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1.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(3): 370-375, May-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950060

ABSTRACT

Summary Total thyroidectomy, radioiodine (RAI) therapy, and TSH suppression are the mainstay treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs). Treatments for metastatic disease include surgery, external-beam radiotherapy, RAI, and kinase inhibitors for progressive iodine-refractory disease. Unresectable locoregional disease remains a challenge, as standard therapy with RAI becomes unfeasible. We report a case of a young patient who presented with unresectable papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and treatment with sorafenib allowed total thyroidectomy and RAI therapy. A 20-year-old male presented with severe respiratory distress due to an enlarging cervical mass. Imaging studies revealed an enlarged multinodular thyroid gland, extensive cervical adenopathy, severe tracheal stenosis, and pulmonary micronodules. He required an urgent surgical intervention and underwent tracheostomy and partial left neck dissection, as the disease was deemed unresectable; pathology revealed PTC. Treatment with sorafenib was initiated, resulting in significant tumor reduction allowing near total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection. Postoperatively, the patient underwent radiotherapy for residual tracheal lesion, followed by RAI therapy for avid cervical and pulmonary disease. The patient's disease remains stable 4 years after diagnosis. Sorafenib has been approved for progressive RAI-refractory metastatic DTCs. In this case report, we describe a patient with locally advanced PTC in whom treatment with sorafenib provided sufficient tumor reduction to allow thyroidectomy and RAI therapy, suggesting a potential role of sorafenib as an induction therapy of unresectable DTC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Phenylurea Compounds/administration & dosage , Thyroid Neoplasms/therapy , Carcinoma, Papillary/therapy , Niacinamide/analogs & derivatives , Iodine Radioisotopes/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Niacinamide/administration & dosage , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Sorafenib , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
2.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(3): 355-358, July-Sept. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891404

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Acute myeloid leukemia is a hematopoietic stem cell neoplastic disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. The presence of FLT3 internal tandem duplication mutations leads to high rates of relapse and decreased overall survival. Patients with FLT3 internal tandem duplication are normally treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first complete remission. Nevertheless, the incidence of post-transplant relapse is considerable in this group of patients, and the management of this clinical condition is challenging. The report describes the outcomes of patients with FLT3 internal tandem duplication positive acute myeloid leukemia who relapsed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and were treated with the combination of re-induction chemotherapy, donor lymphocyte infusion, sorafenib and azacitidine. Three cases are described and all patients achieved prolonged complete remission with the combined therapy. The combination of induction chemotherapy followed by donor lymphocyte infusion, and the maintenance with azacitidine and sorafenib can be effective approaches in the treatment of post-hematopoietic stem cell transplant and relapsed FLT3 internal tandem duplication positive acute myeloid leukemia patients. This strategy should be further explored in the context of clinical trials.


RESUMO A leucemia mieloide aguda é uma doença neoplásica de células-tronco hematopoiéticas com alta morbimortalidade. A presença de mutações de duplicação em tandem de FLT3 leva a altas taxas de recorrência e a menor sobrevida global. Os pacientes com duplicação em tandem de FLT3 são normalmente tratados com transplante de células-tronco hematopoiéticas na primeira remissão completa. No entanto, a incidência de recidiva pós-transplante é considerável neste grupo de pacientes, e a conduta, nestes casos, é um desafio. O relato descreve os resultados do tratamento de pacientes com leucemia mieloide aguda positiva e duplicação em tandem de FLT3 que recidivaram depois do transplante alogênico de células-tronco hematopoiéticas e que foram tratados com combinação de quimioterapia de reindução, infusão de linfócitos de doador, sorafenib e azacitidina. São descritos três casos, e todos os pacientes apresentaram remissão completa prolongada com a terapia combinada. A combinação de quimioterapia de indução, seguida de infusão de linfócitos do doador, e a manutenção com azacitidina e sorafenib podem ser abordagens eficazes no tratamento da recorrência pós-transplante em pacientes com leucemia mieloide aguda e duplicação em tandem de FLT3. Essa estratégia deve ser mais explorada no contexto de ensaios clínicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Phenylurea Compounds/administration & dosage , Azacitidine/administration & dosage , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Niacinamide/analogs & derivatives , Lymphocyte Transfusion , fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3/genetics , Induction Chemotherapy , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Recurrence , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Niacinamide/administration & dosage , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/therapy
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85721

ABSTRACT

Multiple therapeutic modalities are available for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. We aimed to evaluate the trends for HCC treatment in Korea. Recent trends and patterns in treatment modalities were assessed in HCC patients who first registered for the Health Insurance Review Assessment Service between 2008 and 2012. From 2009 to 2012, 57,690 patients were diagnosed with HCC. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) was the most common treatment modality for initial treatment. Curative treatment modalities like hepatic resection, liver transplantation, and local ablation therapy increased gradually. The 3 most common treatment modalities (hepatic resection, local ablation therapy, TACE) used after initial treatment in 2009 were studied. Following initial hepatic resection, 44.5% of patients required re-treatment. TACE was the most common modality (in 48.3% of cases), while 15.0% of patients received local ablation therapy. After local ablation therapy, 55.4% of patients were re-treated, wherein 45.0% of patients received TACE and 31.5% received local ablation therapy. Following initial TACE, 73.9% patients were re-treated, most commonly with TACE (57.7%) followed by local ablation therapy (12.8%). While there were no significant differences between the initial and re-treatment modalities, various multiple treatments followed the initial treatment. The treatment modalities were interchangeable.


Subject(s)
Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic , Combined Modality Therapy/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Insurance Claim Review , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Niacinamide/administration & dosage , Phenylurea Compounds/administration & dosage , Prevalence , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
4.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(4): 347-350, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757374

ABSTRACT

Advanced radioactive refractory and progressive or symptomatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a rare condition. Sorafenib was recently approved for the treatment of these patients. We present the case of a 67 year old woman diagnosed with DTC who underwent a total thyroidectomy with central, lateral-compartment neck dissection and shaving of the trachea and esophagus due to tumor infiltration. A local recurrence was detected 14 months later requiring, additionally, two tracheal rings resection. The patient received a cumulative 131I dose of 650 mCi and developed dysphagia and dyspnea 63 months after initial surgery. A 18FGD-PET/CT showed progression of the local mass associated to hypermetabolic pulmonary nodules. Sorafenib 800 mg/day was then prescribed. A dose reduction to 400 mg/day was necessary due to grade 3 thrombocytopenia that appeared four months after drug prescription. Platelet count went to normal after this dose reduction. Five months after initiation of sorafenib, a partial response of the local mass with significant intra-tumoral necrosis was observed. We conclude that sorafenib is a valid option for locally advanced DTC and that the platelet count should be evaluated regularly because it seems that thrombocytopenia might be more frequently observed in DTC than in other types of tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Phenylurea Compounds/therapeutic use , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thyroid Neoplasms/therapy , Niacinamide/analogs & derivatives , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Phenylurea Compounds/administration & dosage , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/complications , Niacinamide/administration & dosage , Niacinamide/therapeutic use , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Sorafenib , Neoplasm Staging , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128622

ABSTRACT

Despite advances in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), managing HCC with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) remains challenging. PVT is present in 10-40% of HCC cases at the time of diagnosis and its therapeutic options are very limited. Current guidelines mainly recommend sorafenib for advanced HCC with PVT, but surgery, transarterial chemoemolization, external radiation therapy, radioembolization, transarterial infusion chemotherapy, and combination therapy are also still used. Furthermore, several new emerging therapies such as the administration of immunotherapeutic agents and oncolytic viruses are under investigation. This comprehensive literature review presents current and future management options with their relative advantages and disadvantages and summary data on overall survival.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic , Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Niacinamide/administration & dosage , Phenylurea Compounds/administration & dosage , Portal Vein , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Venous Thrombosis/complications
6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1178-1185, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198358

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Sorafenib is an effective systemic agent for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. To increase its efficacy, we evaluated the feasibility and benefit of sorafenib combined with radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From July 2007 to July 2011, 31 patients were treated with a daily dose of 800 mg of sorafenib and radiotherapy. Among them, 13 patients who received radiotherapy on the bone metastasis were excluded. Thirteen patients received 30-54 Gy of radiotherapy on the primary tumor (primary group) and 5 patients received 30-58.4 Gy on the measurable metastatic lesions (measurable metastasis group). Tumor responses at 1 month after the completion of radiotherapy and overall survival were evaluated. RESULTS: The in-field response rate was 100% in the primary group and 60% in the measurable metastasis group. A decrease of more than 80% in the tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein was observed in 7 patients in the primary group (54%). Toxicities of grades 3-4 were hand-foot syndrome in 3 (17%) patients, duodenal bleeding in 1 (6%) patient, thrombocytopenia in 3 (17%) patients and elevation of aspartate transaminase in 1 (6%) patient. The median overall survival was 7.8 months (95% confidence interval, 3.0-12.6). CONCLUSION: The combined treatment of sorafenib and radiotherapy was feasible and induced substantial tumor responses in the target lesions. The results of this study emphasize the importance of individualized approach in the management of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and encourage the initiation of a controlled clinical trial.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Niacinamide/administration & dosage , Phenylurea Compounds/administration & dosage , Radiation Dosage , Radiotherapy/adverse effects
7.
Clinics ; 67(9): 1093-1099, Sept. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649391

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that has been proven effective as a single-agent therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma, and there is a strong rationale for investigating its use in combination with other agents. Vitamin K2 is nearly non-toxic to humans and has been shown to inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a combination of sorafenib and vitamin K2 on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. METHODS: Flow cytometry, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) and nude mouse xenograft assays were used to examine the effects of sorafenib and vitamin K2 on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Western blotting was used to elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. RESULTS: Assays for 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) revealed a strong synergistic growth-inhibitory effect between sorafenib and vitamin K2. Flow cytometry showed an increase in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis after treatment with a combination of these two drugs at low concentrations. Sorafenib-mediated inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation was promoted by vitamin K2, and downregulation of Mcl-1, which is required for sorafenib-induced apoptosis, was observed after combined treatment. Vitamin K2 also attenuated the downregulation of p21 expression induced by sorafenib, which may represent the mechanism by which vitamin K2 promotes the inhibitory effects of sorafenib on cell proliferation. Moreover, the combination of sorafenib and vitamin K2 significantly inhibited the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results determined that combined treatment with sorafenib and vitamin K2 can work synergistically to inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. This finding raises the possibility that this combined treatment strategy might be promising as a new therapy against hepatocellular carcinoma, especially for patients with poor liver tolerance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Niacinamide/analogs & derivatives , Phenylurea Compounds/administration & dosage , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , /administration & dosage , Blotting, Western , Cell Line, Tumor , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Drug Synergism , Flow Cytometry , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Mice, Nude , Niacinamide/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Indian Heart J ; 1998 Mar-Apr; 50(2): 173-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-4662

ABSTRACT

The haemodynamic effects of nicorandil, a new balanced vasodilator exhibiting nitrate-like as well as potassium-channel opening activity in patients with chronic severe valvular lesions have not been reported. We studied the acute effect of nicorandil on haemodynamics in 12 stable patients (6 males, 6 females; mean age 23.5 +/- 4.6 years) with chronic severe valvular regurgitation (8 mitral, 4 aortic). All patients were studied in resting, supine and fasting states. All cardioactive drugs were withdrawn five days prior to the study. Intra-arterial line was placed and thermodilution catheter was positioned in the pulmonary artery. Haemodynamic parameters recorded at baseline and at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes following a single oral dose of 20 mg nicorandil revealed no significant change in the heart rate while systemic pressures showed a small decline (p < 0.05). There was significant reduction in systolic, diastolic and mean pulmonary artery pressures (p < 0.001). The mean cardiac index increased from 3.16 L/min/m2 at baseline to 3.77 L/min/m2 at 60 minutes. Both the pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance indices reduced significantly, the peak fall being 18 percent and 29 percent, respectively. Maximal changes were observed at 60 to 90 minutes following administration of nicorandil. No adverse effect of nicorandil occurred during the study. We conclude that nicorandil has a favourable acute haemodynamic effect in patients with chronic severe valve regurgitation. Its long-term use in valvular lesions should be explored further.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Adult , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/drug therapy , Chronic Disease , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Humans , Male , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/drug therapy , Niacinamide/administration & dosage , Nicorandil , Potassium Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , Rheumatic Heart Disease/complications , Treatment Outcome , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/prevention & control
9.
An. Fac. Med. (Perú) ; 58(4): 266-70, 1997. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-227807

ABSTRACT

El cólera en nuestro país ha generado importantes problemas de salud pública. Actualmente es tratado recuperando el volumen perdido y eliminando el V. cholerae mas no bloqueando la acción de la toxina. Existen evidencias que la Nicotinamida actuaría sobre la toxina disminuyendo la secreción de agua y electrólitos. Se evaluó la capacidad de la Nicotinamida para reducir la pérdida de fluidos en conejos con cólera; utilizando un estudio experimental aleatorizado. Se administró nicotinamida a 10 conejos sanos, cuantificando sus excretas (g/día), pre y post administración para descartar efectos que alteren la interpretación de los resultados; no se halló diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p=0,3). Luego de 5 días, para asegurar la eliminación del fármaco, se infectó a los conejos dividiendolos en 2 grupos de 5; al presentarse la diarrea administramos Nicotinamida y placebo respectivamentes, cuantificamos las deposiciones (g/día) hallando diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p<0,001); demostramos que la Nicotinamida disminuye la pérdida de fluidos en cólera; abriendo una nueva posibilidad terapéutica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cholera Toxin , Cyclic AMP , GTP-Binding Proteins , Niacinamide/administration & dosage , Placebos/administration & dosage
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