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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250607, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355881


Abstract Newcastle disease (ND) is an infectious, highly contagious and lethal disease of avian species. It is considered that ducks are natural reservoir or carrier for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and are resistant against different strains of NDV. Current study was designed to evaluate the pathogenesis of Newcastle disease in domestic ducks through histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and serum biochemical changes. For this purpose, eighty ducks were reared for 42 days and divided in two groups A and B. Ducks in group A were challenged with (NDV) at rate of 0.1 ml of ELD50 (virus titer 107.32/100µl) on second week of age, whereas Group B was control negative. Splenomegaly, atrophy of thymus and necrotic lesion in kidney were observed on 9th day of post infection. Hepatic degeneration and mononuclear cell infiltration were noticed in proventriculus and intestine in challenged ducks. Viral antigen detected in lungs, intestine, proventriculus and lymphoid organs of infected ducks through IHC. Albumin and total protein values were significantly low in infected groups A as compared to control group B. ALT, AST, and ALP values were significantly high in infected group A. On 5th and 7th day of post infection oropharyngeal swabs were negative for NDV and cloacal swabs were positive for NDV through Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. It is concluded that ducks are susceptible to NDV and virulent strain of NDV caused disease in ducks.

Resumo A doença de Newcastle (DN) é uma doença infecciosa, altamente contagiosa e letal de espécies aviárias. Considera-se que os patos são reservatórios ou portadores naturais do vírus da doença de Newcastle (VDN) e são resistentes a diferentes cepas de VDN. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a patogênese da DN em patos domésticos por meio de histopatologia, imuno-histoquímica (IHQ) e alterações bioquímicas séricas. Para este propósito, 80 patos foram criados por 42 dias e divididos em dois grupos A e B. Os patos do grupo A foram submetidos ao VDN a uma taxa de 0,1 ml de ELD50 (título viral de 107,32 / 100 µl) na segunda semana de idade, enquanto o Grupo B foi controle negativo. Esplenomegalia, atrofia do timo e lesão necrótica no rim foram observadas no 9º dia pós-infecção. Degeneração hepática e infiltração de células mononucleares foram observadas no proventrículo e intestino em patos infectados. Antígeno viral foi detectado em pulmões, intestino, proventrículo e órgãos linfoides de patos infectados por IHQ. Os valores de albumina e proteína total foram significativamente baixos no grupo A infectado em comparação com o grupo B. Os valores de ALT, AST e ALP foram significativamente altos no grupo A. No 5º e no 7º dia após a infecção, os esfregaços orofaríngeos foram negativos para VDN, enquanto os esfregaços cloacais foram positivos para VDN por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa. Conclui-se que os patos são suscetíveis ao VDN e à cepa virulenta de VDN que causou doenças em patos.

Animals , Newcastle disease virus , Ducks , Newcastle Disease/diagnosis
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1442245


This study was conducted to prepare and evaluate the potency of different inactivated vaccine formulations that protect chickens against Salmonella Enteritidis and Newcastle disease virus using Montanide as adjuvant. Protection and the humoral immune response of prepared vaccines against Salmonella Enteritidis and Newcastle disease virus was evaluated and compared to imported vaccine. In this study, different formulae of Salmonella Enteritidis and Newcastle disease vaccines were prepared and compared with the imported one by measuring the antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus by hemagglutination inhibition test and the antibody titer against Salmonella Enteritidis using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. On the other hand, the protection percentages against Newcastle disease and Salmonella Enteritidis were recorded to determine the best effective formula. The highest hemagglutination inhibition antibody level against NDV at first week was recorded for the prepared combined Newcastle disease and Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine (4.2 log2) followed by the prepared monovalent Newcastle disease (3.4 log2); the lowest antibody level (3.1 log2) was obtained with the imported vaccine. A gradual increase was observed in all groups to 7.1 log2, 6.8 log2 and 6.4 log2 at fourth week post vaccination, respectively. The antibody titer against Salmonella Enteritidis was 552 for the prepared combined Salmonella Enteritidis and Newcastle disease, followed by the prepared monovalent Salmonella Enteritidis (477) at first week post vaccination; the antibody titer obtained for the imported vaccine was 477. There was a gradual increase to 1456, 1406 and 1130 at fourth week post vaccination, respectively. Prepared combined vaccines gave the highest protection percentage, followed by prepared monovalent types and finally imported vaccines. Vaccination by the prepared combined Salmonella Enteritidis and Newcastle disease vaccine may be a way to increase the resistance of birds to Salmonella and Newcastle and to decrease the shedding rate(AU)

Este estudio se llevó a cabo para preparar y evaluar la potencia de diferentes formulaciones de vacunas inactivadas que protegen a los pollos contra Salmonella Enteritidis y el virus de la enfermedad de Newcastle utilizando Montanide como adyuvante. Se evaluó la protección y la respuesta inmune humoral de las vacunas preparadas contra Salmonella Enteritidis y el virus de la enfermedad de Newcastle y se comparó con la vacuna importada. En este estudio se prepararon diferentes fórmulas de vacunas contra Salmonella Enteritidis y la enfermedad de Newcastle y se compararon con la importada midiendo el título de anticuerpos contra el virus de la enfermedad de Newcastle mediante la prueba de inhibición de la hemaglutinación y el título de anticuerpos contra Salmonella Enteritidis mediante ELISA. Por otra parte, se registraron los porcentajes de protección contra la enfermedad de Newcastle y Salmonella Enteritidis para determinar la fórmula más eficaz. El mayor nivel de anticuerpos inhibidores de la hemaglutinación contra el virus de la enfermedad de Newcastle, en la primera semana, se registró con la vacuna combinada preparada contra la enfermedad de Newcastle y Salmonella Enteritidis (4,2 log2), seguida de la vacuna monovalente preparada contra la enfermedad de Newcastle (3,4 log2); el menor nivel de anticuerpos (3,1 log2) se obtuvo con la vacuna importada. Se observó un aumento gradual en todos los grupos hasta alcanzar 7,1 log2, 6,8 log2 y 6,4 log2 en la cuarta semana tras la vacunación, respectivamente. El título de anticuerpos contra Salmonella Enteritidis fue de 552 para la vacuna combinada preparada contra la Salmonella Enteritidis y enfermedad de Newcastle, seguida por la vacuna monovalente preparada contra Salmonella Enteritidis (477) en la primera semana después de la vacunación; el título de anticuerpos obtenido con la vacuna importada fue de 477. Hubo un aumento gradual hasta 1456, 1406 y 1130 en la cuarta semana después de la vacunación, respectivamente. Las vacunas combinadas preparadas dieron el mayor porcentaje de protección, seguidas por los tipos monovalentes preparados y, por último, por las vacunas importadas. La vacunación con la vacuna combinada preparada contra la Salmonella Enteritidis y la enfermedad de Newcastle puede ser una forma de aumentar la resistencia de las aves a la Salmonella y Newcastle y de disminuir la tasa de excreción(AU)

Humans , Salmonella enteritidis , Newcastle disease virus , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/methods , Vaccines, Combined/therapeutic use
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1981-1993, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927832


The aim of this study was to develop a semi-quantitative immunochromatographic method for rapid detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibodies by expressing HN protein in rice endosperm bioreactor. The recombinant plasmid pUC57-HN was digested by MlyⅠ and XhoⅠ to retrieve the HN gene, while the intermediate vector pMP3 containing promoter, signal peptide and terminator was digested by NaeⅠ and XhoⅠ. The HN gene and the linearized pMP3 were purified and ligated to form a recombinant plasmid pMP3-HN1. Subsequently, pMP3-HN1 and plant vector pCAMBIA1300 were digested by EcoRⅠ and Hind Ⅲ, and the HN1 gene was cloned into pCAMBIA1300. The recombinant plasmid pCAMBIA1300-HN1 was introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 by electrotransformation, and the pCAMBIA1300-HN1 was transferred into rice callus by agrobacterium-mediated method. After dark culture, callus screening, differentiation, rooting and transplanting, transgenic rice seeds were obtained 4 months later. PCR identified that the HN gene has been inserted into the rice genome. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting indicated that the HN protein was successfully expressed in the positive rice endosperm. The purity of the HN protein was more than 90% by SP cation exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. According to the national standards for the diagnostic techniques of Newcastle disease HI test (HI≥4log2, positive antibody reaction), a colloidal gold labeled purified HN protein was used to prepare a semi-quantitative test strip by double-antibody sandwich method for rapid detection of NDV antibody. The results showed that the test strip did not cross-react with positive sera against other viruses, and the sensitivity of the test strip reached 1:102 400 for standard positive sera of Newcastle disease. Testing of a total of 308 clinical sera showed that the compliance rate of the test strip with HI test was 97.08%, and the Kappa value was 0.942. In conclusion, high purity recombinant HN protein was obtained from rice endosperm, and a simple, rapid, highly sensitive and highly specific semi-quantitative immunochromatographic strip was developed. The test strip could be used for immune evaluation of the Newcastle disease vaccine.

Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Chickens , HN Protein/metabolism , Newcastle Disease/prevention & control , Newcastle disease virus/metabolism , Oryza/genetics
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06840, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279532


Avian influenza viruses (AIVs), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), West Nile virus (WNV), adenovirus (AV) and herpesvirus (HV) play an important role in the health of human and animal populations. However, knowledge of the prevalence of these viruses in wild birds is restricted to some groups (e.g. shorebirds) or regions worldwide. Information on grassland birds of South America, which is essential for their conservation, is scarce. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate occurrences of AIV, NDV, WNV, AV and HV for the first time in a bird community of a unique protected area in southern Brazil, which is home for the critically endangered yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata), and captive yellow cardinals from fauna maintainers of the Brazilian Captive Program of the Yellow Cardinal. Passerine species of wild life were caught, identified and samples (swabs) were collected from the oropharynx and cloaca of 64 passerines of 26 species (including 3 yellow cardinals) and 30 yellow cardinals of captive, for molecular diagnosis. The samples were subjected to RNA and DNA extraction and the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for AIV, NDV and WNV and nested PCR for AV and HV. One yellow cardinal of captive presented a positive result for AV, this result is important for planning, managing natural attributes and making decisions in relation to integrated conservation of threatened species. This is the first report of AV in yellow cardinal and epidemiological investigation of viruses in wild passerines of the Pampa biome, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.(AU)

Os vírus da gripe aviária (VGA), vírus da doença de Newcastle (VDN), vírus do Nilo Ocidental (VNO), adenovírus (AV) e herpesvírus (HV) desempenham um papel importante na saúde das populações humana e animal. No entanto, o conhecimento da prevalência desses vírus em aves selvagens é restrito a alguns grupos (por exemplo, aves limícolas) ou regiões em todo o mundo. As informações sobre as aves campestres da América do Sul, essenciais para a sua conservação, são escassas. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram avaliar a ocorrência de VGA, VDN, VNO, AV e HV pela primeira vez em uma comunidade de aves de uma área única protegida no Sul do Brasil, que abriga o cardeal-amarelo (Gubernatrix cristata) criticamente ameaçado de extinção e em cardeais-amarelos de cativeiro dos mantenedores de fauna do Programa Brasileiro de Cativeiro do Cardeal-amarelo. Espécies de passeriformes silvestres foram capturadas, identificadas e amostras (swabs) foram coletadas da orofaringe e cloaca de 64 passeriformes de 26 espécies (incluindo 3 cardeais-amarelos) e 30 cardeais-amarelos de cativeiro, para diagnóstico molecular. As amostras foram submetidas à extração de RNA e DNA e à reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real (RT-PCR) para VGA, VDN e VNO e nested PCR para AV e HV. Um cardeal-amarelo de cativeiro apresentou resultado positivo para AV, este resultado é importante para o planejamento, manejo dos atributos naturais e tomada de decisões em relação à conservação integrada de espécies ameaçadas. Este é o primeiro relato de AV em cardeal-amarelo e de investigação epidemiológica de vírus em passeriformes silvestres do bioma Pampa, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.(AU)

Animals , West Nile virus , Birds/virology , Newcastle disease virus , Endangered Species , Passeriformes/virology , Influenza in Birds , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 29(2)mayo.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127512


The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Spirulina platensis (SP) powder supplementation on immune response in SPF chickens. For this purpose, 120 SPF chicks were randomly clustered into six groups consisting of 20 birds each which assigned to five groups vaccinated by commercial inactivated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine at 21 days of age. The four groups were supplemented with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 g of SP per kg of ration at 7 day of age and other group as control treatment group. Control unvaccinated group still without any treatment. Individual blood samples were collected weekly from all groups, and NDV-HI antibodies were measured using Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. After 28 days post-vaccination, ten birds from all groups were challenged intramuscularly at a dose 0.5 mL/bird containing 106 EID50 of local NDV genotype VII. Challenge virus shedding was detected using real time qrt-PCR of oropharyngeal swabs that were collected from all challenged chicken groups of at 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post challenge. Obtained results showed that vaccinated groups of SPF-chickens either supplied with Spirulina or control treatment group induced positive serological response as NDV-HI antibody were measured in sera of immunized chicks (7.6, 8, 8.3, 8.9 and 7.4 log2, respectively) at 4 weeks post vaccination (WPV). Significant differences were observed at 2 WPV in the vaccinated SPF chickens consumed 1, 1.5 and 2 g of SP/kg of ration, compared to untreated vaccinated group (p<0.05). Immunized SPF chickens supplied with different SP concentration confer satisfactory protection against heterologous challenge virus (90 percent, 100 percent, 100 percent and 100 percent respectively), in contrast to untreated vaccinated chickens. Different percentages of reduction of viral shedding (55 percent, 65 percent, 76 percent and 87 percent) of treated vaccinated chickens with different concentration of SP were detected, despite untreated group were reduced 46 percent from total viral shedding. These findings suggest that dietary Spirulina has immune-stimulatory effects on the immune system of SPF chickens. One gram from SP per kg of ration was minimum recommended concentration that able to exhibit optimum immune response, increase protection against heterologous strains and able to reduce viral shedding(AU)

El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los efectos de la suplementación con polvo de Spirulina platensis (SP) sobre la respuesta inmune en pollos SPF. Para este propósito se agruparon al azar 120 polluelos SPF en seis grupos de 20 aves cada uno, que se asignaron a cinco grupos vacunados con la vacuna comercial inactivada contra la enfermedad de Newcastle (ND) a los 21 días de edad. Cuatro grupos se suplementaron con 0,5; 1; 1,5 y 2 g de SP por kg de ración a los 7 días de edad, un grupo vacunado sin suplemento y un grupo sin ningún tratamiento. Semanalmente, se recogieron muestras de sangre individuales de todos los grupos y se midieron los anticuerpos hemaglutinantes contra el virus Newcastle (NDV-HI) mediante la prueba de inhibición de la hemaglutinación (HI). 28 días después de la vacunación, fueron retadas diez aves de cada grupo por vía intramuscular a una dosis 106 EID50 del genotipo VII del NDV local en un volumen de 0,5 mL/ave. Se detectó la eliminación del virus mediante qrt-PCR en hisopos orofaríngeos que se recolectaron en todos los grupos a los 3, 5, 7 y 10 días después del reto. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que los grupos vacunados de pollos y suplementados con Espirulina y el grupo de control vacunado, indujeron una respuesta serológica positiva cuando se determinaron los anticuerpos NDV-HI en los pollitos inmunizados (7,6; 8; 8,3; 8,9 y 7,4 log2 respectivamente) a las 4 semanas después de la vacunación (SPV). Se observaron diferencias significativas a las 2 SPV en los pollos vacunados que consumieron 1, 1,5 y 2 g de SP/kg de ración, en comparación con el grupo vacunado no tratado (p<0,05). Los pollos inmunizados que recibieron diferentes concentraciones de SP mostraron una protección satisfactoria contra el desafío heterólogo viral (90 por ciento, 100 por ciento y 100 por ciento respectivamente), en contraste con los pollos vacunados no tratados. Se observaron diferentes porcentajes de reducción de la diseminación viral (55 por ciento, 76 por ciento y 87 por ciento) entre los pollos vacunados tratados con diferente concentración de SP. En el grupo no tratado se redujo al 46 por ciento. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la Espirulina en la dieta tiene efectos inmunoestimuladores sobre el sistema inmunitario de los pollos. Un gramo de SP por kg de ración fue la concentración mínima recomendada para una respuesta inmune óptima, y de esta forma aumentar la protección contra las cepas heterólogas y disminuir la diseminación viral(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Newcastle disease virus/pathogenicity , Vaccines, Inactivated , Chickens , Spirulina , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Newcastle Disease/diagnosis , Birds
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0122020, 2020. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1145873


The poultry industry has been considered one of the most efficient agricultural activities, placing Brazil in the ranking of the largest producers of chicken meat. However, a threat to the poultry production chain is the entrance of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in the country, which would bring huge economic and social losses. Monitoring of the virus was conducted in domestic poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) farms on the migratory birds landing sites Mangue Seco and Cacha Pregos between 2013 and 2014 to control Newcastle disease (NCD) in these locations. Activities in health education, filling the questionnaire to define the sanitary profile of the farms, georeferenced registration and collection of blood samples, cloacal and tracheal swabs of the backyard birds were the epidemiological surveillance actions performed. A total of 133 serum samples were analyzed in Mangue Seco and 81 in Cacha Pregos. The results showed that both Mangue Seco (63.4%) and Cacha Pregos (88.9%) presented reactive animals for the NDV. The results of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral isolation analyses were negative, proving that the domestic poultry were not eliminating the virus at the time of sample collection. The high percentage of reactive animals by indirect ELISA test in both epidemiological units studied suggests the presence of NDV circulating lentogenic strain, since there was no death registration and the birds did not have characteristic symptoms of the disease.(AU)

A avicultura tem sido considerada uma das atividades agrícolas mais eficientes, colocando o Brasil no ranking dos maiores produtores de carne de frango. No entanto, uma ameaça à cadeia produtiva da avicultura é a entrada do vírus da doença de Newcastle (NDV) no país, o que acarretaria enormes prejuízos econômicos e sociais. O monitoramento do vírus foi realizado em granjas de aves domésticas (Gallus gallus domesticus) nos locais de desembarque de aves migratórias de Mangue Seco e Cacha Pregos entre 2013 e 2014 para controlar a doença de Newcastle (DCNT) nesses locais. Atividades de educação em saúde, preenchimento de questionário para definição do perfil sanitário das fazendas, cadastro georreferenciado e coleta de amostras de sangue e swabs cloacal e traqueal de aves de quintal foram as ações de vigilância epidemiológica realizadas. Um total de 133 amostras de soro foram analisadas em Mangue Seco e 81 em Cacha Pregos. Os resultados mostraram que tanto Mangue Seco (63,4%) quanto Cacha Pregos (88,9%) apresentaram animais reativos para o NDV. Os resultados da reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real (RT-PCR) e das análises de isolamento viral foram negativos, comprovando que as aves domésticas não estavam eliminando o vírus no momento da coleta das amostras. O alto percentual de animais reativos pelo teste ELISA indireto em ambas as unidades epidemiológicas estudadas sugere a presença de cepa lentogênica circulante de NDV, uma vez que não houve registro de óbito e as aves não apresentavam sintomas característicos da doença.(AU)

Poultry , Newcastle disease virus , Chickens , Viruses , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Records , Health Education , Surveys and Questionnaires , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Epidemiological Monitoring , Farms
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1453-1462, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771784


To evaluate immune efficacy of the recombinant Lactobacillus casei, we constructed pLA-Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-F/L. casei and obtained the expression products. PCR amplified the NDV F gene carrying part of the major epitopes. The target gene was inserted to the shuttle plasmid pLA, and then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) in order to screen positive recombinant plasmid. The positive recombinant plasmid was transformed into L. casei by electroporation to construct pLA-NDV-F/L. casei. The positive strains were identified by PCR. The reactivity of the recombinant bacteria was identified by Western blotting and the protein expression was detected by indirect immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and laser confocal microscopy. The 14-day-old chickens in each group were vaccinated by oral plus nose drops. The pLA-NDV-F/L. casei twice immunization group and three times immunization group, the commercial vaccine group, the pLA/L. casei group, the unchallenge PBS and the challenge PBS group were established. IgG in serum and sIgA in the lavage fluid of intestinal, nasal and lung were detected by ELISA. The protection rate of chickens was evaluated. The results showed that 94.10% of the recombinant bacteria expressed the F protein. The recombinant protein was highly expressed on the surface of L. casei with a protein size of 62 kDa, which specifically bound to anti-NDV serum. The levels of anti-F IgG and sIgA antibodies in each test group were significantly higher than those in the control groups. The duration of antibody in the pLA-NDV-F/L. casei three-time immunization group lasted 28 days longer than that in the twice immunized group, and there was no significant difference between antibody peak values. The attack protection rates in each group of immunized pLA-NDV-F/L. casei three times, twice, attenuated vaccine, pLA/L. casei and PBS were 80%, 80%, 90%, 0% and 0%, respectively. Therefore, the antigenic protein of NDV F was successfully expressed by L. casei expression system, which has of reactogenicity and immunogenicity, and could induce protective immune responses in chickens.

Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Chickens , Immunization , Lacticaseibacillus casei , Newcastle disease virus , Vaccines, Attenuated , Viral Vaccines
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 27-34, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719490


PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to develop a serodiagnostic test for differentiation infected from vaccinated animal (DIVA) strategy accompanying the marker vaccine lacking an immunodominant epitope (IDE) of nucleoprotein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recombinant epitope-repeat protein (rERP) gene encoding eight repeats of the IDE sequence (ETQFLDLMRAVANSMR) by tetra-glycine linker was synthesized. Recombinant baculovirus carrying the rERP gene was generated to express the rERP in insect cells. Specificity and sensitivity of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) employing the rERP was evaluated. RESULTS: The rERP with molecular weight of 20 kDa was successfully expressed by the recombinant baculovirus in an insect-baculovirus system. The rERP was antigenically functional as demonstrated by Western blotting. An indirect ELISA employing the rERP was developed and its specificity and sensitivity was determined. The ELISA test allowed discrimination of NDV infected sera from epitope deletion virus vaccinated sera. CONCLUSION: The preliminary results represent rERP ELISA as a promising DIVA diagnostic tool.

Animals , Baculoviridae , Blotting, Western , Discrimination, Psychological , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Insecta , Molecular Weight , Newcastle disease virus , Newcastle Disease , Nucleoproteins , Sensitivity and Specificity
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(1): 37-40, Jan. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895542


Chickens are considered to be potential reservoirs of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). In this study, six Newcastle disease virus strains were isolated and characterized in Tibetan chickens. The HN gene was sequenced, and phylogenetic relationship to reference strains was studied. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these six isolated strains were closely related to NDV isolates of the reference strains GQ245823, KT002186, KU527561, KJ563939, AY225110, EU305607, KM056357, Y18898, GQ245832, AF077761 and lasota strain. Among them, EU305607, KJ563939 and KM056357 were isolated from India, while lasota strain came from attenuated vaccine widely used in China. Then, mean death time (MDT) and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) were used to estimate the pathogenicity of the isolates. Pathogenicity experiment showed HNH1 and HN17 to be virulent. Our results indicated that genetically diverse viruses circulate in Tibetan chickens, and based upon the phlogeographic analysis, we estimated the origin of ancestral viruses of the isolates and its sister strains located in India and China (lasota strain). It indicates the importance of continuous surveillance to enhance current understanding of the genetic evolution of the NDV strains.(AU)

Animals , Female , Newcastle disease virus/genetics , Newcastle disease virus/pathogenicity , Chickens/virology , Phylogeny , Tibet
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 232-241, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758797


Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and Salmonella Pullorum have significant damaging effects on the poultry industry, but no previous vaccine can protect poultry effectively. In this study, a recombinant-attenuated S. Pullorum strain secreting the NDV hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein, C79-13ΔcrpΔasd (pYA-HN), was constructed by using the suicide plasmid pREasd-mediated bacteria homologous recombination method to form a new bivalent vaccine candidate against Newcastle disease (ND) and S. Pullorum disease (PD). The effect of this vaccine candidate was compared with those of the NDV LaSota and C79-13ΔcrpΔasd (pYA) strains. The serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers, serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, secretory IgA, and stimulation index in lymphocyte proliferation were increased significantly more (p 0.05). Moreover, the novel strain provides 60% and 80% protective efficacy against the NDV virulent strain F48E9 and the S. Pullorum virulent strain C79-13. In summary, in this study, a recombinant-attenuated S. Pullorum strain secreting NDV HN protein was constructed. The generation of the S. Pullorum C79-13ΔcrpΔasd (pYA-HN) strain provides a foundation for the development of an effective living-vector double vaccine against ND and PD.

Animals , Antibodies , Bacteria , Chickens , Hemagglutination , HN Protein , Homologous Recombination , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G , Lymphocytes , Methods , Newcastle disease virus , Newcastle Disease , Plasmids , Poultry , Salmonella , Suicide , Vaccines
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 72-82, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165996


Recent advances in reverse genetics techniques make it possible to manipulate the genome of RNA viruses such as Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Several NDV vaccine strains have been used as vaccine vectors in poultry, mammals, and humans to express antigens of different pathogens. The safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of these NDV-vectored vaccines have been evaluated in pre-clinical and clinical studies. The vaccines are safe in mammals, humans, and poultry. Bivalent NDV-vectored vaccines against pathogens of economic importance to the poultry industry have been developed. These bivalent vaccines confer solid protective immunity against NDV and other foreign antigens. In most cases, NDV-vectored vaccines induce strong local and systemic immune responses against the target foreign antigen. This review summarizes the development of NDV-vectored vaccines and their potential use as a base for designing other effective vaccines for veterinary and human use.

Animals , Humans , Genome , Mammals , Newcastle disease virus , Newcastle Disease , Poultry , Reverse Genetics , RNA Viruses , Vaccines
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 351-359, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115772


Rabies remains an important worldwide health problem. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was developed as a vaccine vector in animals by using a reverse genetics approach. Previously, our group generated a recombinant NDV (LaSota strain) expressing the complete rabies virus G protein (RVG), named rL-RVG. In this study, we constructed the variant rL-RVGTM, which expresses a chimeric rabies virus G protein (RVGTM) containing the ectodomain of RVG and the transmembrane domain (TM) and a cytoplasmic tail (CT) from the NDV fusion glycoprotein to study the function of RVG's TM and CT. The RVGTM did not detectably incorporate into NDV virions, though it was abundantly expressed at the surface of infected BHK-21 cells. Both rL-RVG and rL-RVGTM induced similar levels of NDV virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) after initial and secondary vaccination in mice, whereas rabies VNA induction by rL-RVGTM was markedly lower than that induced by rL-RVG. Though rL-RVG could spread from cell to cell like that in rabies virus, rL-RVGTM lost this ability and spread in a manner similar to the parental NDV. Our data suggest that the TM and CT of RVG are essential for its incorporation into NDV virions and for spreading of the recombinant virus from the initially infected cells to surrounding cells.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibody Formation , Cytoplasm , Glycoproteins , GTP-Binding Proteins , Newcastle disease virus , Newcastle Disease , Parents , Rabies virus , Rabies , Reverse Genetics , Tail , Vaccination , Virion
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 19(4): 38-43, July 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-793951


Background: Newcastle disease is an important avian infectious disease that brings about vast economic damage for poultry industry. Transgenic plants represent a cost-effective system for the production of therapeutic proteins and are widely used for the production of poultry vaccines. In an attempt to develop a recombinant vaccine, a plant expression binary vector pBI121, containing the genes encoding Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase (HN) and Fusion (F) epitopes of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) under the control of CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator was constructed and introduced into the tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum) plant by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Results: Putative transgenic plants were screened in a selection medium containing 50 mg/L kanamycin and 30 mg/L meropenem. Integration of the foreign gene in plant genome was confirmed by PCR. Expression of foreign gene was analyzed at transcription level by RT-PCR and at translation level by means of dot blotting and ELISA. All analyses confirmed the expression of recombinant protein. Conclusion: Developments in genetic engineering have led to plant-based systems for recombinant vaccine production. In this research, tobacco plant was used to express F and HN epitopes of NDV. Our results indicate that for the production of recombinant vaccine, it is a novel strategy to use concatenated epitopes without their genetic fusion onto larger scaffold structure such as viral coat protein.

Newcastle disease virus , Vaccines, Synthetic , HN Protein , Plants, Genetically Modified , Nicotiana , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Agrobacterium tumefaciens , Epitopes
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 231-242, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775108


Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

Animals , Newcastle Disease/pathology , Newcastle Disease/virology , Newcastle disease virus/growth & development , Animal Structures/virology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Brazil , Chickens , Columbidae , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Newcastle Disease/immunology , Newcastle Disease/transmission , Newcastle disease virus/immunology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Virus Shedding
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 39-45, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296219


Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA)-induced RNA degradation can inhibit viral infection, and has been investigated extensively for its efficacy as antiviral therapy. The potential therapeutic role of lentiviral-mediated short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) replication in vivo has been explored less often. We constructed two recombinant lentiviral vectors containing shRNA against the phosphoprotein (P) of the NDV, RNAi-341 and RNAi-671. Recombinant shRNA lentivirus vectors were co-transfected into 293T cells, along with helper plasmids, to package the recombinant shRNA lentivirus. Lentivirus-based shRNAs were titrated and transduced into NDV-susceptible chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and chick embryos. Antiviral activity against the NDV strain was evaluated by virus titration and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RNAi-341 and RNAi-671 strongly suppressed transient expression of a FLAG-tagged P fusion protein in 293T cells. RNAi-341 and RNAi-671 NDV reduced virus titers by 66.6-fold and 30.6-fold, respectively, in CEFs 16 h after infection. RNAi-341 and RNAi-671 reduced virus titers in specific pathogen-free chick embryos by 99% and 98%, respectively, 48 h after infection. Both shRNAs inhibited accumulation of not only P-gene mRNA, but also nucleocapsid, M-, F-, HN-, and L-gene mRNA. RNAi-341 silenced P-gene mRNA more potently than RNAi-671. These results suggest that shRNAs silencing the P gene had substantial antiviral properties and inhibited NDV replication in CEFs and chick embryos.

Animals , Chick Embryo , Chickens , Down-Regulation , Fibroblasts , Virology , Gene Targeting , Lentivirus , Genetics , Metabolism , Newcastle Disease , Virology , Newcastle disease virus , Genetics , Physiology , Phosphoproteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Poultry Diseases , Virology , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering , Genetics , Metabolism , Viral Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Virus Replication
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 21-26, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110769


The present study describes the development of DNA vaccines using the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes from AF2240 Newcastle disease virus strain, namely pIRES/HN, pIRES/F and pIRES-F/HN. Transient expression analysis of the constructs in Vero cells revealed the successful expression of gene inserts in vitro. Moreover, in vivo experiments showed that single vaccination with the constructed plasmid DNA (pDNA) followed by a boost with inactivated vaccine induced a significant difference in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody levels (p < 0.05) elicited by either pIRES/F, pIRES/F+ pIRES/HN or pIRES-F/HN at one week after the booster in specific pathogen free chickens when compared with the inactivated vaccine alone. Taken together, these results indicated that recombinant pDNA could be used to increase the efficacy of the inactivated vaccine immunization procedure.

Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chickens , HN Protein/genetics , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Newcastle Disease/immunology , Newcastle disease virus/enzymology , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Fusion Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 115-117, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110757


Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) cause systemic diseases in chickens with high mortality. However, little is known about persistence of NDVs in contaminated tissues from infected birds. In this study, we examined viral replication in the feather pulp of chickens inoculated with viscerotropic velogenic NDV (vvNDV) genotype VII. Reverse transcription real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate viral persistence in the samples. vvNDV was detected in the oropharynx and cloaca and viral antigens were detected in the feathers, suggesting that feathers act as sources of viral transmission.

Animals , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Chickens , Cloaca/virology , Feathers/virology , Microbial Viability , Newcastle Disease/transmission , Newcastle disease virus/isolation & purification , Oropharynx/virology , Poultry Diseases/transmission , Virus Replication/physiology
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 861-865, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755806


Newcastle disease vaccines hitherto in vogue are produced from embryonated chicken eggs. Egg-adapted mesogenic vaccines possess several drawbacks such as paralysis and mortality in 2-week-old chicks and reduced egg production in the egg-laying flock. Owing to these possible drawbacks, we attempted to reduce the vaccine virulence for safe vaccination by adapting the virus in a chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEFCC) system. Eighteen passages were carried out by CEFCC, and the pathogenicity was assessed on the basis of the mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and intravenous pathogenicity index, at equal passage intervals. Although the reduction in virulence demonstrated with increasing passage levels in CEFCC was encouraging, 20% of the 2-week-old birds showed paralytic symptoms with the virus vaccine from the 18th(final) passage. Thus, a tissue-culture-adapted vaccine would demand a few more passages by CEFCC in order to achieve a complete reduction in virulence for use as a safe and effective vaccine, especially among younger chicks. Moreover, it can be safely administered even to unprimed 8-week-old birds.


Animals , Chick Embryo , Chickens/virology , Newcastle disease virus/pathogenicity , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Vaccines, Attenuated/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cell Culture Techniques , Cells, Cultured , Chickens/immunology , Newcastle disease virus/classification , Newcastle disease virus/growth & development , Primary Cell Culture , Poultry Diseases/immunology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines/immunology
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015; 28 (2): 597-602
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178162


Cytotoxic and antiviral potential of ivermectin and ribavirin was evaluated. Cytotoxicity was checked on chick primary fibroblast cell line through MTT assay. Antiviral potential was determined against Newcastle disease virus on 9- day old chicken embryos. Six different concentrations [200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25[micro]g/mL] of both the drugs were evaluated. The 100[micro]g/mL concentration of ivermectin and higher were cytotoxic. The 25[micro]g/mL concentration of ribavirin and higher were cytotoxic. Comparison of ivermectin and ribavirin showed that ivermectin was safe at 50[micro]g/mL and lower concentrations. Ribavirin was protective for cell at 12.5[micro]g/mL and 6.25[micro]g/mL only. Comparison of antiviral activity indicated that ivermectin has strong antiviral potential at 100[micro]g/mL and higher but same concentrations were cytotoxic. Ribavirin showed strong antiviral potential at all concentrations

Animals , Newcastle disease virus , Cytotoxins , Antiviral Agents , Ribavirin , Chick Embryo