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Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(6): 1523-1530, nov.-dez. 2016. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-827933


A enfermidade ectima contagioso está difundida em todo o estado de São Paulo. Foram amostrados 42 (8,64%) cuidadores de animais e 444 (91,36%) ovinos (n=486). A prevalência de reagentes para vírus-neutralização foi de 67% (IC95%=62-71%) nos ovinos, e em seus cuidadores de 76% (IC95%=63-89%), sendo P=0,22, ou seja, não houve diferença estatística significativa entre as espécies. A distribuição dos títulos teve diferença estatística significativa entre as espécies, com P=0,0048. As variações de titulação foram de 0,6 a 2,1 tanto nos ovinos quanto nos seus cuidadores. Dentre os 42 cuidadores de ovinos participantes do estudo, 32 apresentaram títulos de anticorpos expressos por log10 acima de 0,6.(AU)

These diseases are all widespread in the State of São Paulo. 42 (8.64%) animal caregivers and 444 (91.36%) sheep (n=486) were sampled. The reagents Prevalence paragraph virus neutralization was 67% (95% CI = 62-71%) in sheep and 76% (95% CI = 63-89%) for caregivers, with P=0.22 not being a statistically significant difference between the species. One of the distribution titles had significant difference between statistics as species with P=0.0048. The titration variations were 0.6 to 2.1, both in sheep and their caregivers. Among the 42 sheep caregivers participating in the study, 32 had antibody securities denominated in log10 above 0.6.(AU)

Humans , Animals , Ecthyma, Contagious/epidemiology , Ecthyma, Contagious/transmission , Rural Workers , Sheep/virology , Neutralization Tests/veterinary
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 99-109, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56428


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of porcine interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-4 genes on enhancing the immunogenicity of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5 DNA vaccine in piglets. Eukaryotic expression plasmids pcDNA-ORF5, pcDNA-IL-2, and pcDNA-IL-4 were constructed and then expressed in Marc-145 cells. The effects of these genes were detected using an indirect immunofluorescent assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Characteristic fluorescence was observed at different times after pcDNA-ORF5 was expressed in the Marc-145 cells, and PCR products corresponding to ORF5, IL-2, and IL-4 genes were detected at 48 h. Based on these data, healthy piglets were injected intramuscularly with different combinations of the purified plasmids: pcDNA-ORF5 alone, pcDNA-ORF5 + pcDNA-IL-2, pcDNA-ORF5 + pcDNA-IL-4, and pcDNA-ORF5 + pcDNAIL-4 + pcDNA-IL-2. The ensuing humoral immune responses, percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, proliferation indices, and interferon-gamma expression were analyzed. Results revealed that the piglets co-immunized with pcDNA-ORF5 + pcDNA-IL-4 + pcDNA-IL-2 plasmids developed significantly higher antibody titers and neutralizing antibody levels, had significantly increased levels of specific T lymphocyte proliferation, elevated percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, and significantly higher IFN-gamma production than the other inoculated pigs (p < 0.05).

Animals , Cell Line , Escherichia coli/genetics , Haplorhini , Immunity, Cellular , Interleukin-2/genetics , Interleukin-4/genetics , Neutralization Tests/veterinary , Plasmids , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Swine , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 59-65, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13091


Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) amplicon vectors are versatile and useful tools for transferring genes into cells that are capable of stimulating a specific immune response to their expressed antigens. In this work, two HSV-1-derived amplicon vectors were generated. One of these expressed the full-length glycoprotein D (gD) of bovine herpesvirus 1 while the second expressed the truncated form of gD (gDtr) which lacked the trans-membrane region. After evaluating gD expression in the infected cells, the ability of both vectors to induce a specific gD immune response was tested in BALB/c mice that were intramuscularly immunized. Specific serum antibody responses were detected in mice inoculated with both vectors, and the response against truncated gD was higher than the response against full-length gD. These results reinforce previous findings that HSV-1 amplicon vectors can potentially deliver antigens to animals and highlight the prospective use of these vectors for treating infectious bovine rhinotracheitis disease.

Animals , Cattle , Female , Mice , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blotting, Western/veterinary , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Herpesvirus 1, Bovine/genetics , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunization/methods , Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neutralization Tests/veterinary , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 81-91, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13088


Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly contagious disease among swine that has an important economic impact worldwide. CSFV strain LOM is an attenuated virus of low virulent strain of Miyagi isolated from Japan in 1956. Eight DNA fragments representing the genome of the CSFV strain LOM were obtained by RT-PCR. These were used to determine the complete nucleotide sequence and construct a full-length cDNA clone which was called Flc-LOM. Sequence analysis of the recombinant clone (Flc-LOM) revealed the presence of eight mutations, resulting in two amino acid substitutions, when compared to the parental sequence. RNA transcripts of both LOM and Flc-LOM were directly infectious in PK-15 cells. The rescued Flc-LOM virus grew more slowly than the parental virus, LOM, in the cells. Intramuscular immunization with Flc-LOM was safe and highly immunogenic in pigs; no clinical signs or virus transmission to sentinel animals were observed after 35 days. CSFV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected 14 days post-infection. After challenge with the virulent CSFV strain SW03, pigs immunized with Flc-LOM were shown to be fully protected. Thus, our newly established infectious clone of CSFV, Flc-LOM, could serve as a vaccine candidate.

Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Base Sequence , Cell Line , Classical Swine Fever/immunology , Classical Swine Fever Virus/genetics , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Immunization/methods , Molecular Sequence Data , Neutralization Tests/veterinary , RNA, Viral/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Swine , Virulence
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(6): 829-833, Sept. 2010. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-560671


As in humans, sub-clinical infection by arboviruses in domestic animals is common; however, its detection only occurs during epizootics and the silent circulation of some arboviruses may remain undetected. The objective of the present paper was to assess the current circulation of arboviruses in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil. Sera from a total of 135 horses, of which 75 were immunized with bivalent vaccine composed of inactive Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis virus(WEEV) and 60 were unvaccinated, were submitted to thorough viral isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and neutralization tests for Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), EEEV, WEEV and Mayaro virus (MAYV). No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in horses older than seven months was 43.7 percent for SLEV in equines regardless of vaccine status, and 36.4 percent for WEEV and 47.7 percent for EEEV in unvaccinated horses. There was no evidence of MAYV infections. The serologic evidence of circulation of arboviruses responsible for equine and human encephalitis, without recent official reports of clinical infections in the area, suggests that the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal is an important area for detection of silent activity of arboviruses in Brazil.

Animals , Female , Male , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis , Encephalomyelitis, Equine/veterinary , Horse Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Brazil , Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis/immunology , Encephalomyelitis, Equine , Encephalomyelitis, Equine , Encephalomyelitis, Equine , Horses , Horse Diseases , Neutralization Tests/veterinary , Prevalence , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 29(7): 509-514, July 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-526791


In the present study we investigated the presence of infections by vaccinia-like viruses in dairy cattle from 12 counties in the state of Rio de Janeiro in the last 9 years. Clinical specimens were collected from adult animals with vesicular/pustular lesions mainly in the udder and teats, and from calves with lesions around the nose and mouth. A plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) was applied to search for antibodies to Orthopoxvirus; the vesicular/pustular fluids and scabs were examined by PCR, electron microscopy (EM) and by inoculation in VERO cells for virus isolation. Antibodies to Orthopoxvirus were detected in most cases. The PCR test indicated a high nucleotide homology among the isolates and the vaccinia viruses (VACV) used as controls. By EM, typical orthopoxvirus particles were observed in some specimens. The agents isolated in tissue culture were confirmed as vaccinia-like viruses by EM and PCR. The HA gene of the vaccinia-like Cantagalo/IOC virus isolated in our laboratory was sequenced and compared with other vaccinia-like isolates, showing high homology with the original Cantagalo strain, both strains isolated in 1999 from dairy cattle. Antibodies to Orthopoxvirus were detected in one wild rodent (genus Akodon sp.) collected in the northwestern region of the state, indicating the circulation of poxvirus in this area. Nonetheless, PCR applied to tissue samples collected from the wild rodents were negative. Vesicular/pustular lesions in people in close contact with animals have been also recorded. Thus, the vaccinia-like virus infections in cattle and humans in the state seem to be an expanding condition, resulting in economic losses to dairy herds and leading to transient incapacitating human disease. Therefore, a possible immunization of the dairy cattle in the state should be carefully evaluated.

Neste estudo avaliou-se a presença de infecções por vírus semelhantes ao vírus vaccínia (VACV) em gado leiteiro em 12 municípios no estado do Rio de Janeiro, ao longo dos últimos nove anos. Amostras clínicas foram coletadas de animais com vesículas, pústulas e crostas no úbere e tetas, e da região do nariz e da cavidade oral de bezerros. Um teste de neutralização viral por redução de placas foi desenvolvido para investigar a presença de anticorpos contra Orthopoxvirus. Os fluidos de vesículas / pústulas e as crostas foram testadas por PCR, microscopia eletrônica (ME) e por inoculação em células VERO para isolamento viral. Anticorpos contra Orthopoxvirus foram detectados na grande maioria dos animais. O teste de PCR demonstrou homologia entre os vírus isolados e amostras de vírus vaccínia usados como controles. Na ME, partículas típicas de Orthopoxvirus foram observadas em vários espécimes analisados. Os vírus isolados em cultivo celular foram confirmados como Orthopoxvirus por PCR e ME. O gene HA da amostra Cantagalo/IOC isolada em nosso laboratório foi seqüenciado e comparado com outras amostras semelhantes ao vaccínia, mostrando uma alta homologia com a amostra original Cantagalo, tendo sido as duas amostras isoladas em 1999 de gado leiteiro. Anticorpos para Orthopoxvirus foram detectados em um roedor silvestre do gênero Akodon sp. coletado na região noroeste do estado, sugerindo uma circulação de poxvírus na natureza. No entanto, os testes de PCR aplicados a tecidos de roedores silvestres foram negativos. Infecções vesiculares / pustulares em humanos que mantinham contato com os animais afetados também foram relatadas. Assim, infecções por amostras semelhantes ao vírus VACV em bovinos e em humanos parecem em expansão no estado, gerando perdas econômicas em animais e quadros de doença incapacitante temporária em pacientes humanos. Dessa forma, a possibilidade da imunização do gado leiteiro no estado deve ser devidamente avaliada.

Animals , Poxviridae Infections/complications , Poxviridae Infections/diagnosis , Poxviridae Infections/epidemiology , Poxviridae Infections/veterinary , Microscopy, Electron/methods , Orthopoxvirus/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Arvicolinae , Cattle , Brazil/epidemiology , Neutralization Tests/methods , Neutralization Tests/veterinary
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 39(6): 553-555, nov.-dez. 2006. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-447287


Para avaliar a resposta imune em cães, que compareceram a Campanha de Vacinação Anti-Rábica Animal de 2003, foram analisados 333 soros caninos, coletados nos diversos postos de vacinação. Verificou-se que 51,1 por cento dos animais não possuíam títulos protetores. Não foi encontrada associação entre aplicação de vacina e maior número de vacinações, com maior título imunitário.

To assess the immune response in dogs attended during the 2003 anti-rabies animal vaccination campaign, 333 serum samples collected at different vaccination posts were analyzed. It was found that 51.1 percent of the animals did not have protective titers. No correlation was found between vaccine application or multiple vaccinations and higher immune titers.

Animals , Dogs , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Rabies Vaccines/immunology , Rabies virus/immunology , Rabies/veterinary , Dog Diseases/immunology , Neutralization Tests/veterinary , Rabies Vaccines/administration & dosage , Rabies/prevention & control
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 271-275, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72555


The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is one of causative agents of reproductive failure in pregnant sows. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) was examined for its potential use in the rapid monitoring of the JEV, and the results were compared with those from the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and serum neutralization (SN) tests. The comparative analysis showed that the results of I-ELISA showed a significant correlation with the conventional HI (r = 0.867) and SN tests (r = 0.804), respectively. When the I-ELISA results were compared with the traditional diagnostic assays, the sensitivity of the I-ELISA was 94.3% with the HI test and 93.7% with the SN test, respectively. The specificity was found to be 81.4% and 80.0% with the HI and SN tests, respectively. To determine the applicability of I-ELISA in the field, the serum samples from 720 pigs were collected from 4 regions in Korea between July and August 2004. The results indicated that 21.7% of screened pigs were seropositive for the JEV. The seropositive rates of JEV in the 4 provinces were 12.6% in Gyeonggi, 45.0% in Gyeongnam, 16.7% in Jeonbuk, and 12.2% in Jeju. The I-ELISA methodology developed in this study was shown to have considerable sensitivity and specificity through a comparison with HI and the SN tests. Therefore, it might be one of convenient methods for screening a large number of samples in various fields.

Animals , Female , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese/immunology , Encephalitis, Japanese/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/veterinary , Korea , Neutralization Tests/veterinary , Swine , Swine Diseases/blood
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 349-352, 2005.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-96782


An indirect porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) virus (PEDV) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with the serum neutralization (SN) test by testing 46 samples from experimentally infected sows, 73 samples from naive sows, and 1, 024 field sow samples from 48 commercial swine farms of undefined PED status. The SN test and the ELISA were performed using PEDV, KPEDV-9 strain. Viral proteins as a coating antigen of PEDV ELISA were extracted from the cytoplasm of PEDV-infected Vero cells using a non-ionic detergent, Triton X-100, and a simple protocol of PEDV ELISA was followed. The presence of antibodies in these experimental samples was confirmed by SN and ELISA in which the sensitivity of the ELISA was 89.1%, and the corresponding specificity was 94.5%. On testing 1, 024 field samples, an overall agreement of 84.2% was generated between the SN and ELISA. This study demonstrates that the PEDV ELISA is a useful serodiagnostic screening test at herd level for detecting swine antibodies against PEDV.

Animals , Female , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Neutralization Tests/veterinary , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 9(2): 86-88, maio-ago. 2002. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-384854


Os resultados do teste de soroneutralização em camundongos, aplicado em soro de bovinos que haviam sido vacinados previamente com uma vacina comercial de vírus inativado, foram calculados e expressos em logarítimo (base 10) da dose eficaz 50 (DE 50) ou em unidade internacional/ml (UI/ml). A análise estatística revelou uma correlação não-paramétrica de Spearman r = 0,6469, e quando do impedimento de expressar os resultados em UI/ml, a prova de soroneutralização em camundongos com resultados expressos em DE 50 é ainda um procedimento útil para determinar se os bovinos responderam à vacinação anti-rábica.

Animals , Antibodies , Cattle , Mice , Rabies Vaccines , Neutralization Tests/veterinary
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 1995 Mar; 26(1): 109-13
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-34149


A study was conducted to measure the prevalence of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and neutralizing antibodies against two arboviruses (Chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis virus) in horses of Java, Indonesia. Blood specimens were collected from a sample of 112 horses at two stables: Pulo Mas, a racing track-horse complex, located in a residential area in North Jakarta, and Pamulang, a riding school, located in a rural environment of West Jaya. Sera were tested by the HI assay and plaque reduction neutralization test. JEV antibodies were detected by HI in 58 (52%) of the horses, while only 11 (10%) had Chikungunya antibodies by HI. The proportion of Pamulang horses infected with JEV (66%) was significantly higher than found among Pulo Mas horses (40%) screened (p < 0.01). Of the 58 horses with JEV antibodies by HI, 52 (90%) were found to have specific neutralization antibodies to JEV. HI and neutralization tests on horse sera indicated that the risk to alpha virus infections was minimal in horses surveyed from Java. However, there was a high risk of JEV infection among the same population.

Alphavirus Infections/prevention & control , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Chikungunya virus/immunology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese/immunology , Encephalitis, Japanese/prevention & control , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/veterinary , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Indonesia , Neutralization Tests/veterinary , Viral Plaque Assay/veterinary , Prevalence