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1.
African Journal of Disability ; 11(1): 1-11, 28/10/2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1399383

ABSTRACT

It is estimated that over 75.0% of households in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in agriculture, and the majority of the poor in rural areas rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. One billion people living with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries are argued to make up the poorest of the poor, yet to our knowledge, no literature has captured the livelihood of people living with disabilities in the context of farming in Nigeria, specifically northern Nigeria where most of the households are involved in agriculture and related activities. Objectives: This article reports on findings from a study that sought to understand disability in the context of northern Nigerian farming, with a particular focus on the role and lived experiences of people living with disabilities working in the agricultural sector. Method: A survey questionnaire was developed and captured the experiences of 1067 people living with disabilities working in the agricultural sector across five states (Adamawa, Bauchi, Jigawa, Kaduna and Yobe) in northern Nigeria. Results: Findings indicate that people with disabilities are actively participating in agricultural activities for several reasons, which specifically included 'forced to and for survival'. When participants reported needing care, this was predominantly provided by family members. Findings also showed that participants with disabilities experienced several economic and sociocultural challenges because of their impairments. Conclusion: This study adds to the very limited literature on farmers living with disabilities in sub-Saharan Africa and so highlights the need for more research to be conducted with farmers living with disabilities in Nigeria, particularly female farmers living with disabilities. These will provide more evidence pertaining to the experiences of farmers living with disabilities in order to provide effective disability- and gender-inclusive agricultural and entrepreneurship programmes in Nigeria. Contribution: The results of this research reveal important insights relating to the experiences of farmers living with disabilities in northern Nigeria, which can contribute to informing future developmental projects to achieve effective inclusion and actively benefit people living with disabilities


Subject(s)
Disabled Persons , Agriculture , Social Discrimination , Farmers , Northern Territory , Nigeria
2.
African Health Sciences ; 22(1): 51-61, March 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400323

ABSTRACT

Background: This study determined the prevalence of risky sexual behaviour and its associated factors among clients who accessed HIV counselling and testing services at a secondary referral hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective review of clients' records was conducted. The Client Intake Form of people who accessed HIV counselling and testing services at Mainland Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria between July 1, 2016, and December 31, 2017, were reviewed. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine the associated factors of risky sexual behaviour. Results: A total of 4273 client's records were analyzed, 3884 (90.9%) reported having sex before HIV counselling and testing (HCT). The prevalence of risky sexual behaviour among clients was 41.5%. More males and HIV positive clients had unprotected sex with a casual partner three months before HIV counselling and testing (p < 0.05). More singles than the married had unprotected sex with casual partners (p <0.001) and multiple sexual partners (p =0.002). The prevalence of risky sexual behaviour reduced with advancing age. Being single and having an HIV infection were associated with risky sexual behaviour in this study. Conclusion: Age, marital status and HIV status were associated factors of risky sexual behaviour


Subject(s)
HIV , Sexuality , Health Risk Behaviors , Asexuality , TATA-Binding Protein Associated Factors , Nigeria
3.
African Health Sciences ; 22(1): 410-417, March 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400643

ABSTRACT

Background: Although an increasing access to ART in sub-Saharan Africa has made it possible for HIV/AIDS patients to live longer, clinicians managing such patients are faced with the challenge of drug-related metabolic complications. Methods: A cross -sectional study was carried out at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, on three groups of participants; namely HIV patients on ART, ART-naïve patients and HIV negative subjects (n =75). Demographic and anthropometric data were collected using a well-structured questionnaire while biochemical parameters were measured using colorimetric methods. Results: The highest prevalence of MS was associated with the HIV/AIDS patients on ART (i.e. 32.0 %, and 50.3% for NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria respectively). Patients on ART had significant increases (p< 0.05) in waist to hip ratio, FPG, serum TG and LDL-c; and a significantly higher (p< 0.05) prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, low HDL-c and hypertriglyceridemia compared to the ART-naïve patients. Low serum HDL-c was the most prevalent form of dyslipidemia in all three groups and the most prevalent component of MS in HIV patients. Conclusion: ART increases the risk of MS and CVD. HIV/AIDS patients on ART should be advised on lifestyle modifications and undertake regular assessment of their cardiovascular risk factors


Subject(s)
Patients , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Activation, Metabolic , Africa South of the Sahara , Physostigma , Nigeria
4.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 1-12, 2022-10-26. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400765

ABSTRACT

Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a global public health problem that affects the quality of life, interpersonal, occupational, and social functioning of sufferers. Despite being high-risk groups, there is a paucity of data on erectile dysfunction among commercial vehicle drivers and motorcycle riders. Objectives: We aimed to determine and compare the prevalence and factors associated with ED among long-distance commercial vehicle drivers (CVDs) and commercial motorcycle riders (CMRs) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: We used a comparative cross-sectional study design to enroll eligible male respondents in selected motor/motorcycle parks within Ibadan metropolis. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to elicit sociodemographic/health-related characteristics, and ED status among participants. Data was analyzed using STATA version 12. Chi-square and Binary logistic regression were conducted to explore the association between ED and other covariates. Analyses were performed at 5% significance level. Results: The prevalence of ED was significantly higher among motorcycle riders than vehicle drivers (71.4% vs 47.4%, p = 0.001). Predictors of ED among CMRs were monogamous marriage type and history of perineal injury; while among CVRs were aged above 40-years, history of perineal injury, and current use of alcohol. Conclusion: There is a need for public education and awareness programmes on ED to reduce the burden and improve well-being in these populations


Subject(s)
Motorcycles , Global Health , Erectile Dysfunction , Interpersonal Relations , Motor Vehicles , Basic Training for Drivers , Nigeria
5.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 34-46, 2022-10-26. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400951

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study is to determine the current practice level of family planning and the associated factors among public secondary school teachers in Enugu East Senatorial District. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out among public secondary school teachers, aged 18 - 60 years, in Enugu East Senatorial District, using probability proportional to size sampling and systematic random sampling to select 1000 participants. Binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine association. An odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed to determine the level of significance. Results: The current practice level of family planning is 26.5%. Respondents with bachelor's in education were 2 times more likely to be a current user of family planning (AOR=2.39; 95% CI: 1.25-4.55). However, respondents in age group 38 years and above were less likely to be a current user of family planning (AOR=0.64; 95% CI: 0.43-0.95), likewise female respondents (AOR=0.66; 95% CI: 0.44-0.98). Additionally, respondents who mentioned radio (AOR=0.64; 95%CI: 0.44-0.93), social media (AOR=0.73; 95% CI: 0.53-0.99) and healthcare (AOR=0.61; 95%CI: 0.43-0.88) as source of information were less likely to be current user of family planning. Whereas partner who encouraged the use of family planning (AOR=2.54; 95% CI: 1.71-3.78) span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-weight: bold">, partner who allow each other to decide on family planning methods (AOR=4.47; 95% CI: 2.67-7.48) and those who had good knowledge of family planning (AOR=1.96; 95% CI: 1.40- 2.67) were more likely to be current user of family planning. Conclusion: The level of current practice of family planning is low and a significant number of factors predict the current practice of family planning. A family planning educational workshop among teachers is needed to improve teacher's knowledge on family planning to address the issue of adolescent sexual reproduction as teachers are vessels of knowledge impartation to students


Subject(s)
Current Procedural Terminology , Family Planning Services , Family Practice , School Teachers , Nigeria
6.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 47-61, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400957

ABSTRACT

Background Information: According to the United Nations, about 150 million youth spent most of their time on the street, or better still, homeless. This is becoming a global phenomenon and majority of this vulnerable people live in large cities and urban areas of developing countries. Street youths are among the high risk, insecure and vulnerable groups who are often exposed to various forms of abuses and diseases, including reproductive health issues. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study carried out among street youths in Ikorodu Local Government, Lagos State using a multi staged sampling technique. Frequency tables were drawn at the univariate level, chi squared was used to test for association between socio-demographic characteristics and sexual risk level. Data was analyzed using SPPSS version 22, p value was set at 0.05 Results: Almost half 48(48.5%) of the respondents were between the age range 20-24years and two third 61(61.6%) of them were female and 27(27.3%) had up to senior secondary education attainments. Majority 73(73.7%) of them have been on the street for more than 3months and 32 (32.3%) professed that the reason they were on the street was to search for job while 25 (25.3%) because of family disharmony among parents. Eighty-six (86.9%) of the respondents were sexually active, 31 (36.0%) of which have more than four sexual partners. Duration of stay on the street and their educational status were determinants of risky sexual behavior and polygamous setting was found to be statistically significant (p value =0.035) with reproductive health challenges. Conclusion: There is high risk sexual practice among street youths in Ikorodu Local Government. Strategic interventions aimed at minimizing sexual risky behaviors among street youths should focus on reducing the duration of stay on the street as well as increasing access to contraception


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Homeless Youth , Reproductive Health , Nigeria , United Nations
7.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 108-116, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401066

ABSTRACT

Background: Drotaverine, a spasmolytic, has been found to have potential to achieve a reduction in the duration of labor and prevent prolonged labor. Objective: To compare the effects of intravenous drotaverine hydrochloride with placebo for shortening the duration of active phase of labor in primigravida's. Methods: A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of 246 primigravida's in active phase of labor at term was conducted. They were randomly (1:1 ratio) administered intravenous 2 ml (40mg) of drotaverine hydrochloride or 2 ml of Vitamin B complex as placebo. The primary outcome measure was the duration of active phase of labor. The secondary outcome measures were cervical dilatation rate, oxytocin augmentation rate, incidence of prolonged labor, labor pain scores, mode of delivery, maternal and neonatal outcomes. Results: The mean duration of active phase of labor (hour) was significantly lower in the drotaverine group compared to the control (drotaverine; 6.22 ± 2.41 vs placebo; 8.33 ± 3.56; p <0.001). Also, the cervical dilatation rate (cm/hr) was significantly faster in the drotaverine arm (drotaverine; 1.68 ± 1.02 versus placebo; 1.06 ± 0.53, p <0.001). There was a significantly higher probability of faster delivery among women who were given drotaverine (log-rank test, p < 0.001). The oxytocin augmentation rate, incidence of prolonged labor, labor pain scores, mode of delivery, maternal and neonatal outcomes were not significantly different among the groups. Conclusions: Drotaverine hydrochloride is effective in shortening the duration of active phase of labor without adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, more evidence is needed to explore its role in active phase of labor among primigravid women. Trial registration number: PACTR201810902005232


Subject(s)
Parasympatholytics , Placebos , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Duration of Therapy , Telomere Shortening , Nigeria
8.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 296-306, 2022-10-26. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401337

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic and progressive endocrine disorder that may result in macro and microvascular complications. Objective: This study assessed some biochemical analytes in Nigerians who were recently (≤ 6 months) diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: 160 T2DM and 90 non-diabetic control participated in this study. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (HFABP), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), electrolytes, lipid and renal profile parameters, glycated haemoglobin (HBA1C) and fasting blood glucose (FBG), using standard guidelines. Result: The body mass index (BMI) of the T2DM volunteers was higher than control (P <0.001). The lipid profile, potassium, glucose, HBA1C, urea and creatinine values were elevated (P <0.001) while estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was lower (P<0.05) in diabetes. The median HFABP and hs-CRP were raised (P <0.05) in T2DM. Positive associations existed between FBG and urea (P <0.001), Creatinine and HBAIC (P <0.001). A logistic regression analysis, shows that an increased BMI, HBA1C, FBG, Cholesterol, urea and creatinine were associated with higher odds (p<0.001) of cardiovascular and renal complications. Conclusion: Elevated hs-CRP, glycated haemoglobin, urea and creatinine among T2DM increase the odds of cardiovascular and renal insults in this population


Subject(s)
Glycated Hemoglobin A , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , C-Reactive Protein , Nigeria
9.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 336-348, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401339

ABSTRACT

Background: Physical inactivity and unhealthy diet are leading risk factors for cardiovascular diseases globally. Limited studies have assessed the prevalence of these risk factors in community-based settings in Nigeria. Objectives: This study assessed the prevalence of physical activity and the dietary pattern of residents in selected semi-urban communities in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out among 500 randomly selected residents from two semi-urban communities. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select households and participants. Data were collected using a pretested modified version of the WHO STEPS instrument. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were determined at 5% level of significance. Results: The mean age was 35.36 ± 12.24 and a mean household size of 4.07 ± 1.85. Majority (87.2%) of the respondents engaged in low physical activity (< 150-300 min/wk). Consumption of fruits and vegetables was low among respondents at 33% and 36.4% respectively. The employment status of respondents was significantly related to expected workplace physical activity level (χ2=11.27; P=0.024). Conclusions: This study highlights the need for the development and implementation of community-driven, multi-layered public health promotion initiatives across different settings


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Exercise , Diet , Sedentary Behavior , Residence Characteristics , Nigeria
10.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 486-494, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401558

ABSTRACT

Background: Lagos State has the highest burden of COVID-19 in Nigeria. We assessed associated factors with death from COVID-19 among hospitalized patients in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using de-identified records of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted into 15 isolation centers in Lagos State between February 27, 2020, and September 30, 2020. Results: A total of 2,858 COVID -19 patients were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 41.9±15.5 years. A higher proportion of patients were males (65.8%), asymptomatic (55.5%), had no comorbid condition (72.2%) and had the mild disease (73.8%). The case fatality rate was 6.5%. The odds of death from COVID-19 infection increased by 4% with every increase in age (AOR 1.04, 95%CI 1.03­1.05, p<0.001). The chance of dying was 50%-fold more among males (AOR 1.5, 95%CI 1.0 ­ 2.2, p = 0.042), 60%-fold more among patients with comorbidity (AOR 1.6, 95%CI 1.3 ­ 2.4, p = 0.037) and 9-fold more among patients with severe COVID-19 infection (AOR 9.6, 95% CI 4.9 ­ 19.1, p <0.001). Conclusion: The odds of dying was higher among males, the elderly, patients with comorbidity and severe COVID-19


Subject(s)
TATA-Binding Protein Associated Factors , Fetal Death , COVID-19 , Patients , Nigeria
11.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 512-519, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401813

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic may decrease the quantum of care for patients with neurosurgical conditions. Objectives: To determine outpatient clinic (OPC) patient load, neurosurgical procedures volume and disease spectrum following the institution of a new care protocol during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and compare with previous practice data in our institution. Methods: A monocentric retrospective analysis of all patients requiring neurosurgical care over a 2-year period. Results: There was a 42.4% reduction in OPC attendance and 41.8% reduction in surgical procedures in 2020 compared to 2019. There was >60 percent reduction in the volume of surgery that was done at the onset and peak of the pandemic, but this has normalized in November 2020 despite the resurgence of COVID-19, after the institution of a new care protocol. Neurotrauma procedures (29.6%) were the most common neurosurgical operation in 2020 while congenital malformation surgery (37.3%) was the most common procedure performed in 2019. Conclusions: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic initially led to significant decrease in quantum and spectra of patients who presented at the OPC and for neurosurgical procedures. Instituted local protocol and Teleclinics, if added to clinical care armamentarium, may help to improve on the low patient attendance during pandemics


Subject(s)
Outpatients , Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Neurosurgery , Neurosurgical Procedures , Nigeria
12.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 718-725, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401990

ABSTRACT

Background: Functional iron deficiency has been found to be a common cause of poor response to erythropoiesis stimulating agents in anaemic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objectives: Assess the functional iron status of patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods: This was a hospital based cross sectional study. The study subjects were chronic kidney disease patients with age and sex matched healthy controls. Full blood count, serum ferritin, soluble transferring receptor, C-reactive protein, serum iron and total iron binding capacity were measured in the patients and healthy controls. Data was analyzed with statistical package for the social sciences software version 22.0. And the level of statistical significance was set at p. value < 0.05. Results: The mean ± SD of the age of patient with CKD was 55.0 + 15.4 years, while that of controls was 52.7 + 13.6 years. The mean serum ferritin, serum iron, TIBC and CRP were significantly higher in patients compared with controls (p<0.001, 0.023, <0.001 and 0.001) respectively. Functional iron deficiency was seen in 19.5% of patients with CKD. Conclusion: The predominant form of iron deficiency in our study was functional iron deficiency


Subject(s)
Colonic Diseases, Functional , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Iron Deficiencies , Anemia, Aplastic , Patients , Hematinics , Nigeria
13.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1353242

ABSTRACT

Background: To improve healthcare access and mitigate healthcare costs for its population, Nigeria established a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 1999. The NHIS remains Nigeria's leading vehicle for achieving universal health coverage; nonetheless, questions remain regarding its quality and effectiveness. Studies on patient satisfaction have served as a useful strategy to further understand the patient experience and the efficacy of health systems. Aim: To synthesise current knowledge on patient satisfaction with the NHIS. Methods: The authors performed a systematic review of primary literature from 1999 to 2020 reporting on NHIS patient satisfaction in eight databases (including PubMed, Embase, and Africa-wide Information). Results: This search returned 764 unique records of which 21 met criteria for full data extraction. The 21 qualifying studies representing 11 of the 36 Nigerian states, were published from 2011 to 2020, and found moderate overall satisfaction with the NHIS (64%). Further, when disaggregated into specific domains, NHIS enrolees were most satisfied with provider attitudes (77%) and healthcare environments (70%), but less satisfied with laboratories (62%), billings (62%), pharmaceutical services (56%), wait times (55%), and referrals (51%). Importantly, time trends indicate satisfaction with the NHIS is increasing ­ although to differing degrees depending on the domain. Conclusion: The beneficiaries of the NHIS are moderately satisfied with the scheme. They consider it an improvement from being uninsured, but believe that the scheme can be considerably improved. The authors present two main recommendations: (1) shorter wait times may increase patient satisfaction and can be a central focus in improving the overall scheme, and (2) more research is needed across all 36 states to comprehensively understand patient satisfaction towards NHIS in anticipation of potential scheme expansion


Subject(s)
Patient Satisfaction , Systematic Review , Insurance, Health , Program Evaluation , Costs and Cost Analysis , Nigeria
14.
Afr. J. reprod. Health (online) ; 26(4): 1-6, 2022-06-03. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1381441

ABSTRACT

The study attempts at estimating the sex-ratio at birth in Nigeria. The study focuses on demographic surveys with complete maternity histories, including some 0.50 million births. It compares results with published estimates from births in health facilities and a few data from vital registration, including some 1.13 million births. Results from demographic surveys give an estimate of about 106 boys for 100 girls. There were no significant variations by large region in the country, and no significant trend over the years (1990-2018). Published estimates provided a similar value (106.2), with somewhat lower value in health facilities (105.3), and somewhat higher values in local vital registration (106.8), and major variations among available studies. Despite uncertainty, Nigeria appears to have higher sex-ratios than most African countries, with the exception of Ethiopia, and higher values than its five neighboring countries. Reasons for these high values of the secondary sex-ratio are discussed. (Afr J Reprod Health 2022; 26[4]: 92-97).


Subject(s)
Women , Demography , Vital Statistics , History , Hospitals, Maternity , Parturition , Men , Nigeria
15.
African Journal of Disability ; 11: 1-11, 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1397039

ABSTRACT

It is estimated that over 75.0% of households in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in agriculture, and the majority of the poor in rural areas rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. One billion people living with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries are argued to make up the poorest of the poor, yet to our knowledge, no literature has captured the livelihood of people living with disabilities in the context of farming in Nigeria, specifically northern Nigeria where most of the households are involved in agriculture and related activities. Objectives: This article reports on findings from a study that sought to understand disability in the context of northern Nigerian farming, with a particular focus on the role and lived experiences of people living with disabilities working in the agricultural sector. Method: A survey questionnaire was developed and captured the experiences of 1067 people living with disabilities working in the agricultural sector across five states (Adamawa, Bauchi, Jigawa, Kaduna and Yobe) in northern Nigeria. Results: Findings indicate that people with disabilities are actively participating in agricultural activities for several reasons, which specifically included 'forced to and for survival'. When participants reported needing care, this was predominantly provided by family members. Findings also showed that participants with disabilities experienced several economic and sociocultural challenges because of their impairments. Conclusion: This study adds to the very limited literature on farmers living with disabilities in sub-Saharan Africa and so highlights the need for more research to be conducted with farmers living with disabilities in Nigeria, particularly female farmers living with disabilities. These will provide more evidence pertaining to the experiences of farmers living with disabilities in order to provide effective disability- and gender-inclusive agricultural and entrepreneurship programs in Nigeria. Contribution: The results of this research reveal important insights relating to the experiences of farmers living with disabilities in northern Nigeria, which can contribute to informing future developmental projects to achieve effective inclusion and actively benefit people living with disabilities.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Social Discrimination , Farmers , Learning Disabilities , Nigeria
16.
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences ; 32(5): 993-1006, 5 September 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398613

ABSTRACT

Catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment are the outcomes of poor financing mechanisms. Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of these outcomes among non-communicable disease patients in private and public health facilities. METHODS: A health facility-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 patients with non-communicable diseases (180 per group) selected through multistage sampling. Data were collected with a semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed with IBM SPSS for Windows, Version 22.0. Two prevalences of catastrophic health expenditure were calculated utilizing both the World Bank (CHE1) and the WHO (CHE2) methodological thresholds. RESULTS: The prevalence of CHE1 (Private:42.2%, Public:21.7%, p<0.001) and CHE2 (Private:46.8%, Public:28.0%, p<0.001) were higher in private health facilities. However, there was no significant difference between the proportion of impoverishment (Private: 24.3%, Public:30.9%, p=0.170). The identified predictors were occupation, number of complications and clinic visits for catastrophic health expenditure and socioeconomic status for impoverishment in private health facilities. Level of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, number of complications and alcohol predicted catastrophic health expenditure while the level of education, socioeconomic status andthe number of admissions predicted impoverishment in public health facilities. CONCLUSION: Catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment were high among the patients, with the former more prevalent in private health facilities. Therefore, we recommend expanding the coverage and scope of national health insurance among these patients to provide them with financial risk protection. Identified predictors should be taken into account by the government and other stakeholders when designing policies to limit catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment among them


Subject(s)
Poverty , Noncommunicable Diseases , Catastrophic Health Expenditure , Health Facilities , Patients , Nigeria
17.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210047, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365229

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the patients' management pattern for restorative treatment procedures at the Restorative Dentistry Clinic at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH). Material and Methods: A descriptive and retrospective study design was employed to determine patients' management patterns for the restorative treatment procedures at the Restorative Dentistry Clinic at LASUTH. Treatment records of patients who attended the Restorative Clinic at the Lagos State University Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria, from 2011 to 2014 were reviewed; the effective treatments during the period under review were recorded as treatment procedures and were recorded as operative, endodontic, fixed prosthodontics, and removable procedures. Results: A total of 14,437 (75%) operative; 1,353 (7.0%) endodontic; and 559 (2.9%) fixed prosthodontics and 2,852 (14.9%) removable prosthodontic procedures were carried out during the period under review. This study showed that operative procedures were the most performed restorative procedures, whereas removable prosthodontics and endodontic procedures ranked second and third, respectively, to operative procedures. Fixed prosthodontics procedures were the least performed restorative procedures. Conclusion: This study showed that more efforts were being expended by dentists on operative services compared to endodontic, removable, and fixed prosthodontics services combined. Comprehensive studies, embracing all disciplines of dentistry, should be carried out to determine the level of demand and clinical relevance of procedures in clinical dental practice and hence to set specific and general objectives of dental education for the populace. Access to dental health Insurance services should also be increased in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostheses and Implants , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Costs and Cost Analysis , Dentistry, Operative , Regenerative Endodontics , Nigeria , Root Canal Therapy , Medical Records , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Denture, Partial, Fixed , Denture, Partial, Removable , Electronic Health Records , Hospitals, Teaching
18.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365233

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To determine the relationship between dental anxiety and self-reported periodontal status. Material and Methods The study was conducted among 263 patients at the Family Medicine Clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. Self-assessed gingival and periodontal disease was measured using the validated periodontal disease self-report surveillance questionnaire. The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) was used for evaluating dental anxiety. Student's t-test was used to test for association between categorical variables. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Seventy-seven (29.3%) participants had high dental anxiety, while 49 (18.6%) had very high dental anxiety. The prevalence of periodontal disease was higher among those with very high dental anxiety (77.6%), while female respondents had a significantly higher proportion of self-reported periodontitis (34.1%). There was a significantly higher prevalence of very high dental anxiety among respondents who had never visited the dentist (23.2%). Similarly, females (19.4%), middle-class respondents (30.8%), and those with a primary level of school education (23.5%) had a higher prevalence of high dental anxiety, even though the association was not significant. Conclusion The prevalence of self-reported periodontal disease among the respondents with very high dental anxiety was higher than in those with high dental anxiety and those without dental anxiety, but the difference was not significant.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Periodontal Diseases/prevention & control , Oral Health/education , Dental Anxiety , Self Report , Nigeria/epidemiology , Periodontitis , Prevalence , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Dentists
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1081-1094, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153437

ABSTRACT

Abstract Contamination of Lekki lagoon by petrogenic chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) has been widely reported. The study was aimed at investigating the bioaccumulation of PAH and BTEX in Malapterurus electricus collected from Lekki lagoon in Lagos, Nigeria. BTEX was analyzed in the intestine, water, and sediment samples using 8260B Agilent 7890B gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). While PAHs were tested in the same media using a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Histopathological analysis of the fish intestine was conducted using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains. Parasite intensity, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation activities were investigated in the fish. The parasitic infection detected in Malapterurus electricus was Electrotaenia malopteruri. The parasite showed weak and no depurative capacities for BTEX and PAH respectively. The decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in conjunction with an increase in Malondialdehyde (MDA) characterized relatively higher susceptibility among the male fish. Varieties of tissue injuries increased with the standard length of the fish groups. Results suggest that lengthier and uninfected M. electricus were more susceptible to PAH in Lekki lagoon than the shorter and infected ones. The study demonstrated a promising tendency of the enteric parasite, E. malopteruri to depurate chlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m+p-xylene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene from the intestine of its host fish, M. electricus, while PAHs were poorly mediated by the parasite.


Resumo A contaminação da lagoa Lekki por produtos químicos petrogênicos, como hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos (HAP) e benzeno, tolueno, etilbenzeno e xileno (BTEX), foi amplamente relatada. O estudo teve como objetivo investigar a bioacumulação de HAP e BTEX em Malapterurus electricus, coletados na lagoa Lekki, em Lagos, Nigéria. O BTEX foi analisado no intestino, na água e nas amostras de sedimento usando o cromatógrafo de gás Agilent 7890B 8260B acoplado a um espectrômetro de massa (GC-MS). Já os HAP foram testados no mesmo meio utilizando cromatógrafo gasoso acoplado a detector de ionização de chama (GC-FID). A análise histopatológica do intestino do peixe foi conduzida usando colorações de hematoxilina e eosina (H&E). Intensidade de parasitas, enzimas antioxidantes e atividades de peroxidação lipídica foram investigadas nos peixes. A infecção parasitária detectada em Malapterurus electricus foi Electrotaenia malopteruri. O parasita mostrou fraca e nenhuma capacidade depurativa para BTEX e HAP, respectivamente. A diminuição da superóxido dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) e glutationa reduzida (GSH), em conjunto com o aumento do Malondialdeído (MDA), caracterizou a suscetibilidade relativamente maior entre os peixes machos. Variedades de lesões nos tecidos aumentaram com o comprimento padrão dos grupos de peixes. Os resultados sugerem que os M. electricus maiores e não infectados foram mais suscetíveis aos HAP na lagoa Lekki do que os menores e infectados. O estudo demonstrou uma tendência promissora do parasita entérico E. malopteruri de depurar clorobenzeno, etilbenzeno, o-xileno, m + p-xileno e 1,4-diclorobenzeno do intestino de seu peixe hospedeiro, M. electricus, enquanto os HAP foram mal mediados pelo parasita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Parasites , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Catfishes , Toluene , Xylenes , Benzene/analysis , Benzene Derivatives , Bioaccumulation , Nigeria
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1095-1105, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153430

ABSTRACT

Abstract The exponential rise in the Nigerian population has necessitated the use of agrochemicals for enhanced agricultural yields to meet the ever-rising demand for food. However, agrochemicals such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have caused several devastating health and ecological challenges. The study was therefore aimed at assessing the bioaccumulation of OCPs and the associated parasitological and microbial susceptibility in P. obscura to determine the possible ecological impacts of the chemical. A total of 106 specimens of Parachanna obscura fish species were sampled between July and November 2019 from Lekki Lagoon in Lagos, Nigeria. Four culture media, namely nutrient agar (NA), MacConkay agar (MCA), eosin methylene blue (EMB), and sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) were employed in microbial culture. These microbes were subjected to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, gentamicin, ofloxacin, augmentin, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin to test for resistance, susceptibility and intermediate statuses before and after curing. OCPs were tested in the water, sediment, and tissues of P. obscura using gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). P. obscura sampled in the lagoon had poor growth exponent which was characterized by negative allometry (slenderness) in the sampled fish. Although the incidence of parasitic infection in the fish was not alarming, the situation might be aggravated if the prevalent anthropogenic activities persist, resulting in immunosuppression. Regulation of anthropogenic activities in the catchment area is recommended to forestall the prognosis of health and environmental hazards associated with the agricultural, industrial, pharmaceutical, and municipal activities around the lagoon. Bacteria that conferred the most resistance to the majority of the antibiotics were Staphylococcus sp., Micrococcus sp. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp., testing positive to plasmid profile. They conferred high resistance to the antibiotics before plasmid curing but became highly susceptible post- plasmid curing. This implies that the gene for resistance in the bacteria isolates was plasmid-mediated, that is, they were obtained from the environment. In the event of an outbreak of waterborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, dysentery, and diarrhea, there may be non-response to treatment among the infected inhabitants. The incidence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria colonies recorded in this study is of great public health concern, given the possibility of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria strains being passed to humans through fish consumption, resulting in increased multi-drug resistance in humans. Regulation of anthropogenic activities around the lagoon is recommended to forestall prognosis of health and environmental hazards associated with OCPs from agricultural, industrial, pharmaceutical, and municipal sources.


Resumo O aumento exponencial da população nigeriana exigiu o uso de agroquímicos para aumentar a produção agrícola e, assim, atender à crescente demanda por alimentos. No entanto, agroquímicos como pesticidas organoclorados (OCPs) causaram vários problemas de saúde e ecológicos. Portanto, o estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a bioacumulação de OCPs e a suscetibilidade parasitológica e microbiana associada em Parachanna obscura, a fim de determinar os possíveis impactos ecológicos desse produto químico. Foi amostrado um total de 106 espécimes de P. obscura entre julho e novembro de 2019 da lagoa Lekki, em Lagos, Nigéria. Quatro meios de cultura, como o ágar nutritivo (NA), o ágar MacConkay (MCA), o ágar eosina azul de metileno (EMB) e o ágar sabouraud dextrose (SDA), foram empregados na cultura microbiana. Esses micróbios foram submetidos a ceftazidima, ceftriaxona, cefuroxima, gentamicina, ofloxacina, augmentin, nitrofurantoína, ciprofloxacina e eritromicina para testar resistência, suscetibilidade e status intermediário antes e depois da cura. Os OCPs foram testados na água, sedimentos e tecidos de P. obscura usando um detector de ionização de chama por cromatografia em fase gasosa (GC-FID). Os peixes amostrados de P. obscura da lagoa apresentaram um expoente de crescimento ruim, caracterizado por alometria negativa (esbelteza). Embora a incidência de infecção parasitária nos peixes não tenha sido alarmante, a situação pode ser agravada se as atividades antropogênicas prevalecentes persistirem, resultando em imunossupressão. Recomenda-se a regulamentação de atividades antropogênicas na área de captação para prevenir o prognóstico de riscos à saúde e ecológicos associados a atividades agrícolas, industriais, farmacêuticas e municipais ao redor da lagoa. As bactérias que conferiram maior resistência à maioria dos antibióticos foram Staphylococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Escherichia coli e Klebsiella sp., com teste positivo para o perfil plasmidial. Elas conferiram alta resistência aos antibióticos antes da cura do plasmídeo, mas se tornaram altamente suscetíveis após a cura dele. Isso implica que o gene de resistência nos isolados de bactérias foi mediado por plasmídeo, ou seja, foi obtido do ambiente. No caso de surtos de doenças transmitidas pela água, como cólera, febre tifoide, disenteria e diarreia, pode haver não resposta ao tratamento entre os habitantes infectados. A incidência de resistência a antibióticos nas colônias de bactérias registradas neste estudo é de grande preocupação para a saúde pública, dada a possibilidade de que as cepas de bactérias resistentes a antibióticos sejam transmitidas aos seres humanos por meio do consumo de peixes, resultando em maior resistência a múltiplas drogas em seres humanos. Recomenda-se a regulamentação de atividades antropogênicas ao redor da lagoa para impedir o prognóstico de riscos à saúde e ecológicos associados aos OCPs de fontes agrícolas, industriais, farmacêuticas e municipais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Pesticides , Bioaccumulation , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Nigeria
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