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Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(1): 77-81, feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092725


Resumen Los episodios de neutropenia febril son cuadros graves, que requieren un estudio etiológico exhaustivo y un inicio rápido de antimicrobianos. Dentro de los posibles microorganismos causales se encuentran los de origen fúngico, los que, dependiendo de su grado de invasión tisular, pueden llegar a presentar una alta mortalidad. Presentamos el caso de un niño con una leucemia mieloide aguda, que tras su quimioterapia de inducción, presentó un episodio de neutropenia febril, con una infección rino-sinusal por Exserohilum rostratum, hongo filamentoso que raramente se asocia a cuadros patológicos. Se inició rápidamente terapia antifúngica, lo cual, asociado a un aseo quirúrgico precoz, lograron una respuesta clínica favorable, sin complicaciones. Luego del seguimiento, y tras recibir profilaxis secundaria durante los episodios de neutropenia, no ha vuelto a presentar nuevas lesiones ni compromiso rino-sinusal.

Abstract The episodes of febrile neutropenia are severe cases that require an exhaustive etiological study and a quick start of antimicrobial agents. Within the possible microorganisms, fungal origins are also found, and depending on its tissue invasion, they can reach a high mortality rate. A case of a pediatric patient who suffered from acute myeloid leukemia is reported, and after his induction chemotherapy, the patient showed an episode of febrile neutropenia, which matches a rhinosinusal infection caused by Exserohilum rostratum, a filamentous fungi that is uncommonly associated with pathological cases. An antifungal therapy and an early surgical treatment were started, which lead to a positive response, without complications to the patient. After the monitoring and receiving secondary prophylaxis during the episodes of neutropenia, the patient hasn't presented new injuries nor rhinosinusal damage.

Humans , Child , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Sinusitis/complications , Sinusitis/microbiology , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Mycoses/complications , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Neutropenia/etiology
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(5): 726-729, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949959


Abstract: Fusariosis is due to inhalation or direct contact with conidia. Clinical presentation depends on host's immunity and can be localized, focally invasive or disseminated. Given the severity of this infection and the possibility for the dermatologist to make an early diagnosis, we report six cases of patients with hematologic malignancies, who developed febrile neutropenia an skin lesions suggestive of cutaneous fusariosis. All patients had skin cultures showing growth of Fusarium solani complex, and they received amphotericin B and voriconazole. As this infection can quickly lead to death, dermatologists play a crucial role in diagnosing this disease.

Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Skin/microbiology , Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute/complications , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Fusariosis/complications , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Skin/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Fusariosis/pathology , Fusariosis/prevention & control , Neutropenia/etiology
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 448-452, ago. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978057


Resumen Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente con una leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) que desarrolló una fusariosis diseminada por Fusarium verticillioides durante un episodio prolongado de neutropenia febril post quimioterapia. Fue exitosamente tratado cuando se usó terapia combinada de voriconazol más anfotericina B deoxicolato.

We report a case of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), who developed a disseminated infection by Fusarium verticillioides during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. He was successfully treated only after combination therapy with voriconazole plus amphotericin B deoxycolate was used, but not when these compounds were used in an isolated form.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Fusariosis/drug therapy , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/microbiology , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fusariosis/etiology , Fusariosis/pathology , Neutropenia/etiology , Neutropenia/pathology
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 233-238, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959436


Resumen Introducción: La bacteriemia constituye una complicacion frecuente en los niños con cáncer, que se asocia a mayor gravedad, internación prolongada y mortalidad. La internación prolongada condiciona mayor morbilidad y riesgo de adquisición de infecciones intranosocomiales. Objetivo: Analizar factores de riesgo de internación prolongada en niños con leucemia y bacteriemia. Pacientes y Métodos: Cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron niños con leucemia internados en el Hospital Garrahan entre 1/1/2015 y 31/12/2016 con bacteriemia. Se compararon características de pacientes con internaciones menores o mayores a 14 días. Se realizó un análisis bivariado y modelo de regresión logística. Se utilizó Stata 13. Resultados: n = 121. Mediana de edad 59 meses. Tenían leucemia linfoblastica 81 pacientes (67%) y leucemia mieloblástica 40 (33%). Tenían catéter venoso central (CVC) 96 de los niños (79%), neutropenia 94 (78%), neutropenia menor a 100 neutrófilos 79 (65%). La identificación en hemocultivos fue: 55 casos (45%) enterobacterias, 28 (23%) Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa, Streptococcus spp grupo viridans 19 (16%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8 (7%). Huo co-infección viral en 14 pacientes (12%).Tuvieron menos de 14 días de internación 71 pacientes (59%) y mayor período 50 (41%). En el análisis multivariado la bacteriemia asociada a CVC (OR 21,73; IC95% 1,2-43,20; p 0,04), neutropenia profunda al ingreso (OR 1,75; IC95% 1,82-1,28; p 0,03) y co-infección viral (OR 27,42; IC95% 2,88-260,83; p 0,004) fueron factores de riesgo de internación > 14 días. Conclusiones: La bacteriemia asociada a CVC, la neutropenia profunda al ingreso y la co-infección se asociaron con una internación igual o mayor a 14 días.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Bacteremia is a frequent complication in children with cancer, which is associated with greater severity, prolonged hospitalization and mortality. Prolonged hospitalization conditions greater morbidity and risk of acquisition of intranosocomial infections. Aim: To describe risk factors for prolonged hospital length of stay in children with leukemia and bacteremia. Methods: Cohort study. Episodes of bacteremia in patients with leukemia at Garrahan Hospital from 1/1/2015 to 31/12/2016 were reviewed. We compared data from patients with a LOS of 14 days or more with those admitted for less than 14 days. Bivariate and logistic regression analysis was performed. We used Stata 13 statistical package. Results: n = 121. Median age 59 months.81 patients (67%) had a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, followed by acute myeloid leukemia in 40 (33%). 96 patients (79%) had a central venous catheter (CVC), 94 patients (78%) were neutropenic. Blood cultures were positive for Enterobacteriaceae in 55 cases (45%), coagulase-negative staphylococci in 28 cases (23%), Group viridans Streptococcus in 19 (16%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 8 (7%). (9%). By the multivariate analysis, three factors remained significantly associated with length of stay of more than 14 days: CVC associated bacteremia (OR 21,73; CI95% 1.2-43.2; p 0.04), severe neutropenia (OR 1.75; CI95% 1.82-1.28; p 0.03) and coinfection (OR 27.4; CI95% 2.8-260.8; p 0.004). Conclusion: CVC associated bacteremia, severe neutropenia and viral coinfection were associated with hospital LOS of more than 14 days.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Bacteremia/etiology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Neutropenia/etiology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Bacteremia/microbiology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/microbiology , Length of Stay , Neutropenia/microbiology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13343


Peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive lymphomas with poor prognosis. Elderly (age ≥ 65years) patients generally have impaired bone marrow function, altered drug metabolism, comorbidities, and poor functional status. Thus, treatment of elderly patients with relapsed or refractory PTCL remains a challenge for clinicians. A recent study disclosed that pralatrexate has a synergistic effect in combination with bortezomib. Weekly pralatrexate and bortezomib were administered intravenously for 3 weeks in a 4-week cycle. Of 5 patients, one achieved complete response after 4 cycles which has lasted 12 months until now. Another patient attained partial response after 2 cycles. Only 1 patient experienced grade 3 thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. Two patients suffered from grade 3 mucositis. Combination therapy with pralatrexate and bortezomib may be used as a salvage therapy for relapsed or refractory PTCL in the elderly with a favorable safety profile.

Aged , Aminopterin/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Bortezomib/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral/diagnostic imaging , Male , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neutropenia/etiology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128620


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a major comorbidity in patients with hemophilia. However, there are no published data on the efficacy of antiviral therapy in Korea. We assessed the safety and efficacy of combination therapy with peginterferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin for CHC in hemophilia. METHODS: Patients (n=115) were enrolled between March 2007 and December 2008. Seventy-seven patients were genotype 1 or 6, and 38 patients were genotype 2 or 3. We evaluated rapid virologic responses (RVRs), early virologic response (EVRs), end-of-treatment response (ETRs), sustained virologic response (SVRs), and relapses. Safety evaluations included adverse events and laboratory tests. RESULTS: Eleven patients were excluded from the study because they had been treated previously. Among the remaining 104 treatment-naive patients, RVR was achieved in 64 (60.6%), ETR was achieved in 95 (91.3%), and SVR was achieved in 89 (85.6%). Relapse occurred in eight patients (8.9%). Common adverse events were hair loss (56.7%) and headache (51.0%). Common hematologic adverse events were neutropenia (22.1%), anemia (27.9%), and thrombocytopenia (3.8%). However, there were no serious adverse events such as bleeding. RVR was the only predictor of SVR in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Peginterferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin combination treatment produced a favorable response rate in CHC patients with hemophilia without serious adverse events.

Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Genotype , Headache/etiology , Hemophilia A/complications , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Humans , Interferon-alpha/adverse effects , Liver/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutropenia/etiology , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , RNA, Viral/blood , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , Recurrence , Republic of Korea , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174926


Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the major toxicity of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) regimen in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The prediction of neutropenia and FN is mandatory to continue the planned R-CHOP therapy resulting in successful anti-cancer treatment. The clinical features and patterns of neutropenia and FN from 181 DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP were analyzed retrospectively. Sixty percent (60.2%) of patients experienced at least one episode of grade 4 neutropenia. Among them, 42.2% of episodes progressed to FN. Forty-eight percent (48.8%) of patients with FN was experienced their first FN during the first cycle of R-CHOP. All those patients never experienced FN again during the rest cycles of R-CHOP. Female, higher stage, international prognostic index (IPI), age > or =65 yr, comorbidities, bone marrow involvement, and baseline serum albumin < or =3.5 mg/dL were significant risk factors for FN by univariate analysis. Among these variables, comorbidities (P=0.009), bone marrow involvement (P=0.006), and female gender (P=0.024) were independent risk factors for FN based on multivariate analysis. On observing the patterns of neutropenia and FN, primary prophylaxis of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and antibiotics should be considered particularly in female patients, patients with comorbidities, or when there is bone marrow involvement of disease.

Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia/etiology , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Demography , Doxorubicin/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Neutropenia/etiology , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Vincristine/administration & dosage , Young Adult
Indian J Cancer ; 2013 Jan-Mar; 50(1): 25-30
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147316


Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to find out the role of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in changing the management and outcome of advanced hypopharyngeal cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 59 treatment naïve, advanced hypopharyngeal cancer patients presenting to our tertiary care center from April 2010 to October 2011. NACT was given as two (platinum with taxane) or three drug with (platinum, taxane with 5-flurouracil [5 FU]) as 3 weekly regimen with cisplatin and docetaxel as 75 mg/m 2 each, 5-FU as 1000 mg/m 2 . NACT was either given with the intent of achieving: (1) surgical resection (extensive soft tissue disease, oropharyngeal involvement, extensive disease with cartilage erosion) or (2) organ preservation (Bulky disease with inner cartilage erosion, exolaryngeal disease without cartilage erosion, large N3 nodes). Results: The mean age of this population was 55 years. Most (83%) of the patients had pyriform sinus (PFS) involvement. 69% patients had Stage IVa disease, 21% Stage IVb and 10% Stage III. The overall response rate was 66%, including 06% complete responses and 60% partial responses. Following NACT, resectability was achieved in 30% (10/33) and organ preservation protocol was planned after NACT in 73% (19/26) patients. The main toxicities were neutropenia (grade 3, 4, 04%; febrile neutropenia, 4%), mucositis 5%, diarrhea 5%. The median progression free survival was 20 months. Conclusions: NACT can be useful in patients with oropharyngeal involvement to achieve surgical resection and larynx preservation in patients with bulky T3 disease.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Bridged-Ring Compounds/administration & dosage , Bridged-Ring Compounds/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/mortality , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Cisplatin/administration & dosage , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Female , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Fluorouracil/adverse effects , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms/mortality , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Neutropenia/etiology , Platinum/administration & dosage , Platinum/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Taxoids/administration & dosage , Taxoids/adverse effects , Young Adult
Indian J Cancer ; 2013 Jan-Mar; 50(1): 1-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147312


Impact Factor for 2013 is 1.131 Click here to download free Android Application for this and other journals Click here to view optimized website for mobile devices Journal is indexed with MEDLINE/Index Medicus and Science Citation Index ExpandedShare on facebookShare on twitterShare on citeulikeShare on connoteaShare on googleShare on linkedinMore Sharing Services MINI SYMPOSIUM: HEAD NECK CANCER Year : 2013 | Volume : 50 | Issue : 1 | Page : 1-8 Induction chemotherapy in technically unresectable locally advanced oral cavity cancers: Does it make a difference? VM Patil1, V Noronha1, VK Muddu1, S Gulia1, B Bhosale1, S Arya2, S Juvekar2, P Chatturvedi3, DA Chaukar3, P Pai3, A D'cruz3, K Prabhash1 1 Department of Medical Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India 2 Department of Radio-Diagnosis, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India 3 Department of Surgical Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Date of Web Publication 20-May-2013 Correspondence Address: K Prabhash Department of Medical Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra India DOI: 10.4103/0019-509X.112263 PMID: 23713035 » Abstract Background: Locally advanced and unresectable oral cavity cancers have a poor prognosis. Induction might be beneficial in this setting by reducing tumor bulk and allowing definitive surgery. Aim: To analyze the impact of induction chemotherapy on locally advanced, technically unresectable oral cavity cancers. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with locally advanced oral cavity cancers, who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) during the period between June 2009 and December 2010. Data from a prospectively filled database were analyzed for information on patient characteristics, chemotherapy received, toxicity, response rates, local treatment offered, patterns of failure, and overall survival. The statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 16. Results: 123 patients, with a median age of 42 years were analyzed. Buccal mucosa was the most common subsite (68.30%). Three drug regimen was utilized in 26 patients (21.10%) and the rest received two drug regimen. Resectability was achieved in 17 patients treated with 3 drug regimen (68.00%) and 36 patients receiving 2 drug regimen. Febrile neutropenia was seen in 3 patients (3.09%) receiving 2 drug regimen and in 9 patients (34.62%) receiving 3 drug regimen. The estimated median OS was not reached in patients who had clinical response and underwent surgery as opposed to 8 months in patients treated with non-surgical modality post NACT (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Induction chemotherapy was effective in converting technically unresectable oral cavity cancers to operable disease in approximately 40% of patients and was associated with significantly improved overall survival in comparison to nonsurgical treatment.

Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Bridged-Ring Compounds/administration & dosage , Bridged-Ring Compounds/adverse effects , Female , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Fluorouracil/adverse effects , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mouth Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/surgery , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neutropenia/etiology , Platinum/administration & dosage , Platinum/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Taxoids/administration & dosage , Taxoids/adverse effects , Young Adult
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-127493


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin for intractable advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may have survival benefits. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of HAIC for advanced HCC as first-line therapy. METHODS: A total of 54 patients who received only HAIC with 5-fluorouracil (750 mg/m2 on days 1-4) and cisplatin (25 mg/m2 on days 1-4) for advanced HCC from Jan. 2009 to Dec. 2011 were selected. According to Child-Pugh class, the overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and adverse events after HAIC were investigated retrospectively. RESULTS: Median OS and PFS between the Child-Pugh A group (n=24) and the Child-Pugh B/C group (n=30) were 8.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.7-12.7) vs. 3.7 months (95% CI: 2.0-5.3), and 7.1 (95% CI: 3.8-10.4) vs. 3.6 months (95% CI: 2.0-5.2), respectively. Although median OS and PFS were not statistically significant between the two groups (P=0.079, P=0.196), the Child-Pugh class B/C tended to influence poor OS. Serious adverse events > or = grade 3 occurred frequently in both groups (83.3 vs. 96.7%, P=0.159). Responders (22.2%, complete or partial response) significantly differed in median OS, compared to non-responders (13.1 vs. 4.4 months, P=0.019). Achievement of complete or partial response was an independent prognostic factor of OS (hazard ratio: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8, P=0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Achievement of response after HAIC provide a survival benefit in patients with advanced HCC, but HAIC should be administered cautiously in patients with Child-Pugh class B/C, because of a relatively low survival and high incidence of serious adverse events.

Adult , Aged , Anemia/etiology , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Diarrhea/etiology , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Fluorouracil/adverse effects , Humans , Infusions, Intra-Arterial , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Neutropenia/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Treatment Outcome
Rev. chil. infectol ; 29(6): 672-676, dic. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-665572


Introduction: Neutropenia is one of the most common complications in children with cancer, and it's the most important parameter to determine infection risk. In neutropenic patients the signs and symptoms could be scarce and in occasions fever could be the only symptom. For these reasons all patients with febrile neutropenia (FN) should be considered as if they had a possibly severe disease. Aim: To describe the clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters observed in cancer patients with FN attended at our hospital to perform a more rational management of this complication in the future. Patients and Methods: The clinical files accumulated during 36 months, belonging to patients aged 0 to 15 years that were hospitalized because of cancer and FN were reviewed. Results: In this series the source of fever was found in 48.6% of 105 NF episodes, and bacteria were isolated from blood or urine culture in 38%. The most frequent bacterial species recovered were methicillin susceptible S. aureus (20.8%) and ESBL negative E. coli (20.8%). Piperacillin/tazobactam was the most used first line antibiotic prescribed (87.6%) and meropenem was the second choice (18%). Granulocyte colony stimulating factor was used in 61.9% of the cases and episodes mortality rate was 6.7%. Conclusion: Clinical characteristics and bacteriological findings in our institution do not differ significantly from what has been described for pediatric cancer patients in other series.

Introducción: La neutropenia es una de las complicaciones más comunes en los niños con cáncer y el principal parámetro para determinar el riesgo de infección. Además, en estos pacientes los signos clínicos de infección pueden ser escasos y en ocasiones la fiebre es la única manifestación, por lo que todo paciente neutropénico y febril se debe manejar como si presentara una posible infección grave. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento clínico y de laboratorio de los pacientes con neutropenia febril (NF) atendidos en nuestra institución para racionalizar el manejo futuro de esta complicación. Pacientes y Métodos : Se revisó los registros clínicos acumulados durante un período de 36 meses, de todos los pacientes de 0 a 15 años internados por cáncer y NF. Resultados: En este estudio se encontró el foco infeccioso en 48,6% de 105 episodios y se logró aislamiento bacteriano por hemocultivos y/o urocultivo en 38%. Las bacterias encontradas con mayor frecuencia fueron S. aureus sensible a meticilina (20,8%) y E. coli no productora de BLEE (20,8%). El antimicrobiano de primera línea más usado fue piperacilina/tazobactam (87,6%) y de segunda línea meropenem (18%). Se usó factor estimulante de colonias de granulocitos en 61,9% de los pacientes. La mortalidad asociada a estos episodios fue de 6,7%. Conclusión: Las características clínicas y hallazgos de laboratorio en nuestra institución no difieren mayormente de lo descrito en población pediátrica en otras series.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Fever/etiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/etiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/etiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neutropenia/etiology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
Acta méd. (Porto Alegre) ; 33(1): [6], 21 dez. 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-881620


A Neutropenia Febril (NF) deve ser considerada uma emergência médica, cujo diagnóstico precoce e tratamento antimicrobiano empírico são fundamentais para o bom desfecho dos casos. Este trabalho serve como um guia para acadêmicos e médicos, no qual abordaremos diagnóstico, estratificação de risco e terapias antimicrobianas da Neutropenia Febril.

Febrile Neutropenia (FN) should be considered a medical emergency in which an early diagnoses and empiric antibiotic therapy are essential for a successful outcome. This paper serves as a guide for medical students and physicians, in which we will report diagnoses, risk stratification and antimicrobial therapies.

Neutropenia , Drug Therapy , Fever , Neutropenia/diagnosis , Neutropenia/etiology , Risk Assessment
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178283


We evaluated risk factors for neutropenic fever and febrile prolonged neutropenia during vincristine-including chemotherapy to treat HIV-related lymphoma to investigate whether protease inhibitor (PI) treatment is associated with infectious complications due to drug interactions with chemotherapeutic agents. We included all HIV patients who received chemotherapy including vincristine for lymphoma at a single referral center in 1999-2010. Neutropenic fever was defined as absolute neutrophil count < 500 cells/microL with body temperature over 38degrees C; and prolonged neutropenia was defined if it persisted over 7 days. CODOX-M/IVAC and Stanford regimens were considered high-risk regimens for prolonged neutropenia. We analyzed 48 cycles of chemotherapy in 17 HIV patients with lymphoma. There were 22 neutropenic fever and 12 febrile prolonged neutropenia events. In multivariate analysis, neutropenic fever was associated with old age and low CD4 cell count, but not with PI use or ritonavir-boosted PI use. Low CD4 cell count and high-risk regimens were associated with febrile prolonged neutropenia. Neutropenic fever and febrile prolonged neutropenia is associated with old age, low CD4 cell count, and high-risk regimens, but not PI use, in HIV patients undergoing chemotherapy including vincristine for lymphoma.

Adult , Age Factors , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/therapeutic use , Body Temperature , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Fever/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Lymphoma, AIDS-Related/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neutropenia/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Vincristine/therapeutic use
Rev. chil. infectol ; 28(6): 537-545, dic. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-612152


Febrile neutropenia is a serious complication of antineoplastic therapy and it is more commonly found in hematologic patients, associated with high mortality rates. Inadequate tissue concentration of antimicrobials has been described as a cause of therapeutic failure which also has been related to a low interstitial concentration for hydrophilic antibiotics. In critically ill patients it may occur an accumulation of compartmental fluids which can be related to an increase in the distribution volume or changes in clearance of antimicrobials. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of antimicrobials are reviewed, which can be used as a tool to optimize the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy in order to avoid failures and resistance selection.

La neutropenia febril es una complicación grave de la terapia antineoplásica que se presenta más frecuentemente en pacientes con neoplasias hematológicas, asociada a tasas elevadas de mortalidad. Uno de los factores descritos como causa de fracasos terapéuticos de la terapia antimicrobiana es la inadecuada concentración tisular de los antimicrobianos que a su vez se correlaciona con bajas concentraciones en el líquido intersticial en el caso de los fármacos hidrofílicos. En pacientes críticamente enfermos se puede presentar acumulación compartimental de líquidos que a su vez se puede asociar con aumento en el volumen de distribución de los medicamentos o alteraciones en la depuración de los mismos. Se revisan los parámetros farmacocinéticos y farmacodinámicos de los antimicrobianos que pueden ser usados como herramienta para optimizar la eficacia de la terapia antiinfecciosa en busca de disminuir la tasa de fracasos y la selección de cepas resistentes.

Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Fever/metabolism , Neutropenia/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/etiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Neutropenia/etiology
Indian J Cancer ; 2011 Oct-Dec; 48(4): 460-465
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144528


Background: Oxaliplatin has shown promising activity in metastatic gastric cancer (MGC) and has synergism with 5 fluorouracil. This phase II study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FOLFOX4 regimen in MGC. Materials and Methods: Patients with MGC, aged 18-70 years, performance status ≤2, no prior chemotherapy, received FOLFOX4 regimen every 2 weeks as oxaliplatin 85 mg/m 2 IV infusion on day 1 and leucovorin 200 mg/m 2 IV infusion followed by fluorouracil 400 mg/m 2 IV bolus and 600 mg/m 2 22-hour continuous infusion on days 1 and 2. Treatment was administered until progression, unacceptable toxicity, patient's refusal or for a maximum of 12 cycles. Results: From August 2007 to June 2010, 34 patients were prospectively enrolled. The median age was 52 years (28-69). In total, 293 cycles were administered with a median of 8 cycles per patient (range 1-12 cycles) and 33 of 34 patients were assessable for treatment response. The overall response rate were 53% with one patient(3%) had complete response, 17 patients (50%) had partial responses and 6 patients (18%) had stable disease. The median survival of all patients was 12.1 months and the median time to progression was 9.4 months. The most common grade 3/4 toxic effects were neutropenia in four patients (12%), diarrhea in three patients (9%), vomiting in two patients (6%) and peripheral neuropathy occurred in three patients (9%). Conclusions: The FOLFOX4 combination chemotherapy showed a very promising antitumor activity and was generally well-tolerated as a first-line treatment of patients with MGC.

Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/mortality , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Diarrhea/etiology , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Fluorouracil/adverse effects , Fluorouracil/therapeutic use , Humans , Leucovorin/administration & dosage , Leucovorin/adverse effects , Leucovorin/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neutropenia/etiology , Organoplatinum Compounds/administration & dosage , Organoplatinum Compounds/adverse effects , Organoplatinum Compounds/therapeutic use , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Stomach Neoplasms/mortality , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Survival Analysis , Young Adult
Indian J Cancer ; 2010 Oct-Dec; 47(4): 430-436
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144384


Background: Use of antimicrobials (AM) and granulocyte colony stimulating factors (G-CSF) affect the outcome and cost of treatment of febrile neutropenia (FN). There are no studies describing the AM utilization pattern or the use of G-CSF and cost incurred on them in cancer patients with FN from India. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted in a tertiary care, teaching hospital in New Delhi, India, with the objectives of describing the utilization pattern of AM and G-CSF in cancer patients with FN. The efficacy and costs of AM and G-CSF prescribed were also assessed. Results: A total of 211 patients with FN were enrolled in the study. A majority of 207 (98.1%) were in the low-risk category. The average number of AM used per patient was 2.45 ± 0.02 and the AM exposure density was 1.19. All patients were administered five different combinations of AM regimens and G-CSF, irrespective of the risk category. No difference in the time to defervesence or in the recovery of ANC counts were observed with the different AM regimens. The average drug cost per febrile neutropenia episode (FNE) was Rs 4694.45 ± 296.35 (113.95 ± 7.19$). G-CSF accounted for 76.14 - 97.58% of the total costs. Conclusion: Large variations in the pattern of AM prescribed with routine use of G-CSF, irrespective of the risk status, was observed. Guidelines for the rational and cost-effective use of AM and G-CSF in patients with FN needed to be prepared. This was especially important as treatment was given free of cost to all patients admitted in the government health facility.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/economics , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Female , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/economics , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/therapeutic use , Hospitals , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Neutropenia/etiology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
West Indian med. j ; 59(2): 209-214, Mar. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672600


BACKGROUNDS: Febrile neutropaenia is a common complication of chemotherapy in cancer patients. Empirical antibiotic regimes are based on the epidemiological characteristics of bacterial isolates globally and locally. METHOD: This study retrospectively reviewed all cases of febrile neutropaenia in patients with confirmed cancer admitted at the University Hospital of the West Indies in the four-year period between, January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2006 and who received chemotherapy. Cases were identified from blood culture records and hospital charts which were reviewed to determine the aetiological agents causing bacteraemia, their antimicrobial susceptibilities and clinical features. These cases were compared with non-neutropaenic cancer patients admitted with fever. RESULTS: A total of 197 febrile episodes in cancer patients were reviewed. Thirty-seven per cent had febrile neutropaenia while 62% were non-neutropaenic. Acute myeloid leukaemia was the most common haematological malignancy and the most common solid tumour was breast cancer. Twenty-six per cent of patients had a positive blood culture. In febrile neutropaenic patients, Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci while in non-neutropaenic patients, coagulase-negative staphylococci was most common. Acinetobacter infections was prominent in non-neutropaenic patients but absent in neutropaenic patients. More than one organism was cultured in 9 neutropaenic and 18 non-neutropaenic patients. Mortality was 10.8% in neutropaenic and 24.4% in non-neutropaenic patients. CONCLUSION: Gram-negative organisms are the predominant isolates in febrile neutropaenic episodes in this cohort of patients. Non-neutropaenic patients had an increased mortality with an increase in Acinetobacter infections and multiple isolates.

ANTECEDENTES: La neutropenia febril es una complicación común de la quimioterapia en pacientes con cáncer. Los regimenes de antibióticos empíricos se basan en las características epidemiológicas de aislados bacterianos, tanto global como localmente. MÉTODO: Este estudio examinó retrospectivamente todos los casos de neutropenia febril con confirmación de cáncer, ingresados y tratados con quimioterapia en el Hospital Universitario de West Indies, Jamaica, en el período de cuatro años entre el 1ero, de enero de 2003 y el 31 de diciembre de 2006. Se identificaron casos con historias de cultivos de sangre e historias clínicas que fueron examinadas para determinar los agentes etiológicos causantes de la bacteriemia, sus susceptibilidades antimicrobianas y características clínicas. Estos casos fueron comparados con pacientes de cáncer no neutropénicos ingresados con fiebre. RESULTADOS: Se examinaron un total de 197 episodios febriles en pacientes de cáncer. El treinta y siete por ciento tuvo neutropenia febril, mientras que el 62% eran no neutropénicos. La leucemia mieloide aguda fue la malignidad hematológica más común, y el tumor sólido más común fue el cáncer de mamas. Veintiséis por ciento de .los pacientes tuvieron cultivos de sangre positivos. En los pacientes neutropénicos febriles, Escherichia coli fue el organismo aislado más común, seguido de los estafilococos coagulasa-negativos, mientras que en los pacientes no neutropénicos, los estafilococos coagulasa-negativos fueron los más comúnes. Las infecciones por Acinetobacter fueron prominentes en pacientes no neutropénicos pero ausentes en los pacientes neutropénicos. Más de un organismo fue cultivado en 9 pacientes neutropénicos y 18 en no neutropénicos. La mortalidad fue de 10.8% en los pacientes neutropénicos y 24.4% en los no neutropénicos. CONCLUSIÓN: Los organismos gram-negativos son los aislados que predominan en los episodios neutropénicos febriles en Jamaica. Los pacientes no neutropénicos vieron su mortalidad aumentada con el incremento en infecciones Acinetobacter y aislados múltiples.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Neoplasms/complications , Neutropenia/etiology , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Neutropenia/microbiology , Retrospective Studies
Journal of the Royal Medical Services. 2010; 17 (3): 70-73
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-117613


We report a case of Shwachman -Diamond syndrome who initially presented with severe anemia at the age of two months then later developed intermittent neutropenia and persistent thrombocytopenia and short stature. Skeletal abnormalities fully manifested at the age of four years. This is the 1[st] case to be reported in children in the Royal Medical Services hospitals

Humans , Child, Preschool , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Neutropenia/etiology
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98612


BACKGROUND/AIMS: The combination therapy of peginterferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin is the standard treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, few trials have involved patients with cirrhosis. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the efficacy and safety of treatment with PEG-IFN and ribavirin in patients with cirrhosis associated with HCV infection. METHOD: A total of 65 patients were treated with PEG-IFN alpha-2a/ribavirin (n=32) or PEG-IFN alpha-2b/ribavirin (n=33). PEG-IFN alpha-2a and PEG-IFN alpha-2b were administered at doses of 180 microg/week and 1.5 microg/kg/week, respectively, and ribavirin was administered orally at doses of 800-200 mg. Patients with HCV genotype 1 and genotype non-1 were treated for 48 and 24 weeks, respectively. The treatment response was assessed based on the sustained virologic response (SVR). RESULTS: The early virologic response (EVR), end-of-treatment response (ETR), and SVR were 70.0%, 52.0%, and 24.0%, respectively, in genotype 1 (n=50). In genotype non-1 (n=15), the ETR was 53.3% and the SVR was 33.3%. The overall SVR did not differ with genotype (1 vs non-1, 24.0% vs. 33.3%; P=0.471) or between decompensated cirrhosis and compensated cirrhosis (20.0% vs. 27.3%, P=0.630). Ten patients developed cirrhotic complications during the treatment, and 11 stopped treatment due to treatment-related adverse events. CONCLUSION: The combination therapy of PEG-IFN and ribavirin exhibited a low efficacy in cirrhotic patients with HCV infection and was associated with frequent serious complications. However, with careful management of complications, the therapy may have a considerable efficacy in some patients with cirrhosis and HCV infection.

Aged , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Genotype , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/adverse effects , Interferon-alpha/adverse effects , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Neutropenia/etiology , Platelet Count , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , RNA, Viral/blood , Retrospective Studies , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 17(6): 933-939, Nov.-Dec. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-538261


This study aimed to understand the meanings caregivers attributed to the process of caring for a neutropenic child at home and know their needs for orientation related to care for these children. This descriptive study was carried out at the Pediatric Oncology Institute through semi-structured interviews, involving eleven caregivers. Data were organized according to the content analysis technique and interpreted according to Social Representations theory. Results indicate changes in the physical environment, people and human relationships, evidencing crises and transition towards stability. The following care procedures raised doubts: hyperthermia, body, food and environmental hygiene, risks of interpersonal contact and special care. The conclusion is that caregivers need technical and emotional preparedness to cope with the reported difficulties, including aggravating situations.

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender los significados atribuidos por los cuidadores al proceso de cuidar de un niño neutropénico, en su domicilio, y conocer las necesidades de orientaciones para el cuidado de esos niños. Es un estudio descriptivo, realizado en el Instituto de Oncología Pediátrica, con once cuidadores, utilizando entrevista semiestruturada. Los datos fueron organizados según la técnica de análisis de contenido e interpretados bajo el marco teórico de las Representaciones Sociales. Los resultados indican cambios en el ambiente físico, en las personas y en las relaciones humanas, evidenciando fases de crisis y de transición para obtener la estabilidad. Los cuidados que generaron dudas fueron: hipertermia, higiene corporal, del ambiente y de los alimentos, riesgos de contacto interpersonal y cuidados especiales. Se concluye que existe necesidad de preparar técnicamente y emocionalmente a los cuidadores para el enfrentamiento de las dificultades apuntadas, incluyendo las condiciones de agravamiento.

Este estudo objetivou compreender os significados atribuídos pelos cuidadores ao processo de cuidar de uma criança neutropênica, em domicílio, e conhecer as necessidades de orientações para o cuidado dessas crianças. É estudo descritivo, realizado no Instituto de Oncologia Pediátrica, com onze cuidadores, utilizando entrevista semiestruturada. Os dados foram organizados segundo a técnica de análise de conteúdo e interpretados à luz das Representações Sociais. Os resultados indicam mudanças no ambiente físico, nas pessoas e nas relações humanas, evidenciando fases de crise e de transição para a estabilidade. Os cuidados que geraram dúvidas foram: hipertermia, higiene corporal, do ambiente e dos alimentos, riscos do contato interpessoal e cuidados especiais. Conclui-se que há necessidade de preparo técnico e emocional dos cuidadores para o enfrentamento das dificuldades apontadas, incluindo as condições de agravamento.

Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Caregivers , Home Care Services , Neoplasms/complications , Neutropenia/etiology , Neutropenia/therapy , Needs Assessment , Young Adult