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1.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 23: e20220228, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431258

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the success rate of labor induction and determinants of successful outcome. Methods: retrospective cohort study of parturients that undergone labor induction between 2006 and 2015. Data was retrieved from the medical records and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the determinants of successful labor induction. Results: the rate of labor induction was 10.9%. Out of the 940 women analysed, six hundred and fifty-six women (69.8%) had successful vaginal delivery. Labor induction at 39-40 weeks (OR=2.70; CI95%=1.17-6.36), 41 weeks (OR=2.44; CI95%=1.14-5.28), estimated fetal weight between 2.5 and 3.4kg (OR=4.27, CI95%=1.96-5.59) and estimated fetal weight of 3.5-3.9kg (OR=5.45; CI95%=2.81-10.60) increased the odds of achieving vaginal delivery. Conclusions: our findings suggest that 39, 40 and 41 weeks are optimal gestational ages for labor induction with respect to successful vaginal delivery. Also, estimated fetal weight between 2.5kg and 3.9kg favours successful vaginal delivery.


Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a taxa de sucesso da indução do trabalho de parto e determinantes de um resultado bem sucedido. Métodos: estudo de coorte retrospectivo de parturientes que submeteram a indução de trabalho de parto entre 2006 e 2015. Os dados foram recuperados dos registros médicos e a regressão logística multivariada foi utilizada para avaliar os determinantes da indução de trabalho de parto bem sucedida. Resultados: a taxa de indução de trabalho de parto foi de 10,9%. Das 940 mulheres analisadas, seiscentas e cinquenta e seis mulheres (69,8%) tiveram um parto vaginal bem sucedido. A indução de trabalho de parto nas 39-40 semanas (OR=2,70; IC95%=1,17-6,36), 41 semanas (OR=2,44; IC95%=1,14-5,28), peso fetal estimado entre 2,5 e 3,4kg OR=4,27; IC95%=1,96-5,59) e peso fetal estimado entre 3,5-3,9kg (OR=5,45; IC95%=2,81-10,60) aumentou as probabilidades de conseguir um parto vaginal. Conclusões: as nossas conclusões sugerem que as 39, 40 e 41 semanas são idades gestacionais ideais para a indução do trabalho de parto no que diz respeito ao sucesso do parto vaginal. Além disso, o peso fetal estimado entre 2,5kg e 3,9kg favorece o parto vaginal bem sucedido.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications , Gestational Age , Labor, Induced/statistics & numerical data , Midwifery , Cohort Studies , Hospitals, Maternity , Nigeria
2.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 24(1): 1-8, 2023. figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1414218

ABSTRACT

The current monkeypox outbreak is a public health emergency of international concern and is coming in the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Human monkeypox is a viral zoonotic infection caused by monkeypox virus, an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus of the genus Orthopoxvirus and family Poxviridae that also contain smallpox, cowpox, Orf, and vaccinia viruses. Online databases including PubMed, Google Scholar and Web of Science were searched to obtain relevant publications on the epidemiology, treatment, vaccines and the economic impacts of the current monkeypox (Mpox) outbreak.


Subject(s)
Therapeutics , Vaccines , Epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Economic Factors , Orthopoxvirus , Monkeypox , Diagnosis , Nigeria
3.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 24(1): 32-44, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1414229

ABSTRACT

Background: With the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), life expectancy of HIV-infected persons had increased and the disease is now managed as a chronic one, but the quality of life (QOL) of the patients is now a concern. Social support enhances QOL of patients with chronic illnesses. However, no study has been done to determine the QOL of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) in our environment. This study therefore assessed the QOL of PLWHA attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH), Edo State of Nigeria Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Two hundred and thirty PLWHA attending the ART clinic of ISTH, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria, were systematically selected for the study. A structured questionnaire was interviewer-administered to collect data on sociodemographic and clinical profiles of selected participants, and the WHOQOL-HIV BREF questionnaire was used to collect data the QOL of each participant. Data were analyzed with IBM SPSS version 20.0. Results: The overall mean QOL score for the participants was 89.13±1.18 (95% CI=87.95-90.31). The scores in three of the six life domains in the WHOQOL-HIV BREF instrument were similar and high; spirituality/ religion/personal beliefs (16.33±0.36), physical health (15.83±0.28) and psychological health (15.07±0.24). Lower mean QOL scores were observed in the social relationships (13.49±0.28) and environment (13.45±0.20) domains. Clinical HIV stage, marital status, educational status and gender were significantly associated with mean QOL scores in bivariate analysis while only HIV stage 1 and 2 were significantly associated with good QOL in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: It is pertinent that PLWHA are kept in early stages of HIV disease through combination of efforts such as prompt enrolment, commencement and monitoring compliance of HAART, and treatment of opportunistic infections, as well as public health measures including education, de-stigmatization, early diagnosis by extensive accessible screening/testing of at-risk population, social supports and economic empowerment, psychotherapy and social integration of affected individuals especially in a functional home.


Subject(s)
Social Support , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Compliance , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Diagnosis , Social Integration , Quality of Life , Stereotyping , Therapeutics , Public Health , Hospitals, Teaching , Nigeria
4.
Saúde Soc ; 32(3): e220212pt, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515560

ABSTRACT

Resumo Estudantes de medicina possuem diferentes opções de trajetórias acadêmicas ou profissionais após a graduação. Este estudo busca determinar as preferências de carreira entre graduandos de medicina e os fatores que contribuem para tal decisão. Pesquisa descritiva e transversal foi realizada com graduandos de medicina da Afe Babalola University, localizada em Ekiti State, Nigéria. Dados foram coletados por um questionário bem estruturado e analisados usando SPSS versão 21.0. A estatística descritiva inclui tabelas de frequência, gráficos, médias e desvios padrão. Um total de 100 graduandos participaram do estudo, dos quais 29 (29,0%) homens e 71 (71,0%) mulheres, com relação homem/mulher de 0,4 para 1. A faixa etária dos participantes foi de 21 a 30 anos, com média (±SD) de 23,5 (±1,4). Do total de participantes, 72% planejavam ingressar na pós-graduação após a faculdade de medicina, a maioria no Reino Unido, sendo o mestrado em Saúde Pública a qualificação de maior interesse. Da mesma forma, 76% dos entrevistados planejavam buscar uma bolsa de pós-graduação após a faculdade, também em sua maioria no Reino Unido. A especialidade mais procurada é Obstetrícia e Ginecologia (43%), seguida por Cirurgia (40%), Medicina de Família (34%), Medicina Comunitária (33%), Pediatria (25%) e Medicina Interna (23%), enquanto a especialidade menos procurada é Patologia Química (28%), seguida por Microbiologia Médica (27%) e Anatomia Mórbida (24%). O principal fator considerado para esta escolha é o interesse pessoal pela especialidade, seguido por perspectivas financeiras, estilo de vida confortável e horário de trabalho flexível. Mestrado em Saúde Pública e especialização em Obstetrícia e Ginecologia são as carreiras mais buscadas por graduandos de medicina, escolha majoritariamente pautada em seus interesses pessoais.


Abstract Medical students have many different options of academic and professional undertakings after graduation. The aim of this study is to determine the career preferences of students in their final year of medical school and to determine the factors that contributed for such decision. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study involving the final-year medical students of Afe Babalola University, Ekiti State, Nigeria. A well-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The data was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. Descriptive statistics included frequency tables, charts, means and standard deviations. A total number of 100 final-year medical students participated in the study, out of which 29 (29.0%) were males and 71 (71.0%) were females, with a male to female ratio of 0.4 to 1. The age range of the respondents was 21 to 30 years, with a mean(±SD) of 23.5(±1.4). 72% of the respondents planned to pursue a postgraduate academic qualification after graduating from medical school, mostly in the United Kingdom, and a Master of Public Health was the most sought qualification. Similarly, 76% of the respondents planned to pursue a postgraduate medical fellowship after medical school, also mostly in the United Kingdom. The specialty most sought-after is Obstetrics and Gynaecology (43%), followed by Surgery (40%), Family Medicine (34%), Community Medicine (33%), Paediatrics (25%), and Internal Medicine (23%) while the least sought-after specialty is Chemical pathology (28%), followed by Medical Microbiology (27%) and Morbid Anatomy (24%). The most important factor considered by the respondents in choosing a particular specialty is their personal interest in that specialty, followed by financial prospects, comfortable lifestyle, and flexible working hours. Master of Public Health degree and postgraduate fellowship in Obstetrics and Gynaecology specialty are the career preferences for most of the final-year medical students in this study, and this is largely informed by their personal interest in these fields.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Career Choice , Education, Graduate , Nigeria
5.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(3): 386-391, July-Sept. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404989

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Prevalence of RhD negative phenotype in Nigeria is low; this leads to scarcity of RhD negative red cells for transfusion. Serological and molecular genotyping of RhD negative individuals for weak D types could reduce this scarcity. The aim of this study was to determine the serological prevalence and molecular types of weak D phenotypes among blood donors and pregnant women in Kano, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 4482 blood donors and pregnant women from three hospitals in Kano were recruited. An indirect antiglobulin test was used to determine weak D phenotypes. Molecular genotyping was performed on genomic DNA from whole blood amplified by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) with agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: The mean age of the participants was 26.50 ±5.79 years. The prevalence of the RhD negative phenotype was 4.2% (189/4482). Of the 189 RhD negative phenotypes, 20 (10.6%) were weak D positive. Molecular genotyping of the 20 Weak D positive phenotypes revealed 15 (75%) weak D type 4, of which 11 were due to the RHD*09.03 and RHD*DAR3 (T201R, F223V) polymorphisms and 4, due to RHD* 08.01 and RHD* DFV polymorphisms; 2 (10%) were due to the 602 C>G polymorphism, while the remaining 3 (15%) constituted partial D or other rare weak D types. Conclusion: The prevalence of weak D positive phenotypes is high in this study; weak D type 4 is the most common RhD genetic variant. Routine serologic weak D testing of RhD negative blood and molecular genotyping should be encouraged in resource-limited settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Transfusion , Genotyping Techniques , Phenotype , Serology , Nigeria
6.
Acta bioeth ; 28(1): 125-136, jun. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383278

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Within a psychiatric care setting, informed consent is the voluntary acceptance of a plan for medical care by a competent patient after full disclosure of the care plan, its risks, benefits, and alternative approaches. This implies that the patient must have full information about any treatment options and must be competent to make the needed decisions. Objective: To assess psychiatric nurses' knowledge and practices of obtaining informed consent. Research Method: The study used a quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected from a random sample of 99 nurses selected from a total of 131 nurses of different professional cadres working in the hospital, by means of a structured questionnaire constructed by the researchers. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Respondents' score on Knowledge of Informed Consent was above average (15.06 ± 2.671 out of a possible total score of 25). Likewise, their score on the disclosure of full information to psychiatric patients before treatment was well above average (6.01 ± 2.198 out of a maximum possible score of 8). However, respondents' score on the practice of obtaining Informed Consent was below average (2.41 ± 0.940 out of a maximum possible score of 5). Conclusion: Though a majority of the participants indicated good knowledge of informed consent, there was no corresponding correct practice of obtaining informed consent from patients in the hospital.


Resumen: Antecedentes: En un establecimiento de cuidado de la salud mental, el consentimiento informado es la aceptación voluntaria de un plan de cuidado médico de un paciente competente después de haber recibido información completa del plan, sus riesgos, beneficios y alternativas posibles. Esto implica que el paciente debe tener información completa acerca de las opciones de tratamiento y debe ser competente para realizar las decisiones necesarias. Objetivo: Evaluar el conocimiento y la práctica de obtención de consentimiento informado de enfermeras de psiquiatría. Método de investigación: El estudio usó un diseño de encuesta transversal cuantitativo y descriptivo. Los datos fueron recolectados de una muestra al azar de 99 enfermeras seleccionadas de un total de 131 de diferentes grupos profesionales que trabajan en el hospital, mediante un cuestionario estructurado desarrollado por los investigadores. Los datos se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: El puntaje de los encuestados sobre el conocimiento de consentimiento informado fue mayor del promedio (15.06 ± 2.671 de un posible puntaje total de 25). De la misma forma, su puntaje sobre la entrega de información completa a los pacientes de psiquiatría antes del tratamiento fue bastante mayor que el promedio (6.01 ± 2.198 de un máximo posible de 8). Sin embargo, los puntajes de los encuestados sobre la práctica de obtención de consentimiento informado fue por debajo del promedio (2.41 ± 0.940 de un máximo posible de 5). Conclusión: Aunque una mayoría de los participantes indicó un buen conocimiento del consentimiento informado, no hubo en correspondencia una práctica correcta de obtención de consentimiento informado de pacientes en el Hospital.


Resumo: Background: Em um ambiente de cuidados psiquiátricos o consentimento informado é a aceitação voluntária de um plano para cuidado médico, por um paciente competente, depois da apresentação integral do plano de tratamento, seus riscos, benefícios e abordagens alternativas. Isso implica que o paciente deve ter informação completa sobre quaisquer opções de tratamento e deve ser competente para tomar as decisões necessárias. Objetivo: Avaliar conhecimento e práticas de enfermeiras psiquiátricas ao obter consentimento informado. Método de Pesquisa: O estudo utilizou um desenho de levantamento transversal descritivo, quantitativo. Os dados foram coletados de uma amostragem aleatória de 99 enfermeiras selecionadas de um total de 131 enfermeiras de diferente quadros profissionais trabalhando no hospital, por meio de um questionário estruturado construído pelos pesquisadores. Os dados foram analisados usando estatística descritiva. Resultados: O escore dos respondentes no Conhecimento do Consentimento Informado esteve acima da média (15.06 ± 2.671 de um escore total possível de 25). Da mesma forma, seus escores na apresentação de informação completa para pacientes psiquiátricos antes do tratamento esteve bem acima da média (6.01 ± 2.198 de um escore máximo possível de 8). Entretanto, o escore dos respondentes na prática de obter Consentimento Informado esteva abaixo da média (2.41 ± 0.940 de um escore máximo possível de out 5). Conclusão: Embora a maioria dos participantes indicou bom conhecimento do consentimento informado, não houve prática correta correspondente em obter o consentimento informado dos pacientes no hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psychiatry/ethics , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Ethics, Nursing , Informed Consent/ethics , Nurses/psychology , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sociodemographic Factors , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Nigeria
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977450

ABSTRACT

Aims@#This study was aimed to isolate and characterize biosurfactant producing bacteria from Mile 2 and Ologe Lagoon which are sinks for domestic and industrial waste waters and potential source of value added bioresources such as biosurfactants, hydrocarbon degraders and organisms with potential for biotechnological applications.@*Methodology and results@#Physicochemical parameters of the two lagoon waters were analyzed using standard procedures. Bacteria were isolated using enrichment techniques on 1% Escravos light crude oil, palm oil and groundnut oil on mineral salt medium (MSM). Biosurfactant production by the isolates was assayed by hemolytic activity, oil spread test, blue agar test and emulsification activity. Isolates were identified using their colony morphologies and biochemical characteristics, while the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined using multidisc. The physicochemistry of the lagoon water showed high nitrate content of 15.7 mg/L and 19.6 mg/L for Mile 2 and Ologe Lagoon, respectively. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) of both lagoon waters was low, with values 0.53 mg/L for Mile 2 Lagoon and 0.44 mg/L for Ologe Lagoon. The predominant genera of bacteria identified include Micrococcus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Stomatococcus and Moraxella. A total of 23 bacterial isolates were tested for hemolytic activity, of which 13 showed β-hemolysis which is presumptive for biosurfactant production, 5 showed α-hemolysis and the remaining 5 exhibited γ-hemolysis. Majority of the isolates were positive for oil spread assay and blue agar test (19) indicating production of anionic biosurfactant. The isolates showed good emulsification activity; AGG3 (67.7%), AGG1 (62.3%), AGG2 (60%), AGG4 (60%), MTP2 (56%), AGC4 (54%) and the least emulsification value of 23.3% for strain AGP1. Most of the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, perfloxacin and showed resistance to septrin and erythromycin.@*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#This study showed that Mile 2 and Ologe Lagoon are a potential source of biosurfactant producers with diverse emulsification properties and prospective industrial applications. This would have implication for economic empowerment, as well as sustainable and environmentally friendly clean-up technology in both locally and globally.


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents , Nigeria
8.
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences ; 32(5): 993-1006, 5 September 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398613

ABSTRACT

Catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment are the outcomes of poor financing mechanisms. Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of these outcomes among non-communicable disease patients in private and public health facilities. METHODS: A health facility-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 patients with non-communicable diseases (180 per group) selected through multistage sampling. Data were collected with a semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed with IBM SPSS for Windows, Version 22.0. Two prevalences of catastrophic health expenditure were calculated utilizing both the World Bank (CHE1) and the WHO (CHE2) methodological thresholds. RESULTS: The prevalence of CHE1 (Private:42.2%, Public:21.7%, p<0.001) and CHE2 (Private:46.8%, Public:28.0%, p<0.001) were higher in private health facilities. However, there was no significant difference between the proportion of impoverishment (Private: 24.3%, Public:30.9%, p=0.170). The identified predictors were occupation, number of complications and clinic visits for catastrophic health expenditure and socioeconomic status for impoverishment in private health facilities. Level of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, number of complications and alcohol predicted catastrophic health expenditure while the level of education, socioeconomic status andthe number of admissions predicted impoverishment in public health facilities. CONCLUSION: Catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment were high among the patients, with the former more prevalent in private health facilities. Therefore, we recommend expanding the coverage and scope of national health insurance among these patients to provide them with financial risk protection. Identified predictors should be taken into account by the government and other stakeholders when designing policies to limit catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment among them


Subject(s)
Poverty , Noncommunicable Diseases , Catastrophic Health Expenditure , Health Facilities , Patients , Nigeria
9.
African Journal of Disability ; 11(1): 1-11, 28/10/2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1399383

ABSTRACT

It is estimated that over 75.0% of households in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in agriculture, and the majority of the poor in rural areas rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. One billion people living with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries are argued to make up the poorest of the poor, yet to our knowledge, no literature has captured the livelihood of people living with disabilities in the context of farming in Nigeria, specifically northern Nigeria where most of the households are involved in agriculture and related activities. Objectives: This article reports on findings from a study that sought to understand disability in the context of northern Nigerian farming, with a particular focus on the role and lived experiences of people living with disabilities working in the agricultural sector. Method: A survey questionnaire was developed and captured the experiences of 1067 people living with disabilities working in the agricultural sector across five states (Adamawa, Bauchi, Jigawa, Kaduna and Yobe) in northern Nigeria. Results: Findings indicate that people with disabilities are actively participating in agricultural activities for several reasons, which specifically included 'forced to and for survival'. When participants reported needing care, this was predominantly provided by family members. Findings also showed that participants with disabilities experienced several economic and sociocultural challenges because of their impairments. Conclusion: This study adds to the very limited literature on farmers living with disabilities in sub-Saharan Africa and so highlights the need for more research to be conducted with farmers living with disabilities in Nigeria, particularly female farmers living with disabilities. These will provide more evidence pertaining to the experiences of farmers living with disabilities in order to provide effective disability- and gender-inclusive agricultural and entrepreneurship programmes in Nigeria. Contribution: The results of this research reveal important insights relating to the experiences of farmers living with disabilities in northern Nigeria, which can contribute to informing future developmental projects to achieve effective inclusion and actively benefit people living with disabilities


Subject(s)
Disabled Persons , Agriculture , Social Discrimination , Farmers , Northern Territory , Nigeria
10.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1353242

ABSTRACT

Background: To improve healthcare access and mitigate healthcare costs for its population, Nigeria established a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 1999. The NHIS remains Nigeria's leading vehicle for achieving universal health coverage; nonetheless, questions remain regarding its quality and effectiveness. Studies on patient satisfaction have served as a useful strategy to further understand the patient experience and the efficacy of health systems. Aim: To synthesise current knowledge on patient satisfaction with the NHIS. Methods: The authors performed a systematic review of primary literature from 1999 to 2020 reporting on NHIS patient satisfaction in eight databases (including PubMed, Embase, and Africa-wide Information). Results: This search returned 764 unique records of which 21 met criteria for full data extraction. The 21 qualifying studies representing 11 of the 36 Nigerian states, were published from 2011 to 2020, and found moderate overall satisfaction with the NHIS (64%). Further, when disaggregated into specific domains, NHIS enrolees were most satisfied with provider attitudes (77%) and healthcare environments (70%), but less satisfied with laboratories (62%), billings (62%), pharmaceutical services (56%), wait times (55%), and referrals (51%). Importantly, time trends indicate satisfaction with the NHIS is increasing ­ although to differing degrees depending on the domain. Conclusion: The beneficiaries of the NHIS are moderately satisfied with the scheme. They consider it an improvement from being uninsured, but believe that the scheme can be considerably improved. The authors present two main recommendations: (1) shorter wait times may increase patient satisfaction and can be a central focus in improving the overall scheme, and (2) more research is needed across all 36 states to comprehensively understand patient satisfaction towards NHIS in anticipation of potential scheme expansion


Subject(s)
Patient Satisfaction , Systematic Review , Insurance, Health , Program Evaluation , Costs and Cost Analysis , Nigeria
11.
African Health Sciences ; 22(1): 51-61, March 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400323

ABSTRACT

Background: This study determined the prevalence of risky sexual behaviour and its associated factors among clients who accessed HIV counselling and testing services at a secondary referral hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective review of clients' records was conducted. The Client Intake Form of people who accessed HIV counselling and testing services at Mainland Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria between July 1, 2016, and December 31, 2017, were reviewed. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine the associated factors of risky sexual behaviour. Results: A total of 4273 client's records were analyzed, 3884 (90.9%) reported having sex before HIV counselling and testing (HCT). The prevalence of risky sexual behaviour among clients was 41.5%. More males and HIV positive clients had unprotected sex with a casual partner three months before HIV counselling and testing (p < 0.05). More singles than the married had unprotected sex with casual partners (p <0.001) and multiple sexual partners (p =0.002). The prevalence of risky sexual behaviour reduced with advancing age. Being single and having an HIV infection were associated with risky sexual behaviour in this study. Conclusion: Age, marital status and HIV status were associated factors of risky sexual behaviour


Subject(s)
HIV , Sexuality , Health Risk Behaviors , Asexuality , TATA-Binding Protein Associated Factors , Nigeria
12.
African Health Sciences ; 22(1): 410-417, March 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400643

ABSTRACT

Background: Although an increasing access to ART in sub-Saharan Africa has made it possible for HIV/AIDS patients to live longer, clinicians managing such patients are faced with the challenge of drug-related metabolic complications. Methods: A cross -sectional study was carried out at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, on three groups of participants; namely HIV patients on ART, ART-naïve patients and HIV negative subjects (n =75). Demographic and anthropometric data were collected using a well-structured questionnaire while biochemical parameters were measured using colorimetric methods. Results: The highest prevalence of MS was associated with the HIV/AIDS patients on ART (i.e. 32.0 %, and 50.3% for NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria respectively). Patients on ART had significant increases (p< 0.05) in waist to hip ratio, FPG, serum TG and LDL-c; and a significantly higher (p< 0.05) prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, low HDL-c and hypertriglyceridemia compared to the ART-naïve patients. Low serum HDL-c was the most prevalent form of dyslipidemia in all three groups and the most prevalent component of MS in HIV patients. Conclusion: ART increases the risk of MS and CVD. HIV/AIDS patients on ART should be advised on lifestyle modifications and undertake regular assessment of their cardiovascular risk factors


Subject(s)
Patients , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Activation, Metabolic , Africa South of the Sahara , Physostigma , Nigeria
13.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 1-12, 2022-10-26. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400765

ABSTRACT

Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a global public health problem that affects the quality of life, interpersonal, occupational, and social functioning of sufferers. Despite being high-risk groups, there is a paucity of data on erectile dysfunction among commercial vehicle drivers and motorcycle riders. Objectives: We aimed to determine and compare the prevalence and factors associated with ED among long-distance commercial vehicle drivers (CVDs) and commercial motorcycle riders (CMRs) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: We used a comparative cross-sectional study design to enroll eligible male respondents in selected motor/motorcycle parks within Ibadan metropolis. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to elicit sociodemographic/health-related characteristics, and ED status among participants. Data was analyzed using STATA version 12. Chi-square and Binary logistic regression were conducted to explore the association between ED and other covariates. Analyses were performed at 5% significance level. Results: The prevalence of ED was significantly higher among motorcycle riders than vehicle drivers (71.4% vs 47.4%, p = 0.001). Predictors of ED among CMRs were monogamous marriage type and history of perineal injury; while among CVRs were aged above 40-years, history of perineal injury, and current use of alcohol. Conclusion: There is a need for public education and awareness programmes on ED to reduce the burden and improve well-being in these populations


Subject(s)
Motorcycles , Global Health , Erectile Dysfunction , Interpersonal Relations , Motor Vehicles , Basic Training for Drivers , Nigeria
14.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 34-46, 2022-10-26. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400951

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study is to determine the current practice level of family planning and the associated factors among public secondary school teachers in Enugu East Senatorial District. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out among public secondary school teachers, aged 18 - 60 years, in Enugu East Senatorial District, using probability proportional to size sampling and systematic random sampling to select 1000 participants. Binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine association. An odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed to determine the level of significance. Results: The current practice level of family planning is 26.5%. Respondents with bachelor's in education were 2 times more likely to be a current user of family planning (AOR=2.39; 95% CI: 1.25-4.55). However, respondents in age group 38 years and above were less likely to be a current user of family planning (AOR=0.64; 95% CI: 0.43-0.95), likewise female respondents (AOR=0.66; 95% CI: 0.44-0.98). Additionally, respondents who mentioned radio (AOR=0.64; 95%CI: 0.44-0.93), social media (AOR=0.73; 95% CI: 0.53-0.99) and healthcare (AOR=0.61; 95%CI: 0.43-0.88) as source of information were less likely to be current user of family planning. Whereas partner who encouraged the use of family planning (AOR=2.54; 95% CI: 1.71-3.78) span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-weight: bold">, partner who allow each other to decide on family planning methods (AOR=4.47; 95% CI: 2.67-7.48) and those who had good knowledge of family planning (AOR=1.96; 95% CI: 1.40- 2.67) were more likely to be current user of family planning. Conclusion: The level of current practice of family planning is low and a significant number of factors predict the current practice of family planning. A family planning educational workshop among teachers is needed to improve teacher's knowledge on family planning to address the issue of adolescent sexual reproduction as teachers are vessels of knowledge impartation to students


Subject(s)
Current Procedural Terminology , Family Planning Services , Family Practice , School Teachers , Nigeria
15.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 47-61, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400957

ABSTRACT

Background Information: According to the United Nations, about 150 million youth spent most of their time on the street, or better still, homeless. This is becoming a global phenomenon and majority of this vulnerable people live in large cities and urban areas of developing countries. Street youths are among the high risk, insecure and vulnerable groups who are often exposed to various forms of abuses and diseases, including reproductive health issues. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study carried out among street youths in Ikorodu Local Government, Lagos State using a multi staged sampling technique. Frequency tables were drawn at the univariate level, chi squared was used to test for association between socio-demographic characteristics and sexual risk level. Data was analyzed using SPPSS version 22, p value was set at 0.05 Results: Almost half 48(48.5%) of the respondents were between the age range 20-24years and two third 61(61.6%) of them were female and 27(27.3%) had up to senior secondary education attainments. Majority 73(73.7%) of them have been on the street for more than 3months and 32 (32.3%) professed that the reason they were on the street was to search for job while 25 (25.3%) because of family disharmony among parents. Eighty-six (86.9%) of the respondents were sexually active, 31 (36.0%) of which have more than four sexual partners. Duration of stay on the street and their educational status were determinants of risky sexual behavior and polygamous setting was found to be statistically significant (p value =0.035) with reproductive health challenges. Conclusion: There is high risk sexual practice among street youths in Ikorodu Local Government. Strategic interventions aimed at minimizing sexual risky behaviors among street youths should focus on reducing the duration of stay on the street as well as increasing access to contraception


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Homeless Youth , Reproductive Health , Nigeria , United Nations
16.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 108-116, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401066

ABSTRACT

Background: Drotaverine, a spasmolytic, has been found to have potential to achieve a reduction in the duration of labor and prevent prolonged labor. Objective: To compare the effects of intravenous drotaverine hydrochloride with placebo for shortening the duration of active phase of labor in primigravida's. Methods: A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of 246 primigravida's in active phase of labor at term was conducted. They were randomly (1:1 ratio) administered intravenous 2 ml (40mg) of drotaverine hydrochloride or 2 ml of Vitamin B complex as placebo. The primary outcome measure was the duration of active phase of labor. The secondary outcome measures were cervical dilatation rate, oxytocin augmentation rate, incidence of prolonged labor, labor pain scores, mode of delivery, maternal and neonatal outcomes. Results: The mean duration of active phase of labor (hour) was significantly lower in the drotaverine group compared to the control (drotaverine; 6.22 ± 2.41 vs placebo; 8.33 ± 3.56; p <0.001). Also, the cervical dilatation rate (cm/hr) was significantly faster in the drotaverine arm (drotaverine; 1.68 ± 1.02 versus placebo; 1.06 ± 0.53, p <0.001). There was a significantly higher probability of faster delivery among women who were given drotaverine (log-rank test, p < 0.001). The oxytocin augmentation rate, incidence of prolonged labor, labor pain scores, mode of delivery, maternal and neonatal outcomes were not significantly different among the groups. Conclusions: Drotaverine hydrochloride is effective in shortening the duration of active phase of labor without adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, more evidence is needed to explore its role in active phase of labor among primigravid women. Trial registration number: PACTR201810902005232


Subject(s)
Parasympatholytics , Placebos , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Duration of Therapy , Telomere Shortening , Nigeria
17.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 296-306, 2022-10-26. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401337

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic and progressive endocrine disorder that may result in macro and microvascular complications. Objective: This study assessed some biochemical analytes in Nigerians who were recently (≤ 6 months) diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: 160 T2DM and 90 non-diabetic control participated in this study. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (HFABP), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), electrolytes, lipid and renal profile parameters, glycated haemoglobin (HBA1C) and fasting blood glucose (FBG), using standard guidelines. Result: The body mass index (BMI) of the T2DM volunteers was higher than control (P <0.001). The lipid profile, potassium, glucose, HBA1C, urea and creatinine values were elevated (P <0.001) while estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was lower (P<0.05) in diabetes. The median HFABP and hs-CRP were raised (P <0.05) in T2DM. Positive associations existed between FBG and urea (P <0.001), Creatinine and HBAIC (P <0.001). A logistic regression analysis, shows that an increased BMI, HBA1C, FBG, Cholesterol, urea and creatinine were associated with higher odds (p<0.001) of cardiovascular and renal complications. Conclusion: Elevated hs-CRP, glycated haemoglobin, urea and creatinine among T2DM increase the odds of cardiovascular and renal insults in this population


Subject(s)
Glycated Hemoglobin , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , C-Reactive Protein , Nigeria
18.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 336-348, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401339

ABSTRACT

Background: Physical inactivity and unhealthy diet are leading risk factors for cardiovascular diseases globally. Limited studies have assessed the prevalence of these risk factors in community-based settings in Nigeria. Objectives: This study assessed the prevalence of physical activity and the dietary pattern of residents in selected semi-urban communities in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out among 500 randomly selected residents from two semi-urban communities. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select households and participants. Data were collected using a pretested modified version of the WHO STEPS instrument. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were determined at 5% level of significance. Results: The mean age was 35.36 ± 12.24 and a mean household size of 4.07 ± 1.85. Majority (87.2%) of the respondents engaged in low physical activity (< 150-300 min/wk). Consumption of fruits and vegetables was low among respondents at 33% and 36.4% respectively. The employment status of respondents was significantly related to expected workplace physical activity level (χ2=11.27; P=0.024). Conclusions: This study highlights the need for the development and implementation of community-driven, multi-layered public health promotion initiatives across different settings


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Exercise , Diet , Sedentary Behavior , Residence Characteristics , Nigeria
19.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 486-494, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401558

ABSTRACT

Background: Lagos State has the highest burden of COVID-19 in Nigeria. We assessed associated factors with death from COVID-19 among hospitalized patients in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using de-identified records of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted into 15 isolation centers in Lagos State between February 27, 2020, and September 30, 2020. Results: A total of 2,858 COVID -19 patients were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 41.9±15.5 years. A higher proportion of patients were males (65.8%), asymptomatic (55.5%), had no comorbid condition (72.2%) and had the mild disease (73.8%). The case fatality rate was 6.5%. The odds of death from COVID-19 infection increased by 4% with every increase in age (AOR 1.04, 95%CI 1.03­1.05, p<0.001). The chance of dying was 50%-fold more among males (AOR 1.5, 95%CI 1.0 ­ 2.2, p = 0.042), 60%-fold more among patients with comorbidity (AOR 1.6, 95%CI 1.3 ­ 2.4, p = 0.037) and 9-fold more among patients with severe COVID-19 infection (AOR 9.6, 95% CI 4.9 ­ 19.1, p <0.001). Conclusion: The odds of dying was higher among males, the elderly, patients with comorbidity and severe COVID-19


Subject(s)
TATA-Binding Protein Associated Factors , Fetal Death , COVID-19 , Patients , Nigeria
20.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 512-519, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401813

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic may decrease the quantum of care for patients with neurosurgical conditions. Objectives: To determine outpatient clinic (OPC) patient load, neurosurgical procedures volume and disease spectrum following the institution of a new care protocol during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and compare with previous practice data in our institution. Methods: A monocentric retrospective analysis of all patients requiring neurosurgical care over a 2-year period. Results: There was a 42.4% reduction in OPC attendance and 41.8% reduction in surgical procedures in 2020 compared to 2019. There was >60 percent reduction in the volume of surgery that was done at the onset and peak of the pandemic, but this has normalized in November 2020 despite the resurgence of COVID-19, after the institution of a new care protocol. Neurotrauma procedures (29.6%) were the most common neurosurgical operation in 2020 while congenital malformation surgery (37.3%) was the most common procedure performed in 2019. Conclusions: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic initially led to significant decrease in quantum and spectra of patients who presented at the OPC and for neurosurgical procedures. Instituted local protocol and Teleclinics, if added to clinical care armamentarium, may help to improve on the low patient attendance during pandemics


Subject(s)
Outpatients , Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Neurosurgery , Neurosurgical Procedures , Nigeria
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