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1.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(9): 1210-1216, set. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058666

ABSTRACT

We report a 39-year-old male with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage without hydrocephalus, in whom a right choroidal aneurysm was early excluded by endovascular coil insertion. Intracranial pressure (PIC) and cerebral oxygenation (PtiO2) sensors for neuromonitoring were installed due to a persistent comatose state. From the 3rd day, neuromonitoring became altered. CT angiography and cerebral angiography showed severe proximal and distal vasospasm (VE) of the middle (ACM) and anterior (ACA) right cerebral arteries. VE was treated with angioplasty and intravenous nimodipine. Forty eight hours later, despite hemodynamic maximization, neuromonitoring became altered again, mainly explained by a decrease in PtiO2 below 15 mmHg. A severe VE in ACM and right ACA was confirmed by angiography. Given the presence of an early and recurrent VE, which was associated with a decrease in cerebral oxygenation, internal carotid micro-catheters for continuous nimodipine infusion were installed. This therapy maintained a normal neuromonitoring for 15 days. During this period, attempts were done to decrease or discontinue the infusion, but the patient presented parallel falls of cerebral oxygenation or decreased cerebral perfusion observed with perfusion CT, interpreted as persistent VE. Finally, the infusion was stopped at day 15 without significant complication. We conclude that intra-arterial nimodipine continuous infusion in refractory VE can be useful and safe in selected patients. Multimodal neuromonitoring is essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Nimodipine/therapeutic use , Cerebral Angiography , Coma , Computed Tomography Angiography
2.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(1): 39-46, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983876

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: We investigated the protective effect of the extract of the Camellia japonica L. flower on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: The rat ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 minutes and reperfusion for 48 hours. The animals received an intravenous injection once a day of 20, 40, 80 mg/kg extract of C. japonica for three consecutive days before the ischemia reperfusion. The learning and memory function, the infarct volume, serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level and lactate dehydrogenase activity, and extravasation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) into cerebral parenchyma were assessed as the cell damage index. Results: Pretreatment with extract of C. japonica markedly reduced the infarct volume, serum malondialdehyde level and lactate dehydrogenase activity, and markedly inhibited the extravasation of IgG. Moreover, pretreatment with extract of C. japonica may also inhibit the learning and memory deficits induced by an ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conclusion: It was concluded that pretreatment with extract of C. japonica has a protective effect on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigamos o efeito protetor do extrato da flor de Camellia japonica L. (ECJ) na lesão de reperfusão isquêmica cerebral (I/R) em ratos. Métodos: A lesão de I/R de rato foi induzida por uma oclusão da artéria cerebral média por 90 minutos e reperfusão por 48 horas. Os animais receberam uma injeção intravenosa uma vez ao dia de 20, 40, 80 mg/kg de ECJ por três dias consecutivos antes da I/R. A função de aprendizagem e memória, o volume do infarto, o nível sérico de malondialdeído (MDA), a atividade da desidrogenase láctica e o extravasamento de imunoglobulina (IgG) no parênquima cerebral foram avaliados como índices de dano celular. Resultados: O pré-tratamento com ECJ reduziu acentuadamente o volume do infarto, o nível sérico de MDA e a atividade da desidrogenase láctica, e inibiu marcadamente o extravasamento de IgG. Além disso, o pré-tratamento com ECJ também poderia inibir os déficits de aprendizado e memória induzidos pela lesão de I/R. Conclusão: O pré-tratamento com ECJ tem um efeito protetor contra lesão cerebral de I/R em ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Camellia/chemistry , Swimming/physiology , Time Factors , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Nimodipine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/analysis , Malondialdehyde/blood
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773998

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the pharmacokinetics of nimodipine in plasma of rats after intraocular administration.Methods Totally 135 SD rats were randomly divided into three groups according to drug administration routes:intraocular(io group),intravenous (iv group),and intragastric (ig group). The doses were 5.0 mg/kg for IO and IV groups and 10.0 mg/kg for IG group. The serum nimodipine level was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and compared.Results The pharmacokinetic parameters in io group were as follows:C:0.52 mg/ml;t:5.0 min;and AUC:21.10 mg/(ml·min). The main pharmacokinetic parameters in iv group were as follows:C:3.62 mg/ml;and AUC:52.58 mg/(ml·min). The main pharmacokinetic parameters in ig group were as follows:C:0.20 mg/ml;t:5.0 min;and AUC:5.98 mg/(ml·min).Conclusions Nimodipine is rapidly absorbed after io administration,and the ophthalmic formulation has a higher bioavailability than the oral solution. Therefore,the io route may help to improve the treatment effectiveness of cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Administration, Oral , Animals , Area Under Curve , Biological Availability , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Nimodipine , Pharmacokinetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717999

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive collection of proteins senses local changes in intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺](i) and transduces these signals into responses to agonists. In the present study, we examined the effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) on modulation of intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells. To measure [Ca²⁺](i) levels in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells, we used a fluorescence microscopy with the Fura-2 loading method. S1P produced a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca²⁺](i) in the cells. Pretreatment with EGTA, an extracellular Ca²⁺ chelator, decreased the S1P-induced increase in [Ca²⁺](i), and an L-type Ca²⁺-channel blocker, nimodipine, decreased the effect of S1P. This indicates that Ca²⁺ influx may be required for muscle contraction by S1P. When stimulated with thapsigargin, an intracellular calcium chelator, or 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an InsP₃ receptor blocker, the S1P-evoked increase in [Ca²⁺](i) was significantly decreased. Treatment with pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of G(i)-protein, suppressed the increase in [Ca²⁺](i) evoked by S1P. These results suggest that the S1P-induced increase in [Ca²⁺](i) in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells occurs upon the activation of phospholipase C and subsequent release of Ca²⁺ from the InsP₃-sensitive Ca²⁺ pool in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. These results suggest that S1P utilized extracellular Ca²⁺ via the L type Ca²⁺ channel, which was dependent on activation of the S1P₄ receptor coupled to PTX-sensitive G(i) protein, via phospholipase C-mediated Ca²⁺ release from the InsP₃-sensitive Ca²⁺ pool in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Cats , Egtazic Acid , Fura-2 , Methods , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Muscle Contraction , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Nimodipine , Pertussis Toxin , Phospholipases , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum , Thapsigargin , Type C Phospholipases
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713250

ABSTRACT

A 50-year-old woman reported to the emergency department with thunderclap headache and vomiting. Non-enhanced brain computed tomography (CT) showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage of Hunt-Hess Grade II and Fisher Grade III. Brain angiography CT and transfemoral cerebral angiography (TFCA) revealed an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. A direct neck clipping was performed using the pterional approach. The post-operation CT was uneventful. Six days postoperatively, the patient became lethargic. The mean velocity (cm/s) of the middle cerebral artery peaked at 173 cm/s on the right side and 167 cm/s on the left. A TFCA revealed decreased perfusion in both recurrent arteries of Heubner (RAH), but no occlusion in either. Intra-arterial nimodipine injection was administered. On the 7th postoperative day, CT demonstrated a newly developed low-density lesion in the RAH territory bilaterally. The cause of the infarction was attributed to decreased perfusion caused by cerebral vasospasm. The patient was discharged with no definite neurologic deficit except for mild cognitive disorder.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Angiography , Arteries , Brain , Cerebral Angiography , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Headache Disorders, Primary , Humans , Infarction , Infarction, Anterior Cerebral Artery , Intracranial Aneurysm , Middle Aged , Middle Cerebral Artery , Neck , Neurologic Manifestations , Nimodipine , Perfusion , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Vasospasm, Intracranial , Vomiting
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728572

ABSTRACT

Excessive influx and the subsequent rapid cytosolic elevation of Ca²⁺ in neurons is the major cause to induce hyperexcitability and irreversible cell damage although it is an essential ion for cellular signalings. Therefore, most neurons exhibit several cellular mechanisms to homeostatically regulate cytosolic Ca²⁺ level in normal as well as pathological conditions. Delayed rectifier K⁺ channels (I(DR) channels) play a role to suppress membrane excitability by inducing K⁺ outflow in various conditions, indicating their potential role in preventing pathogenic conditions and cell damage under Ca²⁺-mediated excitotoxic conditions. In the present study, we electrophysiologically evaluated the response of IDR channels to hyperexcitable conditions induced by high Ca²⁺ pretreatment (3.6 mM, for 24 hours) in cultured hippocampal neurons. In results, high Ca²⁺-treatment significantly increased the amplitude of IDR without changes of gating kinetics. Nimodipine but not APV blocked Ca²⁺-induced IDR enhancement, confirming that the change of I(DR) might be targeted by Ca²⁺ influx through voltage-dependent Ca²⁺ channels (VDCCs) rather than NMDA receptors (NMDARs). The VDCC-mediated I(DR) enhancement was not affected by either Ca²⁺-induced Ca²⁺ release (CICR) or small conductance Ca²⁺-activated K⁺ channels (SK channels). Furthermore, PP2 but not H89 completely abolished I(DR) enhancement under high Ca²⁺ condition, indicating that the activation of Src family tyrosine kinases (SFKs) is required for Ca²⁺-mediated I(DR) enhancement. Thus, SFKs may be sensitive to excessive Ca²⁺ influx through VDCCs and enhance I(DR) to activate a neuroprotective mechanism against Ca²⁺-mediated hyperexcitability in neurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium Channels , Cytosol , Humans , Kinetics , Membranes , Neurons , Nimodipine , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Rats , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , src-Family Kinases , Tyrosine
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The cause of severe clinical vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remains unknown, despite extensive research over the past 30 years. However, the intra-arterial administration of vasodilating agents and balloon angioplasty have been successfully used in severe refractory cerebral vasospasm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 233 patients admitted to our institute with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) over the past 3 years. RESULTS: Of these, 27 (10.6%) developed severe symptomatic vasospasm, requiring endovascular therapy. Vasospasm occurred at an average of 5.3 days after SAH. A total of 46 endovascular procedures were performed in 27 patients. Endovascular therapy was performed once in 18 (66.7%) patients, 2 times in 4 (14.8%) patients, 3 or more times in 5 (18.5%) patients. Intra-arterial vasodilating agents were used in 44 procedures (27 with nimodipine infusion, 17 with nicardipine infusion). Balloon angioplasty was performed in only 2 (7.4%) patients. The Average nimodipine infusion volume was 2.47 mg, and nicardipine was 3.78 mg. Most patients recovered after the initial emergency room visit. Two patients (7.4%) worsened, but there were no deaths. CONCLUSION: With advances in endovascular techniques, administration of vasodilating agents and balloon angioplasty reduces the morbidity and mortality of vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Angioplasty, Balloon , Emergency Service, Hospital , Endovascular Procedures , Humans , Mortality , Nicardipine , Nimodipine , Retrospective Studies , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Vasospasm, Intracranial
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199170

ABSTRACT

A 25-years-old woman with mandibular prognathism underwent a mandibular setback by way of mandibular sagittal split ramus osteotomy (MSSRO). After 2 days of operation, she developed difficulty of closing her right eye. The blink reflex test and motor nerve conduction study of the right orbicularis oris muscle were revealed right facial neuropathy of unknown origin and House-Brackmann facial nerve grading system (HBFNGS) grade V. For treatment, we initially prescribed oral prednisolone and nimodipine including physical therapy. The samples consisted of 11 facial nerve palsy patients caused by MSSRO and were analysed about onset of facial nerve palsy, postoperative HBFNGS, final HBFNGS, treatment method and recovery time. At 10 weeks of treatment of nimodipine, she had completely regained normal function (HBFNGS grade I) of the right facial nerve. The clinical results lead to assume a fast recovery of facial nerve function by the nimodipine medication, whereas average time of recovery is 16.32 weeks in references. Despite of the limited one patient treated, the result was very promising with respect to a faster recovery of the facial nerve function. Considering the use of nimodipine treatment for peripheral facial nerve palsy following a surgical approach with an anatomically preserved nerve can be recommended.


Subject(s)
Blinking , Facial Nerve Diseases , Facial Nerve , Facial Paralysis , Female , Humans , Mandible , Methods , Neural Conduction , Nimodipine , Osteotomy, Sagittal Split Ramus , Paralysis , Prednisolone , Prognathism
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173341

ABSTRACT

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by severe headaches with or without other acute neurological symptoms, and diffuse segmental constriction of cerebral arteries that resolves spontaneously within 3 months. A 44-year-old woman underwent heart transplantation due to primary amyloidosis with heart involvement. She started to have a seizure after three hours after the heart transplantation, and her consciousness was not recovered. Computed tomography and transcranial doppler sonography were used to diagnose RCVS, and contracted vessels were recovered after oral nimodipine administration.


Subject(s)
Adult , Amyloidosis , Cerebral Arteries , Consciousness , Constriction , Female , Headache , Heart Transplantation , Heart , Humans , Nimodipine , Seizures , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial , Vasoconstriction
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728546

ABSTRACT

Reducing [Mg2+]o to 0.1 mM can evoke repetitive [Ca2+]i spikes and seizure activity, which induces neuronal cell death in a process called excitotoxicity. We examined the issue of whether cultured rat hippocampal neurons preconditioned by a brief exposure to 0.1 mM [Mg2+]o are rendered resistant to excitotoxicity induced by a subsequent prolonged exposure and whether Ca2+ spikes are involved in this process. Preconditioning by an exposure to 0.1 mM [Mg2+]o for 5 min inhibited significantly subsequent 24 h exposure-induced cell death 24 h later (tolerance). Such tolerance was prevented by both the NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP5 and the L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist nimodipine, which blocked 0.1 mM [Mg2+]o-induced [Ca2+]i spikes. The AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX significantly inhibited both the tolerance and the [Ca2+]i spikes. The intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM significantly prevented the tolerance. The nonspecific PKC inhibitor staurosporin inhibited the tolerance without affecting the [Ca2+]i spikes. While Go6976, a specific inhibitor of PKCalpha had no effect on the tolerance, both the PKCepsilon translocation inhibitor and the PKCzeta pseudosubstrate inhibitor significantly inhibited the tolerance without affecting the [Ca2+]i spikes. Furthermore, JAK-2 inhibitor AG490, MAPK kinase inhibitor PD98059, and CaMKII inhibitor KN-62 inhibited the tolerance, but PI-3 kinase inhibitor LY294,002 did not. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide significantly inhibited the tolerance. Collectively, these results suggest that low [Mg2+]o preconditioning induced excitotoxic tolerance was directly or indirectly mediated through the [Ca2+]i spike-induced activation of PKCepsilon and PKCxi, JAK-2, MAPK kinase, CaMKII and the de novo synthesis of proteins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 , Cell Death , Cycloheximide , N-Methylaspartate , Neurons , Nimodipine , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Phosphotransferases , Rats , Receptors, AMPA , Seizures
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109551

ABSTRACT

As advance care planning is taking center stage in the field of end-of-life care, various tools have been developed to aid in the often emotional and difficult decision-making process. Video decision support tools are one of the most promising means of assistance, of which the modus operandi is to provide more comprehensive and precise information of medical procedures to patients and their families, allowing them to make better informed decisions. Despite such value, some are concerned about its potential negative impact. For example, video footages of some procedures may be shocking and unpalatable to non-medical professionals, and patients and families may refuse the procedures. One approach to soften the sometimes unpleasant visual of medical procedures is to show less aggressive or more relaxing scenes. Yet another potential issue is that the objectivity of video decision support tools might be vulnerable to the very stakeholders who were involved in the development. Some might argue that having multiple stakeholders may function as checks and balances and provide collective wisdom, but we should provide more systematic guarantee on the objectivity of the visual decision aids. Because the decision of the modality of an individual's death is the last and most significant choice in one's life, no party should exert their influence on such a delicate decision. With carefully designed video decision support tools, our patients will live the last moments of their lives with dignity, as they deserve.


Subject(s)
Advance Care Planning , Decision Making , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Decision Support Techniques , Hope , Humans , Lifting , Nimodipine , Palliative Care , Shock , Terminal Care , Videotape Recording
12.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; fev. 2015. 96 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-836741

ABSTRACT

A hipertensão é uma doença crônica não transmissível e mais freqüente na população sendo o principal fator de risco para complicações cardiovasculares, tais como acidente vascular cerebral e infarto agudo do miocárdio. Na presente pesquisa estão sendo estudados os fármacos utilizados no tratamento da hipertensão mais especificamente, os bloqueadores do canal de cálcio do grupo diidropiridínicos: besilato de anlodipino, nifedipino e nimodipino. O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar a estabilidade intrínseca dos fármacos besilato de anlodipino, nifedipino e nimodipino, para isto foram utilizadas as seguintes técnicas: testes indicativos de estabilidade utilizando as técnicas de espectrofotometria na região do Ultravioleta/Visível (UV/VIS) e Cromatografia em fase Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE). Termogravimetria/ Termogravimetria Derivada (TG/DTG), Calorimetria Exploratória Diferencial (DSC), Difração de Raios X (DRX), Espectroscopia de absorção na região do Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier (FTIR) e Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV). Para o fármaco besilato de anlodipino (AB) pelo método de degradação forçada, analisado por espectrofotometria no UV/VIS, as condições para a análise espectrofotométrica foram metanol e água a uma proporção de (5:45 v/v) e a segunda diluição com água. A leitura foi efetuada a 364,4nm. A linearidade foi estabelecida na faixa de 40,0-65,0 µg/mL e o coeficiente de correlação foi (r) 0,9992. O método cromatográfico, mostrou o diferente comportamento das substâncias nifedipino e nimodipino diante dos meios básicos, ácido, neutro e oxidativo. As condições para a substância nifedipino foram coluna LiChrospher®100 RP-18 (5µm) Merck® fase móvel constituída por metanol e água (45:55v/v), fluxo 1.0 mL/min, tempo de retenção 5,1min, detecção UV a 234nm e vazão de 1.0 mL/min. Foi obtida uma linearidade no intervalo de 5.0-55.0 µg/mL coeficiente de correlação (r) =0,9964. E para a substância nimodipino foram coluna LiChrospher®100 RP-18 (5µm) Merck® fase móvel constituída por acetonitrila e água (55:45v/v), fluxo 1.0mL/min, tempo de retenção 5,8 min, detecção UV a 235 nm e vazão de 1.0mL/min. Foi obtida uma linearidade no intervalo de 5.0-55.0 µg/mL coeficiente de correlação (r) =0,9964. Os resultados obtidos das curvas TG/DTG e DSC mostraram o perfil da decomposição térmica das substâncias estudadas pela Calorimetria Exploratória Diferencial. A análise dos resultados de DRX e DSC mostraram que não há evidências de polimorfismo nessas substâncias. No entanto nas análises de Espectroscopia de absorção na região do infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier (FTIR) não foram encontradas diferenças significativas na matéria-prima e no padrão de referência. As análises de MEV permitiram observar a cristalinidade das substâncias estudadas


Hypertension is the most frequent non-communicable chronic disease in the population being the main factor of risk for cardiovascular complications, such as stroke and acute myocardial infarction. In this work, active pharmaceutical ingredients used to treat hypertension were studied, more specifically the blockers calcium channel dihydropyridine group: amlodipine besylate, nifedipine and nimodipine. The aim of this study was to determine the intrinsic stability of amlodipine besylate, nifedipine and nimodipine. For this purpose the following stability test techniques were used: UV/VIS spectrophotometry and chromatography Net phase High Performance. Thermogravimetry/Derivative Thermogravimetry (TG/ DTG), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transformed Infrared absorption (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (MEV). For drug amlodipine besylate (AB) by forced degradation method analyzed by spectrophotometry UV/VIS spectrophotometric conditions for the analysis were methanol and water at a ratio (5:45v/v) and the second dilution with water. The reading was made at 364,4nm. The linearity was established in the range of 40.0 to 65.0 mg/mL and the correlation coefficient was (r) 0.9992. The chromatographic method showed different behavior of nifedipine and nimodipine substances on the basic means, acid, neutral and oxidative. The conditions for nifedipine were LiChrospher®100 RP-18 column (5µm) Merck® mobile phase consisting of methanol and water (45:55v/v), flow 1.0 mL/min, retention time 5,1min, UV detection at 234 nm and flow of 1.0 mL/min. Linearity was obtained within the range of 5.0-55.0 mg/mL correlation coefficient (r) = 0.9964. And for nimodipine the parameters were: LiChrospher®100 RP-18 column (5µm) Merck® mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile: water (55:45v/v), flow 1.0 mL/min, retention time 5,8min, UV detection at 235nm and flow of 1.0 mL/min. The linearity was obtained within the range of 5.0- 55.0 mg/mL correlation coefficient (r) = 0.9964. The results of TG/DTG and DSC curves presented the profile of the thermal decomposition of the substances studied by DSC. The results of XRD and DSC presented no evidence of polymorphism in these analyzes, however, according to analyzes of absorption spectroscopy in the infrared (FTIR) there were no significant differences in the raw materials and standard reference. SEM analyzes allowed to observe the crystallinity of the studied substances


Subject(s)
Amlodipine/analysis , Calcium , Nifedipine/analysis , Nimodipine/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet/instrumentation , Analytical Methods/analysis , Chromatography , Differential Thermal Analysis , Differential Thermal Analysis/instrumentation , Hypertension/prevention & control , Infarction , Polymorphism, Genetic/physiology , Stroke , Thermogravimetry/methods
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-212754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The management of patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms and severe vasospasm is subject to considerable controversy. We intended to describe herein an endovascular technique for the simultaneous treatment of aneurysms and vasospasm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A series of 11 patients undergoing simultaneous endovascular treatment of ruptured aneurysms and vasospasm were reviewed. After placement of a guiding catheter within the proximal internal carotid artery for coil embolization, an infusion line of nimodipine was wired to one hub, and of a microcatheter was advanced through another hub (to select and deliver detachable coils). Nimodipine was then infused continuously during the coil embolization. RESULTS: This technique was applied to 11 ruptured aneurysms accompanied by vasospasm (anterior communicating artery, 6 patients; internal carotid artery, 2 patients; posterior communicating and middle cerebral arteries, 1 patient each). Aneurysmal occlusion by coils and nimodipine-induced angioplasty were simultaneously achieved, resulting in excellent outcomes for all patients, and there were no procedure-related complications. Eight patients required repeated nimodipine infusions. CONCLUSION: Our small series of patients suggests that the simultaneous endovascular management of ruptured cerebral aneurysms and vasospasm is a viable approach in patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and severe vasospasm.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aneurysm, Ruptured/therapy , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Embolization, Therapeutic , Endovascular Procedures , Female , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Male , Middle Aged , Nimodipine/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Vasospasm, Intracranial/therapy
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to find out the clinical variables correlated with repeated intra-arterial (IA) nimodipine infusions in patients with medically refractory cerebral vasospasm (CV) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the 36 months between January 2011 and December 2013, 275 patients were treated at our institute for SAH due to a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Of the 275 patients, 26 patients (9.5%) met the inclusion criteria. For each patient, a retrospective review of their medical records was conducted. RESULTS: Eleven patients underwent a single IA nimodipine infusion and 15 patients underwent more than two IA nimodipine infusions. Multiple IA nimodipine infusion patients had poor improvement (2 of 15 patients, 13.3%) in Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores after the first IA nimodipine infusion compared to patients of single IA nimodipine infusion (6 of 11 patients, 54.6%) (p = 0.038). The mean middle cerebral artery (MCA) Lindegaard ratio of multiple IA nimodipine infusion patients was 4.3 +/- 1.1 after the first IA nimodipine infusion (p = 0.039). In multiple IA nimodipine infusion patients, CV occurred more often bilaterally (p = 0.035) and distally (p = 0.001). More vessel segments were affected in multiple IA nimodipine infusion patients (3.1 +/- 1.0) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The following factors correlated with multiple IA nimodipine infusions: 1) no improvement in GCS after the IA nimodipine infusion; 2) no decrease of MCA velocity on transcranial doppler over 50 cm/s or Lindegaard ratio over 4.3 after the IA nimodipine infusion; 3) distal, bilateral, or diffuse involvement of CV.


Subject(s)
Glasgow Coma Scale , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Medical Records , Middle Cerebral Artery , Nimodipine , Retrospective Studies , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Vasospasm, Intracranial
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to find out the clinical variables correlated with repeated intra-arterial (IA) nimodipine infusions in patients with medically refractory cerebral vasospasm (CV) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the 36 months between January 2011 and December 2013, 275 patients were treated at our institute for SAH due to a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Of the 275 patients, 26 patients (9.5%) met the inclusion criteria. For each patient, a retrospective review of their medical records was conducted. RESULTS: Eleven patients underwent a single IA nimodipine infusion and 15 patients underwent more than two IA nimodipine infusions. Multiple IA nimodipine infusion patients had poor improvement (2 of 15 patients, 13.3%) in Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores after the first IA nimodipine infusion compared to patients of single IA nimodipine infusion (6 of 11 patients, 54.6%) (p = 0.038). The mean middle cerebral artery (MCA) Lindegaard ratio of multiple IA nimodipine infusion patients was 4.3 +/- 1.1 after the first IA nimodipine infusion (p = 0.039). In multiple IA nimodipine infusion patients, CV occurred more often bilaterally (p = 0.035) and distally (p = 0.001). More vessel segments were affected in multiple IA nimodipine infusion patients (3.1 +/- 1.0) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The following factors correlated with multiple IA nimodipine infusions: 1) no improvement in GCS after the IA nimodipine infusion; 2) no decrease of MCA velocity on transcranial doppler over 50 cm/s or Lindegaard ratio over 4.3 after the IA nimodipine infusion; 3) distal, bilateral, or diffuse involvement of CV.


Subject(s)
Glasgow Coma Scale , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Medical Records , Middle Cerebral Artery , Nimodipine , Retrospective Studies , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Vasospasm, Intracranial
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49741

ABSTRACT

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by development of a severe thunderclap headache with or without other acute neurological symptoms, and by multifocal or diffuse segmental vasoconstriction of the cerebral arteries that resolves spontaneously within 3 months. Several precipitating factors have been identified; these include the use of adrenergic or serotonergic drugs and postpartum status. Diagnosis is aided by the dynamic nature of the clinicoradiological features, including a 'beads-on-a-string' appearance of the cerebral arteries on angiography, and complete (or near-complete) resolution of the condition evident on repeat angiography performed 3 months after initial onset. Calcium channel blockers such as nimodipine seem to relieve the severe headache within 48 h. Here, we present the case of a female who developed RCVS postpartum.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Calcium Channel Blockers , Cerebral Arteries , Diagnosis , Female , Headache , Headache Disorders, Primary , Humans , Nimodipine , Postpartum Period , Precipitating Factors , Serotonin Agents , Vasculitis , Vasoconstriction
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 72(6): 411-417, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712680

ABSTRACT

The effects of galantamine (GAL) on quality of life (QoL) and cognitive speed, as well its effects combined with nimodipine (NIM) in Alzheimer disease (AD) with cerebrovascular disease (mixed dementia), have not been explored. Method : Double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter Brazilian trial, studying the effects of GAL/NIM vs. GAL/placebo (PLA) in mild to moderate mixed dementia. Patients were randomized to receive GAL/NIM or GAL/PLA for 24 weeks. Primary efficacy measures were changes on a computerized neuropsychological battery (CNTB) and QoL Scale in Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD) from baseline to week 24. Results : Twenty-one patients received at least one drug dose (9 GAL/NIM and 12 GAL/PLA). Groups were matched for age, sex, education, cognitive and QoL scores at baseline. No significant differences were observed between groups on primary or secondary measures. QoL and cognitive performance showed significant improvement (p<0.05) from baseline when all GAL-treated patients were analyzed. Adverse events were predominantly mild to moderate. Conclusion : GAL treatment improved QoL in mixed dementia, in addition to its previously known cognitive benefits. The combination GAL/NIM was not advantageous. However, the small sample size precludes any definitive conclusions. Trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00814658 .


Os efeitos da galantamina (GAL) sobre qualidade de vida (QdV) e velocidade de processamento cognitivo, bem como da combinação com nimodipina (NIM) no tratamento da doença de Alzheimer (DA) com doença cerebrovascular (demência mista) ainda não foram investigados. Método : Estudo multicêntrico brasileiro, duplo-cego, controlado com placebo, avaliando os efeitos de GAL/NIM x GAL/placebo (PLA) na demência mista leve a moderada. Pacientes receberam tratamento com GAL/NIM ou GAL/PLA por 24 semanas. Medidas de eficácia primária foram as variações no desempenho em bateria de testes neuropsicológicos computadorizados e na escala QdV-DA ao final do estudo. Resultados : Vinte um pacientes receberam pelo menos uma dose da droga (9 GAL/NIM e 12 GAL/PLA). Os grupos foram emparelhados por idade, sexo, escolaridade, escores cognitivos e de QdV na linha de base. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os dois grupos nas medidas de eficácia primária e secundária. Na avaliação de todos os pacientes que receberam GAL, houve melhora significativa (p<0,05) em QdV-DA e desempenho cognitivo. Os eventos adversos foram predominantemente leves a moderados. Conclusão : O tratamento com GAL proporcionou melhora da QdV na demência mista, além dos benefícios cognitivos previamente conhecidos. A combinação GAL/NIM não foi vantajosa. O reduzido tamanho amostral impede conclusões definitivas. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cognition/drug effects , Dementia/drug therapy , Galantamine/administration & dosage , Nimodipine/administration & dosage , Quality of Life , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/drug therapy , Cognition/physiology , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Neuropsychological Tests , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1051-1056, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307749

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the difference in the efficacy and effect mechanism of subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) complicated with depression between acupuncture and medication.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty patients were randomized-into an acupuncture group and a medication group, 30 cases in each one. In the acupuncture group, acupuncture was applied to Baihui (GV 20), Shuigou (GV 26), Fengfu (GV 16), Fengchi (GB 20) and the others, once a day, 6 times a week. The treatment of 4 weeks made one session and totally 2 sessions were required. In the medication group, nimodipine 30 mg, three times a day and fluoxetine 20 mg, once a day were prescribed for oral administration, for 8 weeks totally. Before treatment, at the end of the 4th week and at the end of the 8th week of treatment, cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and solubility CD40 ligand (sCD40L) were determined respectively. The scores in Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and Hamilton' s depression scale (HAMD) were evaluated in the two groups. The efficacies on cognitive function and depression symptoms were compared in the patients between the two groups. Results Compared with the outcome before treatment, mean blood flow velocity (Vm) of middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) was increased significantly at the end of the 4th week of treatment in the two groups (all P<0.05). At the end of the 8th week, Vm was increased much significantly (all P<0.01). The differences were not significant in comparison between the two groups (all P>0.05). Compared with the expression before treatment, sCD40L was reduced significantly after treatment in the patients of the two groups (all P<0.01), but the differ- ence was not significant between the two groups (all P>0.05). Compared with that before treatment, MoCA score was increased significantly after treatment in the two groups (all P<0.01), HAMD score was reduced sig- nificantly (all P<0.01), the differences were not significant in comparison between the two groups (all P>0.05). The total effective rate of cognitive improvement was 86.7% (26/30) in the acupuncture group and was 80.0% (24/30) in the medication group, the differences were not significant in comparison of the two groups (P>0.05). The total effective rate of the improvement in depression was 93.3% (21/30) in the acupuncture group and was 86.7% (26/30) in the medication group, the differences were not significant in comparison of the two groups (P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Acupuncture could significantly increases CBFV and reduces serum sCD40L expressions in the patients of SIVD complicated with depression, and significantly improves cognitive function and relieves depression symptoms. The efficacy of it is similar to that of western medication. The increase of serum sCD40L expression is possibly involved in the occurrence and development of SIVD. Reducing sCD40L expression contributes to the alleviation of damage induced by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.</p>


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Adult , Aged , Cerebral Infarction , Drug Therapy , Therapeutics , Depression , Drug Therapy , Therapeutics , Female , Fluoxetine , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nimodipine , Treatment Outcome
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728465

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids have an ability to suppress various ion channels. We determined whether one of flavonoids, cyanidin-3-glucoside, affects adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-induced calcium signaling using digital imaging methods for intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential in PC12 cells. Treatment with ATP (100microM) for 90 sec induced [Ca2+]i increases in PC12 cells. Pretreatment with cyanidin-3-glucoside (1micro g/ml to 100microg/ml) for 30 min inhibited the ATP-induced [Ca2+]i increases in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50=15.3microg/ml). Pretreatment with cyanidin-3-glucoside (15microg/ml) for 30 min significantly inhibited the ATP-induced [Ca2+]i responses following removal of extracellular Ca2+ or depletion of intracellular [Ca2+]i stores. Cyanidin-3-glucoside also significantly inhibited the relatively specific P2X2 receptor agonist 2-MeSATP-induced [Ca2+]i responses. Cyanidin-3-glucoside significantly inhibited the thapsigargin or ATP-induced store-operated calcium entry. Cyanidin-3-glucoside significantly inhibited the ATP-induced [Ca2+]i responses in the presence of nimodipine and omega-conotoxin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside also significantly inhibited KCl (50 mM)-induced [Ca2+]i increases. Cyanidin-3-glucoside significantly inhibited ATP-induced mitochondrial depolarization. The intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM or the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter inhibitor RU360 blocked the ATP-induced mitochondrial depolarization in the presence of cyanidin-3-glucoside. Cyanidin-3-glucoside blocked ATP-induced formation of ROS. BAPTA-AM further decreased the formation of ROS in the presence of cyanidin-3-glucoside. All these results suggest that cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits ATP-induced calcium signaling in PC12 cells by inhibiting multiple pathways which are the influx of extracellular Ca2+ through the nimodipine and omega-conotoxin-sensitive and -insensitive pathways and the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. In addition, cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits ATP-induced formation of ROS by inhibiting Ca2+-induced mitochondrial depolarization.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Adenosine Triphosphate , Animals , Calcium , Calcium Signaling , Flavonoids , Ion Channels , Ion Transport , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Nimodipine , omega-Conotoxins , PC12 Cells , Reactive Oxygen Species , Receptors, Purinergic P2X2 , Thapsigargin
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107351

ABSTRACT

Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a chronic inflammatory vascular disease that mainly affects large vessels. Central nervous system involvement occurs in about 20% of cases with rare involvement of intracranial vessel, and its typical manifestation is cerebral ischemia or stroke. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a group of disorders with prolonged, but reversible vasoconstriction of the cerebral arteries with acute-onset, severe, recurrent headaches with or without neurologic signs or symptoms. We report a case of TA in a 17-year old girl who presented with secondary RCVS. She complained of thunderclap headache, seizure and acute stroke. 3-dimensional computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance angiography of head revealed irregular thickening of aortic wall and its main branches with multifocal narrowing of intracranial basilar artery, which improved after oral nimodipine intake. This case highlights RCVS as an unusual manifestation of TA and demonstrates the diagnosis, treatment and response to therapy of RCVS in TA, which resolved after treatment with calcium channel blocker.


Subject(s)
Basilar Artery , Brain Ischemia , Calcium Channels , Central Nervous System , Cerebral Arteries , Glycosaminoglycans , Head , Headache , Headache Disorders, Primary , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Neurologic Manifestations , Nimodipine , Seizures , Stroke , Takayasu Arteritis , Vascular Diseases , Vasoconstriction
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