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1.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 489-493, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350813

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Low levels of neutrophils can be an intrinsic condition, with no clinical consequences or immunity impairment. This condition is the benign constitutional neutropenia (BCN), defined as an absolute neutrophils count (ANC) ≤2000 cells/mm. Diagnosis of BCN is of exclusion where patients are submitted to blood tests and possibly to invasive diagnostic search until secondary causes of neutropenia are ruled out. The natural history of the disease suggests benign evolution and Brazilian study showed an overall frequency of 2.59%. The main mechanisms include reduced neutrophil production, increased marginalization, extravasation to the tissues and immune destruction. Genetic studies showed strong association between the single nucleotide variant rs2814778 located on chromosome 1q23.2 in the promoter region of the atypical chemokine receptor 1 (Duffy blood group system) gene (ACKR1, also termed DARC) and BCN. The aim of this study is to evaluate FY phenotypes and genotypes including the analysis of the rs2814778 SNP in Brazilian patients with BCN in order to determine an effective diagnostic tool, allowing reassurance of the patient and cost reduction in their care. Methods: Case control study, with 94 individuals (18 patients and 76 controls). Phenotyping was performed by gel test and genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. Results: White blood cell (WBC) and absolute neutrophils (AN) counts showed lower levels in patients compared to controls. In the patient group 83.3% were genotyped as FY*B/FY*B. The SNP rs2814778 (-67T > C) was identified in 77.8% of the patients genotyped as FY*B-67C/FY*B-67C. In the control group, 72.7% were homozygous for the wild type and 23.3% were heterozygous. Conclusion: This study reinforces that FY phenotyping and genotyping can be used to detect most people with BCN, avoiding excessive diagnostic investigation. Besides, this procedure may reduce health costs and be reproductible in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Duffy Blood-Group System , Genotyping Techniques , Neutropenia , Immunophenotyping , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Neutrophils
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 438-451, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346482

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las infecciones fúngicas invasoras (IFI) constituyen una de las principales complicaciones infecciosas en pacientes oncohematológicos y con trasplante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (TCPH), ocasionando alta morbimortalidad e incrementando significativamente los costos de atención y la estadía hos pitalaria. La epidemiología de las IFI ha cambiado en las últimas décadas, siendo los hongos filamentosos, particularmente Aspergillus spp., los principales agentes etiológicos. Existen múltiples factores de riesgo para una IFI; pero la neutropenia profunda y prolongada, y la inmunodeficiencia celular severa siguen siendo los más importantes. Por este motivo, la población de mayor riesgo la constituyen los pacientes con leucemias agudas, mielodisplasias y TCPH alogénicos con enfermedad injerto contra huésped (EICH), en tratamiento con corticoides. Numerosos ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y metaanálisis han demostrado que la profilaxis antifúngica primaria (PAF) reduce significativamente la incidencia de IFI, tanto de aquellas causadas por Candida spp. como por Aspergillus spp., la mortalidad relacionada a IFI y la mortalidad global en algunos grupos de pacientes. Asimismo, en enfermos de alto riesgo, en donde se espera una incidencia de IFI elevada, es una estrategia costo-efectiva. Varios antifúngicos han demostrado beneficio clínico y pueden utilizarse como estrategia de PAF en diferentes escenarios, presentando ventajas y desventajas que deben ser tenidas en cuenta al momento de indicar una PAF. Para esto, sociedades científicas nacionales e internacionales, han emitido recomendaciones de indicación de PAF. Se analizan los aspectos relacionados con la eficacia clínica de los diferentes antifúngicos según la población de riesgo, las potenciales desventajas, momento y forma de administración.


Abstract Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are among the main infectious complications in patients with hema tological malignancies and with hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), causing high morbidity and mortality and significantly increasing the healthcare cost and hospital stay. The epidemiology of IFIs has changed in recent decades, with filamentous fungi, particularly Aspergillus spp., being the main etiological agents. There are multiple risk factors for having an IFI; however, the most important are profound and prolonged neutropenia and severe cellular immunodeficiency. For this reason, the population at greatest risk is made up of patients with acute leukemias, myelodysplasias and allogeneic HSCT with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) treated with cortico steroids. Numerous randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown that primary antifungal prophylaxis (AFP) significantly reduces the incidence of IFI, particularly those caused by Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., IFI-related mortality, and overall mortality in some group of patients. Likewise, in high-risk patients, where a high incidence of IFI is expected, it is a cost-effective strategy. Several antifungals have demonstrated clinical benefit. They can be used as a AFP strategy in different settings, presenting advantages and disadvantages that must be taken into account in each case. For this, national and international scientific societies have issued recom mendations for the indication of AFP. Aspects related to the different antifungals' clinical efficacy are analyzed considering the population at risk, the potential disadvantages, timing, and form of administration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Graft vs Host Disease , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
4.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(2): 188-192, June 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286991

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between UGT1A1*28 gene polymorphism and the prevalence of neutropenia in patients with colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan. Method Thirteen studies were included. These papers were selected from the Virtual Health Library, Scientific Electronic Library Online, International Health Sciences Literature and PubMed, and their data were collected and evaluated using the BioEstat 5.3 software (BioEstat, Belém, PA, Brazil). Results Three genotypes were analyzed, namely 6/6 (wild type), 6/7, and 7/7. In total, 2,146 patients were included in the present study; of these, 55.6% (n=1,193) had 6/6 genotype, 37.3% (n=801) were heterozygous (6/7), and 7.1% (n=152) had the 7/7 genotype. A total of 1,672 (77.9%) patients displayed mild neutropenia, whereas 474 (22.1%) had severe neutropenia. When contrasting the 6/7 and 7/7 genotypes with the 6/6 genotype using statistical tests for meta-analysis, patients with the 7 allele, either Conclusion The analysis of the UGT1A1*28 gene polymorphism can aid the choice of treatment for patients with colorectal cancer in personalized medicine, increasing the chances of therapeutic success.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a relação do polimorfismo do gene UGT1A1*28 com a prevalência de neutropenia em pacientes com câncer colorretal submetidos a tratamento com o irinotecano. Método Foram incluídos 13 estudos sobre o tema proposto, selecionados nas bases de dados da Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde, Scientific Electronic Library Online, International Health Sciences Literature e PubMed.Os dados foramcoletados dos artigos científicos selecionados e avaliados com o auxílio do software BioEstat 5.3 (BioEstat, Belém, PA, Brasil). Resultados Osgenótipos analisados foram6/6 (tipo selvagem), 6/7 e 7/7. Foramincluídos 2.146 pacientes. Destes, 55,6% (n=1.193) apresentaram genótipo 6/6, 37,3% (n=801) eramheterozigotos (6/7) e 7,1%(n=152) tinhamo genótipo 7/7.Umtotal de 1.672 (77,9%) pacientes apresentou neutropenia leve e 474 (22,1%) neutropenia severa. Ao contrastar os genótipos 6/7 e 7/7 como 6/6, percebeu-se, coma execução dos testes estatísticos demetaanálise, que os pacientes como alelo 7, emhomozigose ou heterozigose, tinhammaior risco de desenvolver neutropenia severa que pacientes com o genótipo 6/6 (razão de chances =1,559; intervalo de confiança de 95%=1,163-2,090; p=0,003). Conclusão A análise do polimorfismo do gene UGT1A1*28 pode auxiliar na escolha do tratamento do paciente comcâncer colorretal, no contexto da medicina personalizada, ampliando, assim, as chances de sucesso terapêutico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/epidemiology , Prevalence , Irinotecan/adverse effects , Irinotecan/therapeutic use
5.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 31(1): 75-85, Abril 30, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222727

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La neutropenia febril es una complicación que predispone a infecciones bacterianas de etiología diversa y aumenta la mortalidad en los pacientes con leucemia. El objetivo general del presente trabajo determinó la frecuencia de la etiología bacteriana, en los objetivos específicos se cuantificó en porcentaje los tipos de bacterias encontradas, se identificó la susceptibilidad y la resistencia antimicrobiana, además de sus infecciones, se estableció los factores de alto riesgo de mal pronóstico más frecuentes. Métodos: En el presente descriptivo de tipo transversal se revisaron historias clínicas del servicio de oncología clínica del Instituto Oncológico Nacional "Dr. Juan Tanca Marengo" Solca_Guayquil. El período estudio fue del 1ro de enero del 2013 al 31 de diciembre del 2014. El cálculo muestral fue probabilístico de 60 casos. Se incluyeron pacientes con leucemia en curso de quimioterapia y que evolucionaron con leucopenia febril, adicionalmente se incluyeron los pacientes con focos infecciosos evidentes y cultivos positivos. Las variables fueron demográficas características clínicas de la leucemia, estudio bacteriológico, tratamiento antibiótico y comorbilidades. Se utiliza estadística descriptiva. Resultados: Ingresaron al estudio 58 pacientes, fueron 30/58 mujeres (51%). La mayoría con edades de 17 a 20 años 15/58 casos (25.9%). 35/58 casos (60%) correspondieron a leucemias linfobásticas y 23/58 casos (40%) a miloides. El foco infeccioso más frecuentemente fue gastrointestinal 18 %(n=27), la piel y tejidos blandos con un 17 %(n=26). Se realizaron 98 cultivos, con el 52% de culti-vos positivos, 25 % BLEE, 4% BLAC. La etiología fue E. Coli 26% aislada de sangre. La sensibilidad fue 100 % amikacina, 100 %, imipenem ,100 meropenem, 100 % tigeciclina, 90 % piperazilina tazobactam, 18 %, cefepime, 50% clindamicina y 50% oxacilina. El máximo tiempo de neutropenia fue 30 días, con una mediana de neutrófilos 230 u/ul, con un promedio de 3 días de fiebre. Los factores de riesgo fueron 17% desnutrición ,15% hepatopatías %, 6% hipertensión y diabetes. Conclusiones: La etiología bacteriana más frecuente fue E. Coli. Existe una sensibilidad antibiótica baja para los gram negativos en todas las cefalosporinas de primera hasta cuarta generación en los antibiogramas del estudio. Hay un perfil de baja resistencia a los antibióticos carbapenémicos junto a amikacina con piperacilina tazobactam. La vancomicina y el linezolid no tienen resistencia bacteriana la presentación etológica para gram positivos, el más prevalente fue el estafilococo aureus meticilino resistente tipo BLAC.


Introduction: Febrile neutropenia is a complication that predisposes to bacterial infections of diverse etiology and increases mortality in patients with leukemia. The general objective of this work determined the frequency of bacterial etiology, in the specific objectives the types of bacteria found were quantified in percentage, susceptibility and antimicrobial resistance were identified, in addition to their infections, factors were established high risk of poor prognosis more frequent. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional type, clinical records of the clinical oncology service of the National Oncological Institute "Dr. Juan Tanca Marengo "Solca_Guayquil. The study period was from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014. The sample calculation was probabilistic of 60 cases. Patients with leukemia undergoing chemotherapy and who evolved with febrile leukopenia were included, additionally patients with obvious infectious foci and positive cultures were included. The variables were demographic, clinical characteristics of the leukemia, bacteriological study, antibiotic treatment, and comorbidities. Descriptive statistics are used. Results: 58 patients entered the study, 30/58 were women (51%). The majority aged 17 to 20 years 15/58 cases (25.9%). 35/58 cases (60%) corresponded to lymphoblastic leukemias and 23/58 cases (40%) to myloids. The most frequent infectious focus was gastrointestinal 18% (n = 27), skin and soft tissues with 17% (n = 26). 98 cultures were performed, with 52% positive cultures, 25% ESBL, 4% BLAC. The etiology was E. Coli 26% isolated from blood. The sensitivity was 100% amika-cin, 100%, imipenem, 100 meropenem, 100% tigecycline, 90% tazobactam piperazilin, 18%, ce-fepime, 50% clindamycin, and 50% oxacillin. The maximum time of neutropenia was 30 days, with a neutrophil average of 230 u / ul, with an average of 3 days of fever. The risk factors were 17% malnutrition, 15% liver disease, 6% hypertension and diabetes. Conclusions: The most frequent bacterial etiology was E. Coli. There is a low antibiotic sensitivity for gram negatives in all first through fourth generation cephalosporins in the study antibiograms. There is a profile of low resistance to carbapenemic antibiotics together with amikacin with piperacillin tazobactam. Vancomycin and linezolid do not have bacterial resistance in the ethological presentation for gram positives, the most prevalent was methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus BLAC type.


Subject(s)
Leukemia , Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia , Blood Culture , Febrile Neutropenia , Neutropenia
6.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(1): 87-92, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248988

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1b is a multisystemic disease in which immune and infectious complications are present, in addition to the well-known metabolic manifestations of GSD. Treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is often indicated in the management of neutropenia and inflammatory bowel disease. OBJECTIVE To report on the demographics, genotype, clinical presentation, management, and complications of pediatric patients with glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD 1b), with special attention to immune-related complications. METHODS Retrospective case series of seven patients with GSD 1b diagnosed and followed at a tertiary university hospital in Brazil, from July/2000 until July/2016. RESULTS Mean age at referral was fourteen months. Diagnosis of GSD 1b was based on clinical and laboratory findings and supported by genetic studies in five cases. All patients presented suffered from neutropenia, managed with G-CSF - specifically Filgrastim. Hospitalizations for infections were frequent. Two patients developed inflammatory bowel disease. Six patients remained alive, one died at age 14 years and 9 months. The mean age at the end of the follow-up was 11.5 years. Compliance to treatment was suboptimal: poor compliance to medications, starch and dietetic management of GSD were documented, and outpatient appointments were frequently missed. CONCLUSION Managing GSD 1b is challenging not only for the chronic and multisystemic nature of this disease, but also for the additional demands related dietary restrictions, use of multiple medications and the need for frequent follow-up visits; furthermore in Brazil, the difficulties are increased in a scenario where we frequently care for patients with unfavorable socioeconomic status and with irregular supply of medications in the public health system.


RESUMO CONTEXTO Glicogenose (GSD) tipo 1b é uma doença multissistêmica em que complicações imunológicas e infecciosas estão presentes, além das manifestações metabólicas bem conhecidas da GSD. O tratamento com fator estimulador de colônias de granulócitos (G-CSF) é frequentemente indicado no tratamento da neutropenia e doença inflamatória intestinal. OBJETIVO Relatar sobre a dados demográficos, genótipo, apresentação clínica, manejo e complicações de pacientes pediátricos com GSD tipo 1b (GSD 1b), com atenção especial às complicações relacionadas ao sistema imunológico. MÉTODOS Série de casos retrospectiva de sete pacientes com GSD 1b diagnosticados e acompanhados em um hospital universitário terciário no Brasil, de julho/2000 a julho/2016. RESULTADOS A idade média no encaminhamento foi de 14 meses. O diagnóstico de GSD 1b foi baseado em achados clínicos e laboratoriais e apoiado por estudos genéticos em cinco casos. Todos os pacientes apresentaram neutropenia, tratada com G-CSF - especificamente Filgrastim. As hospitalizações por infecções foram frequentes. Dois pacientes desenvolveram doença inflamatória intestinal. Seis pacientes permanecem vivos, um morreu aos 14 anos e 9 meses de idade. A média de idade ao final do acompanhamento foi de 11,5 anos. A adesão ao tratamento foi sub-ótima: má adesão aos medicamentos, amido e manejo dietético de GSD foram documentados, e consultas ambulatoriais foram frequentemente perdidas. CONCLUSÃO O manejo da GSD 1b é um desafio, não apenas pela natureza crônica e multissistêmica desta doença, mas também pelas demandas adicionais relacionadas a restrições dietéticas, uso de múltiplos medicamentos e a necessidade de consultas de acompanhamento frequentes; no Brasil, isso ainda é dificultado em um cenário em que frequentemente atendemos pacientes com situação socioeconômica desfavorável e com oferta irregular de medicamentos no sistema público de saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Glycogen Storage Disease Type I/complications , Glycogen Storage Disease Type I/therapy , Neutropenia , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879863

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the risk factors and treatment for neutropenia of late newborns (NLN).@*METHODS@#Related clinical data were collected from the preterm infants and critically ill neonates who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit from July 2019 to January 2020. A total of 46 newborns with a blood absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 37 weeks. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence rates of gestational hypertension, premature rupture of membranes > 18 hours and intrauterine distress, 5-minute Apgar score, the duration of positive pressure ventilation, the incidence rate of early-onset sepsis, and the type of initially used antibiotics (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The risk of NLN increases with the presence of late-onset sepsis and the increase in the duration of antibiotic use. NLN is generally a benign process. G-CSF appears to be safe and effective for NLN with severe disease conditions or severe reduction in ANC.


Subject(s)
Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Leukocyte Count , Neutropenia , Risk Factors , Sepsis
8.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(4): e1285, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289413

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La neutropenia febril incide frecuentemente en pacientes con hemopatías malignas y representa una urgencia médica; actualmente su manejo terapéutico constituye un verdadero reto debido a la aparición de infecciones por microorganismos multirresistentes y la coexistencia de factores dependientes del paciente y del tratamiento, lo cual contribuye a situaciones de riesgo para el desarrollo de complicaciones graves. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión exhaustiva del tema en las principales bases de datos de la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, se utilizó como referencia artículos actualizados publicados principalmente en los últimos 5 años. Análisis y síntesis de la información: Se abordó fundamentalmente el enfoque diagnóstico y terapéutico en los pacientes de alto riesgo de complicaciones por infecciones bacterianas, así como su evaluación integral. Se incluyen herramientas recientes de pesquisa de sepsis y daño orgánico relacionado con ella, que constituyen elementos predictivos de mortalidad en estos pacientes. Conclusiones: El abordaje integral de la neutropenia febril incluye además de una evaluación clínica y humoral exquisita, la aplicación de herramientas pronósticas para la estratificación de riesgo de cada paciente. El tratamiento de los pacientes debe comenzar en la primera hora de haberse documentado la fiebre, ya que las infecciones pueden ser rápidamente progresivas con un alto riesgo de desarrollo de sepsis, inestabilidad hemodinámica y disfunción multiorgánica(AU)


Introduction: Febrile neutropenia frequently affects patients with hematological malignancies and constitutes a medical emergency. Its therapeutic management is a real challenge at present, due to the appearance of infections caused by multiresistant microorganisms and the coexistence of patient- and treatment-dependent factors leading to risk for serious complications. Methods: An exhaustive review was conducted about the topic in the main databases of the Virtual Health Library, for which papers mainly published in the last five years were used as reference. Data analysis and synthesis: A diagnostic and therapeutic approach was applied to the study of patients at high risk for complications due to bacterial infections and their comprehensive evaluation. Recent tools to screen sepsis and sepsis-related organ damage are included which constitute mortality prediction elements in these patients. Conclusions: Comprehensive management of febrile neutropenia includes not only a detailed clinical and humoral evaluation, but also the application of prognostic tools for risk stratification in each patient. Patient treatment should be started within the first hour after fever documentation, since infections may be rapidly progressive with a high risk for the development of sepsis, hemodynamic instability and multiple organ dysfunction(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Febrile Neutropenia/diagnosis , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Hematologic Diseases/diagnosis
10.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(5): 557-561, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132330

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lesions denominated fibro-osseous lesions of the jaw constitute a diversified group of disorders, in which the normal bone architecture is replaced by fibroblasts, collagen fibers and immature bone. At present, the World Health Organization recognizes four variants of these lesions, namely: bone-cement dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia, ossifying fibroma and Familial gigantiform cementoma. Fibrous dysplasia may present in the monostotic form, affecting one single bone or an isolated craniofacial region; and in the Polyostotic form, involving two or more bones of the skeleton, and eventual association with syndromic conditions. The patient, C.P.G., 43 years old, sought attendance due to symptomatic increase in the region of the mandibular body on the right side. Imaging exams revealed craniofacial areas with ground-glass aspect, beyond the extensive mandibular radiolucent lesion. During the physical exam, spots of the Café au lait type disposed on the right side of the body were identified, in addition to uncoordinated gait with distinct shortening of the right leg. Additional radiographic exams showed evidence of skeletal dissemination of the disease. The patient denied any sexual precocity, and the final diagnosis was fibrous dysplasia, expressed by means of the Jaffe-Lichtenstein syndrome, in association with a simple bone cyst.


Resumo As denominadas lesões fibro-ósseas dos maxilares constituem um grupo diversificado de desordens nas quais a arquitetura óssea normal é substituída por fibroblastos, fibras colágenas e osso imaturo. Atualmente a Organização Mundial de Saúde reconhece quatro variantes destas lesões, sendo elas: a displasia cemento-óssea, a displasia fibrosa, o fibroma ossificante e cementoma gigantiforme familiar. A displasia fibrosa pode ser apresentar na forma monostótica, acometendo um único osso ou a região craniofacial isoladamente, e a forma poliostótica, envolvendo dois ou mais ossos do esqueleto, com eventual associação com condições sindrômicas. Paciente C.P.G., 43 anos, procurou atendimento devido aumento volumétrico sintomático na região de corpo mandibular do lado direito. Exames imaginológicos revelaram áreas craniofaciais com aspecto de vidro fosco ou despolido, além de extensa lesão radiolúcida mandibular. Durante o exame físico foram identificadas manchas do tipo café com leite dispostas do lado direito do corpo, além de marcha descoordenada com nítido encurtamento da perna direita. Novos exames radiográficos evidenciaram a disseminação esquelética da doença. O paciente negou qualquer precocidade sexual e o diagnóstico final foi de displasia fibrosa, expressa por meio da síndrome de Jaffe-Linchtenstein, em associação com um cisto ósseo simples.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Bone Cysts , Cementoma , Jaw Neoplasms , Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone , Facies , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Neutropenia
11.
Infectio ; 24(2): 71-75, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114843

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento de un modelo de predicción de infección bacteriana invasiva en niños con cáncer que cursan con neutropenia y fiebre, atendidos en el Hospital Infantil San Vicente Fundación (HISVF), en el año 2017. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal y de período, que incluyó pacientes menores de 14 años con diagnóstico de algún tipo de cáncer que ingresaron al HISVF entre enero y diciembre de 2017, con diagnóstico de neutropenia y cuadro febril. Resultados: Se encontraron 99 episodios en 44 pacientes con NF. Al analizar la muestra según el grupo de riesgo estratificado y el desenlace aislamiento microbiológico o muerte, se encontraron diferencias entre los dos grupos. Estas diferencias muestran una mayor mortalidad y frecuencia de infección bacteriana invasiva en los pacientes clasificados como de alto riesgo. Discusión: La aplicación de estos criterios puede ser usada para un mejor direccionamiento del enfoque terapéutico incluyendo: el uso racional de antibióticos y un alta temprana o un seguimiento ambulatorio.


Abstract Objective: To describe the behavior of a predictor model of invasive bacterial infection in children with neutropenia and fever in Hospital Infantil San Vicente Fundación (HISVF by its name in Spanish), throughout the year of 2017. Material and method: Descriptive, cross-sectional study, which included patients under 14 years of age with a diagnosis of some type of cancer that attended HISVF in the period of time from January to December in 2017, with a diagnosis of neutropenia and fever. Results: 99 episodes were found in 44 patients diagnosed with neutropenia and fever. According to the stratified risk group and the outcome of microbiological isolation or death, differences were found between the two groups. Discussion: The application of these criteria can be used to improve therapeutic approach and impact in rational use of antibiotics and early discharge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Bacterial Infections , Child , Fever , Forecasting , Medical Oncology , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Neoplasms , Neutropenia
12.
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(1): 25-31, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1124066

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: to describe the demographic, clinical, therapeutic and microbiological characteristics of patients with hematological malignancies undergoing chemotherapy who develop febrile neutropenia during treatment, as well as the mortality at discharge. Methods: a retrospective cohort study of patients with hematologic neoplasms who developed febrile neutropenia and were seen at the Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación in Medellín. Results: records of 110 episodes of febrile neutropenia were obtained. The mean age was 45 years. In 55.4%, a microbiological diagnosis was obtained; bacteremia was documented in 83.8% of these. The most common microorganisms wereK.pneumoniae(30%) andE. coli(18%). Antibiotic resistance due to ESBLs or carbapenemases ingram negativebacilli was 33%. Death occurred in 17% of patients. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were the most prevalent underlying diagnoses; the most prevalent clinical focus was bacteremia (24.5%). Conclusion: in our case series, there are significant differences in the percentage of patients with bacteremia, as well as in global mortality, compared to the rest of the cohorts in the region. A new research study needs to be carried out to clarify the source of these differences.(Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1386).


Resumen Objetivo: describir las características demográficas, clínicas, terapéuticas y microbiológicas de los pacientes con malignidad hematológica en quimioterapia que desarrollan neutropenia febril durante el tratamiento, así como la mortalidad al egreso. Métodos: estudio de cohorte retrospectivo en pacientes con neoplasia hematológica que desarrollaron neutropenia febril evaluados en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación de Medellín. Resultados: se obtuvo el registro de 110 episodios de neutropenia febril. Media de edad 45 años. En 55.4% se obtuvo diagnóstico microbiológico, la bacteriemia fue documentada en 83.8% de ellos. Los microorganismos más comunes fueronK.pneumoniae(30%) yE. coli(18%). La resistencia a antibióticos por presencia de BLEE o carbapenemasas en bacilosgram negativosfue de 33%. La mortalidad ocurrió en 17% de los pacientes. La leucemia linfoide aguda (LLA) y leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) fueron los diagnósticos de base más prevalentes, el foco clínico más prevalente fue bacteriemia (24.5%). Conclusión: en nuestra cohorte se encontró diferencias significativas en cuanto al porcentaje de pacientes con bacteriemia, así como en la mortalidad global respecto al resto de cohortes de la región, es necesario desarrollar un nuevo trabajo de investigación que permita aclarar el origen de estas diferencias.(Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1386).


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Neutropenia , Research , Bacteremia , Drug Therapy , Microbiology
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(1): 77-81, feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092725

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los episodios de neutropenia febril son cuadros graves, que requieren un estudio etiológico exhaustivo y un inicio rápido de antimicrobianos. Dentro de los posibles microorganismos causales se encuentran los de origen fúngico, los que, dependiendo de su grado de invasión tisular, pueden llegar a presentar una alta mortalidad. Presentamos el caso de un niño con una leucemia mieloide aguda, que tras su quimioterapia de inducción, presentó un episodio de neutropenia febril, con una infección rino-sinusal por Exserohilum rostratum, hongo filamentoso que raramente se asocia a cuadros patológicos. Se inició rápidamente terapia antifúngica, lo cual, asociado a un aseo quirúrgico precoz, lograron una respuesta clínica favorable, sin complicaciones. Luego del seguimiento, y tras recibir profilaxis secundaria durante los episodios de neutropenia, no ha vuelto a presentar nuevas lesiones ni compromiso rino-sinusal.


Abstract The episodes of febrile neutropenia are severe cases that require an exhaustive etiological study and a quick start of antimicrobial agents. Within the possible microorganisms, fungal origins are also found, and depending on its tissue invasion, they can reach a high mortality rate. A case of a pediatric patient who suffered from acute myeloid leukemia is reported, and after his induction chemotherapy, the patient showed an episode of febrile neutropenia, which matches a rhinosinusal infection caused by Exserohilum rostratum, a filamentous fungi that is uncommonly associated with pathological cases. An antifungal therapy and an early surgical treatment were started, which lead to a positive response, without complications to the patient. After the monitoring and receiving secondary prophylaxis during the episodes of neutropenia, the patient hasn't presented new injuries nor rhinosinusal damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Sinusitis/complications , Sinusitis/microbiology , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Mycoses/complications , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Neutropenia/etiology
14.
Bogotá; s.n; 2020. 52 p.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1343791

ABSTRACT

El presente trabajo responde a una necesidad en la práctica de Enfermería por haber sido realizado en el marco de una maestría de profundización, en la que se busca la transferencia o aplicación del conocimiento construido a la sociedad. El trabajo se refiere a los cuidados que requiere una persona con cáncer que se encuentra en tratamiento y, a su vez, presenta neutropenia, abordando la familia o cuidador principal como ente de protección desde la educación y adquisición de conocimientos frente al cuidado de la inmunosupresión. El objetivo fue elaborar una guía práctica de cuidado dirigida a cuidadores de adultos con cáncer que cursan con neutropenia. Se contó con la participación de los cuidadores de personas con cáncer y profesional experto en el área de oncología quienes validaron el contenido de la propuesta, acorde con las orientaciones emitidas por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud para la elaboración de material educativo. Se obtuvo como producto una cartilla comprensible y válida que es útil como instrumento para el desarrollo de procesos pedagógicos con cuidadores de personas con cáncer que cursan con neutropenia. Palabras clave: Cáncer, neutropenia, cuidador, neutropenia febril, paciente oncológico.


This thesis responds to a need in Nursing practice as it was carried out within the framework of a deepening master's degree, in which the transfer or application of knowledge built to society is sought. The thesis refers to the care required by a person with cancer who is undergoing treatment and in turn, has neutropenia, addressing the family or main caregiver as a protective entity from the education and acquisition of knowledge regarding the care of immunosuppression. The objective was to develop a practical care guide aimed at caregivers of adults with cancer who present with neutropenia. The caregivers of people with cancer and an expert professional in the area of oncology participated, who validated the content of the proposal, in accordance with the guidelines issued by the Organizacion Panamericana de la Salud for the preparation of educational material. It was obtained like a product a book understandable and useful as an instrument for the development of pedagogical processes with caregivers of people with cancer who present with neutropenia. Keywords: Cancer, neutropenia, caregiver, febrile neutropenia, oncology patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Home Nursing , Neoplasms , Neutropenia , Guideline , Caregivers
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811212

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and toxicity of dose-dense weekly paclitaxel and 3-weekly carboplatin (ddPC) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with the standard 3-weekly regimen.METHODS: A retrospective study of patients diagnosed with stage IIIc and IV ovarian cancer who received at least one cycle of NAC followed by interval debulking surgery between August 2015 and January 2018 was conducted. Patient characteristics, clinical and pathological response to NAC, surgical and survival outcome, and adverse event were compared.RESULTS: A total of 23 patients in the ddPC group and 50 patients in the standard group received a median of 3 cycles of NAC. Rate of grade ≥3 neutropenia was significantly higher in the ddPC group than the standard (82.6% vs. 22.0%, p<0.001). Patients in the ddPC group underwent dose-reduction more frequently (34.8% vs. 4.00%, p=0.001). Normalization of cancer antigen-125 post-NAC occurred more frequently in the ddPC group (73.9% vs. 46.0%, p=0.030). No residual disease rate (43.5% vs. 60.0%, p=0.188) and chemotherapy response score of 3 (34.8% vs. 26.0%, p=0.441) were not statistically different between two groups. There was no statistical difference in progression free survival (PFS) at 2 years (36.3% vs. 28.4%, p=0.454). Cox proportional hazard model showed that ddPC was not a significant determinant of PFS (p=0.816).CONCLUSION: There was no difference between both regimens in terms of NAC response and survival outcomes. However, ddPC group showed higher hematologic toxicity requiring dose reduction.


Subject(s)
Carboplatin , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neutropenia , Ovarian Neoplasms , Paclitaxel , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
16.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 100-106, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811192

ABSTRACT

Palbociclib, in conjunction with endocrine therapy, has been approved for the treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer. The common hematological toxicities associated with palbociclib are leukopenia and neutropenia. However, hematological malignancies have not been reported for palbociclib treatment. Here, for the first time, we present a case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia that was diagnosed in a patient undergoing treatment with letrozole and palbociclib for metastatic breast cancer. This case emphasizes the need for long term follow up of patients treated with palbociclib.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Follow-Up Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Leukopenia , Neutropenia , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
17.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 164-167, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811079

ABSTRACT

Drug-induced vasculitis is an inflammation of small-sized blood vessel caused by the use of drugs. It accounts for approximately 10% of acute cutaneous vasculitis. Propylthiouracil, hydralazine, and allopurinol have been widely known as causative agents. The most common clinical feature of drug-induced vasculitis is palpable purpura on lower extremities. A 66-year-old Korean female presented with erythematous nodules on upper chest and back. She had been on medication for multiple myeloma. Laboratory results showed neutropenia. After a single injection of filgrastim (recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor), she developed cutaneous lesions with concurrent increase in absolute neutrophil count. A skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis. After discontinuation of filgrastim injection, her skin lesions disappeared spontaneously.


Subject(s)
Aged , Allopurinol , Biopsy , Blood Vessels , Female , Filgrastim , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Granulocytes , Humans , Hydralazine , Inflammation , Lower Extremity , Multiple Myeloma , Neutropenia , Neutrophils , Propylthiouracil , Purpura , Skin , Thorax , Vasculitis , Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828714

ABSTRACT

In order to clearly define the features of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) in Chinese children, this article analyzes and summarizes the epidemiology, clinical features, and key points in the diagnosis and treatment of SDS in Chinese children with review of the clinical data of 27 children with SDS from related articles published previously. A comparative analysis was made between the Chinese and international data related to childhood SDS. The results showed a male/female ratio of about 2:1 in the Chinese children with SDS, with an age of onset of <1 month to 5 years (median 1 month) and an age of 3 months to 12 years (median 12 months) at the time of confirmed diagnosis. Reductions in peripheral blood cells due to myelopoiesis inhibition were observed in all 27 children with SDS, among whom 93% had neutropenia. Chronic diarrhea (85%), liver damage (78%), and short stature (83%) were the three main clinical features of SDS. Supplementation of pancreatin and component blood transfusion may temporarily alleviate the disease, while allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is still an effective radical treatment. The comparative analysis of the Chinese and oversea data showed that compared with those in the European and American countries, the children with SDS in China had significantly higher incidence rates of chronic diarrhea, reductions in peripheral blood cells (three lineages), and liver damage, and there were also differences in the type of mutant genes.


Subject(s)
Child , China , Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency , Female , Humans , Male , Neutropenia , Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome , Treatment Outcome
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827514

ABSTRACT

Severe congenital neutropenia is a rare disorder characterized by a consistently low absolute neutrophil count and periodontal disease. This report describes the case of an ELANE mutationin a patient with gingival bleeding and tooth mobility. Oral examination showed active periodontal infection of the primary dentition accompanied by alveolar bone loss in the posterior region. The patient was diagnosed with severe congenital neutropenia 1 year after multidisciplinary consultation. Treatment of the systemic disease and effective oral health education over a 3-year follow-up period relieved the periodontal infection and created favorable conditions for future repair.


Subject(s)
Congenital Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes , Humans , Mutation , Neutropenia , Periodontal Diseases
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