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1.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(3): 339-349, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339786

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA),cognitive screening is complicated by both cultural and educational factors, and the existing normative values may not be applicable. The Identification of Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) cognitive screen is a low-literacy measure with good diagnostic accuracy for dementia. Objective: The aim of this study is to report normative values for IDEA and other simple measures [i.e., categorical verbal fluency, the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) 10-word list] in representative community-dwelling older adults in SSA. Methods: Individuals aged ≥60 years resident in 12 representative villages in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania and individuals aged ≥65 years resident within three communities in Akinyele Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria underwent cognitive screening. The normative data were generated by the categories of age, sex, and education. Results: A total of 3,011 people in Tanzania (i.e., 57.3% females and 26.4% uneducated) and 1,117 in Nigeria (i.e., 60.3% females and 64.5% uneducated) were screened. Individuals with higher age, lower education, and female gender obtained lower scores. The 50th decile values for IDEA were 13 (60-64 years) vs. 8/9 (above 85 years), 10-11 uneducated vs. 13 primary educated, and 11/12 in females vs. 13 in males. The normative values for 10-word list delayed recall and categorical verbal fluency varied with education [i.e., delayed recall mean 2.8 [standard deviation (SD) 1.7] uneducated vs. 4.2 (SD 1.2) secondary educated; verbal fluency mean 9.2 (SD 4.8) uneducated vs. 12.2 (SD 4.3) secondary educated], substantially lower than published high-income country values. Conclusions: The cut-off values for commonly used cognitive screening items should be adjusted to suit local normative values, particularly where there are lower levels of education.


RESUMO Na África Subsaariana (ASS), a triagem cognitiva é complicada por fatores culturais e educacionais, além dos valores normativos existentes poderem não ser aplicáveis. O rastreio cognitivo Identification of Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) é uma medida para níveis baixos de alfabetização com boa acurácia diagnóstica para demência. Objetivo: Relatar os valores normativos para a IDEA e outras medidas simples (fluência verbal categórica, a lista de 10 palavras do Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) em idosos residentes na comunidade, representativos da ASS. Métodos: Indivíduos com idade ≥60 residentes em 12 comunidades representativas em Kilimanjaro, Tanzânia e indivíduos com idade ≥65 anos residentes em três comunidades na área governamental de Akinyele, Estado de Oyo, Nigéria, foram submetidos à triagem cognitiva. Os dados normativos foram gerados por faixas etárias, sexo e escolaridade. Resultados: Um total de 3.011 pessoas na Tanzânia (57,3% mulheres, 26,4% sem educação) e 1.117 na Nigéria (60,3% mulheres, 64,5% sem educação) foram examinadas. Os indivíduos com idade mais alta, menor escolaridade e mulheres obtiveram escores mais baixos. Os valores do percentil 50 para a IDEA foram 13 (60-64 anos) vs. 8/9 (85+ anos), 10-11 para analfabetos vs. 13 com educação primária e 11/12 em mulheres vs. 13 em homens. Os valores normativos para a evocação tardia da lista de 10 palavras e a fluência verbal categórica variaram com a educação (evocação tardia 2,8 (SD 1,7) para os sem educação, vs. 4,2 (SD 1,2) para com educação secundária; fluência verbal 9,2 (DP 4,8) para os sem educação vs. 12,2 (SD 4.3) para os com ensino médio, substancialmente inferior aos valores publicados em países de alta renda. Conclusões: Os valores de corte para testes de triagem cognitiva comumente usados devem ser ajustados para se adequar aos valores normativos locais, particularmente em níveis baixos de educação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mass Screening , Cognition , Education , Tanzania , Africa South of the Sahara , Nigeria
2.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(4): e20200361, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1279022

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Explorar o itinerário terapêutico na busca de cuidados para crianças com deficiências físicas pelos cuidadores. Métodos Um plano qualitativo descritivo que recrutou nove cuidadores de crianças com deficiência física, com consentimento, que frequentavam um Hospital Universitário Nigeriano. Foi utilizado um guia de entrevista semi-estruturado para coletar dados sobre o itinerário terapêutico, que foi definido como os caminhos percorridos pelos indivíduos para resolver o seu problema de saúde. As entrevistas foram gravadas em áudio e transcritas literalmente. Os dados foram analisados utilizando a análise do conteúdo temático. Resultados os temas emergentes revelaram que os cuidadores iniciaram o itinerário terapêutico para os respetivos filhos após a observação de quaisquer deficiências que vão para além de doenças casuais. A falta de capacidade dos hospitais privados, que servem como ponto inicial de entrada na busca de cuidados, encorajou a procura por cuidados nos hospitais públicos, lares espirituais, e clínicas tradicionais. A entrada na fisioterapia dependia de auto-referências, referências por parentes e médicos. Cuidar de crianças com deficiência física prejudicou de modo significativo a vida social, as finanças, o trabalho do cuidador; e expectativas não alcançadas de que a criança melhorasse o mais cedo possível encorajaram um pluralismo contínuo. Conclusão e implicações para a prática O fato de ter crianças com deficiências e de ter havido atraso nos progressos levou os cuidadores a práticas múltiplas e complexas na busca de cuidados de saúde.


Resumen Objetivo Explorar el itinerario terapéutico para la búsqueda de cuidado de niños con discapacidad física por parte de los cuidadores. Métodos Un diseño cualitativo descriptivo que recluta a nueve cuidadores de niños con discapacidades físicas que asisten a un hospital universitario de Nigeria. Se utilizó una guía de entrevista semiestructurada para recopilar datos sobre el itinerario terapéutico que se definió como los caminos que recorren los individuos para abordar su problema de salud. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas en audio y transcritas textualmente. Los datos se analizaron mediante análisis de contenido temático. Resultados Los temas emergentes revelaron que los cuidadores iniciaron un itinerario terapéutico para sus hijos al observar cualquier impedimento que vaya más allá de las enfermedades casuales. La falta de capacidad en los hospitales privados, que sirve como punto inicial de entrada en la búsqueda de atención, fomenta la vacilación en los hospitales públicos, hogares espirituales y clínicas tradicionales. La entrada en fisioterapia dependía de las autorremisiones, las derivaciones de familiares y médicos. El cuidado de niños con discapacidad física afectó significativamente la vida social, las finanzas y el trabajo del cuidador; y las expectativas no satisfechas de que un niño se recupere lo antes posible fomentaron el pluralismo continuo. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica El hecho de que los niños presentaran discapacidades e hitos retrasados condujo a múltiples prácticas complejas de búsqueda de atención médica entre los cuidadores. Por lo tanto, estos cuidadores se vuelven médicos pluralistas y encubiertamente no se adhieren a las prescripciones de tratamiento hospitalario.


Abstract Objective To explore the therapeutic itinerary for seeking care for children with physical disabilities by caregivers. Methods A descriptive qualitative design recruiting nine consenting caregivers of children with physical disabilities attending a Nigerian Teaching Hospital. A semi-structured interview guide was used to collect data on therapeutic itinerary which was defined as the paths taken by individuals to address their health problem. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data was analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results Emerging themes revealed that caregivers commenced therapeutic itinerary for their children upon observation of any impairments that go beyond casual illnesses. Lack of capacity in private hospitals, which serves as initial point of entry into care seeking, encourage vacillation into public hospitals, spiritual homes, and traditional clinics. Entry into physiotherapy was dependent on self-referrals, referrals by relatives, and physicians. Caring for children with physical disability significantly affected caregiver's social life, finances, work; and unmet expectations for a child to get well as soon as possible encouraged continuous pluralism. Conclusion and implications for the practice Having children presenting with impairments and delayed milestones led to complex multiple health care seeking practices among caregivers. Thus, these caregivers become medical pluralists and covertly non-adherent to hospital treatment prescriptions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Child Care , Caregivers/psychology , Disabled Children/rehabilitation , Health Services Accessibility , Poverty , Prenatal Care , Developmental Disabilities/rehabilitation , Qualitative Research , Social Stigma , Midwifery , Nigeria/ethnology
3.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1290693

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 quickly assumed a global epidemic with its attendant health, socio-political and economic impacts. Healthcare workers are particularly at increasing risk of being infected and transmitting the virus. This study assessed knowledge, attitude, practice and predictors of preventive practices toward COVD-19 among healthcare workers in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Data were collected online among health workers across health facilities in Ogbomoso. Factors associated with good practices were analyzed using Chi-square. Predictors of good preventive practices were determined by multivariate binary logistic regression. The level of statistical significance was determined to be at P < 0.05. Results: There were 132 study participants; with an average age of 31 years. Fifty-eight percent were medical laboratory scientists. Levels of good knowledge, attitude, and practices were 59.1%, 58.3%, and 38.6%, respectively. Eight-seven percent of respondents sourced COVID-19 related information via the mass media. Ninety-four percent of respondents will not stay at home if sick because of work. Age, profession, and knowledge are significantly associated with COVID-19 preventive practices. The predictors (Model II) of good COVID-19 preventive practices include being a laboratory scientist (odds ratio [OR]: 2.44 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 6.71]; P = 0.039), working in primary health facility (OR: 4.72 [95%CI: 1.08, 20.67]; P = 0.039) and having good COVID-19 knowledge (OR: 3.71 [95%CI: 1.49­9.925]; P = 0.005). Conclusion: Our study has shown the predictors of good COVID-19 preventive practices among healthcare workers and the need for policy and practice change as it relates to COVID-19 infection prevention and mitigation among healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , COVID-19 , Social Change , Health Personnel , Nigeria
4.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1284410

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the mental health needs of healthcare workers during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with a view of mitigating its impact on occupational functioning is vital. Aim: To determine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress amongst healthcare workers. Setting: The study was carried out in Nigeria during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative study using a convenience sample was conducted amongst healthcare workers. The survey comprised of two Google formatted self-report questionnaires, a 12-item General Health Questionnaire and a questionnaire containing socio-demographic, work related and knowledge of COVID-19 variables. Questionnaires were distributed via closed professional WhatsApp platforms. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: There were 313 respondents and prevalence of psychological distress was 47.0%. Females were almost twice as likely to have psychological distress as males (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.21­3.04, p = 0.006). Healthcare workers who had no contact with COVID-19 positive patients had an 87% reduced risk of psychological distress (OR = 0.13, 95%CI: 0.23­0.25, p = 0.018) compared with those who had contact with COVID-19 positive patients. Healthcare workers with poor knowledge of COVID-19 had a 44% reduced risk of psychological distress compared with those with good knowledge (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.34­0.93, p = 0.025). Conclusion: Findings revealed that healthcare workers in Nigeria reported psychological distress during COVID-19 pandemic. Greater risk was amongst females and those who had contact with COVID-19 positive patients whilst poor knowledge was protective.


Subject(s)
Psychological Distress , COVID-19 , Mental Health , Health Personnel , Nigeria
5.
Niger. j. med. (Online) ; 30(4): 356-361, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1290631

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) accounts for over 92 million confirmed cases worldwide, with over 2.06 million deaths. In the past year, more than 290 candidate vaccines have been tested; COVID-19 vaccine development was sped up, with shortened timeline, due to the urgent global need in the face of the pandemic. In addition, people with the highest risk of contracting the disease, such as health workers with a high risk of exposure, elderlies, and people with underlying comorbidities, were prioritized with vaccination rollout. The article narratively reviewed original and review articles available on PubMed and Google Scholar related to the theme to provide up­to­date information. The different templates developed and studied for COVID-19 vaccines include the whole-virus vaccine, viral vector vaccine, nucleic acid (deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid), and protein subunit vaccine. Myths impede vaccine uptake in this part of the globe. Adopting these myths leads to sharing and spreading, which negatively impacts the prevention of COVID-19 and vaccine uptake. Adverse event following immunizations (AEFIs) is classified based on severity, from minor to severe. The minor ones are common events that pose no potential health risks to the receiver of the vaccine. The type determines the safety profile, severity, and frequency of AEFIs observed with the vaccine administration. Overall, this pandemic has heightened the global level of threat awareness; it has also provided motivation to prepare for future pandemics by developing new vaccines.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines, DNA , Protein Subunits , Nigeria
6.
Ann. afr. med ; 20(3): 157-163, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | AIM | ID: biblio-1291756

ABSTRACT

Health is a human right anchored in values as a basic necessity of life. It promotes the well-being of persons, communities, economic prosperity, and national development. The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caught the world unaware and unprepared. It presented a huge challenge to the health and economic systems of every country. Across the spectrum of human endeavor and liberty, several ethical questions have been raised with regard to its management, particularly the public health control measures. Decisions for pandemic control measures are made under difficult circumstances driven by urgency and panic, with uncertainties and complexities for public goods over individual rights. Global solidarity in controlling the pandemic is being tested. National governments have the responsibility to protect public health on the grounds of common good. Political considerations should not be the basis for decision-making against the best available epidemiological data from pandemic disease dynamics. Hence, the need to adhere to the values of honesty, trust, human dignity, solidarity, reciprocity, accountability, transparency, and justice are major considerations. A literature search was conducted for the publications from academic databases and websites of health-relevant organizations. I discuss the ethical questions and challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of public health control measures using the standard ethical principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and social (distributive) justice. It is observed that, at the country level, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines are used to control the pandemic. As WHO through the COVAX strategy distributes the vaccines to less developed countries, a lot still needs to be done to address the complex bottlenecks of allocation and distribution. There is a need to ensure acceptable and transparent system that promotes cooperation, equitable access, and fair distribution of vaccines on a global scale.


Subject(s)
Ethics , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Public Health , Nigeria
7.
Babcock Univ. Med. J ; 4(1): 38-44, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1291867

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infection became a global pandemic in March 2020. The number of hospitalized cases in Nigeria and Ogun State has been on a steady increase with a concomitant rise in Mortality. This necessitates a coordinated and a more systemic approach in the management of this deadly disease.As a result of the potential effects of the disease on the socio-economic development of Ogun State, the state government granted Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo the permission to diagnose, admit and manage cases in line with Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC)/World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. This led to the establishment of a molecular laboratory and a COVID-19 task force to oversee the treatment of confirmed cases of COVID-19 disease.This protocol is developed to serve as a template for the diagnosis, admission, treatment of cases of COVID-19 diseases presenting for care in the hospital and to prevent the spread of the disease among healthcare workers within the hospital environment


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Clinical Protocols , COVID-19 , Inpatients , Hospitals, Teaching , Nigeria
8.
Babcock Univ. Med. J ; 4(1): 14-22, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1291976

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study examined the perception and practices relating to Hepatitis B infection among In-school adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 300 in-school adolescents selected by a multi-stage sampling method. Data were elicited using a pretested self-administered questionnaire which included questions relating to respondents' risky practices, and a 35-point Hepatitis B perception scale. Descriptive statistics, as well as Chi-square statistics, were generated using IBM SPSS Version 23, and the significance level was set at 0.05.Results: The mean age of the respondents was14.31 ± 1.73years and slightly over half (51.7%) were females. Less than half (45%) of the adolescents perceived themselves to be susceptible to Hepatitis B infection, while 31% perceived Hepatitis B infection to be a serious disease. Almost half (49%) of the adolescents had unfavorable perceptions. The most common risky practices among the respondents were sharing skin-piercing instruments with their family members (79%) and friends (68.7%). There are significant associations between sex (gender) and risky practices such as the practices of unsafe sex (X2= 9.11; p=0.10); having multiple sexual partners (X2= 12.08;p =0.02); and sharing skin-piercing instruments (X2= 5.52;p=0.01) with more males reporting the above practices than females. Conclusion/Recommendation: To minimize the identified risky practices and unfavorable perception, educational intervention programs aimed at promoting Hepatitis B virus preventive behaviors and increasing the level of perception of vulnerability and seriousness of HBV infection among in-school adolescents should be conducted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Perception , Public Health Practice , Hepatitis B , Adolescent , Nigeria
9.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1292904

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Neonatal morbidity and mortality have remained embarrassingly high in Nigeria compared to some countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria ranked first in the burden of neonatal deaths in Africa. Therefore, there is need to know causes of newborn diseases and deaths in our neonatal unit. The objective of the study was to describe the morbidity and mortality of newborns admitted into Special Care Baby Unit of Federal Medical Centre, Gusau, Nigeria over a 5-year period. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study covering January 2012 to December 2016. The case folders of all newborns admitted during this period were retrieved and the following information were extracted: Sex of babies, diagnoses, outcome in terms of discharges, deaths, referrals, and discharge against medical advice (DAMA). Results: A total of 3,553 neonates were admitted during the period under review. The sex ratio for males and females was 1.4:1, respectively. The major diagnoses were neonatal sepsis (NNS) 36.5%, birth asphyxia 25.6%, and prematurity 16.1%. Mortality rate was 6.6% with major contributions from birth asphyxia (35.6%), prematurity (28.1%), and NNS (12.0%). DAMA rate was 1.7%. Conclusion: This study has shown that NNS, birth asphyxia, and prematurity are the dominant causes of morbidity and mortality. These are largely preventable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child Mortality , Perinatal Death , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Nigeria
10.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1292906

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Workers' strike is a global phenomenon since antiquity. In Nigeria, health-care sector has been rocked by series of strikes spanning variable periods with immeasurable losses. Ethical consideration and inter-professional rivalry are the main concern attracting much debate in the health sector. The objectives of the study were to determine the trend of health worker's strike actions, the main agitators, and to make some recommendations. Material and Methods: This was a retrospective study of the labor ward records of the Jos University Teaching Hospital from January 1, 1985, to December 31, 2019, duration of 35 years. The data were collated and analyzed using simple percentages and the figures corrected to the nearest decimal point. Results: A total of 42 strike actions, about 2 strikes/year. The trend shows a multi-modal pattern, with the highest peak of 5 strikes in 2004 and 2013. There were cumulatively 58.5 months of strikes out of the 442 months of the period of study, giving a percentage of 13.2%. While doctors had more frequent strikes (52.3%), non-doctors under the umbrella of Joint Health Sector Union and nurse/midwives accounted for over half (58.1%) of the duration of the strikes. The resident doctors are the main agitators of doctors' strike accounting for about half (45.2%) of the total health workers' strikes, while NMA accounted for only 3 (9.4.%). Most strike actions occur at the end of the year, with spill into the first quarter of the following year. Conclusion: Health workers' strike remains a perennial problem. Inter-professional rivalry is a major challenge in the health sector with far reaching implication without immediate government intervention. Addressing challenges in the residency training program will go a long way in reducing doctors' unrest in the health sector


Subject(s)
Humans , Strikes, Employee , Withholding Treatment , Essential Public Health Functions , Nigeria
11.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1293118

ABSTRACT

Objectives: While studies on satisfaction following medical procedures are well documented, but this is not so with dental procedures. Therefore, this study aims to determine the level of satisfaction in patient undergoing intraoral examination (IOE). Material and Methods: Consecutive patients attending the oral diagnosis clinic of University of Benin Teaching Hospital from April 2020 to September 2020 were interviewed using a questionnaire modified from the modified Group Health Association of America-9 questionnaire. Results: A total number of 103 consecutive dental patients were recruited as they all agreed to participate in the study. The age range was 18­77 years with a mean age of 35.8 ± 14.3 years. There were more males (51.5%). The overall satisfaction was 82.5%. The maximum satisfactory response was on doctor's manner (93.2%), followed by staff 's manner (89.3%), comfort during IOE (80.6%), adequate explanation (78.6%), and finally by waiting time (60.2%). There was association between occupation (P = 0.04) of the patients, type of dental condition (P = 0.03), waiting time (P = 0.01), doctor's manner (P = 0.00), staff manner (P = 0.00), adequate explanation (P = 0.00), comfort during IOE (P = 0.00), and level of satisfaction. The problem rate was 16%. Conclusion: Although waiting time and adequate explanation ranked the highest in terms of unfavorable responses, the overall satisfaction of patients following IOE was generally good. The factors that influence satisfaction were occupation of the patients, type of dental condition, waiting time, doctor's manner, staff manner, adequate explanation, and comfort during IOE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Global Health , Patient Satisfaction , Diagnosis, Oral , Tertiary Care Centers , Nigeria
12.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1293117

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In 2018, malaria claimed an estimated 380,000 lives in African region, with Nigeria accounting for 24.0% (91,368) of malaria deaths from the region. Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (Pfmdr-1) genes had reduced the effective use of artemisinin combination therapy through the development of resistance to these antimalarial agents. Our study set out to determine the antimalarial drug resistance polymorphisms in Pfcrt and Pfmdr-1 genes of P. falciparum isolates among patients in Kano State, Nigeria. Material and Methods: Malaria positive samples were collected across the three senatorial districts of Kano State. The samples were amplified using nested polymerase chain reaction to detect the Pfcrt and Pfmdr-1 genes. The amplicons were sequenced and bioinformatic analysis was done using CLC Sequence viewer 8.0 and BioEdit sequence alignment editor to detect the single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Results: In the Pfcrt gene, CVIET haplotype was seen in 26.2% of the samples while only two samples showed the 86Y mutation in the Pfmdr-1 gene. All the 86Y mutations and majority of the CVIET haplotypes were detected in the patients from rural settings where some of them noted that they consumed modern and traditional (herbs) antimalarial agents. One sample was observed to have the CVIET haplotype and N86Y mutation while the other five CVIET haplotypes were seen in five separate samples. A new mutation V62A was found in the Pfmdr-1 gene as observed in one of the sample. Conclusion: It is imperative to ensure the rational use of the right antimalarial agents and employ continuous resistance surveillance/mapping to ensure synergy in malaria containment and elimination strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmodium falciparum , Polymorphism, Genetic , Malaria, Falciparum , Antimalarials , Nigeria
13.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1293230

ABSTRACT

Corneal thermal burn from domestic electric clothes pressing iron is a very rare occurrence among teenagers in Nigeria. We report the case of thermal burn to the ocular surface of a 16-year-old female, at home, from the sole plate of an electric clothes pressing iron. She presented with superficial eyelids and corneal burns (RoperHall Classification Grade II; Dua Classification Grade II). The patient was successfully managed with topical cyclopentolate 2%, topical moxifloxacin 0.5%, and tetracycline ointment. Well-documented causative agents of domestic eye injuries in the young in Nigeria are usually flying missiles. Thermal ocular injuries are quite uncommon, and when they occur, are likely due to steam burns. This report highlights the electric clothes pressing iron as a domestic hazard that caregivers must be mindful of.


Subject(s)
Humans , Eye Burns , Contact Lenses , Corneal Transplantation , Nigeria
14.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1293231

ABSTRACT

This article presents a successful orthodontic management of a 12-year-old male using a fixed orthodontic appliance (straight wire technique). His orthodontic treatment was hinged on creating enough space to accept an artificial tooth, correcting the horizontal and vertical relationships of the upper incisors to the lower and the midline shift. Ultimately, an esthetic smile was achieved; function and self-esteem were improved when the artificial tooth was finally fixed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth , Orthodontic Appliances, Fixed , Esthetics, Dental , Nigeria
15.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1293232

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a self-limiting, acute febrile vasculitis with predilection for children under-5 years. Most reports have emanated from Japan with only a few cases reported in Africa. KD presents a diagnostic dilemma and a high index of suspicion is critical as early treatment reduces the incidence of complications. We describe a 5-month-old male infant who presented with classical clinical features though with delayed diagnosis. Received moderate dose aspirin with limitation of access to intravenous immunoglobulin and who did not develop coronary artery complication. The case report highlights the diagnostic challenges faced by practitioners, made worse by the low index of suspicion inherent in our setting. The fatal complications that may be associated with KD can, therefore, be avoided. It is hoped that pediatricians in particular would become conversant with the diagnostic criteria to facilitate early diagnosis and intervention in children


Subject(s)
Humans , Obstetric Labor Complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Child , Coronary Vessels , Nigeria
16.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1293126

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Despite the growing interest and efforts by government to make popular use of antenatal care (ANC) services in Nigeria as recommended by the World Health Organization, high level of infant and maternal mortality remains a major public health challenge facing the country. Dissatisfaction toward ANC services among pregnant women may be attributed to low level of awareness. This study assessed the level of awareness and satisfaction of ANC services among pregnant women in Lagos state, Nigeria. Material and Methods: The study adopted a survey research design. A multistage sampling technique was utilized to recruit participants for this study. A validated questionnaire was used for data collection and data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Ethical approval was obtained from Babcock University Health Research Ethics Committee with approval no: BUHREC543/17. Approval was also obtained from health service commission and in the six general hospitals used for the study. Informed consent was taken and respondents were reassured of the privacy and confidentiality of the information obtained. Results: The results showed that most of the respondents (85.6%) were in their reproductive years, that is, ages 23­37. The results showed that the level of awareness had a significant influence on pregnant women's satisfaction with the services (ß = 0.460, F(1,1313) = 351.499, R2 = 0.211, P < 0.05). The level of awareness of ANC services was high (M = 4.31, SD = 1.01) on a scale of 5. Conclusion: The study concluded that awareness of ANC services positively impacts pregnant women's satisfaction with the services in Lagos state. Efforts should be made to improve the level of awareness of pregnant mothers to achieve greater satisfaction with ANC services in Lagos state.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prenatal Care , Intraoperative Awareness , Personal Satisfaction , Pregnant Women , Nigeria
17.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1293236

ABSTRACT

A 62-year-old Nigerian woman was admitted on account of cervical carcinoma Stage IV and was requested to undergo radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Six weeks after commencing this treatment she starting passing feces involuntarily through the vagina. Imaging studies revealed a high sited, medium sized, and rectovaginal fistula (RVF). RVFs have been documented as a late complication of radiotherapy for any gynecological malignancy but it occurred earlier in this patient. A preliminary surgical procedure, a sigmoid-ostomy, was performed successfully and a definitive surgery, a sigmoido-rectal anastomosis, was planned to be done in 18 months after the diagnosis of the RVF but the patient died shortly after the first procedure. The present case indicates that a RVF can occur as an early complication of radiotherapy even when it presents with mild symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Rectovaginal Fistula , Radiotherapy , Nigeria
18.
African Journal of Health Sciences ; 34(4): 475-481, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1337588

ABSTRACT

Milk, a nutrient-rich liquid food produced in the mammary glands of mammals, contains low bacterial counts when it leaves the udder, but it may get contaminated from the environment, exterior of udder, water, soil, milkers' hands and utensils. Contamination can serve as a source of spread of certain harmful human bacterial diseases like tuberculosis, diphtheria, salmonellosis and food poisoning if consumed in raw form. This study, therefore, was designed to evaluate bacteriological quality of milk samples collected from various localities within Ilesha metropolis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty (20) samples of fresh raw milk were collected in sterilized bottles from various nomadic milk hawkers in Ilesha. Methylene blue reductase test, standard plate count on standard plate count agar and isolation of possible pathogens using selective culture media was carried out on the samples. RESULTS Of the 20 samples of raw milk collected for bacteriological analysis, 3 samples were found to be of excellent quality, 5 were very good, 4 were good, 5 were fair and 3 were of poor quality. The actual standard plate count for excellent and very good quality ranged between 33-54 and 62 - 80 colony forming units (cfu). The organisms isolated and biochemically characterized from the raw milk samples were found contaminated with Escherichia coli (4 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (8 strains), Streptococcus pyogenes (5 strains), Streptococcus agalactiae (3 strains) and Enterobacter aerogenes (5 strains). African Journal of Health Sciences Volume 34, Issue No.4, July- August 2021 476 CONCLUSION The results obtained from this study showed that the milk sold in raw form could be hazardous to human health if sold without adopting hygienic measures


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteriological Techniques , Milk Sickness , Homeless Persons , Cities , Nigeria
19.
African Journal of Health Sciences ; 34(4): 482-417, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1337599

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has redefined life as a whole. The lack of knowledge about the safe practices needed to manage the spread of the global pandemic could be detrimental to public health. This dearth of knowledge and inappropriate practices could increase the spread of the coronavirus and lead to high mortality rates in a country like Nigeria where access to healthcare services is limited. The study's objective was to assess the health knowledge and practices of Nigerian residents in the face of the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study adopted a cross-sectional online survey which was conducted from January 2 to February 1, 2021. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on the socio-demographics characteristics of respondents, the knowledge of COVID-19 and health management practices related to the virus. The reliability of the instrument yielded 0.72 internal consistency and the data were analyzed using descriptive and logistic regression at p<0.05. RESULTS A total of 1,988 respondents participated in the study; 49.3% of this number were urban residents, 63.0% were males, 58.1% were married, and 67.4% had tertiary education. Overall, the mean score was 9.44±1.8 (72.6%) for knowledge and 6.72±3.1 (56%) for appropriate practices. Rural residence (OR = 0.552, 95% CI 0.351­0.868), female gender (OR = 4.494, 95% CI 3.264­6.187), aged 50 years and above (OR = 0.137, 95% CI 0.071-0.261), married status (OR = 5.004, 95% CI 3.242­7.724), tertiary education (OR = 7.049, 95% CI 4.362­ 11.391), Yoruba ethnicity (OR = 2.828, 95% CI 1.292­6.187), and good knowledge of COVID-19 (OR = 1.905, 95% CI 1.376­2.637) significantly predict appropriate practices. CONCLUSION A substantial number of our respondents had good knowledge but lacked appropriate practices towards COVID-19. The beliefs of the people influenced inappropriate practices just as adequate practice was associated with good African Journal of Health Sciences Volume 34, Issue No.4, July- August 2021 483 knowledge. There is a need for adequate sensitization programmes which might require the use of local languages/dialects and Nigerian Pidgin English to reduce the misinformation surrounding the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , Knowledge of Results, Psychological , Culture , COVID-19 , Nigeria
20.
kanem j. med. sci ; 15(1): 1-12, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1341992

ABSTRACT

Background: In developing countries, the lack of accessible, affordable and acceptable orthodox care makes a significant proportion of the populace patronize the nearby available and cheap traditional birth attendants (TBAs) that share similar local custom and tradition. Although there are widely diverging shreds of evidence regarding their effectiveness as health care providers, they may have a limited role as a workforce during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic where the more community-based distribution of commodities is increasingly considered due to movement restrictions. However, it is still doubtful if their integration into the formal health system may substantially contribute to basic health care delivery especially in the rural often hard to reach areas. Objectives: To explore the various roles of TBAs in reproductive health service delivery with implication for redefining their roles especially with the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology: We searched and reviewed relevant literature on TBAs in PubMed, Africa Journals Online (AJOL) and Google scholar and relevant institutional websites for the role of TBAs pre and during the pandemic. The databases searched yielded 92 articles of potential significance to this review. After title/abstract review, 65 articles were moved to full document review. Nineteen articles explicitly and strictly focusing on TBAs concerning reproductive health were included in this review. Results: TBAs are providers of a wide range of reproductive health services and training to expand their roles and makes them safer is necessary for any consideration of their engagement; this implies the fight against COVID-19. TBAs should only be engaged if the gap in the resources for health must be filled by leveraging on their existing traditional roles and acceptance in the community. Conclusion: TBAs are widely utilised providers of care to their communities especially in the area of maternal care. With increasing emphasis on community-based services in healthcare delivery and the emergence of COVID-19, their roles must be reviewed and updated regularly to redefine their role in the health care delivery system especially because of the myriad personal and technical limitations associated with them. Any engagement with them should be with caution and as a stop-gap measur.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Delivery of Health Care , COVID-19 , Midwifery , Databases, Bibliographic , Reproductive Health , Nigeria
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