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1.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154994

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare prevalence of dental caries, oral hygiene status and associated risk factors of children in suburban and rural communities in the Southwest region of Nigeria. Material and Methods: Secondary data was extracted from cross-sectional researches conducted in two study locations involving 8 to 12 year olds. Data retrieved included age, gender, family structure, socioeconomic status, oral hygiene and dental caries. Caries assessment was done using WHO Oral Health Survey methods. Oral hygiene data was collected using Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) by Greene and Vermillion. Statistical significance was established at p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of dental caries in Group A and Group B study participants were 13.4% and 22.2% respectively. Children from rural community had significant higher caries prevalence (p=0.00) and poorer oral hygiene (P=0.00) compare with their counterparts in the suburban community. There was a significant association between oral hygiene, age and dental caries in suburban participants (p=0.02) while among the rural participants there was significant association between gender and dental caries (p=0.04). Children with poor oral hygiene have increased odds of having dental caries compared to children with good oral hygiene in the two study communities. Conclusion: Dental caries was more prevalent among the rural dwellers than the sub-urban dwellers. There is a need to make oral health care services/products available, accessible and affordable for the rural community.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Oral Hygiene , Rural Population , Social Class , Suburban Population , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Nigeria/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Chi-Square Distribution , Oral Hygiene Index , Oral Health/education , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Risk Factors
2.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143403

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk indicators of caries among nursing mothers in a tertiary hospital. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 408 nursing mothers aged 15 to 52 years who brought their children for immunization in a tertiary hospital in Enugu, Nigeria. Data on socio-demographic profile, parity, dental visits were collected. The presence of dental caries was recorded using the World Health Organization criteria. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 11.0%, and the mean DMFT was 0.18. There was a statistically significant association between level of education (p<0.001), past dental visit (p<0.001) and the occurrence of dental caries. Caries was more prevalent in the mandibular teeth than the maxillary teeth. The left mandibular first and second permanent molars had the highest occurrence of dental caries. Missing (M) component of the DMFT index was highest and the care index was low. The significant predictors of caries among nursing mothers were fair oral hygiene and having below tertiary education. Conclusion: The prevalence of caries and the care index were both low in this study population. The significant predictors of dental caries were a tertiary level of education and poor oral hygiene. Incorporating oral health education during postnatal care can help reduce dental caries' occurrence and complications among nursing mothers in the study population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , Oral Hygiene Index , Health Education, Dental/methods , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Nigeria/epidemiology , Breast Feeding , Logistic Models , Oral Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Data Interpretation, Statistical
3.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143401

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the awareness and sources of information on first aid management of avulsed permanent teeth in a group of South-western Nigerian mothers. Material and Methods: An 18-item interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to survey 385 mothers attending the antenatal and immunization clinics on their perception towards dental avulsion, its management, sources, and preferred mode of receiving information on first aid. The effect of all significant factors was inferred at p<0.05. Results: Mothers who had previous information on the first aid management of dental avulsion had significantly higher knowledge (p=0.000). Majority (80.8%) of the mothers did not know that an avulsed permanent tooth could be replanted, though mothers whose children had not experienced dental trauma had significantly higher knowledge (p=0.003). The knowledge of first aid management of avulsed permanent tooth was low, regardless of age, education and employment status of the respondents. Conclusion: There was low knowledge among mothers regarding the first aid measures in the management of avulsed permanent teeth. Their main preference for receiving information was through social media and television. There is a need to increase oral health educational campaigns targeted towards mothers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tooth Fractures/diagnosis , Tooth Avulsion/diagnosis , Tooth Injuries/diagnosis , First Aid , Mothers , Nigeria/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Oral Health , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 1-6, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089330

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Febrile illnesses in developing countries are often misdiagnosed as malaria or typhoid fever. Although arboviral infections have similar clinical symptoms, they are usually not screened because of limited resources and the fact that there are several viruses in this group. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been isolated in parts of Nigeria, but there is no documented evidence of the infection in Kogi State. This study determined seroprevalence of active and past CHIKV infection among febrile patients who tested negative for malaria and typhoid fever. Sera from 243 febrile patients were screened for CHIKV IgG and IgM using an immunochromatographic test kit. Clinical and socio-demographic variables were collected using a structured questionnaire. Recent CHIKV infection was observed in 5.8% of the study participants while 25.1% had IgG antibodies demonstrating previous infection. Significant associations were observed between seropositivity and age of participants (p < 0.001), sex (p = 0.044), marital status (p = 0.002), and occupation (p < 0.001). Clinical symptoms such as fever, joint pain, and headache were significantly associated with seropositivity. This study identified recent CHIKV infection in Anyigba. Therefore, there is need for routine screening of febrile patients and molecular characterization to determine the nature of circulating strains.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Reference Values , Socioeconomic Factors , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoassay , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chikungunya virus/immunology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Fever/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Nigeria/epidemiology
5.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135512

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence and socio-behavioural risk factors for dental caries among children at selected LGAs in Lagos State. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive study of 592 school children in four Local Government Areas of Lagos, Nigeria. The presence of caries was recorded using the World Health Organization criteria. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, and other socio-demographic variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 16.0% with mean dmft for age 6 being 1.3 ± 1.57 while the mean DMFT for age 12 was 0.15 ± 0.67. The mean Sic for age 6 was 1.5 ± 0.53 while the mean SiC for age 12 was 1.09 ± 0.29. The mean SiC values was significantly higher in the primary and permanent dentition among those who had never visited the dentist, female students, those who don't use fluoridated toothpaste and those who eat sweets and candy several times a day. After logistic regression analysis, those with no previous dental visit (OR=3.05; CI: 1.72-4.67) and females (OR=1.55; CI: 1.16-1.62) still had significantly higher SiC Values. Conclusion: The prevalence of caries was low in the study population. Being female, non-use of fluoride-containing toothpaste and not visiting the dentist were significant predictors of dental caries among children attending private schools.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Dental Health Surveys/methods , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Nigeria/epidemiology , Toothpastes/chemistry , Logistic Models , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Health Care Surveys , Dentists , Fluorides
6.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135510

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of an oral health talk aided by a video on improving the awareness of mothers about natal teeth in two rural communities in southwest Nigeria. Material and Methods: A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted among 80 mothers in two rural communities in Nigeria, randomized into study and control groups. Baseline information was obtained with a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. The mothers in the study group participated in an oral health education program comprising of a video show on natal teeth in addition to an oral health talk. The control group did not receive any intervention. Post-intervention data was obtained three weeks afterwards. Data collected was analyzed with SPSS using paired t-test, independent t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The sociodemographic characteristics of participants in both groups were similar. The mean knowledge, attitude and practice percentage scores for the study group were 38.9 ± 26.3% (pre-intervention) and 73.6 ± 26.2% (post-intervention); while for the control group, the values were 43.2 ± 31.4% (pre-intervention) and 43.9 ± 32.4% (post-intervention). The study group, had a 34% increase in knowledge, attitude and practice percentage score (CI=23.7-45.5; t=6.4; p<0.001), while the control group, had an increase of 0.7% (CI=-0.7-2.2; t=1.00; p=0.323). Conclusion: An oral health education program comprising of oral health talk and a video about natal teeth improved the awareness of mothers about natal teeth as a normal phenomenon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Oral Health/education , Health Education, Dental , Natal Teeth , Nigeria/epidemiology , Rural Population , Chi-Square Distribution , Interviews as Topic/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric , Instructional Film and Video
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 410-418, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089316

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Studies related to infectivity status of insect vectors are seen as necessities in understanding the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases and planning effective control measures. This study assessed the infectivity ofSimulium damnosum s.l. around Owena River as well as evaluated therapeutic coverage of Ivermectin distribution in the area. Method: Human landing sampling method was used to collect adult flies on human attractants from 07:00 to 18:00 for two consecutive days a month for three months (July 2016 - September 2016). Parity assessment was conducted to determine the age of fly populations. Parous flies were further dissected to detect the presence or absence ofOnchocerca larvae. Biting rates and transmission potentials were calculated using standard methods. A quantitative survey was carried out to determine the therapeutic coverage and compliance to ivermectin treatment for the control of Onchocerciasis in the study area using standard household coverage questionnaires. Results: A total of 914 adult female flies were collected during the study period. The daily biting rate (DBR) varied from 146 fly per man day (FMD) in July to 162.5 FMD in August. The monthly biting rate (MBR) was lowest in September (2170 bites per man per month) but highest in August (3358.3 bites per man per month). MBD ranged from 13.23 fly per man hour (FMH) in July to 14.77 FMH in August. The results indicated that the majority of the flies collected at the sampling points were nulliparous [685 (74.95%)] while others were parous [229 (25.05%)]. The biting activity of the flies showed a marked decrease in population in August compared to July which later increased in September. Infection rates varied from 2 (0.7%) in July to 7 (2.2%) in August while the infectivity rate during the study ranged from zero (July and September) to 3 (1.0%) in August. Conclusion: Despite the years of treatment of onchocerciasis in Owena community, there were still some infective flies capable of transmitting O. volvolus. This could be due to the low rate of therapeutic coverage as a result of non-compliance in the community for various reasons earlier stated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Onchocerciasis/drug therapy , Onchocerciasis/transmission , Simuliidae/parasitology , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Insect Bites and Stings/drug therapy , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Onchocerciasis/parasitology , Rivers , Insect Bites and Stings/parasitology , Insect Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Nigeria/epidemiology
8.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 6(4): 115-122, dic. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247389

ABSTRACT

Disease surveillance and notification (DSN) system has been shown to be weak in Nigeria and still needs to be built up for effective detection and response to some communities. The aim of this paper is to assess the reporting and feedback mechanisms in the Community-based surveillance System (CBSS) in Anambra State, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 360 community-based focal points in Anambra State selected by multistage sampling technique. Data collection was by interview using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using SPSS version 20, associations between variables were tested using Chi square, Fisher's exact and t tests as appropriate (p<0.05). Forty-one (13.1%) focal points sent in reports for at least four times, (72.2%) received feedback within the last one year and (44.6%) was via the phone. However, 229 (63.6%) of the respondents gave the feedback to the community mainly via the village health committees (44.1%). Respondents' occupation, ever detected notifiable disease; source of information; person the detected disease was reported to; records of notified disease kept by focal points; number of times reports were sent in the last one year, received feedback given to community members, availability of supervisors for focal points and volunteer benefit from being focal points were found to have associations with receipt of feedback on disease case notification (p<0.05). This study found poor reporting but good feedback mechanisms. However, there is need to reform the State CBSS in line with the above findings in order to make it more functional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Feedback , Chi-Square Distribution , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Communication , Nigeria/epidemiology
9.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 6(4): 123-125, dic. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247391

ABSTRACT

Appendicitis is the leading cause of surgical admission in most hospitals in Nigeria and the removed appendix, a frequent surgical specimen in most routine histopathological laborato-ries in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to audit the appendectomy procedures in Benue State University Teaching Hospital. Sixty-two appendices removed for acute appendix in Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria middle belt, over an 8-year period were analyzed. Twenty-eight (45%) were found to be normal, while 29 (46%) showed histopathological eviden-ce of acute inflammation. There were 5 (9%) cases of unusual pathologies which include a case each of metastatic adenocarcinoma and chronic granulomatous inflammation (2% each) and 3 (5%) cases of schistosomiasis. The Negative Appendectomy Rate (NAR) was 27% in females compared with 18% in males. Adult (>16 years) represented 29% of the NAR. The overall NAR was 45%. The NAR in this study is considerable higher when compared with existing literature. In a poor resource center like Benue State University Teaching Hospital, due diligence in taking detailed history coupled with good clinical examination cannot be over emphasized. The use of a combination of Total Leukocyte Count (TCC) and C-Reactive Protein (CPR) in every patient may help in reducing NAR, though it's definitely going to be impossible to eradicate it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/surgery , Medical Audit , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications , Nigeria/epidemiology
10.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(4): 422-428, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038314

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Body dysmorphic disorder is a relatively common psychiatric disorder in the context of dermatology and cosmetic and plastic surgery but is underdiagnosed and underreported in Africa. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and symptoms of anxiety/depression and determine their sociodemographic and clinical correlates. Methods: A systematic random sampling design was made to recruit 114 patients with skin diseases. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained. The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Modification of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered, and data were analyzed using SPSS 20. Results: Mean age of participants was 37.70±17.47 years, and 67/114 (58.8%) were females. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder was 41/114 (36.0%), and prevalence of anxiety/depression symptoms was 35/114 (30.7%). Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in patients with anxiety/depression symptoms was 15/41 (36.6%), and patients with facial disorders expressed the highest burden of anxiety/depression symptoms, in 15/35 (42.9%). Factors associated with significantly higher mean body dysmorphic disorder include age<50years (p=0.039), and anxiety/depression (p<0.001), education below high school was associated with higher mean anxiety/depression score (P= 0.031). In a binary logistic regression model, presence of anxiety/depression symptoms was predictive of body dysmorphic disorder (OR=10.0, CI: 4.1-28.2, p<0.001). Study limitations: the study is uncontrolled, conducted in a single source of care, thus limiting generalization to nonrelated settings. Conclusion: Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder is high among dermatology patients and most prevalent in facial disorders. Facial diseases are associated with the highest burden of anxiety/depression symptoms. This is a clarion call for dermatologists to routinely assess for body dysmorphic disorder and appropriately refer affected patients to mental health care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Skin Diseases/psychology , Skin Diseases/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/psychology , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/epidemiology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Socioeconomic Factors , Test Anxiety Scale , Time Factors , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Nigeria/epidemiology
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e022, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011661

ABSTRACT

Abstract Oral hygiene, which is measured by the status of plaque-free tooth surfaces, is essential for the promotion of oral health. This study aimed to determine the social predictors of good oral hygiene for children in a suburban population in Nigeria. This was a secondary analysis of data. The study participants were 8- to 16-year-old children who were residents in Ile-Ife, which is a suburban population in Nigeria. Information on the age, gender, socioeconomic status, family structure, number of siblings and birth rank of each study participant was retrieved from the an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Oral hygiene status was determined through a simplified-oral hygiene index (OHI-S) and categorized as good, fair and poor. The association between oral hygiene status and sociodemographic variables was determined. The predictors of good oral hygiene were determined using a binomial regression analysis. Data on 2,107 individuals were retrieved, of which 44.8% had good oral hygiene and 17.1% had poor oral hygiene. The odds of having good oral hygiene were reduced for children who were 13 to 16 years old (p = 0.02) or male (P=0.002) and children with low socioeconomic status (p ≤ 0.001). The odds of having good oral hygiene increased for children who were last-born compared with those who were first-born (p = 0.02). Age, gender, socioeconomic status and birth-rank were significant social predictive factors of oral hygiene status among the study population. Based on these findings, targeted interventions can be conducted to improve the oral hygiene status of children and adolescents with these social profiles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Oral Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Social Class , Oral Hygiene Index , Sex Factors , Oral Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Age Factors , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Nigeria/epidemiology
12.
West Indian med. j ; 67(3): 233-237, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045849

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Tumours of odontogenic origin (OTs) resulting from epithelial and mesenchymal elements that are part of the tooth-forming apparatus must be considered as a differential diagnosis when analysing jaw lesions. They may be cystic, myxomatous or sometimes have a mixture of cystic and solid areas. Objective: To analyse the OTs seen at the Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria, between 2001 and 2013 based on the World Health Organization 's 2005 classification of OTs. Methods: A retrospective search and analysis was conducted of the medical records of all patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of orofacial tumours and tumour-like lesions seen at the Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria, from 2001 to 2013. Results: Odontogenic tumours constituted 179 (15.3%) cases out of a total of 1170 orofacial tumours and tumour-like lesions seen within the study period. The 179 OTs were found in 101 (56.4%) males and 78 (43.6%) females, giving a male to female ratio of 1.3:1. The ages of the patients ranged from 12 to 88 years (mean, standard deviation: 33.31, 14.07 years). The lesions were predominantly benign (n = 176; 98.3%), with only three (1.7%) being malignant OTs. Conclusion: The distribution of OTs in this study compared well with that in previous reports from Nigeria.


RESUMEN Antecedentes: Los tumores de origen odontogénico (TO) como resultado de los elementos epiteliales y mesenquimales que son parte del aparato de formación de los dientes, se deben considerar como diagnosis diferencial a la hora de analizar lesiones maxilares. Pueden ser quísticos, mixomatosos, o constituidas a veces por una mezcla de áreas quísticas y sólidas. Objetivo: Analizar los TO vistos en el Departamento de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital Docente Ahmadu Bello de Zaria, Nigeria, de 2001 a 2013, a partir de la clasificación de TO de la Organización Mundial de la Salud de 2005. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda y análisis retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de todos los pacientes con diagnóstico histopatológico de tumores orofaciales y lesiones tumorales observadas en el Departamento de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital Docente Ahmadu Bello en Zaria, Nigeria, de 2001 a 2013. Resultados: Los tumores odontogénicos constituyeron 179 casos (15.3%) de un total de 1170 tumores orofaciales y lesiones tumorales vistas en el período de estudio. Los 179 TO fueron encontrados en 101 (56.4%) varones y 78 (43.6%) hembras, para un ratio varón-hembra de 1.3:1. Las edades de los pacientes variaron de 12 a 88 años (media, desviación estándar: 33.31, 14.07 años). Las lesiones fueron predominante benignas (n = 176; 98.3%), hallándose solamente tres TO malignos (1.7%). Conclusión: La distribución de TO en este estudio es comparable con la de los reportes anteriores en Nigeria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Odontogenic Tumors/epidemiology , Odontogenic Tumors/classification , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Age Distribution , Nigeria/epidemiology
15.
J. bras. nefrol ; 37(2): 177-184, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751446

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) the causative agent of Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an important cause of renal diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. There is paucity of studies on the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among patients with HIV/AIDS in the North-Central zone of Nigeria. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 227 newly-diagnosed, antiretroviral naïve patients with HIV/AIDS seen at the HIV clinic of the Medical Out-patient Department (MOPD) of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH). They were matched with 108 control group. Laboratory investigations were performed for the participants. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and/or albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) > 30 mg/g. Results: There were 100 (44%) males among the patients and 47 (43.5%) among the control group. The mean ages of the patients and controls were 40.3 ± 10.3 years and 41.8 ± 9.5 years respectively. CKD was observed in 108 (47.6%) among the patients and 18 (16.7%) of the controls (p = 0.01). The median CD4 T-cell count was significantly lower in patients with CKD. Ninety-three (41.0%) of the patients had dipstick proteinuria of > 2 +. The median albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) was significantly higher among the HIV-positive patients (272.3 mg/g) compared with the HIV-negative controls (27.22 mg/g) p = 0.01. The CD4 T-cell count correlates positively with eGFR (r = 0.463, p = 0.001) and negatively with ACR (r = -0.806, p = 0.001). Conclusions: CKD is very common among patients with HIV/AIDS in Ilorin. Screening and early intervention for CKD should be part of the protocols in the management of these patients. .


Resumo Introdução: o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV), o agente causador da síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS), é uma importante causa de doenças renais na África subsaariana. Há escassez de estudos sobre o impacto da doença renal crônica (DRC) em pacientes com HIV/AIDS na zona centronorte da Nigéria. Métodos: Este é um estudo transversal com 227 pacientes recém-diagnosticados com HIV/AIDS, não tratados com agentes antirretrovirais, atendidos no ambulatório de HIV do Hospital Universitário da Universidade de Ilorin (UITH). Eles foram pareados com 108 indivíduos do grupo controle. Os pacientes foram submetidos a investigações laboratoriais. A DRC foi definida como taxa estimada de filtração glomerular (eTFG) ≤ 60 ml/min/1,73m2 e/ou a relação entre albumina e creatinina (RAC) ≥ 30 mg/g Resultados: Houve 100 (44%) pacientes do sexo masculino entre os pacientes e 47 (43,5%) entre os indivíduos do grupo controle. As médias de idade dos pacientes e controles foram de 40,3 ± 10,3 anos e 41,8 ± 9,5 anos, respectivamente. A DRC foi observada em 108 indivíduos (47,6%) entre os pacientes e em 18 (16,7%) dos controles (p = 0,01). A contagem mediana de linfócitos T CD4 foi significativamente menor nos pacientes com DRC. Noventa e três (41,0%) dos pacientes tiveram proteinúria ≥ 2 + no exame de dipstick (tiras reagentes). A mediana da relação entre creatinina e albumina (RAC) foi significativamente maior entre os indivíduos HIV-positivos (272,3 mg/g), em comparação com os controles HIV negativos (27,22 mg/g) p = 0,01. A contagem de linfócitos T CD4 correlacionou-se positivamente com a eTFG (r = 0,463, p = 0,001) e negativamente com o RAC (r = -0,806, p = 0,001). Conclusões: DRC é muito comum entre os pacientes com HIV/AIDS em Ilorin. Triagem e intervenção precoce para DRC devem fazer parte dos protocolos de tratamento desses pacientes. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Nigeria/epidemiology , Prevalence
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163235

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study was undertaken to determine the epidemiology, seroprevalence and associated risk factors, of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) among domestic animals. Study Design: Cross sectional epidemiological survey. Place and Duration: The study was carried out in three geographical zones of Plateau State, over a six month period from July to December, 2012. Methodology: A total of 166 animal subjects were recruited into the study. The animals studied were made up of pigs (67), goats (43), sheep (19) and cattle (37). Information was obtained from the animal subject handlers using interviewer administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for HEV antibodies (IgG and IgM) using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 statistical software. Results: Results revealed an overall prevalence of 24.1% (p<.001) with IgG and IgM accounting for 16.3% and 7.8% respectively. Goats recorded the highest prevalence with 37.2%, followed by Pigs with 32.8% and Sheep with 10.5%, but it is note-worthy that Cattle recorded 0% overall seropositivity. Statistical significant association was observed with regard to age (p=.04); animals <1 year old accounted for the highest seroprevalence (21.3%) and least among animals ≥2years old (7.7% OR 0.3; 95%CI0.1- 1.1). Seropositivity tends to decreases with increase in age. A similar trend was observed with regard to IgM seropositivity. The significant associated risk factor was; frequency of waste disposal (p<.001) (IgM, OR 39.1; 95% CI 4.9-310.4; IgG, OR 19.9; 95% CI3.9-100.7). Animals that had been vaccinated against other diseases tend to exhibit the least seropositivity compared to animal subjects with no history of any form of vaccination. Conclusion: Data suggest that HEV remains an under-recognized and significant public health issue in the study area, and prevalent among domestic animals, warranting further attention and research. Preventive public health measures should be reinforced among all communities’ particularly domestic animals and a periodic monitoring system set up for control.


Subject(s)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hepatitis E/blood , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Hepatitis E virus/isolation & purification , Nigeria/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
18.
Indian J Cancer ; 2014 Jul-Sep; 51(3): 259-261
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154372

ABSTRACT

Background: Childhood cancers represent an important global public health problem. Survival is still dismal in most low income countries. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of childhood cancers diagnosed at AKTH, Kano was undertaken from January 2003 to December 2009 to determine the pattern, socio-economic and geographical features. Results: Malignant lymphomas constituted 46.5% of all cases, of which 30.1% were Burkitt's lymphoma, 9.8% were Non-Hodgkin (non Burkitt's) lymphoma and 6.6% were Hodgkin lymphoma. Retinoblastoma was the second most common malignancy constituting 15.2% of all cases, followed by Nephroblastoma 12.5% and acute leukemia's accounted for 14.1% of all cases. Others were Neuroblastoma 5.5%, Rhabdomyosarcoma 1.9% and CNS and Hepatissc tumors 4.3%. About 80% of parents of these children are very poor and could not afford the cost of treatment. Fifty one percent of the patients were alive at 12 months and the mortality was 24%. Conclusion: Childhood cancer is common in Kano. Free treatment is what is required since majority of the parents could not afford the cost of treatment.


Subject(s)
Child , Geography , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/etiology , Nigeria/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162136

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Prevalence of hypertension is on the rise in most African countries while control remains poor. In the literature, there are effective interventions which could be implemented in hospitals of low resource setting such as Nigeria to improve control of blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of three of such interventions namely: self-monitoring; health professional led care; and organization driven care interventions. Methods: A Markov model was used to represent a life cycle of Nigerian hypertensive female patients in low risk of having a cardiovascular event. Health care costs were obtained from existing databases and calibrated to Nigerian setting or derived through a cost analysis using a Nigerian hospital. Costs were presented in 2013 US dollars value. Uncertainties in the input parameters used in the analyses were captured using distributions appropriate for each parameter. Probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation, and presented as costeffectiveness acceptability frontiers. Population expected value of perfect information analysis was conducted. Results: Compared to null scenario (i.e. no intervention), professional led care intervention will require $190/QALY to emerge the most cost-effective option. The Population Expected Value of Perfect Information (EVPI) analysis showed that the opportunity cost surrounding the choice of professional led care intervention as the most cost-effective option does not amount to very much. Conclusions: The result of this study shows that among the interventions compared health professional led care through a pharmaceutical care model or nurse led care is the most cost-effective option for ensuring that patients with high blood pressure are adequately followed for better control of blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Aged , Adult , Cost-Benefit Analysis/methods , Developing Countries , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/economics , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Hypertension/therapy , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163072

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study was aimed at determining the number of children infected in relation to study population. Study Design: Cross sectional Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted among school children in Gadabuke and Garagwa LGEA Primary schools in Toto Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria between October-December, 2012. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 samples were collected comprising 192 urine and 58 faecal samples. Samples were investigated using standard World Health Organisation guidelines for identification of parasites. Samples were analysed macroscopically and microscopically. Results: Out of the 192 children screened. Gadabuke LGED primary school had a prevalence of 58.1% while Garagwa LGED primary school had a prevalence of 22.7% and the overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in the two schools is 44.3%. There was no significant difference in prevalence rate of urinary schistosomiasis between Gadabuke and Garagwa primary schools (P>0.05). On the other hand, Gadabuke had a prevalence of 5.3% for S.mansoni and 0% prevalence for Garagwa LGED. On the whole, the prevalence of S. mansoni was 3.4% in the study area. Children of age group (8 – 14) were more infected with urinary schistosomiasis. Male had higher prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis 50 (50%) than the female 35 (35%). Statistically there was significance difference in prevalence infection of Schistosoma haematobium among males and females investigated. Children whose parents are farmers and fishermen had the highest prevalence infections, followed by Artisan, civil servant and the businessmen. Conclusion: Urinary schistosomiasis in some selected primary schools in Gadabuke district of Toto LGA in Nasarawa State have been documented.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Prevalence , Schistosomiasis/epidemiology , Schistosomiasis/urine , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/urine , Schools
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