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1.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(2): e212020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249707

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: After debonding, white spot may appear on the area below the bracket, which is the early clinical sign of carious lesion. There is increased caries risk underneath and adjacent to orthodontic bands and brackets, which call for maximum use of caries preventive procedures using various fluoride application methods. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate alterations in the mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity and yield strength) in loading and unloading phases for different orthodontic archwires (nickel-titanium [NiTi] and copper-nickel-titanium [CuNiTi]) when exposed routinely to fluoride prophylactic agents for a predetermined period of time. Methods: Preformed rectangular NiTi and CuNiTi wires were immersed in fluoride solution and artificial saliva (control) for 90 minutes at 37ºC. After immersion, specimens were tested using a 3-point bend test on a universal testing machine. Results: There is a significant reduction in the unloading yield strength when the NiTi and CuNiTi wires were exposed to APF gel. Conclusion: The result suggests that use of topical fluoride agents affect the mechanical properties of the wires, leading to increase in treatment duration. Fluoride prophylactic agents must be used with caution in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Injudicious use of these agents may cause corrosive effects on the orthodontic wire surfaces, with alteration in their mechanical properties.


RESUMO Introdução: Após a remoção dos braquetes, manchas brancas podem aparecer na área embaixo deles, as quais são o sinal clínico inicial da lesão cariosa. Existe um maior risco de cáries embaixo e ao redor das bandas e braquetes ortodônticos, o que exige a máxima utilização de procedimentos preventivos de cárie, usando diferentes métodos com aplicação de flúor. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar alterações nas propriedades mecânicas (módulo de elasticidade e resistência ao escoamento), nas fases de carregamento e descarregamento de diferentes fios ortodônticos (níquel-titânio [NiTi] e níquel-titânio com adição de cobre [CuNiTi]), quando expostos rotineiramente a agentes profiláticos fluoretados, utilizados durante um período de tempo predeterminado. Métodos: Os fios pré-contornados retangulares de NiTi e CuNiTi foram imersos em solução fluoretada e saliva artificial (controle) durante 90 minutos a 37°C. Após a imersão, as amostras foram testadas utilizando-se um teste de flexão em três pontos, em uma máquina universal de testes. Resultados: Houve uma redução significativa na resistência ao escoamento na fase de descarregamento quando os fios de NiTi e CuNiTi foram expostos ao gel fluoretado. Conclusão: O resultado sugere que o uso tópico de agentes fluoretados afeta as propriedades mecânicas dos fios, levando a um aumento na duração do tratamento. Os agentes profiláticos fluoretados devem ser utilizados com cautela em pacientes submetidos a tratamento ortodôntico. O uso indiscriminado desses agentes pode causar efeitos corrosivos na superfície dos fios ortodônticos e consequente alteração das suas propriedades mecânicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orthodontic Wires , Copper , Dental Alloys , Fluorides , Nickel , Surface Properties , Titanium , Materials Testing , Nickel/adverse effects
2.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 147-156, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001140

ABSTRACT

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Occupational dermatoses are common, especially contact dermatitis. Epidemiological studies on these dermatoses are scarce in Brazil and they are necessary as part of the public policy to protect workers' health. OBJECTIVES: To identify sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients with occupational contact dermatitis seen between 2000 and 2014 at an occupational dermatology service. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional and retrospective study, based on information obtained from the service's database. RESULTS: Of 560 patients with conclusive patch test, 289 (46.9%) presented occupational dermatoses and 213 occupational contact dermatitis with predominance of the allergic type in relation to the irritative type (149:64 respectively). The odds of occupational dermatoses were higher among men and lower among patients aged 50 years or older and with higher level of education. Regarding the possibility of presenting occupational allergic contact dermatitis, only the gender variable was statistically significant. The professions most seen were cleaners, construction workers, painters, mechanics/metallurgists and cooks. The commonest allergens were nickel sulfate, potassium dichromate, cobalt chloride, carba-mix and formaldehyde. STUDY LIMITATIONS: The main limitations of this study are the fact that it was carried out in a tertiary service of occupational dermatoses and the lack of access to some allergens outside the patch test baseline series. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to identify the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients with suspected occupational contact dermatitis seen at the Service, beyond the professional groups and allergens related to a high risk of occupational contact dermatitis in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/epidemiology , Potassium Dichromate/adverse effects , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Patch Tests/statistics & numerical data , Caustics/adverse effects , Construction Industry , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Age Factors , Dermatitis, Irritant/etiology , Dermatitis, Irritant/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/etiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Educational Status , Hand Dermatoses/chemically induced , Hand Dermatoses/epidemiology , Irritants/adverse effects , Nickel/adverse effects
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(6): 829-835, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973620

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Allergic contact dermatitis to ion nickel (Ni+2) is an inflammatory dermatosis, common in industrialized countries. It involves the activation of nickel-specific T-cells, followed by proliferation and induction of a mixed profile of both proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines, suggesting that several T-cell subtypes (helper - Th and cytotoxic - Tc) are involved. A broader understanding of the cytokine profile may lead to new therapeutic approaches. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the cytokines TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17 and IL-23 using the immunohistochemistry technique in order to try to identify their prevalence in chronic and acute eczema of patients with allergic contact dermatitis to Ni+2. Methods: We performed an immunohistochemical study for eight cytokines in 20 patients with Ni+2 allergic contact dermatitis, biopsied at the site of chronic eczema, triggered by the patient's daily contact with Ni+2, and at the site of acute eczema caused by nickel sulfate, 48 hours after applying the contact test. Results: The stained samples showed positive results for the eight cytokines studied. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13 and IL-17 had a higher prevalence in chronic eczema, IL-2 and IL-23 in acute eczema, and IL-10 presented a similar prevalence in both acute and chronic eczema. However, these prevalences were statistically significant only for IL-4 and IL-13. Study Limitations: Small sample size. Conclusions: In chronic and acute eczema, we observed the presence of a mixed cytokine profile of the T cell subtypes (Th/Tc), suggesting that the responses are expressed at the same time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cytokines/analysis , Interleukins/analysis , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/immunology , Nickel/adverse effects , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Prospective Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Interleukins/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/etiology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/pathology , Nickel/immunology
4.
Gerais (Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora) ; 11(2): [208 - 220], jul. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-914627

ABSTRACT

Focaliza-se neste artigo os processos de terceirização e flexibilização das relações trabalhistas, cujas práticas encontram se atreladas ao fenômeno da precarização do trabalho, incidindo de modo perverso sobre os sujeitos, promovendo seu adoecimento e gerando impactos de diversas ordens sobre eles. Como cenário concreto para promover esta reflexão, apresenta-se um caso real, relativo à contaminação de trabalhadores brasileiros por carbonato de níquel, uma substância de elevada toxidade, bem como os desdobramentos desse acidente para os sujeitos envolvidos.


This article discusses the outsourcing processes and flexibility of labor relations, whose practices are linked to the precariousness phenomenon, analyzing how these processes act in a perverse way on the workers, promoting their illness and generating impacts of various orders on them. As a concrete scenario to promote this reflection, the text presents a real case concerning the contamination of Brazilian workers by nickel carbonate, a substance of high toxicity, and the consequences of this accident on the men involved.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Outsourced Services , Labor Relations , Accidents, Occupational , Employment , Nickel/adverse effects
5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(1): 59-62, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887156

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Metals are common agents of allergic contact dermatitis, occupational or not, with decreasing incidence over the last years in some countries that have regulated the amount of nickel in objects. Objectives: To analyze and compare with previous studies the profile of metal sensitization between 2003-2015. Methods: Patients who underwent patch testing between 2003-2015 were evaluated retrospectively regarding the sensitization rates to metals, the associations between them, the relationship with profession and epidemiology. Results: Of the 1,386 patients tested, 438 (32%) had positive test to some metal, similar results to the 404/1,208 (33%) of the previous study (1995-2002) performed at the same service (p=0.32). The frequency of nickel (77%), cobalt (32%) and chromium (29%) changed slightly (p=0.20). Most cases of sensitization to chromium were related to the occupation (64%), in contrast to nickel and cobalt (p<0.0001). There was a predominance of females among those sensitized to metal in both studies (p=0.63) and the age group of 20-49 years old (p=0.11); the number of fair-skinned individuals increased (p<0.001), as well as the lesions in the cephalic segment (50.5%; p<0.0001) and hands (45%; p<0.0001), which are not the most frequent location anymore. The number of cleaners decreased (39% vs. 59%; p<0.0001), which still lead in front of bricklayers/painters, which increased (14% vs. 9%; p=0.013). The frequency of wet work reduced (65% vs. 81%; p<0.0001). Study limitations: The study included a single population group; only patients with positive tests to metals were considered - the others were not evaluated for the possibility of false negatives. Conclusion: The sensitization to metals, occupational or not, has been significant over the last 21 years, with few epidemiological changes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Allergens/adverse effects , Chromium/adverse effects , Immunization/methods , Cobalt/administration & dosage , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/etiology , Nickel/adverse effects , Time Factors , Patch Tests , Retrospective Studies , Cobalt/adverse effects , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(1): 151-153, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038262

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Nickel and cobalt are often responsible for metal-induced allergic contact dermatitis. With the increasing use of cell phones, we observed an increase in cases reports on telephone-related allergic contact dermatitis. The present study evaluated nickel and cobalt release from mobile phones used in Brazil. We evaluated devices of 6 brands and 20 different models using nickel and cobalt allergy spot tests. Of the 20 models, 64.7% tested positive for nickel, with 41.1% positive results for the charger input and 23.5% for other tested areas. None of them was positive for cobalt. Nickel release was more common in older models.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cobalt/analysis , Cell Phone/instrumentation , Nickel/analysis , Brazil , Patch Tests , Cobalt/adverse effects , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/etiology , Nickel/adverse effects
7.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 29(1): 42-48, 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-790206

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess periodontal status and bloodparameters in orthodontic patients with nickel allergy one monthafter removal of brackets. Ninety-six randomly selected patientswere initially evaluated. Allergy to nickel was diagnosed using apatch test. After determining the prevalence of subjects allergic tonickel, two groups were formed: 16 allergic (experimental) and 16non-allergic (control) patients. Their periodontal status wasdetermined regularly by a single, blinded, duly calibrated examinerusing the Lõe Index (GI) and their blood was tested (complete bloodtest, including nickel and IgE levels) after nine months oforthodontic treatment and again one month after removing theorthodontic appliances. Statistical analyses included paired andnon-paired t-tests, Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon, McNemar and lineartrend chi-square tests (p≤0.05). Comparison of the values recordedduring orthodontic treatment and one month after removing theappliances showed that in the allergic group there was significantincrease in eosinophils (p=0.046), basophils (p=0.001) andmonocytes (p=0.002), and decrease in number of bands (p=0.000),while in the control group, there was increase in lymphocytes(p=0.039) and decrease in segmented neutrophils (p=0.030) andIgE levels (p=0.001). In both groups, plasma nickel levels increased(p=0.010; p=0.039) and GI scores decreased. One month afterremoving the brackets, blood and periodontal parameters frompatients with and without nickel allergy were similar.


O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a condição periodontal eos parâmetros sanguíneos em pacientes alérgicos ao níquel, ummês após remoção dos aparelhos. Noventa e seis pacientesselecionados aleatoriamente foram inicialmente avaliadas. Alergiaao níquel foi diagnosticada usando um teste de contato. Após adeterminação da prevalência de alergia ao níquel, formaram-sedois grupos: 16 pacientes alérgicos (experimental) e 16 nãoalérgicos (controle). Condição periodontal foi diagnosticadaatravés do Índice de Lõe (IG). Parâmetros sanguíneos foramdeterminados por meio de um exame de sangue completo,incluindo a quantificação de níquel e níveis de IgE. Avaliações doestado periodontal foram realizados por um único examinador deforma cega, devidamente calibrado e amostras de sangue foramtomadas depois de nove meses de tratamento e um mês após aremoção dos aparelhos ortodônticos. Análise estatística utilizadafoi testes t pareado e não pareado, Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon,McNemar e qui-quadrado de tendência linear (p≤0,05). Emcomparação com os valores observados durante o tratamento, onúmero de eosinófilos (p=0,046), basófilos (p=0,001) e monócitos(p=0,002) aumentou significativamente depois da remoção dosaparelhos ortodônticos, ao passo que o número de bastões(p=0,000) diminuiu entre os períodos no grupo alérgico. O númerode linfócitos (p=0,039) aumentou no grupo controle e o número desegmentados (p=0,030) diminuiu. A diminuição dos níveis de IgE(p=0,001) entre os períodos ocorreu no grupo de controle. Níveisde níquel no plasma aumentou após a remoção de aparelhosortodônticos em ambos os grupos (p=0,010; p=0,039). O IGdiminuiu em ambos os grupos. Parâmetros periodontais esanguíneos de pacientes com alergia ao níquel foram semelhantesaos não alérgicos um mês após a remoção dos aparelhos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Child , Young Adult , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/etiology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/blood , Nickel/adverse effects , Orthodontic Brackets/adverse effects , Chi-Square Distribution , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/immunology , Periodontal Index , Statistical Analysis
8.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-757883

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 28 años, con tratamiento ortodóncico activo, que acudió a consulta odontológica por motivos estéticos. Luego del examen intraoral se le diagnosticó agrandamiento gingival y exostosis maxilar. El plan de tratamiento consistió en cirugía estética periodontal y exéresis de la exostosis. Durante el tratamiento quirúrgico se tomaron muestras de encía, saliva y hueso alveolar, previo consentimiento informado. Una vez procesadas las muestras se midieron las concentraciones de níquel en ng/ml mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica; el promedio de dichas concentraciones en cada una de las muestras fueron: 986,4 ng/ml en saliva, 779,5 ng/ml en hueso y 620,5 ng/ml para el caso de la encía. La acumulación de níquel evidenciada en cada una de las muestras resulta de especial interés, pues la exposición a metales contenidos en la aparatología ortodóncica constituye actualmente un importante tema de investigación.


A case is reported of a 28-year-old female patient, with active orthodontic treatment, who was treated in the dental practice for aesthetic reasons. The diagnosis was gingival overgrowth, induced by orthodontic treatment, and maxillary exostosis. The treatment consisted of periodontal cosmetic surgery and removing the exostosis. During surgery, samples of gingiva, saliva and alveolar bone were obtained. Before take the samples, the patient signed an informed consent. Nickel concentrations in ng/mL were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean nickel concentration in the samples were: 986.4 ng/ml in saliva, 779.5 ng/ml in alveolar bone, and 620.5 ng/ml in the case of gingiva. The high accumulation of nickel observed in each sample type is of particular interest because exposure to metals contained in orthodontic appliances is currently an important public health problem in dentistry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Female , Orthodontic Appliances/adverse effects , Nickel/analysis , Nickel/adverse effects , Bioaccumulation , Gingiva/pathology , Gingiva/chemistry , Bone and Bones/pathology , Bone and Bones/chemistry , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Saliva/chemistry
10.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 22(4): 369-374, Oct-Dec/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-744566

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A possibilidade de ocorrer liberação de níquel na corrente sanguínea após implante de dispositivos oclusores de comunicação interatrial de última geração (Cocoon Septal Occluder®), cujo principal componente é o nitinol (55% de níquel e 45% de titânio), ainda permanece controversa, principalmente em determinados grupos de pacientes, como crianças e mulheres em idade fértil. Dessa maneira, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a correlação entre o implante da prótese e os níveis séricos de níquel. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo de coorte, longitudinal e observacional, realizado em um hospital público. Pacientes submetidos à oclusão percutânea de comunicação interatrial foram avaliados clinicamente, por meio de ecocardiograma transtorácico, e foi feita coleta de amostras de sangue em veia periférica, para a dosagem do níquel antes e após (1 dia, 1 e 3 meses) o implante. Resultados: O procedimento e os exames subsequentes foram realizados com sucesso em dez pacientes, com média de idade de 34,4 anos (variação de 5 a 60 anos). O ecocardiograma seriado comprovou a manutenção dos resultados adequados do implante dos dispositivos. Os pacientes não apresentaram manifestações que pudessem sugerir reação ao metal, como rash cutâneo, dispneia, desconforto torácico, palpitações ou migrânea. Níveis séricos de níquel não apresentaram variação significativa e se mantiveram dentro dos limites de normalidade populacional dos métodos de dosagem até os 3 meses decorridos do procedimento. Conclusões: Os resultados preliminares desta investigação com a prótese Cocoon demonstraram que, durante o período inicial de endotelização após o procedimento, não ocorreu liberação apreciável de níquel para a corrente sanguínea...


Background: The possibility of nickel release to the bloodstream after implantation of latest generation atrial septal defect occlusion devices (Cocoon Septal OccluderTM), whose main component is nitinol (55% nickel and 45% titanium), remains controversial, especially in certain groups of patients such as children and women of childbearing age. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the device implantation and serum levels of nickel. Methods: This was a prospective longitudinal observational study conducted at a public hospital. Patients undergoing percutaneous atrial septal defect occlusion were clinically evaluated using transthoracic echocardiography and peripheral vein blood sampling for serum nickel before and after (1 day, 1 and 3 months) implantation. Results: The procedure and subsequent examinations were successfully performed in ten patients, with mean age of 34.4 years (range 5 to 60 years). Serial echocardiography confirmed the maintenance of adequate results of the procedure. Patients did not show manifestations that might suggest a reaction to metal, such as skin rash, dyspnea, thoracic discomfort, palpitations or migraine. Serum nickel levels did not show any significant changes and remained within the normal range for the population, according to the dosing methods within 3 months of the procedure. Conclusions: Preliminary results of this investigation with the Cocoon device have shown that during the initial period of endothelization after the procedure there was no significant nickel release into the bloodstream...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/complications , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/diagnosis , Nickel/adverse effects , Prosthesis Implantation , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Echocardiography/methods , Hypersensitivity/complications , Metals , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
11.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 36(5): 283-289, nov. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-733230

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de ceguera y deficiencia visual en adultos de Perú y precisar sus causas, evaluar la cobertura y la calidad de los servicios de cirugía de catarata y determinar las barreras que impiden acceder a esos servicios. MÉTODOS: Estudio poblacional transversal con muestreo aleatorio por conglomerado en dos pasos de personas de 50 años o más, representativo de todo el país, mediante la metodología estándar de la Evaluación Rápida de Ceguera Evitable. Se midió la agudeza visual y se examinó el cristalino y el polo posterior por oftalmoscopía directa. Se calculó la cobertura de cirugía de catarata y se evaluó su calidad, además de las causas de tener una agudeza visual < 20/60 y las barreras para acceder a ese tratamiento. RESULTADOS:Se examinaron 4 849 personas. La prevalencia de ceguera fue 2,0% (intervalo de confianza de 95%: 1,5-2,5%). La catarata fue la causa principal de ceguera (58,0%), seguida por el glaucoma (13,7%) y la degeneración macular relacionada con la edad (11,5%). Los errores de refracción no corregidos fueron la principal causa de deficiencia visual moderada (67,2%). La cobertura de cirugía de catarata fue de 66,9%, y 60,5% de los ojos operados de catarata logró una AV ≥ 20/60 con la corrección disponible. Las principales barreras para someterse a la cirugía de catarata fueron el alto costo (25,9%) y no saber que el tratamiento es posible (23,8%). CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de ceguera y deficiencia visual en Perú es similar a la de otros países latinoamericanos. La baja cobertura de cirugía de catarata y el envejecimiento poblacional indican que para aumentar el acceso a estos servicios se debe mejorar la educación de la población en salud ocular y la capacidad resolutiva de los servicios oftalmológicos y de cirugía de catarata, y reducir su costo.


OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment among adults in Peru and to determine their causes, to evaluate the coverage and quality of the cataract surgical services and to investigate the barriers that inhibit access to these services. METHODS: A cross-sectional population study with two-stage random cluster sampling of individuals of ≥ 50 years old, representative of the entire country, using the standard methodology of the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness. Visual acuity was assessed and the condition of the lens and posterior pole examined by direct ophthalmoscopy. Cataract surgical coverage was calculated. Its quality, as well as the causes of visual acuity < 20/60 and the barriers to accessing surgical treatment were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 4 849 people were examined. Blindness prevalence was 2.0% (confidence interval of 95%: 1.5-2.5%). The main causes of blindness were cataract (58.0%), glaucoma (13.7%) and age-related macular degeneration (11.5%). Uncorrected refraction errors were the principal cause of moderate visual impairment (67.2%). Cataract surgical coverage was 66.9%. 60.5% of the eyes operated for cataracts achieved a visual acuity ≥ 20/60 with available correction. The main barriers to cataract surgery were the high cost (25.9%) and people being unaware that treatment was possible (23.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in Peru is similar to that of other Latin American countries. Given the low cataract surgical coverage and the aging of the population, access to the services could be improved by increasing the population education on eye health and the response capacity of the ophthalmological and cataract surgical services, and by reducing the costs of the latter.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aging/immunology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/diagnosis , Patch Tests , Allergens , Balsams/adverse effects , Ethylmercuric Chloride/adverse effects , Nickel/adverse effects , Thimerosal/adverse effects
13.
An. bras. dermatol ; 87(2): 269-276, Mar.-Apr. 2012.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622426

ABSTRACT

Metals, especially nickel, are the most common contact allergens in children. Recent data has shown increased incidence of allergy in industrialized countries. Sensitization can occur at any age, even in neonates. Costume jewelry, particularly earrings, is linked to increased sensitization to nickel. Sensitization to cobalt often occurs by the use of costume jewelry. The most common source of sensitization to chromium is leather. Due to the absence of a specific therapy, the main treatment is to identify and avoid the responsible allergens. This article presents an updated view on the epidemiological and clinical aspects of contact allergy to metals, focusing on prevention strategies and risk factors, and warns about possible and new sources of contact.


Os metais, especialmente o níquel, são os sensibilizantes de contato mais comuns em crianças. Dados recentes revelam aumento na incidência da alergia deste em países industrializados. A sensibilização pode ocorrer em qualquer idade, mesmo em recém-nascidos. Bijuterias, especialmente brincos nas orelhas, são ligadas ao aumento da sensibilização ao níquel. A sensibilização ao cobalto geralmente ocorre pelo uso de bijuterias. A fonte mais comum de sensibilização ao cromo é o couro. Devido à ausência de terapia específica, o principal tratamento consiste em identificar e evitar os alérgenos responsáveis. Este artigo pretende apresentar uma visão atualizada sobre os aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos da alergia de contato aos metais, focando estratégias de prevenção e fatores de risco, além de alertar sobre as possíveis e novas fontes de contato.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Chromium/adverse effects , Cobalt/adverse effects , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact , Nickel/adverse effects , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/therapy , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Risk Factors
14.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2012. 119 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-681530

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar em uma população de pacientes ortodônticos aqueles que são alérgicos ao níquel, bem como verificar se existem diferenças entre esses indivíduos, considerando especificamente a condição gengival e sanguínea em caráter longitudinal, através da utilização de braquetes convencionais e níquel free no tratamento ortodôntico. A população do estudo foi composta por 80 pacientes, de ambos os gêneros, faixa etária 10 anos e 8 meses a 43 anos e 1 mês. Para diagnóstico da alergia ao níquel, foram realizados testes de contato 1 mês antes do início do tratamento. Quarenta e dois pacientes apresentaram alergia e foram divididos de forma randomizada em 2 grupos...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Orthodontic Appliances , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Hypersensitivity/therapy , Nickel/adverse effects
15.
Cuad. méd.-soc. (Santiago de Chile) ; 52(4): 199-214, 2012. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-727953

ABSTRACT

Se describe la presencia de concentraciones elevadas de mercurio en el agua potable del pueblo de Caimanes y la presencia de concentraciones muy elevadas de manganeso, mercurio, hierro, níquel y molibdeno en el estero Pupío. La evidencia sugiere que estos niveles elevados de elementos tóxicos provienen de filtraciones del tranque de relaves El Mauro en la IV Región de Chile. Se describen los efectos diferidos de la exposición crónica y prenatal a estos elementos tóxicos.


The presence of high amounts of mercury in drinking water in the town of Caimanes and presence of very high concentrations of manganese, mercury, iron, nickel and molybdenum in the Pupio river is reported. Evidence suggests that these increased concentrations of toxic elements result from the El Mauro mining tail filtrations in the IV Region of Chile. The delayed effects of chronic and prenatal exposure to these toxic agents are described.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drinking Water/chemistry , Mining , Water Pollution , Chile , Environmental Pollution , Iron/analysis , Iron/adverse effects , Mining Wastes , Manganese/analysis , Manganese/adverse effects , Mercury/analysis , Mercury/adverse effects , Molybdenum/analysis , Molybdenum/adverse effects , Nickel/analysis , Nickel/adverse effects
16.
Braz. oral res ; 25(1): 85-90, Jan.-Feb. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595845

ABSTRACT

Nickel-free braces have gained popularity as a viable alternative for patients who are allergic to nickel. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether evidence exists to justify the use of nickel-free brackets in orthodontic patients who are allergic to nickel. An electronic search was performed using 7 databases (MEDLINE, BBO, LILACS, Web of Science, EMBASE, BIREME and Cochrane Library), without restriction regarding year or language, with supplemental manual searching of the references of retrieved articles. The search strategy produced 89 papers. The data extraction and quality score of each paper were evaluated independently by two reviewers, once each. After selection based on the eligibility criteria, four papers, including 2 controlled clinical trials and 2 clinical trials, qualified for the final analysis. Quality assessment of the included articles was also performed. Nickel-free braces (Ni content - 2 percent max.) seem to represent a viable alternative for orthodontic patients who are allergic to nickel. However, further in vivo studies, considering the immunology characteristics of patients, are needed to determine the clinical implications of the findings of this study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypersensitivity/prevention & control , Nickel/adverse effects , Orthodontic Brackets/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
17.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2011; 17 (6): 490-494
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-159071

ABSTRACT

Currently no reports are available from Egypt regarding occupational exposure to nickel and its effects on the liver. The aim of this study was to assess the liver function of workers occupationally exposed to nickel. Standard liver function tests were applied to blood samples from 25 nickel-plating workers in Damietta, Egypt and 30 administrative workers as a reference group. Levels of urine nickel, measured by inductively coupling plasma-emission spectroscopy, were significantly higher in nickel-exposed workers compared with the reference group. The levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly higher in nickel-exposed workers. The level of serum albumin was significantly negatively correlated and the levels of serum aminotransferases, and serum gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase were significantly positively correlated with urine nickel levels. Liver function is compromised in nickel-plating workers compared with non-exposed administrative workers


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Nickel/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure , Nickel/urine
18.
JPAD-Journal of Pakistan Association of Dermatologists. 2011; 21 (1): 1-3
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110026
19.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 86(2): 149-154, mar.-abr. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-546095

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência da alergia de contato aos metais em crianças que frequentam um centro de saúde e caracterizar o subgrupo com alergia em relação aos fatores de risco. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal não controlado, conduzido em um centro de saúde de Belo Horizonte (MG). Foram incluídas crianças com idades entre 0 e 12 anos que se apresentaram para consulta pediátrica de rotina, sendo aplicados testes de contato para o cromo, o cobalto e o níquel. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas com base na leitura do teste em 96 horas. Leituras classificadas como fraca (+), forte (++) ou extrema (+++) foram consideradas como reação, enquanto as classificadas como duvidosa, negativa ou irritativa foram consideradas como não reação. RESULTADOS: Completaram o estudo 144 crianças. Destas, 4,9 por cento apresentaram reação ao cromo, 9,7 por cento ao cobalto e 20,1 por cento ao níquel. Os pacientes com orelha perfurada tiveram mais chance de reação ao níquel do que aqueles sem essa característica (p = 0,031 e odds ratio = 2,8). CONCLUSÕES: Em face da tendência atual ao aumento da alergia ao níquel, familiares devem ser alertados sobre a sua associação com a perfuração das orelhas. Estudos posteriores são necessários para avaliar a idade ideal para a perfuração das orelhas e o material ideal para brincos.


OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of metal contact allergy among the children seen at a health center and to characterize children with metal allergies in terms of risk factors. METHODS: This was an uncontrolled cross-sectional study undertaken at a health center in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Children aged from 0 to 12 years were recruited when they presented at the health center for routine pediatric consultations and were given contact tests for chrome, cobalt and nickel. Statistical analyses were conducted on test readings taken at 96 hours. Results classed as weak (+), strong (++) or extreme (+++) were defined as "reaction," while those classed as doubtful, negative or irritant were defined as "no reaction." RESULTS: A total of 144 children completed the study protocol. Of these, 4.9 percent exhibited a reaction to chrome, 9.7 percent to cobalt and 20.1 percent to nickel. Patients with pierced ears were more likely to react to nickel than those without pierced ears (p = 0.031 and odds ratio = 2.8). CONCLUSIONS: In view of the current tendency for the prevalence of nickel allergy to increase, parents should be warned about its association with ear piercing. Further studies are needed to determine the ideal age for ear piercing and the ideal materials for earrings.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Body Piercing/adverse effects , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/etiology , Nickel/adverse effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Patch Tests , Risk Factors
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139862

ABSTRACT

Various types of metallic orthodontic appliances are used in the management of malocclusion. These appliances are placed in oral environnent under many stresses and variations such as masticatory forces, appliance loading, temperature fluctuations, varieties of ingested food and saliva. These metals undergo electrochemical reactions with the oral environment resulting in dissolution or formation of chemical compounds. Various microorganisms and many aggressive ions containing oral environment can cause material degradation (corrosion) and its associated problems during long time exposure. Orthodontic alloys must have excellent corrosion resistance to the oral environment, which is highly important for biocompatibility as well as for orthodontic appliance durability. This article reviews various aspects of corrosion (surface degradation) of orthodontic alloys. It explores the emerging research strategies for probing the biocompatibility of materials. During orthodontic treatment, use of nickel free, better corrosion resistance alloys and less use of fluoride containing toothpaste or gel is expected.


Subject(s)
Corrosion , Dental Alloys/adverse effects , Dental Alloys/chemistry , Dental Stress Analysis , Equipment Failure , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/etiology , Materials Testing/methods , Nickel/adverse effects , Orthodontic Appliances , Surface Properties
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