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Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 233-238, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959436


Resumen Introducción: La bacteriemia constituye una complicacion frecuente en los niños con cáncer, que se asocia a mayor gravedad, internación prolongada y mortalidad. La internación prolongada condiciona mayor morbilidad y riesgo de adquisición de infecciones intranosocomiales. Objetivo: Analizar factores de riesgo de internación prolongada en niños con leucemia y bacteriemia. Pacientes y Métodos: Cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron niños con leucemia internados en el Hospital Garrahan entre 1/1/2015 y 31/12/2016 con bacteriemia. Se compararon características de pacientes con internaciones menores o mayores a 14 días. Se realizó un análisis bivariado y modelo de regresión logística. Se utilizó Stata 13. Resultados: n = 121. Mediana de edad 59 meses. Tenían leucemia linfoblastica 81 pacientes (67%) y leucemia mieloblástica 40 (33%). Tenían catéter venoso central (CVC) 96 de los niños (79%), neutropenia 94 (78%), neutropenia menor a 100 neutrófilos 79 (65%). La identificación en hemocultivos fue: 55 casos (45%) enterobacterias, 28 (23%) Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa, Streptococcus spp grupo viridans 19 (16%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8 (7%). Huo co-infección viral en 14 pacientes (12%).Tuvieron menos de 14 días de internación 71 pacientes (59%) y mayor período 50 (41%). En el análisis multivariado la bacteriemia asociada a CVC (OR 21,73; IC95% 1,2-43,20; p 0,04), neutropenia profunda al ingreso (OR 1,75; IC95% 1,82-1,28; p 0,03) y co-infección viral (OR 27,42; IC95% 2,88-260,83; p 0,004) fueron factores de riesgo de internación > 14 días. Conclusiones: La bacteriemia asociada a CVC, la neutropenia profunda al ingreso y la co-infección se asociaron con una internación igual o mayor a 14 días.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Bacteremia is a frequent complication in children with cancer, which is associated with greater severity, prolonged hospitalization and mortality. Prolonged hospitalization conditions greater morbidity and risk of acquisition of intranosocomial infections. Aim: To describe risk factors for prolonged hospital length of stay in children with leukemia and bacteremia. Methods: Cohort study. Episodes of bacteremia in patients with leukemia at Garrahan Hospital from 1/1/2015 to 31/12/2016 were reviewed. We compared data from patients with a LOS of 14 days or more with those admitted for less than 14 days. Bivariate and logistic regression analysis was performed. We used Stata 13 statistical package. Results: n = 121. Median age 59 months.81 patients (67%) had a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, followed by acute myeloid leukemia in 40 (33%). 96 patients (79%) had a central venous catheter (CVC), 94 patients (78%) were neutropenic. Blood cultures were positive for Enterobacteriaceae in 55 cases (45%), coagulase-negative staphylococci in 28 cases (23%), Group viridans Streptococcus in 19 (16%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 8 (7%). (9%). By the multivariate analysis, three factors remained significantly associated with length of stay of more than 14 days: CVC associated bacteremia (OR 21,73; CI95% 1.2-43.2; p 0.04), severe neutropenia (OR 1.75; CI95% 1.82-1.28; p 0.03) and coinfection (OR 27.4; CI95% 2.8-260.8; p 0.004). Conclusion: CVC associated bacteremia, severe neutropenia and viral coinfection were associated with hospital LOS of more than 14 days.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Bacteremia/etiology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Neutropenia/etiology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Bacteremia/microbiology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/microbiology , Length of Stay , Neutropenia/microbiology
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(3): 280-286, jun. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899713


There are very few reports of pediatric patients with infections by dematiaceous filamentous fungi. In this publication we report a case of invasive fungal infection of the nasal septum by Curvularia spicifera in a pediatric patient with acute myeloid leukemia. The patient presented with a painful scabby wound in the nasal vestibule. Culture and universal PCR were consistent with Curvularia spicifera. Early management with surgical debridement and bi-associated antifungal therapy achieved complete resolution of the lesions, with no evidence of dissemination and relapses. Clinical management of these fungal infections represents a challenge as the antifungal selection and duration of therapy is not yet well stablished.

Existen pocos reportes de infecciones por hongos dematiáceos en pediatría. Comunicamos el caso de una infección fúngica invasora del tabique nasal en un niño con una leucemia mieloide aguda, que se presentó como una lesión costrosa dolorosa en el vestíbulo nasal. Se realizó desbridamiento quirúrgico precoz y recibió tratamiento antifúngico biasociado, lográndose resolución completa de las lesiones, sin diseminación ni recaídas. El cultivo y la RPC universal fueron compatibles con Curvularia spicifera. El manejo de estas infecciones fúngicas representa un desafío, considerando que la elección del agente antifúngico y la duración de la terapia no están completamente establecidas.

Humans , Male , Child , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Nose Diseases/complications , Phaeohyphomycosis/complications , Neutropenia/complications , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/microbiology , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Phaeohyphomycosis/microbiology , Neutropenia/microbiology
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(4): 354-359, July-Aug. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828120


Abstract Introduction Invasive mold disease is an important complication of patients with hematologic malignancies, and is associated with high mortality. A diagnostic-driven approach has been an alternative to the classical empiric antifungal therapy. In the present study we tested an algorithm that incorporated risk stratification using the D-index, serial serum galactomannan and computed tomographic-scan to guide the decision to start antifungal therapy in neutropenic patients. Patients and methods Between May 2010 and August 2012, patients with acute leukemia in induction remission were prospectively monitored from day 1 of chemotherapy until discharge or death with the D-index and galactomannan. Patients were stratified in low, intermediate and high risk according to the D-index and an extensive workup for invasive mold disease was performed in case of positive galactomannan (≥0.5), persistent fever, or the appearance of clinical manifestations suggestive of invasive mold disease. Results Among 29 patients, 6 (21%), 11 (38%), and 12 (41%) were classified as high, intermediate, and low risk, respectively. Workup for invasive mold disease was undertaken in 67%, 73% and 58% (p = 0.77) of patients in each risk category, respectively, and antifungal therapy was given to 67%, 54.5%, and 17% (p = 0.07). Proven or probable invasive mold disease was diagnosed in 67%, 45.5%, and in none (p = 0.007) of high, intermediate, and low risk patients, respectively. All patients survived. Conclusion A risk stratification using D-index was a useful instrument to be incorporated in invasive mold disease diagnostic approach, resulting in a more comprehensive antifungal treatment strategy, and to guide an earlier start of treatment in afebrile patients under very high risk.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Algorithms , Fusariosis/drug therapy , Mannans/blood , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Neutropenia/immunology , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/immunology , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/immunology , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/microbiology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/immunology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/microbiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Risk Assessment , Fusariosis/diagnosis , Fusariosis/immunology , Mannans/immunology , Neutropenia/microbiology
Rev. chil. infectol ; 32(4): 393-398, ago. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-762636


Background: The isolation of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp (ERV) has increased significantly within the last few years, along with the risk of infection and dissemination of these bacteria. Our aim was to determine risk factors (RF) for intestinal colonization in hospitalized pediatric patients with oncological disease at Hospital de Niños Roberto del Río. Methods: Between January 2012 and December 2013 a transversal study was performed with 107 rectal swabs and processed with a PCR for ERV. The patients were classified as "colonized with ERV" and "not colonized with ERV" and we evaluated possible RF for intestinal colonization in both groups. Results: VRE colonization was found in 51 patients (52%). The median of time elapsed between oncological diagnosis and VRE colonization was 35 days. The significant RF associated with VRE colonization were days of hospitalization prior to study, neutropenia and treatment with antibiotics within 30 days prior to study and mucositis. Conclusions: According to the RF revealed in this study we may suggest prevention standards to avoid ERV colonization. This is the first investigation in our country in hospitalized pediatric patients with oncological disease and processed with a multiplex PCR for ERV, therefore it is a great contribution about this subject in Chile.

Introducción: El aislamiento de Enterococcus spp resistentes a vancomicina (ERV) ha presentado un incremento significativo en los últimos años, aumentando el riesgo de infección por esta bacteria y favoreciendo su diseminación. Nuestro objetivo es determinar los factores de riesgo (FR) de colonización intestinal de ERV en pacientes oncológicos internados en el Hospital de Niños Roberto del Río. Método: Entre enero de 2012 y diciembre de 2013 se realizó un estudio transversal de colonización rectal por ERV mediante muestras de hisopado rectal obtenidas en 107 pacientes efectuando RPC múltiple para ERV. Se dividió en grupo "portador" y "no portador" y se evaluó los posibles FR para colonización por ERV. Resultados: Se encontró colonización por ERV en 51 pacientes (52%). El tiempo transcurrido desde el diagnóstico oncológico y la colonización presentó una mediana de 35 días. Los FR encontrados con asociación significativa fueron el número de días de hospitalización previa, neutropenia, uso de antimicrobianos 30 días previos y mucositis. Conclusión: De acuerdo a los FR encontrados podemos sugerir medidas de prevención para colonización por ERV. Esta es la primera investigación realizada en nuestro país en pacientes oncológicos pediátricos y que utiliza la técnica de RPC múltiple para ERV, lo que permite un aporte significativo sobre este tema en Chile.

Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Hospitalization , Intestines/microbiology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/microbiology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/microbiology , Rectum/microbiology , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/isolation & purification , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cross Infection/microbiology , Length of Stay , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mucositis/complications , Mucositis/microbiology , Neutropenia/complications , Neutropenia/microbiology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Risk Factors , Vancomycin Resistance , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/classification
Rev. chil. infectol ; 29(2): 156-162, abr. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-627228


Introduction: To determine the etiology of invasive bacterial infection in high risk febrile neutropenia (HRFN) episodes in children with cancer is essential because of the favorable impact on mortality of the early empiric antibiotic treatment. Objective: To determine the etiology of bacteremia in pediatric patients with cancer and HRFN in the National Child Program of Antineoplastic Drugs during the 2004-2009 period, and compare these agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility with the period 1994-1998 described in a previous study. Methods: The causative agents of bacteremia were prospectively recorded in patients less than 18 years of age receiving chemotherapy for cancer with HRFN and positive blood cultures admitted to one of the six hospitals from the Child Program of Antineoplastic Drugs network during the period 2004-2009. Results: 839 episodes of HRFN were identified; 181 blood cultures were positive in the following proportion: gram positive cocci (56%), gram negative bacilli (42%) and yeast (2%).The most common etiologic agents were Staphylococcus coagulase negative (25%), Escherichia. coli (20%), group viridans Streptococcus (14%), Staphylococcus aureus (13%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9%). Comparing the two periods, the relative frequency of Streptococcus spp increased from 4 to 17%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus decreased from 44 to 25%, showing an increase in their resistance to oxacillin from 55% to 77%. Conclusions: We describe the main etiological agents from HRFN episodes in children with cancer in a 5 years period. This information could help for a better approach in the empirical antimicrobial therapy in this population.

Introducción: Conocer la etiología de los episodios de neutropenia febril de alto riesgo (NFAR) en pacientes con cáncer tiene importancia para implementar tratamientos antimicrobianos ajustados a la epidemiología local, lo que tiene impacto en la morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivo: Describir la etiología de las bacteriemias en niños con cáncer y NFAR en el período 2004-2009, en la red PINDA de Santiago (Región Metropolitana), Chile, y comparar estos agentes y su susceptibilidad antimicrobiana con un estudio previo realizado en el período 1994-1998. Material y Métodos: Se registraron prospectivamente los agentes causantes de bacteriemia y su susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de los pacientes bajo 18 años de edad en tratamiento quimioterápico por cáncer, ingresados con diagnóstico de NFAR a los seis hospitales de la red, durante el período 2004-2009. Resultados: De 839 episodios de NFAR, 181 tuvieron hemocultivos positivos, correspondientes a cocáceas grampositivas (56%), bacilos gramnegativos (42%) y levaduras (2%). Los agentes más frecuentemente aislados fueron: Staphylococcus coagula-sa negativa (25%), Escherichia coli (20%), Streptococcus grupo viridans (14%), Staphylococcus aureus (13%) y Pseudomonas spp (9%). Al comparar los dos períodos de tiempo, destacan los siguientes cambios significativos: disminución en frecuencia relativa de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa (desde 44 a 25%), aumento de Streptococcus spp (desde 4 a 17%), y aumento de la resistencia de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa a oxacilina (desde 55 a 77%). Conclusiones: Se dan a conocer los principales agentes etiológicos de los episodios de NFAR y la susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en un período de cinco años. Esto permite racionalizar el manejo antimicrobiano empírico de los episodios de NFAR en esta población.

Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Bacteremia/microbiology , Fever/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Neoplasms/microbiology , Neutropenia/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Chile , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies
Rev. chil. infectol ; 29(2): 164-168, abr. 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-627229


The use of intensive chemotherapy has improved survival of children with cancer. However, this is associated to severe and maintained neutropenia, increasing risks of severe infections like bacteremia. Aim: To update information on microorganisms involved in bloodstream infections in cancer patients and their antimicrobial resistance patterns during the last 3 years in our hospital, comparing it with our previous experience and with other Chilean centres. Material and Methods: Analysis of positive blood cultures belonging to cancer patients during 2006-2008 registered in the Microbiology Lab at the Roberto Del Rio Children's Hospital. Results: In 52 patients, 96 blood cultures yielded bacteria: 59.4% gram positive cocci and 34.4%, gram negative rods. Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequent bacteria isolated and enterobacteria were in the second place. Susceptibility to cloxacillin was 11% in CNS and 70 % in Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Enterobacteria maintained susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins and aminoglycosides. Conclusion: Despite the low sensitivity of CNS to cloxacillin, the empirical antibiotic treatment in our unit must include cloxacillin because of the high susceptibility of S. aureus. Switching to vancomycin should be considered only if SCN is isolated or there is an unfavorable evolution.

El uso de quimioterapia más intensiva ha mejorado la sobrevida de los niños con cáncer. Sin embargo, esto se asocia a neutropenia intensa y mantenida, aumentando el riesgo de infecciones graves como bacteriemias. Objetivo: Actualizar la información sobre los microorganismos implicados en las infecciones del torrente circulatorio en pacientes oncológicos atendidos en nuestro hospital, comparar con la literatura médica y describir el patrón de resistencia antimicrobiana. Material y Métodos: Se revisaron los registros de hemocultivos del Laboratorio de Microbiología del Hospital de Niños Roberto Del Río entre los años 2006 y 2008, seleccionando aquellos con resultado positivo y que pertenecieran a pacientes con cáncer. Resultados: En 52 pacientes, 96 hemocultivos resultaron positivos: cocáceas grampositivas 59,4% (Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa-SCN fue el más frecuente); bacilos gramnegativos 34,4%, predominando las enterobacterias, en segundo lugar. Se observó en SCN una susceptibilidad a cloxacilina de 11% y en Staphylo-coccus aureus de 70%. Las enterobacterias mantuvieron una susceptibilidad estable para cefalosporinas de tercera generación y aminoglucósidos. Conclusión: A pesar de la baja susceptibilidad de SCN a cloxacilina, el tratamiento antimicrobiano empírico de primera línea en nuestra unidad debe incluir cloxacilina dada la alta susceptibilidad de S. aureus, y el cambio a vancomicina debería plantearse frente al aislamiento de SCN o evolución desfavorable.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Bacteremia/microbiology , Fever/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Neoplasms/microbiology , Neutropenia/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Chile , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Säo Paulo med. j ; 130(1): 10-16, 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614934


CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been widely used for treating oncological and hematological diseases. Although HSCT has helped to improve patient survival, the risk of developing infection during hospitalization is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to analyze the infection profile during hospitalization and the associated risk factors among patients undergoing autologous HSCT at the University Hospital, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional study on patients undergoing autologous HSCT at a public university hospital. METHODS: Patients with febrile neutropenia between 2004 and 2009 were retrospectively evaluated regarding their infection profile and associated risk factors. RESULTS: Infection occurred in 57.2 percent of 112 patients with febrile neutropenia. The main source of infection was the central venous catheter (25.9 percent). Infection was chiefly due to Gram-positive bacteria, although Gram-negative-related infections were more severe and caused a higher death rate. Sex, age, skin color, nutritional status and underlying disease were not associated with the development of infection. Patients with severe mucositis (Grades III and IV) had a higher infection rate (P < 0.001). Patients who developed pulmonary complications during hospitalization had higher infection rates (P = 0.002). Infection was the main cause of death (57.1 percent) in the study sample. CONCLUSION: Strategies aimed at reducing infection-related mortality rates among patients undergoing autologous HSCT are necessary.

CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: O transplante de células-tronco hematopoiéticas (TCTH) vem sendo amplamente utilizado no tratamento das doenças onco-hematológicas. Embora o TCTH tenha colaborado para a melhora na sobrevida dos pacientes, o risco de desenvolver infecção no período de internação é uma importante causa de morbi-mortalidade. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar o perfil das infecções no período de internação e os fatores de risco associados entre os pacientes submetidos ao TCTH autólogo, no Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Trata-se de um estudo transversal sobre pacientes submetidos a transplante autólogo, em um hospital público universitário. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados retrospectivamente os pacientes que apresentaram neutropenia febril no período de 2004 a 2009, com relação ao perfil infeccioso e os fatores de risco associados. RESULTADOS: A infecção foi determinada em 57,2 por cento dos 112 pacientes com neutropenia febril. A principal fonte de infecção foi o cateter venoso central (25,9 por cento). A infecção ocorreu principalmente devido a bactérias Gram-positivas, apesar de as infecções causadas por bactérias Gram-negativas terem sido mais graves e causado maior taxa de morte. Sexo, idade, cor da pele, estado nutricional e doença de base não estiveram associados com o desenvolvimento da infecção. Pacientes com mucosite grave (graus III e IV) apresentaram maior taxa de infecção (P < 0.001). Os pacientes que desenvolveram complicações pulmonares durante a internação apresentaram maiores taxas de infecção (P = 0,002). A infecção foi a principal causa do óbito (57,1 por cento) na amostra estudada. CONCLUSÃO: São necessárias estratégias voltadas para a redução da taxa de mortalidade relacionada com infecção entre pacientes submetidos ao TCTH autólogo.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Cross Infection/microbiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Fever/microbiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/mortality , Lung Diseases/complications , Mucositis/complications , Neutropenia/microbiology , Risk Factors , Transplantation, Autologous
West Indian med. j ; 60(5): 594-595, Oct. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672792


We describe a case of Clostridium septicum enterocolitis in a patient with pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia undergoing autologous stem cell transplant. In the setting of neutropenia, Clostridium septicum should be suspected in patients who develop signs and symptoms of acute abdomen.

Se describe el caso de una enterocolitis por Clostridium septicum en un paciente con leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) pre-B sometido a trasplante de células madre autológico. En el marco de una neutropenia, debe sospecharse la presencia de Clostridium septicum en pacientes que desarrollan signos y síntomas de abdomen agudo.

Adult , Humans , Male , Clostridium Infections/complications , Enterocolitis/microbiology , Neutropenia/microbiology , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Abdomen, Acute , Clostridium Infections , Enterocolitis , Fatal Outcome , Immunocompromised Host , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Stem Cell Transplantation , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Transplantation, Autologous
West Indian med. j ; 59(2): 209-214, Mar. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672600


BACKGROUNDS: Febrile neutropaenia is a common complication of chemotherapy in cancer patients. Empirical antibiotic regimes are based on the epidemiological characteristics of bacterial isolates globally and locally. METHOD: This study retrospectively reviewed all cases of febrile neutropaenia in patients with confirmed cancer admitted at the University Hospital of the West Indies in the four-year period between, January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2006 and who received chemotherapy. Cases were identified from blood culture records and hospital charts which were reviewed to determine the aetiological agents causing bacteraemia, their antimicrobial susceptibilities and clinical features. These cases were compared with non-neutropaenic cancer patients admitted with fever. RESULTS: A total of 197 febrile episodes in cancer patients were reviewed. Thirty-seven per cent had febrile neutropaenia while 62% were non-neutropaenic. Acute myeloid leukaemia was the most common haematological malignancy and the most common solid tumour was breast cancer. Twenty-six per cent of patients had a positive blood culture. In febrile neutropaenic patients, Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci while in non-neutropaenic patients, coagulase-negative staphylococci was most common. Acinetobacter infections was prominent in non-neutropaenic patients but absent in neutropaenic patients. More than one organism was cultured in 9 neutropaenic and 18 non-neutropaenic patients. Mortality was 10.8% in neutropaenic and 24.4% in non-neutropaenic patients. CONCLUSION: Gram-negative organisms are the predominant isolates in febrile neutropaenic episodes in this cohort of patients. Non-neutropaenic patients had an increased mortality with an increase in Acinetobacter infections and multiple isolates.

ANTECEDENTES: La neutropenia febril es una complicación común de la quimioterapia en pacientes con cáncer. Los regimenes de antibióticos empíricos se basan en las características epidemiológicas de aislados bacterianos, tanto global como localmente. MÉTODO: Este estudio examinó retrospectivamente todos los casos de neutropenia febril con confirmación de cáncer, ingresados y tratados con quimioterapia en el Hospital Universitario de West Indies, Jamaica, en el período de cuatro años entre el 1ero, de enero de 2003 y el 31 de diciembre de 2006. Se identificaron casos con historias de cultivos de sangre e historias clínicas que fueron examinadas para determinar los agentes etiológicos causantes de la bacteriemia, sus susceptibilidades antimicrobianas y características clínicas. Estos casos fueron comparados con pacientes de cáncer no neutropénicos ingresados con fiebre. RESULTADOS: Se examinaron un total de 197 episodios febriles en pacientes de cáncer. El treinta y siete por ciento tuvo neutropenia febril, mientras que el 62% eran no neutropénicos. La leucemia mieloide aguda fue la malignidad hematológica más común, y el tumor sólido más común fue el cáncer de mamas. Veintiséis por ciento de .los pacientes tuvieron cultivos de sangre positivos. En los pacientes neutropénicos febriles, Escherichia coli fue el organismo aislado más común, seguido de los estafilococos coagulasa-negativos, mientras que en los pacientes no neutropénicos, los estafilococos coagulasa-negativos fueron los más comúnes. Las infecciones por Acinetobacter fueron prominentes en pacientes no neutropénicos pero ausentes en los pacientes neutropénicos. Más de un organismo fue cultivado en 9 pacientes neutropénicos y 18 en no neutropénicos. La mortalidad fue de 10.8% en los pacientes neutropénicos y 24.4% en los no neutropénicos. CONCLUSIÓN: Los organismos gram-negativos son los aislados que predominan en los episodios neutropénicos febriles en Jamaica. Los pacientes no neutropénicos vieron su mortalidad aumentada con el incremento en infecciones Acinetobacter y aislados múltiples.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Neoplasms/complications , Neutropenia/etiology , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Neutropenia/microbiology , Retrospective Studies
Indian Pediatr ; 2009 Sept; 46(9): 797-799
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144179


Fifty episodes of febrile neutropenia (FN) in 33 children with malignancies were studied to evaluate the usefulness of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels as an indicator of infection, and the efficacy of antibiotic therapy. Nineteen FN episodes occurred in children with documented infection whereas, 9 and 22 episodes occurred with probable infection and fever of unknown origin, respectively. CRP positivity during episodes of documented and probable infection was significantly higher than with febrile episodes of unknown origin. Blood culture was positive in 15 episodes; of these, CRP was positive in 11. CRP declined to normal on 7th day of antibiotic therapy. CRP is a useful indicator of infection in neutropenic children and also in determining the efficacy of antibiotic therapy.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/microbiology , Humans , Infant , Infections/blood , Infections/drug therapy , Infections/microbiology , Male , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/blood , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Neutropenia/microbiology , Prospective Studies
Rev. chil. infectol ; 26(2): 106-113, abr. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-518469


Introduction: The surveillance of febrile neutropenia (FN) episodes in every center allows adapt the antibiotic therapy guidelines to local epidemiology. Aim: To characterize clinical features and compare the FN etiology between hematological cáncer (HC) and solid organ cancer (SOC) in our center. Patients and Methods: Surveillance study in adult patients with FN admitted to Hospital Clinico Universidad Católica, in Santiago, Chile, from January 2004 to August 2007. Results: 154 FN episodes corresponding to 87 patients were included. Mean age: 47 ± 6 years-old; 71 percent had HC and 29 percent SOC. A clinical and/or microbiologically documented infection was recognized in 76 percent. Gastrointestinal 31.5 percent, upper respiratory 30.3 percent and lower respiratory 16.9 percent were the more frequent clinical focus. In 30.5 percent blood culture resulted positive: gram negative rods 51 percent, gram positive cocci 41 percent and yeasts 8 percent; being Escherichia coli 22 percent, S. coagulase negative (SCoN) 20 percent and Klebsiella pneumoniae 12 percent most frequent bacteria; 22.2 percent Enterobacteriaceae were ESBL producers and 55.6 percent 5CoN were methicillin resistant. In 18.3 percent of FN episodes the etiology was not established. Highest mortality was observed in episodes with microbiologically documented infection (14.5 percent vs 1.3 percent, p < 0.005). A clinical observed focus and positive blood cultures were more frequently obtamed among HC than SOC associated episodes: 37.3 percent vs 13.6 percent; (p < 0.01) and 67.2 percent vs 50 percent; (p = 0.045), respectively. Conclusions: The etiological profile of FN in our center and the necessity to continue the surveillance was described. Future studies are needed regarding risk factors of invasive infection that have worst prognosis.

Introducción: La vigilancia de la etiología de los episodios de neutropenia febril (NF) en cada centro permite adaptar guías de antibioterapia a la epidemiología local. Objetivo: Caracterizar y comparar la etiología de la NF en pacientes con cáncer hematológico (CH) y de órganos sólidos (COS). Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio de vigilancia de NF de pacientes adultos en el Hospital Clínico Universidad Católica, en Santiago, Chile, entre enero 2004 y agosto 2007. Resultados: 154 episodios de NF correspondientes a 87 pacientes: 47 ± 6 años; 71 por ciento CH y 29 por ciento COS. Se documentó infección clínica y/o microbiológicamente en 76 por cientoo. Más frecuente fueron: foco gastrointestinal 31,5 por ciento, respiratorio alto 30,3 por cientoo y respiratorio bajo 16,9 por cientoo. En 30,5 por cientoo hubo hemocultivos positivos: bacilos gramne-gativos en 51 por ciento, cocáceas grampositivas en 41 por ciento, levaduras en 8 por cientoo; predominando: Escherichia coli 22 por cientoo, Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa (SCoN) 20 por cientoo y Klebsiella pneumoniae 12 por ciento; 22,2 por cientoo de las entero-bacterias eran productoras de (3-lactamasa de espectro expandido y 55,6 por cientoo >SCoN meticilina resistentes. En 18,3 por cientoo de los episodios no se identificó causa de fiebre. Hubo mayor mortalidad en episodios con documentación microbiológica (14,5 por ciento vs 1,3 por ciento, p < 0,005). En los pacientes con CH fue más frecuente obtener hemocultivos positivos (37,3 por cientoo vs 13,6 por ciento; p < 0,01) e identificar foco clínico (67,2 por ciento vs 50 por ciento; p = 0,045). Conclusiones: Se establece el perfil etiológico de las NF en nuestro centro y la necesidad de mantener vigilancia. En futuros estudios será necesario evaluar factores de riesgo de pacientes con infecciones invasores que tendrían peor pronóstico.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Candidiasis/complications , Fever/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/complications , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/complications , Neoplasms/microbiology , Neutropenia/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Chile , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Fever/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Neoplasms/classification , Neoplasms/complications , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(3): 289-293, Mar. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-507347


The epidemiology of bacteremia developing during neutropenia has changed in the past decade, with the re-emergence of Gram-negative (GN) bacteria and the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) among GN bacteria. We conducted a case-control study in order to identify factors associated with bacteremia due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative (MDRGN) isolates in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Ten patients with MDRGN bacteremia were compared with 44 patients with GN bacteremia without MDR. Bacteremia due to Burkholderia or Stenotrophomonas sp was excluded from analysis (3 cases), because the possibility of intrinsical resistance. Infection due to MDRGN bacteria occurred in 2.9 percent of 342 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent MDRGN (4 isolates), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3 isolates). Among non-MDRGN, P. aeruginosa was the most frequent agent (34 percent), followed by Escherichia coli (30 percent). The development of GN bacteremia during the empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia (breakthrough bacteremia) was associated with MDR (P < 0.001, odds ratio = 32, 95 percent confidence interval = 5_190) by multivariate analysis. Bacteremia due to MDRGN bacteria was associated with a higher death rate by univariate analysis (40 vs 9 percent; P = 0.03). We were unable to identify risk factors on admission or at the time of the first fever, but the occurrence of breakthrough bacteremia was strongly associated with MDRGN bacteria. An immediate change in the antibiotic regimen in such circumstances may improve the prognosis of these patients.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bacteremia/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Neutropenia/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
Pejouhandeh: Bimonthly Research Journal. 2009; 14 (4): 211-214
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-134067


Since neutropenic patients with malignancies are at high risk of contracting life-threatening infections, reliable and readily available parameters to diagnosis or rule out infection are of utmost importance. The objective of the present study was to determine the accuracy of procalcitonin [PCT] compared with culture to predict bacterial infection in children with febrile neutropenia. Blood culture and serum procalcitonin level were investigated in all studied febrile neutropenic children. Bacterial infection was defined as children with positive blood cultures or serum procalcitonin level of >0.5ng/ml. The study population included 29 boys and 22 girls with the mean age [ +/- standard deviation] of 6 +/- 3.5 years. PCT differed significantly between bacterimic and non-bacterimic episodes for the prediction of bacterimic patients. The associated positive predictive value [PPV] and negative predictive value [NPV] of procalcitonin test [in diagnosis of bacterial infection] were 50% and 97/4%, respectively. A rapid determination of procalcitonin concentration could be useful for early diagnosis of children with febrile neutropenia since the test showed an acceptable NPV

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Neutropenia/microbiology , Fever , Biomarkers , Bacterial Infections , Predictive Value of Tests
Iranian Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2009; 4 (2): 115-122
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-100226
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 79(4): 381-387, ago. 2008. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-517479


Background: In children with cancer and high risk febrile neutropenia (HRFN), the initial empirical treatment used in our hospital for 5 years includes the association of Cloxacillin + Ceftazidime + Amikacin. There is no chilean literature that reviews the effectiveness of this therapy. Objective: Evalúate the clinical and microbiological effectiveness of this associated therapy in children with HRFN. Method: A prospective-descriptive study evaluating children with HRFN admitted at Hospital Luis Calvo Mackenna between January 2005-August 2006. Results: 100 HRFN episodes were evaluated. In 48 percent of cases, the antimicrobial treatment was considered effective, whereas in 52 percent of episodes the therapy required modifications (15 percent cases within the first 72 hours). The most frequent diagnoses were fever without clinical focus (51 percent) and sepsis (13 percent). 36 percent had microbiological identification and the most frequently isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (9 percent) and Staphylococcus aureus (9 percent). Conclusions: A favorable answer with the initial empirical therapy was obtained for 48 percent of cases; meanwhile in the remaining episodes, 28 percent required antibiotics modifications without justification. This fact remarks the importance of following the established guidelines for antimicrobial treatment modification in these patients.

Introducción: En los niños con cáncer y netropenia febril (NF) de alto riesgo, se utiliza en nuestro centro hace 5 años, como esquema empírico inicial, la asociación de ceftazidima-amikacina-cloxacilina. No hay literatura nacional que analice la eficacia de este esquema. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia clínica y microbiológica de la asociación de ceftazidima, amikacina y cloxacilina en niños con NF de alto riesgo. Método: Protocolo descriptivo, prospectivo. Evaluar niños con NF de alto riesgo hospitalizados en el HLCM entre enero 2005 y agosto 2006. Resultados: 100 episodios de NF de alto riesgo. El tratamiento antimicrobiano fue considerado eficaz en 48 por ciento de los casos, y requirió ajustes en 52 por ciento de los casos. En 13 por ciento se cambia tratamiento sin justificación y en 15 por ciento se realiza antes de 72 horas de iniciado el tratamiento antimicrobiano. Foco mßs frecuente fue: ausencia de foco clínico 51 por ciento, presentando sepsis 13 por ciento de los niños. Hubo identificación microbiológica en 36 por ciento, microorganismos mßs frecuentemente aislados Echerichia coli (9 por ciento) y Staphylococcus aureus (9 por ciento). Conclusiones: Se obtuvo una respuesta favorable de 48 por ciento con el esquema antimicrobiano empírico inicial, de el 52 por ciento restante, en un 28 por ciento se efectúan cambios de antibióticos no justificados, esto recalca la importancia de seguir las pautas ya establecidas para cambio de esquema antimicrobiano en estos pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Fever/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Neoplasms/complications , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Clinical Evolution , Drug Therapy, Combination , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Fever/microbiology , Neutropenia/microbiology , Prospective Studies , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 79(2): 157-162, abr. 2008. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-496226


Background: Infections constitute the major cause of morbimortality in pediatric patients treated with chemotherapy. The PINDA Infectology Committee (National Program of Antineoplasic Drugs) validated a model to predict the risk of invasive bacterial infection (IBI) in oncological patients with febrile neutropenia (FN), in order to differentiate episodes of low risk (LRFN) versus high risk (HRFN) of IBI. Objective: Characterize LRFN episodes in patients treated at the Oncology Unit of Hospital Roberto del Rio, between 2003-2006. Method: Retrospective study of clinical charts of patients with cancer and LRFN in the period of time selected. Results: 185 patients with 202 FN episodes registered, where 47 correspond to LRFN (23 percent). 8.5 percent of LRFN episodes had an unfavourable outcome (not statistically significant). In these patients, cultures were negative and required more days of hospitalization. No patients were readmitted and had no infection associated mortality. Conclusion: The selective management of patients with LRFN following the current criteria is safe and effective.

Las infecciones son la principal causa de morbimortalidad en pacientes oncológicos en quimioterapia. El Comité de Infectología del PINDA (Programa Infantil Nacional de Drogas Antineoplásicas) validó un modelo de predicción de riesgo de infección bacteriana invasora (IBI) en niños oncológicos con neutropenia febril (NF), que discrimina episodios de bajo (NFBR) y alto riesgo (NFAR) de IBI. Objetivo: Caracterizar los episodios de NFBR de pacientes atendidos en la Unidad de Oncología del Hospital de Niños Roberto del Río (2003-2006). Pacientes y Métodos: Revisión retrospectiva de fichas clínicas de pacientes que debutaron con patología oncológica en ese período que presentaron episodios de NFBR consignando edad, sexo, diagnóstico oncológico de base, catéter venoso central, foco infeccioso, quimioterapia y cultivos. Se evaluó la evolución clínica por parámetros clínicos y de laboratorio, y se analizaron las variables mediante prueba de X cuadrado, con un p < 0,05. Resultados: En 185 pacientes, se registraron 202 episodios de NF, 47 fueron NFBR (23 por ciento). Presentaron evolución desfavorable un 8,5 por ciento de NFBR (p > 0,05). En ellos no se logró aislamiento microbiológico y tuvieron mayor número de días de hospitalización. No hubo en este grupo reingresos ni mortalidad asociada. Conclusión: El manejo selectivo de los pacientes con NFBR, según criterios actuales, es seguro y efectivo.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/microbiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neutropenia/epidemiology , Neutropenia/microbiology , Clinical Evolution , Chile/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical
Rev. méd. Chile ; 135(8): 982-989, ago. 2007. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-466479


Background: The main causes of complications of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are infections and graft versus host disease. Aim: To assess the predictive value of C reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) in the diagnosis of invasive bacterial infections in children with febrüe neutropenia after an allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Material and methods: Prospective follow up of patients aged 18 years or íess, with febrile neutropenia after an allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In all patients, cultures from sterile sites, CRP and PCT determinations were done. CRP levels were also measured prior to transplantation and three times per week for 30 days after the procedure. An independent evaluator, blinded to the results of CRP and PCT, classified children as with or without invasive bacterial infection. Results: Thirty three patients aged 9±5 years (21 males) were studied. Eight had an invasive bacterial infection. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of a CRP ³90 mg/L for the diagnosis of invasive bacterial infection were 25, 80, 29 and 77 percent, respectively. The figures for a PCT ³0.7 ng/ml were 43, 78, 38 and 82 percent, respectively. No differences in repeated CRP values measured during evolution, were observed. Conclusions: A CRP ³90 mg/L or a PCT ³0.7 ng/ml had a high specificity and negative predictive value but low sensitivity for the diagnosis of invasive bacterial infections in recipients of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Calcitonin/blood , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Protein Precursors/blood , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/blood , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Biomarkers/blood , Fever of Unknown Origin/etiology , Neutropenia/blood , Neutropenia/microbiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/diagnosis , Shock, Septic/blood , Shock, Septic/diagnosis
Rev. chil. infectol ; 24(1): 27-32, feb. 2007. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-443054


La neutropenia febril (NF) en pacientes oncológicos es una complicación frecuente de la quimioterapia y primera manifestación de una infección potencialmente letal. Con el propósito de adecuar nuestra práctica médica a las guías clínicas vigentes en Chile, revisamos la experiencia de la Unidad de Pediatría, Clínica Dávila, entre mayo 1°, de 2003 y diciembre 31, de 2004. Se analizaron 57 episodios (25 pacientes); se encontró foco infeccioso en 44 por ciento (25/57) siendo respiratorio en 11/25. Se identificó el agente infeccioso en 28 por ciento (16/57): 12 cepas desde sangre (42 por ciento Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa, 17 por ciento Streptococcus grupo viridans, 17 por ciento Escherichia coli y Enterococcus sp, Candida albicans y Pseudomonas aeruginosa en 8 por ciento cada uno), 3 de cultivos de catéter (S. coagulasa negativa) y 1 en lavado bronquioalveolar (Pneumocystis jiroveci). Al ingreso, 63 por ciento recibió tratamiento con 2 antibacterianos, de preferencia ceftazidima y amikacina (39 por ciento), en 21 por ciento se utilizó vancomicina. Por falta de respuesta, en 37 por ciento de los pacientes se cambió la terapia. Cincuenta y seis episodios tuvieron una evolución favorable y un paciente falleció por shock séptico. La proporción de episodios con causa infecciosa documentada, los microorganismos aislados y la resolución favorable de esta grave complicación en pacientes oncológicos demuestran un nivel de diagnóstico y manejo comparable con países industrializados.

Febrile neutropenia in cancer patients is a common complication associated to chemotherapy and can be the first manifestation of a potentially lethal infection. In order to adapt our clinical practice to national clinical guidelines, we performed a retrospective review of clinical charts of all children admitted to the Pediatric Unit of Clinica Davila, from May 1, 2003 to December 31, 2004, with cancer, fever and neutropenia. A total of 57 febrile neutropenic episodes occurred in 25 children and in 44 percent (25/57) of them an infectious focus could be identified; respiratory infections were the most common (11/25). A microorganism could be identified in 16/57 (x percent) of episodes, e.g. 12 recovered from blood cultures (42 percent coagulase negative Staphylococcus, 17 percent group viridans Streptococci, 17 percent Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp, Candida albicans y Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 8 percent each one), 3 from a catheter (coagulase negative Staphylococci) and 1 from a bronchoalveolar lavage (Pneumocystis jiroveci). At admission, 63 percent of children received treatment with 2 antibiotics, mostly ceftazidime and amikacin (39 percent) and 21 percent received vancomycin. In 37 percent of patients therapy required adjustment due to a poor response. Fifty six episodes had a favorable resolution with one patient diying of septic shock. Frequency of microorganism detection, the distribution of species recovered and the favorable resolution are comparable to that reported from industrialized countries.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Fever/etiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neutropenia/etiology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/microbiology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Neutropenia/microbiology