5 exposure at different stages of early life on the prefrontal cortex of offspring rats. Methods: Twelve pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group (CG), Maternal pregnancy exposure group (MG), Early postnatal exposure group (EP) and Perinatal period exposure group (PP), 3 rats in each group. The pregnant and offspring rats were exposed to clean air or 8-fold concentrated PM2.5. MG was exposed from gestational day (GD) 1 to GD21. EP was exposed from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND21, and PP was exposed from GD1 to PND21. After exposure, the prefrontal cortex of 6 offspring rats in each group was analyzed. HE staining was used to observe the pathological damage in the prefrontal cortex. ELISA was employed to detect neuroinflammatory factors, and HPLC/MSC was applied to determine neurotransmitter content. Western blot and colorimetry were applied for detecting astrocyte markers and oxidative stress markers, respectively. Results: Compared with MG and CG, the pathological changes of prefrontal cortex in PP and EP were more obvious. Compared with MG and CG, the neuroinflammatory factors (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α) in PP and EP were increased significantly (P<0.01), the level of MT were decreased significantly (P<0.05), and the level of oxytocin (OT) showed a downward trend; the level of neurotransmitter ACh was also increased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with MG and CG, the GFAP level of PP and EP showed an upward trend, the level of oxidative stress index SOD in PP and EP was decreased significantly (P<0.01), and the level of ROS was increased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with the offspring rats of CG and MG, the CAT level of PP was decreased significantly (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the offspring rats of CG, the CAT level of EP was decreased significantly (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, MT, OT, ACh, GFAP, SOD, ROS and CAT levels between PP and EP, or MG and CG. Conclusion: PM2.5 exposure in early life has adverse effects on the prefrontal cortex of offspring male rats, and early birth exposure may be more sensitive.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Rats , Interleukin-1/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Neurotransmitter Agents , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Prefrontal Cortex , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxide Dismutase , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
9.
Ciênc. cogn ; 26(2): 266-276, 31 dez. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353869

ABSTRACT

O fenômeno de aceleração social, intimamente ligado a nossa modernização tecnológica e os sistemas políticos e sociais que adotamos, vem sendo alvo de questionamentos por parte da teoria crítica por diversos filósofos e sociólogos, principalmente em relação a se tal "aceleração" seja algo que, possa ser justificável pelo bem comum da sociedade. De fato, as rápidas mudanças que ocorreram no último século causaram uma tremenda mudança em nossos estilos-de-vida, e na maneira como experienciamos o mundo. Que a nossa sociedade mudou e continua a mudar é um fato evidente quando olhamos criticamente para o passado e presente, e comparamos diferentes épocas da história humana. Neste ensaio tentaremos explorar algumas possíveis hipóteses que fundamentem o comportamento aceleracionista em certos fatores e mecanismo biológicos que caracterizam os sistemas de motivação e saciação humanos. Também tentaremos mostrar como certos fenômenos sociais podem auxiliar em fortalecer este tipo de comportamento, e suas possíveis origens evolutivas. Este estudo tem como objetivo principal fundamentar a Tese Aceleracionista em evidências neurofisiológicas, cognitivo-comportamentais, evolutivas e sociais.


The phenomenon of social acceleration is closely linked to our technological modernization and the political and social systems we have adopted, and it has been questioned by several philosophers and sociologists, especially in relation to whether such acceleration is something that can be justified for the common good of society. In fact, the rapid changes that have occurred in the last century have caused a tremendous change in our lifestyles, and in the way we experience the world. That society have changed and continues to change is an evident fact when we look critically to the past and our present and compare different times in human history. In this essay we will try to explore some possible hypotheses that underpin accelerated behavior, in certain biological factors and mechanisms that characterize human motivation and satiation systems. We will also try to show how certain social phenomena can help to strengthen this type of behavior, and its possible evolutionary origins. The main objective of this study is to base the Accelerationist Thesis on neurophysiological, cognitive-behavioral, evolutionary and also social evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reward , Satiation/physiology , Social Change , Cognition/physiology , Neurotransmitter Agents/physiology , Motivation/physiology
10.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(5): 733-757, Nov 11, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353562

ABSTRACT

A estimulação elétrica transcraniana (EET) é uma técnica de neuromodulação não invasiva, que tem sido utilizada como coadjuvante no tratamento de transtornos depressivos devido à sua capacidade de modificar a excitabilidade cortical. Objetivo: Analisar os efeitos da EET nos transtornos depressivos e propor parâmetros para a prática clínica. Métodos: Estudo de revisão sistemática no qual foram incluídos ensaios clínicos randomizados que utilizaram a EET no tratamento dos transtornos depressivos, publicados entre 2010 e junho de 2018, nas línguas inglesa e portuguesa. Resultados: Foram encontrados 14.775 estudos, sendo selecionados para a amostra apenas 15 trabalhos. Todos os estudos selecionados utilizaram a EET por corrente contínua e apresentaram semelhanças em relação aos demais parâmetros elétricos de tratamento e locais de aplicação dos eletrodos. Em 12 dos 15 estudos avaliados foi observada melhora significativa (p < 0,05) dos sintomas depressivos e, em relação aos efeitos adversos, constatou-se que são inferiores aos tratamentos convencionais. Conclusão: A EET apresenta eficácia no tratamento dos transtornos depressivos e que isto está diretamente relacionado ao uso adequado dos parâmetros e técnicas de aplicação da corrente elétrica. (AU)


Subject(s)
Depression , Depressive Disorder , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Neurotransmitter Agents , Electric Stimulation
11.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e842, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289454

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La etiología de las enfermedades autoinmunes aún se desconoce, aunque se plantean diferentes causas. Objetivo: Describir el rol de factores como las hormonas, alimentación, estrés, enfermedades infecciosas y cáncer en las enfermedades autoinmunes. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando Google Académico y artículos de libre acceso en la base de datos PubMed y SciELO, publicados entre enero del 2014 y junio del 2020. Se consultó la bibliografía nacional e internacional relevante y actualizada, con un total de 51 referencias, de estas, tres libros básicos de la especialidad de Inmunología y 48 artículos (12 en idioma español y 36 en inglés). Se utilizaron los términos de búsqueda según los descriptores del DeCS y MeSH. Resultados: Las hormonas femeninas incrementan el riesgo de las enfermedades autoinmunes. Un desbalance en la neurohormona melatonina puede generar linfocitos autorreactivos. El estrés puede mantener respuestas inflamatorias crónicas que causen daño tisular. Una adecuada alimentación permite que los comensales de la microbiota intestinal mantengan la homeostasis del sistema inmune. Las infecciones en ocasiones desarrollan respuestas autoinmunitarias. La causalidad entre el cáncer y la autoinmunidad es bidireccional producto de procesos inflamatorios. Conclusiones: Las enfermedades autoinmunes son más frecuentes en las mujeres. Una alimentación adecuada permite que la microbiota intestinal no se altere y que mantenga la homeostasis inmunológica. Situaciones de estrés e infecciones pueden iniciar respuestas autoinmunes. El cáncer puede favorecer el desarrollo de manifestaciones autoinmunes, y estas últimas por el predominio inflamatorio, favorecen la tumorogénesis(AU)


Introduction: The etiology of autoimmune diseases is still unknown, though several causes have been suggested. Objective: Describe the role of hormones, eating, stress, infectious diseases and cancer in immune diseases. Methods: A bibliographic review was conducted using Google Scholar and open access papers published in the databases Pubmed and SciELO from January 2014 to June 2020. Relevant updated national and international bibliography was consulted, for a total 51 references: three basic books from the specialty of immunology and 48 papers (12 in Spanish and 36 in English). The search terms used were obtained from the descriptors DeCS and MeSH. Results: Feminine hormones increase the risk of autoimmune diseases. Imbalance in the neurohormone melatonin may generate autoreactive lymphocytes. Stress may maintain chronic inflammatory responses causing tissue damage. Appropriate eating habits allow gut microbiota commensals to maintain the homeostasis of the immune system. Infections occasionally develop autoimmune responses. Causality between cancer and autoimmunity is bidirectional, due to the presence of inflammatory processes. Conclusions: Autoimmune diseases are more common among women. Appropriate eating habits prevent alterations of the gut microbiota, allowing it to maintain immune homeostasis. Stress situations and infections may trigger autoimmune responses. Cancer may foster the development of autoimmune manifestations, and these, due to the inflammatory predominance, may foster tumorigenesis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases , Autoimmunity , Eating , Allergy and Immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Immune System , Immune System Diseases , Neurotransmitter Agents
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5088-5095, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921648

ABSTRACT

The rats were exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress(CUMS) and kept in separate cages for inducing depressive disorder, which was judged by behavioral indicators. The number and morphology of neurons in hippocampal CA3 area and prefrontal cortex were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF), 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid(5-HIAA), dopamine(DA), norepinephrine(NE), glutamic acid(GLU), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-18(IL-18), and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Real-time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) and Western blot were conducted to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of related molecules in NLRP3 pathway. The results showed that compared with the model group, acidic polysaccharides from Poria at the low-, medium-, and high-doses(0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) all improved the depression-like behavior of rats, increased the number of neurons and the levels of BDNF, 5-HT, 5-HIAA, DA, and NE in the hippocampus, and reduced GLU and serum IL-1β, IL-18, and TNF-α levels. The mRNA expression levels of ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 and the protein expression levels of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 in each medication group were down-regulated, whereas the protein expression levels of pro-caspase-1, pro-IL-1β, and pro-IL-18 were up-regulated. All these have indicated that acidic polysaccharides from Poria exerted the antidepressant effect possibly by regulating neurotransmitters and NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Antidepressive Agents , Depression/drug therapy , Interleukin-1beta , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Neurotransmitter Agents , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Poria
13.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20210009, 2021. tab, graf, ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279406

ABSTRACT

Spider venom is a rich cocktail of neuroactive compounds designed to prey capture and defense against predators that act on neuronal membrane proteins, in particular, acetylcholinesterases (AChE) that regulate synaptic transmission through acetylcholine (ACh) hydrolysis - an excitatory neurotransmitter - and beta-secretases (BACE) that primarily cleave amyloid precursor proteins (APP), which are, in turn, relevant in the structural integrity of neurons. The present study provides preliminary evidence on the therapeutic potential of Phlogiellus bundokalbo venom against neurodegenerative diseases. Methods Spider venom was extracted by electrostimulation and fractionated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Neuroactivity of the whole venom was observed by a neurobehavioral response from Terebrio molitor larvae in vivo and fractions were screened for their inhibitory activities against AChE and BACE in vitro. Results The whole venom from P. bundokalbo demonstrated neuroactivity by inducing excitatory movements from T. molitor for 15 min. Sixteen fractions collected produced diverse mass fragments from MALDI-TOF-MS ranging from 900-4500 Da. Eleven of sixteen fractions demonstrated AChE inhibitory activities with 14.34% (± 2.60e-4) to 62.05% (± 6.40e-5) compared with donepezil which has 86.34% (± 3.90e-5) inhibition (p > 0.05), while none of the fractions were observed to exhibit BACE inhibition. Furthermore, three potent fractions against AChE, F1, F3, and F16 displayed competitive and uncompetitive inhibitions compared to donepezil as the positive control. Conclusion The venom of P. bundokalbo contains compounds that demonstrate neuroactivity and anti-AChE activities in vitro, which could comprise possible therapeutic leads for the development of cholinergic compounds against neurological diseases.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Acetylcholinesterase , Spider Venoms/toxicity , Neurotransmitter Agents , Neurodegenerative Diseases , In Vitro Techniques
14.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31205, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291276

ABSTRACT

A Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica (ELA), uma doença neurodegenerativa fatal, que afeta neurônios motores superiores e inferiores, tem como fisiopatologia mais aceita a excitotoxicidade mediada por glutamato. O atual estudo tem como objetivo estabelecer a relação entre esse neurotransmissor e a ELA, a partir de uma revisão de literatura nas bases de dados Pubmed e Medline. O glutamato é o principal neurotransmissor do Sistema Nervoso Central (SNC) e a excitotoxicidade gerada pelo seu acúmulo nas fendas sinápticas é tida como um dos principais mecanismos envolvidos na fisiopatologia da ELA. Os indivíduos afetados pela ELA apresentam diminuição da expressão de determinados grupos de receptores metabotrópicos de glutamato (mGlu) nos neurônios e nas células da glia desses pacientes. Os mGlu possuem um papel de destaque na modulação da excitotoxicidade por glutamato e são subdivididos em três grupos. Os mGlus do grupo 1 amplificam as transmissões sinápticas excitatórias rápidas, e os dos grupos 2 e 3 atuam como neuroprotetores inibindo a liberação do glutamato na fenda sináptica. Os mGlus são, portanto, considerados alvos terapêuticos para a atuação de drogas que combatem a excitotoxicidade e induzem a produção de fatores neurotróficos, constituindo importante atuação no combate à ELA.


Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects upper and lower motor neurons, has as the most accepted pathophysiology the glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. The present study aims to establish the relationship between this neurotransmitter and ALS, based on a literature review in the PubMed and Medline databases. Glutamate is the main neurotransmitter of the central nervous system (CNS) and the excitotoxicity generated by its accumulation in the synaptic clefts is considered one of the main mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of ALS. People affected by ALS present a decrease in expression of certain metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu) groups in neurons and glial cells of these patients. mGlu has a prominent role in modulating glutamate excitotoxicity and are subdivided into three groups. Group 1 mGlu amplifies rapid excitatory synaptic transmissions, while groups 2 and 3 act as neuroprotective agents, since among other functions they inhibit glutamate release into the synaptic cleft. Finally, mGlu are considered therapeutic targets for the action of drugs that fight excitotoxicity and induce the production of neurotrophic factors, constituting an important action in the fight against ALS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Motor Neuron Disease , Neurotransmitter Agents , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Superoxide Dismutase-1 , Neurotoxins
15.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 751-755, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887477

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of @*METHODS@#A total of 60 children with intellectual disability were randomly divided into an observation group (30 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a control group (30 cases, 2 cases dropped off). In the control group, rehabilitation training and routine acupuncture were adopted, 30 min each time, once a day, 6 times a week for 3 months. On the base of the treatment as the control group, @*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the scores of DQ and ADL and the serum levels of DA, NE, 5-HT after treatment were increased (@*CONCLUSION@#On the base of rehabilitation training and routine acupuncture,


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Activities of Daily Living , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Intellectual Disability , Needles , Neurotransmitter Agents , Treatment Outcome
17.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(2): e190120, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135376

ABSTRACT

Organisms with source-populations restricted to the subterranean biotope (troglobites) are excellent models for comparative evolutionary studies, due to their specialization to permanent absence of light. Eye and dark pigment regression are characteristics of most troglobites. In spite of the advance in knowledge on the mechanisms behind eye regression in cave fishes, very little is known about pigmentation changes. Studies were focused on three species of the genus Pimelodella. Exemplars of the troglobitic P. spelaea and P. kronei were compared with the epigean (surface) P. transitoria, putative sister-species of the latter. Melanophore areas and densities are significantly lower in the troglobitic species. Evaluating the in vitro response of these cells to adrenaline, acetylcholine and MCH, we observed a reduced response in both troglobites to adrenaline. The same trend was observed with MCH, but not statistically significant. No response to acetilcholine was detected in all the three. Contrary to expectations, even though eye-regression in P. spelaea was much lower than in P. kronei, pigmentation regression was more advanced. Multiple mechanisms of loss showing a mosaic of traits in troglobitic fishes are discussed here.(AU)


Organismos com populações-fonte restritas ao biótopo subterrâneo (troglóbios) são excelentes modelos para estudos evolutivos comparativos, devido à especialização resultante do isolamento sob um regime seletivo particular, com ênfase na permanente falta de luz. A regressão do olho e da pigmentação são características dos troglobites. Apesar do avanço do conhecimento sobre os mecanismos subjacentes à regressão ocular em peixes de caverna, pouco se sabe sobre mudanças de pigmentação. Os estudos foram focados em três espécies do gênero Pimelodella. Exemplares das espécies troglóbias P. spelaea e P. kronei foram comparados com a epígea P. transitoria, provável espécie-irmã dessa última. As áreas e densidades dos melanóforos são significativamente menores nas espécies troglóbias. Avaliando a resposta in vitro dessas células à adrenalina, acetilcolina e MCH, observamos uma resposta reduzida em ambos os troglóbios à adrenalina. A mesma tendência foi observado com o MCH, mas não estatisticamente. Nenhuma resposta à acetilcolina foi detectada três. Contrariamente às expectativas, embora a regressão ocular em P. spelaea seja bem menor do que em P. kronei, a regressão na pigmentação foi mais acentuada. Múltiplos mecanismos de regressão, mostrando um mosaico de características em peixes troglóbios, são discutidos aqui.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/physiology , Pigmentation , Color , Neurotransmitter Agents , Hormones , Fishes
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1004-1010, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008465

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to study the effect of Lepidium meyenii(Maca) on cyclic nucleotides, neurotransmitter levels and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immunization of deficiency-cold and deficiency-heat syndrome rats, in order to explore the cold and hot medicinal properties of Maca. SD rats were divided into blank group, deficiency-cold syndrome group, Cinnamomi Cortex of deficiency-cold syndrome(30 g·kg~(-1)) group, high and low-dose Maca groups(2.4, 1.2 g·kg~(-1)), deficiency-heat syndrome group, Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex(PCC) of deficiency-heat syndrome(5 g·kg~(-1)), and high and low-dose Maca groups(2.4, 1.2 g·kg~(-1)). The rats were treated with intramuscular injection of hydrocortisone(20 mg·kg~(-1)) or dexamethasone sodium phosphate(0.35 mg·kg~(-1)) for 21 days to set up the deficiency-cold and deficiency-heat model. The levels of cAMP, cGMP, NE, DA, 5-HT, CRH, ACTH, CORT and IgM, IgG, C3, C4 were detected by radio immunoassay. Both the high-dose Maca group and the low-dose Maca group can significantly improve the overall state and body weight of rats with deficiency-cold syndrome(P<0.01, P<0.05), significantly increasing cAMP, cAMP/cGMP, NE, DA, ACTH(P<0.01, P<0.001), and significantly decreasing 5-HT(P<0.01, P<0.001). However, high-dose and low-dose Maca groups could not improve the deficiency-heat syndrome, and the levels of cAMP, cGMP, cAMP/cGMP, NE, DA, 5-HT and ACTH were not statistically significant. Maca had a significant regulatory effect on CORT, IgM, IgG and C3 content of rats with deficiency-cold and deficiency-heat syndrome(P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.001). Maca showed the same effect with Cinnamomi Cortex in adjusting the levels of deficiency-cold rats, but in opposition to Phellodendri Chinese Cortex. This paper confirmed that Maca was slightly warm based on its effect on cyclic nucleotide levels and neuro-endocrine-immune networks by the pharmacological experimental method.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Endocrine System/drug effects , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Immune System/drug effects , Lepidium/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nervous System/drug effects , Neurotransmitter Agents , Nucleotides, Cyclic , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Temperature
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 997-1003, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008464

ABSTRACT

To investigate the characteristics of the cold and heat properties of each resolution component of Açaí and the material basis of cooling by observing the effect of resolution components, such as Açaí oil, alcohol extract and water extract, on the neurotransmitter, endocrine hormone and immune factor level in mice with deficiency-heat and deficiency-cold syndrome. KM male mice were randomly divided into 12 groups, namely blank group, deficiency-heat model group, deficiency-heat+Açaí group, deficiency-heat+Açaí oil group, deficiency-heat+Açaí alcohol extract group, deficiency-heat+Açaí water extract group, deficiency-cold model group, deficiency-cold+Cinnamomi Cortex group, deficiency-cold+Açaí group, deficiency-cold+Açaí oil group, deficiency-cold+Açaí alcohol extract group, and deficiency-cold+Açaí water extract group. The mice in deficiency-heat group were given with thyroid tablet solution(160 mg·kg~(-1)), and the mice in deficiency-cold group were given with hydrocortisone solution(25 mg·kg~(-1)) by intragastric administration every afternoon for 14 days. The mice in each administration group received corresponding drug. The neurotransmitter, endocrine hormone and immune factor levels in the mice were measured after the experiment. The Açaí alcohol extract, consistent with the Açaí powder, showed a regulatory effect on the deficiency-heat model mice; Açaí oil and its water extract were consistent with Cinna-momi Cortex, showing a regulatory effect on the deficiency-cold model mice. In this study, on the basis of proving that Açaí was was cool in property, it also revealed that alcohol extract of Açaí was cool while oil and water extract were warm in property based on the effect of Açaí on neuro-endocrine-immune network. The results suggested that the medicine property of Açaí was the result of the comprehensive action of the resolution components with different properties, and the alcohol extract of Açaí was proved as the material basis of Açaí cold medicine by using the methods of homogeneous comparison and heterogeneous disproval.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Endocrine System/drug effects , Euterpe/chemistry , Hormones/metabolism , Immune System/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Nervous System/drug effects , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 14-19, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008432

ABSTRACT

Anxiety disorders are a common mental illness that seriously endangered physical and mental health of human beings. The etiology of anxiety disorders is closely related to the abnormality of monoamines neurotransmitters, amino acids neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. The long-term use of anti-anxiety chemical drugs has some adverse effects, such as constipation, muscle relaxation, lethargy, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms. However, traditional Chinese medicines have advantages of multi-component, multi-target coordination, with less adverse reactions. Therefore, it is a promising prospect to develop novel anti-anxiety drugs from traditional Chinese medicines and formulas. This article reviewed some traditional Chinese medicines and formulas that can relieve anxiety symptoms. These include traditional Chinese medicines(Panax ginseng, Lycium ruthenium, Morus alba, Bupleurum plus dragon bone oyster soup, Chailong Jieyu Pills, and Naogongtai Formulas) with the effect on monoamine neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine; traditional Chinese medicines(Rehmannia glutinosa, Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa, Jielv Anshen Decoction, Baixiangdan Capsules, Antianxietic Compound Prescription Capsules) with the effect on amino acid neurotransmitters, such as glutamic acid, γ-aminobutyrc acid; and traditional Chinese medicines(P. ginseng, Xiaoyao San, Shuyu Ningxin Decoction)with the effect on neuropeptide Y pathway, with the aim to provide theoretical basis for the further development of some novel and more effective anti-anxiety therapeutics from traditional Chinese medicine and formulas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neurotransmitter Agents , Norepinephrine , Serotonin
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