Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 139
Filter
1.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 113-117, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019447

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Few studies regarding arthritic diseases have been performed to verify the presence of the neurodegeneration. Given the increased oxidative stress and extra-articular effects of the rheumatoid arthritis, the gastrointestinal studies should be further investigated aiming a better understanding of the systemic effects the disease on enteric nervous system. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the rheumatoid arthritis affects the nitrergic density and somatic area of the nNOS- immunoreactive (IR) myenteric neurons, as well as the morphometric areas of CGRP and VIP-IR varicosities of the ileum of arthritic rats. METHODS: Twenty 58-day-old male Holtzmann rats were distributed in two groups: control and arthritic. The arthritic group received a single injection of the Freund's Complete Adjuvant in order to induce arthritis model. The whole-mount preparations of ileum were processed for immunohistochemistry to VIP, CGRP and nNOS. Quantification was used for the nitrergic neurons and morphometric analyses were performed for the three markers. RESULTS: The arthritic disease induced a reduction 6% in ileal area compared to control group. No significant differences were observed in nitrergic density comparing both groups. However, arthritic group yielded a reduction of the nitrergic neuronal somatic area and VIP-IR varicosity areas. However, an increase of varicosity CGRP-IR areas was also observed. CONCLUSION: Despite arthritis resulted in no alterations in the number of nitrergic neurons, the retraction of ileal area and reduction of nitrergic somatic and VIP-IR varicosity areas may suggest a negative impact the disease on the ENS.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Poucos estudos sobre doenças artríticas têm sido realizados para verificar a presença de neurodegeneração. Diante do aumento do estresse oxidativo e dos efeitos extra-articulares da artrite reumatoide, estudos gastrointestinais devem ser investigados visando uma melhor compreensão dos efeitos sistêmicos da doença no sistema nervoso entérico. OBJETIVO: Determinar se a artrite reumatoide afeta a densidade nitrérgica e a área somática dos neurônios mioentéricos imunorreativos ao nNOS (nNOS-IR), bem como para as áreas morfométricas das varicosidades CGRP-IR e VIP-IR do íleo de ratos artríticos. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos Holtzmann, com 58 dias de idade, foram distribuídos em dois grupos: controle e artrítico. O grupo artrítico recebeu uma única injeção do adjuvante completo de Freund para induzir o modelo de artrite. Os preparados totais de íleo foram processados para imuno-histoquímica ao VIP, CGRP e nNOS. A quantificação foi utilizada para os neurônios nitrérgicos e as análises morfométricas foram realizadas para os três marcadores. RESULTADOS: A doença artrítica induziu uma redução de 6% na área ileal em relação ao grupo controle. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na densidade nitrérgica comparando os dois grupos. No entanto, o grupo artrítico produziu uma redução da área somática neuronal nitrérgica e da área das varicosidades do VIP-IR. Entretanto, foi observado um aumento das áreas das viricosidades CGRP-IR. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da artrite não resultar em alterações no número de neurônios nitrérgicos, a retração da área ileal e a redução das áreas somática nitrérgica e das varicosidades do VIP-IR podem sugerir um impacto negativo da doença no sistema nervoso entérico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/physiopathology , Enteric Nervous System/physiopathology , Nitrergic Neurons/physiology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Nitrergic Neurons/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/physiology , Myenteric Plexus/physiopathology , Myenteric Plexus/metabolism
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Few studies were evaluated the effect of blindness on outcome in animal models, though a potential effect of blinding has been reported in clinical trials. We evaluated the effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on cavernous nerve injury (CNI)-induced erectile dysfunction (ED) in the rat and examined how proper blinding of the outcome assessor affected treatment effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched in Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane and Web of Science databases from inception to January 2019. We included CNI animal model, randomized controlled experiments, and ADSC intervention. Erectile function and structural changes were assessed by intracavernous pressure and mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) ratios, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) levels, cavernous smooth muscle and collagen (CSM/collagen) ratios, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). RESULTS: Nineteen studies were included in the final meta-analysis. The ICP/MAP ratio of the ADSC treatment group increased compared to the control group (SMD=1.33, 95%CI: 1.11~1.56, I²=72%). The nNOS level (SMD=2.29, 95%CI: 1.74~2.84, I²=75%), CSM/collagen (SMD=2.57, 95%CI: 1.62~3.52; I²=85%), and cGMP (SMD=2.96, 95%CI: 1.82~4.10, I²=62%) were also increased in the ADSC treatment group. Preplanned subgroup analysis was conducted to explore the source of heterogeneity. Five studies with blinded outcome assessment were significantly less effective than the unblinded studies (SMD=1.33, 95%CI: 0.86~1.80; SMD=1.81, 95%CI: 1.17~2.46, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: ADSCs might be effective in improving erectile function and structural change in CNI-induced ED. However, non-blinded outcome assessors might cause detection bias and overestimate treatment efficacy. Therefore, the ADSC efficacy must be further evaluated with a rigorous study design to avoid bias.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arterial Pressure , Bias , Blindness , Collagen , Erectile Dysfunction , Guanosine Monophosphate , Male , Models, Animal , Muscle, Smooth , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Population Characteristics , Rats , Stem Cells , Treatment Outcome
3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 79-90, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775433

ABSTRACT

Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) is known to have an anti-hypertensive effect, which might be related to modulation of the baroreflex in rats with renal vascular hypertension (RVH). In this study, RVH was induced by the 2-kidney-1-clip method (2K1C) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were then treated with hypobaric hypoxia simulating 5000 m altitude for 6 h/day for 28 days. The arterial blood pressure (ABP), heart rate (HR), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were measured before and after microinjection of L-arginine into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) in anesthetized rats. Evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) and spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) were recorded in anterogradely-labeled NTS neurons receiving baroreceptor afferents. We measured the protein expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) in the NTS. The results showed that the ABP in RVH rats was significantly lower after CIHH treatment. The inhibition of ABP, HR, and RSNA induced by L-arginine was less in RVH rats than in sham rats, and greater in the CIHH-treated RVH rats than the untreated RVH rats. The eEPSC amplitude in NTS neurons receiving baroreceptor afferents was lower in the RVH rats than in the sham rats and recovered after CIHH. The protein expression of nNOS and eNOS in the NTS was lower in the RVH rats than in the sham rats and this decrease was reversed by CIHH. In short, CIHH treatment decreases ABP in RVH rats via up-regulating NOS expression in the NTS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Baroreflex , Physiology , Blood Pressure , Hypertension , Metabolism , Hypoxia , Kidney , Metabolism , Male , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Solitary Nucleus , Metabolism
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773592

ABSTRACT

The traditionally used oriental herbal medicine Moutan Cortex Radicis [MCR; Paeonia Suffruticosa Andrews (Paeoniaceae)] exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, and analgesic effects. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of differently fractioned MCR extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease model and neuro-blastoma B65 cells. Ethanol-extracted MCR was fractionated by n-hexane, butanol, and distilled water. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated first with 20 μg of 6-OHDA, followed by three MCR extract fractions (100 or 200 mg·kg) for 14 consecutive days. In the behavioral rotation experiment, the MCR extract-treated groups showed significantly decreased number of net turns compared with the 6-OHDA control group. The three fractions also significantly inhibited the reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta following 6-OHDA neurotoxicity. Western blotting analysis revealed significantly reduced tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the substantia nigra pars compacta in the 6-OHDA-treated group, which was significantly inhibited by the n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR. B65 cells were exposed to the extract fractions for 24 h prior to addition of 6-OHDA for 30 min; treatment with n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR reduced apoptotic cell death induced by 6-OHDA neurotoxicity and inhibited nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression. These results showed that n-hexane- and distilled water-fractioned MCR extracts inhibited 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by suppressing nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity, suggesting that MCR extracts could serve as a novel candidate treatment for the patients with Parkinson's disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Antiparkinson Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Cell Death , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Neurons , Pathology , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Oxidopamine , Toxicity , Paeonia , Chemistry , Parkinsonian Disorders , Drug Therapy , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Plants, Medicinal , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Genetics , Metabolism
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812381

ABSTRACT

The traditionally used oriental herbal medicine Moutan Cortex Radicis [MCR; Paeonia Suffruticosa Andrews (Paeoniaceae)] exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, and analgesic effects. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of differently fractioned MCR extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease model and neuro-blastoma B65 cells. Ethanol-extracted MCR was fractionated by n-hexane, butanol, and distilled water. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated first with 20 μg of 6-OHDA, followed by three MCR extract fractions (100 or 200 mg·kg) for 14 consecutive days. In the behavioral rotation experiment, the MCR extract-treated groups showed significantly decreased number of net turns compared with the 6-OHDA control group. The three fractions also significantly inhibited the reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta following 6-OHDA neurotoxicity. Western blotting analysis revealed significantly reduced tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the substantia nigra pars compacta in the 6-OHDA-treated group, which was significantly inhibited by the n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR. B65 cells were exposed to the extract fractions for 24 h prior to addition of 6-OHDA for 30 min; treatment with n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR reduced apoptotic cell death induced by 6-OHDA neurotoxicity and inhibited nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression. These results showed that n-hexane- and distilled water-fractioned MCR extracts inhibited 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by suppressing nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity, suggesting that MCR extracts could serve as a novel candidate treatment for the patients with Parkinson's disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Antiparkinson Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Cell Death , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Neurons , Pathology , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Oxidopamine , Toxicity , Paeonia , Chemistry , Parkinsonian Disorders , Drug Therapy , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Plants, Medicinal , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Genetics , Metabolism
6.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 483-490, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689704

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Objective</b>To investigate the protective effect of human urine-derived stem cells (USCs) on erectile function and cavernous structure in rats with cavernous nerve injury (CNI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty adult male SD rats with normal sexual function were randomly divided into four groups of equal number: sham operation, bilateral CNI (BCNI) model control, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and USC. The BCNI model was established in the latter three groups of rats by clamping the bilateral cavernous nerves. After modeling, the rats in the PBS and USC groups were treated by intracavernous injection of PBS at 200 μl and USCs at 1×106/200 μl PBS respectively for 28 days. Then, the maximum intracavernous pressure (mICP) and the ratio of mICP to mean arterial pressure (mICP/MAP) of the rats were calculated by electrical stimulation of the major pelvic ganglions, the proportion of nNOS- or NF200-positive nerve fibers in the total area of penile dorsal nerves determined by immunohistochemical staining, the levels of endothelial cell marker eNOS, smooth muscle marker α-SMA and collagen I detected by Western blot, and the smooth muscle to collagen ratio and the cell apoptosis rate in the corpus cavernosum measured by Masson staining and TUNEL, respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After 28 days of treatment, the rats in the USC group, as compared with those in the PBS and BCNI model control groups, showed significant increases in the mICP ([81 ± 9.9] vs [31 ± 8.3] and [33 ± 4.2] mmHg, P <0.05), mICP/MAP ratio (0.72 ± 0.05 vs 0.36 ± 0.03 and 0.35 ± 0.04, P <0.05), the proportions of nNOS-positive nerve fibers ([11.31 ± 4.22]% vs [6.86 ± 3.08]% and [7.29 ± 4.84]% , P <0.05) and NF200-positive nerve fibers in the total area of penile dorsal nerves ([27.31 ± 3.12]% vs [17.38 ± 2.87]% and [19.49 ± 4.92]%, P <0.05), the eNOS/GAPDH ratio (0.52 ± 0.08 vs 0.31 ± 0.06 and 0.33 ± 0.07, P <0.05), and the α-SMA/GAPDH ratio (1.01 ± 0.09 vs 0.36 ± 0.05 and 0.38 ± 0.04, P <0.05), but a remarkable decrease in the collagen I/GAPDH ratio (0.28 ± 0.06 vs 0.68 ± 0.04 and 0.70 ± 0.10, P <0.05). The ratio of smooth muscle to collagen in the corpus cavernosum was significantly higher in the USC than in the PBS and BCNI model control groups (17.91 ± 2.86 vs 7.70 ± 3.12 and 8.21 ± 3.83, P <0.05) while the rate of cell apoptosis markedly lower in the former than in the latter two (3.31 ± 0.83 vs 9.82 ± 0.76, P <0.01; 3.31 ± 0.83 vs 9.75 ± 0.91, P <0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Intracavernous injection of USCs can protect the erectile function of the rat with cavernous nerve injury by protecting the nerves, improving the endothelial function, alleviating fibrosis and inhibiting cell apoptosis in the cavernous tissue.</p>


Subject(s)
Actins , Animals , Arterial Pressure , Collagen , Disease Models, Animal , Erectile Dysfunction , Male , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Penile Erection , Physiology , Penis , Pudendal Nerve , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saline Solution , Stem Cell Transplantation , Methods , Stem Cells , Urine , Cell Biology
7.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 266-273, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718953

ABSTRACT

The ganglion cardiacum or juxtaductal body is situated along the left recurrent laryngeal nerve in the aortic window and is an extremely large component of the cardiac nerve plexus. This study was performed to describe the morphologies of the ganglion cardiacum or juxtaductal body in human fetuses and to compare characteristics with intracardiac ganglion. Ganglia were immunostained in specimens from five fetuses of gestational age 12–16 weeks and seven fetuses of gestational age 28–34 weeks. Many ganglion cells in the ganglia were positive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; sympathetic nerve marker) and chromogranin A, while a few neurons were positive for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS; parasympathetic nerve marker) or calretinin. Another ganglion at the base of the ascending aorta carried almost the same neuronal populations, whereas a ganglion along the left common cardinal vein contained neurons positive for chromogranin A and NOS but no or few TH-positive neurons, suggesting a site-dependent difference in composite neurons. Mixtures of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons within a single ganglion are consistent with the morphology of the cranial base and pelvic ganglia. Most of the intracardiac neurons are likely to have a non-adrenergic non-cholinergic phenotype, whereas fewer neurons have a dual cholinergic/noradrenergic phenotype. However, there was no evidence showing that chromogranin A- and/or calretinin-positive cardiac neurons corresponded to these specific phenotypes. The present study suggested that the ganglion cardiacum was composed of a mixture of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons, which were characterized the site-dependent differences in and near the heart.


Subject(s)
Aorta , Calbindin 2 , Chromogranin A , Fetus , Ganglia , Ganglion Cysts , Gestational Age , Heart , Humans , Neurons , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Phenotype , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve , Skull Base , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Veins
8.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(4): 753-761, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892855

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Diabetes affects the erectile function significantly. However, the penile alterations in the early stage of diabetes in experimental animal models have not been well studied. We examined the changes of the penis and its main erectile components in diabetic rats. Materials and methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups: streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetics and age-matched controls. Three or nine weeks after diabetes induction, the penis was removed for immunohistochemical staining of smooth muscle and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in midshaft penile tissues. The cross-sectional areas of the whole midshaft penis and the corpora cavernosa were quantified. The smooth muscle in the corpora cavernosa and nNOS in the dorsal nerves were quantified. Results The weight, but not the length, of the penis was lower in diabetics. The cross-sectional areas of the total midshaft penis and the corpora cavernosa were lower in diabetic rats compared with controls 9 weeks, but not 3 weeks after diabetes induction. The cross-sectional area of smooth muscle in the corpora cavernosa as percentage of the overall area of the corpora cavernosa was lower in diabetic rats than in controls 9 weeks, but not 3 weeks after diabetes induction. Percentage change of nNOS in dorsal nerves was similar at 3 weeks, and has a decreased trend at 9 weeks in diabetic rats compared with controls. Conclusions Diabetes causes temporal alterations in the penis, and the significant changes in STZ rat model begin 3-9 weeks after induction. Further studies on the reversibility of the observed changes are warranted.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Penis/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Muscle, Smooth/physiopathology , Penis/innervation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/metabolism , Erectile Dysfunction/physiopathology
9.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 392-398, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812754

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the effects of immediate and delayed intracavernous injection of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on neurogenic erectile dysfunction (NED) induced by bilateral cavernous nerve injury in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.@*METHODS@#BM-MSCs isolated from male SD rats were cultured and identified. Twenty-eight 8-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups, sham operation, NED model control, BM-MSCs immediate, and BM-MSCs delayed, and NED models were established in the latter three groups by crushing the bilateral cavernous nerves. The rats in the sham operation and model control groups were injected intracavernously with placebo while those in the latter two with BM-MSCs immediately or 2 weeks after modeling. At 12 weeks after operation, the penile function of the rats was assessed according to the penile intracavernous pressure (ICP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and ICP/MAP ratio obtained from different groups of rats. Then, all the animals were sacrificed and the penile cavernosal tissue collected for histological analysis.@*RESULTS@#At 12 weeks after modeling, both ICP and ICP/MAP were significantly increased in the BM-MSCs immediate and delayed groups as compared with those in the model control (P <0.05), and so were the ratio of smooth muscle to collagen (P <0.05) and the smooth muscle content in the corpus cavernosum (P <0.05), and the number of neurofilament (NF)-positive nerve fibers (P <0.05) and the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the dorsal nerves of the midshaft penis (P <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Intracavernous injection of BM-MSCs can improve erectile function in rats with bilateral cavernous nerve injury by elevating the smooth muscle-collagen ratio and smooth muscle content in the corpus cavernosum and thus preventing its fibrosis as well as by increasing the number of NF-positive nerve fibers and expression of nNOS in the penile dorsal nerves.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Erectile Dysfunction , Therapeutics , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Methods , Muscle, Smooth , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Metabolism , Penile Erection , Physiology , Penis , Pudendal Nerve , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222834

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Gene therapy, stem cell therapy, and low-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) have been investigated as treatments for refractory erectile dysfunction (ED), but inconclusive evidence has been obtained. We investigated the effect of a next-generation electromagnetic cylinder ESWT device on an animal model of ED. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes mellitus (DM)-induced rats were divided into 3 groups: group 1, control; group 2, DM; and group 3, DM+ESWT. Rats were treated with ESWT 3 times a week for 2 weeks. After the treatment course, intracavernous pressure was measured and the corpus cavernosum and cavernous nerve were evaluated. RESULTS: In the DM group, all parameters predicted to be significantly lower in the ED model had statistically significantly decreased (p < 0.01). As a measurement of erectile function, intracavernous pressure was evaluated. The DM+ESWT group exhibited significantly restored erectile function compared to the DM group (p < 0.05). Moreover, ESWT treatment restored smooth muscle content, as assessed by Masson's trichrome staining (p < 0.05). Finally, corporal tissue and the dorsal nerve were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and ELISA. After ESWT treatment, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression levels were restored to levels in the DM group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Electromagnetic cylinder ESWT device resulted in increased VEGF, nNOS, and eNOS expression; reduced smooth muscle atrophy; and increased endothelial cell regeneration in a DM-associated ED model. Our data suggest that safe and effective application could be possible in future clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Atrophy , Blotting, Western , Diabetes Mellitus , Endothelial Cells , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Erectile Dysfunction , Genetic Therapy , Guanosine Monophosphate , Immunohistochemistry , Magnets , Male , Models, Animal , Muscle, Smooth , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Rats , Regeneration , Stem Cells , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neuronal degeneration and changes in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are important mechanisms of age-related constipation. This study aims to compare the distribution of ICCs and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with regard to age-related changes between the ascending colon (AC) and descending colon (DC) in 6-, 31-, and 74-week old and 2-year old male Fischer-344 rats. METHODS: The amount of fecal pellet and the bead expulsion times were measured. Fat proportion in the muscle layer of the colon was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression were analyzed with Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Isovolumetric contractile measurements and electrical field stimulation were used to assess smooth muscle contractility. RESULTS: Colon transit and bead expulsion slowed with senescence. Fat in the muscle layer accumulated with age in the AC, but not in the DC. The proportion of KIT-immunoreactive ICCs in the submucosal and myenteric plexus was higher in the DC than in the AC, and it declined with age, especially in the AC. In contrast, the proportion of NOS-immunoreactive neurons in the myenteric plexus was higher in the AC than in the DC, and both decreased in older rats. Nitric oxide levels declined with age in the DC. Muscle strip experiments showed that the inhibitory response mediated by nitric oxide in the circular direction of the DC was reduced in 2-year old rats. CONCLUSION: The AC and DC differ in their distribution of ICCs and nNOS, and age-related loss of nitrergic neurons more severely affects the DC than the AC.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Blotting, Western , Colon , Colon, Ascending , Colon, Descending , Constipation , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Male , Muscle, Smooth , Myenteric Plexus , Neurons , Nitrergic Neurons , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Nitric Oxide , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Proto-Oncogenes , Rats , Rats, Inbred F344
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(5): 1018-1027, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796875

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of neuronal nitric oxide synthase on the striated urethral sphincter and the urinary bladder. Materials and Methods: A coaxial catheter was implanted in the proximal urethra and another one in the bladder of female rats, which were anesthetized with subcutaneous injection of urethane. The urethral pressure with saline continuous infusion and bladder isovolumetric pressure were simultaneously recorded. Two groups of rats were formed. In group I, an intrathecal catheter was implanted on the day of the experiment at the L6-S1 level of the spinal cord; in group II, an intracerebroventricular cannula was placed 5-6 days before the experiment. Results: It was verified that the group treated with S-methyl-L-thio-citrulline, via intrathecal pathway, showed complete or partial inhibition of the urethral sphincter relaxation and total inhibition of the micturition reflexes. The urethral sphincter and the detrusor functions were recovered after L-Arginine administration. When S-methyl-L-thio-citrulline was administered via intracerebroventricular injection, there was a significant increase of urethral sphincter tonus while preserving the sphincter relaxation and the detrusor contractions, at similar levels as before the use of the drugs. Nevertheless there was normalization of the urethral tonus when L-Arginine was applied. Conclusions: The results indicate that, in female rats anaesthetized with urethane, the nNOS inhibitor administrated through the intrathecal route inhibits urethral sphincter relaxation, while intracerebroventricular injection increases the sphincter tonus, without changing bladder function. These changes were reverted by L-Arginine administration. These findings suggest that the urethral sphincter and detrusor muscle function is modulated by nitric oxide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Thiourea/analogs & derivatives , Urethra/drug effects , Urination/drug effects , Urinary Bladder/drug effects , Citrulline/analogs & derivatives , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/pharmacology , Arginine/pharmacology , Pressure , Reference Values , Thiourea/pharmacology , Time Factors , Urethane/pharmacology , Urethra/physiology , Urination/physiology , Urinary Bladder/physiology , Injections, Spinal , Citrulline/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Anesthetics, Intravenous , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/physiology
13.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 775-782, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331604

ABSTRACT

The present study was to explore the temporal and spatial distributions and variations of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) and neuronal nitric oxide synthetase (nNOS) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Aβ-induced cognitive dysfunction rats. Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into six groups. Three experimental groups were intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected with condensed-amyloid beta peptides 1-42 (Aβ, 2.5 µg/µL, 4 µL) and were observed on day 7 (7 d Aβ group), day 14 (14 d Aβ group) and day 21 (21 d Aβ group), respectively. Three control groups were i.c.v. injected with equivalent volume of normal saline and observed at the same time points as the experimental groups. The learning and memory abilities of rats were tested with Y-maze; the locations and protein expression levels of α7nAChR and nNOS in cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1, CA3, DG regions were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, respectively. The result showed that, compared with the control groups, the three experimental groups exhibited decreased learning and memory behavioral abilities, and down-regulated expressions of nNOS and α7nAChR in prefrontal cortex and hippocampal regions, especially in superficial layer of prefrontal cortex and hippocampal CA3 region. Comparisons among the three experimental groups showed that the inhibitory effects of Aβ on the abilities of learning and memory and the expressions of α7nAChR and nNOS in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were time dependent. The results suggest that the coincident declines of α7nAChR and nNOS in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may be the foundations of the cognitive dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Amyloid beta-Peptides , Animals , Cerebral Cortex , Cognitive Dysfunction , Hippocampus , Learning , Memory , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor
14.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 132-137, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26901

ABSTRACT

The frontal nerve is characterized by its great content of sympathetic nerve fibers in contrast to cutaneous branches of the maxillary and mandibular nerves. However, we needed to add information about composite fibers of cutaneous branches of the nasociliary nerve. Using cadaveric specimens from 20 donated cadavers (mean age, 85), we performed immunohistochemistry of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). The nasocilliary nerve contained abundant nNOS-positive fibers in contrast to few TH- and VIP-positive fibers. The short ciliary nerves also contained nNOS-positive fibers, but TH-positive fibers were more numerous than nNOS-positive ones. Parasympathetic innervation to the sweat gland is well known, but the original nerve course seemed not to be demonstrated yet. The present study may be the first report on a skin nerve containing abundant nNOS-positive fibers. The unique parasympathetic contents in the nasocilliary nerve seemed to supply the forehead sweat glands as well as glands in the eyelid and nasal epithelium.


Subject(s)
Cadaver , Eyelids , Forehead , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Mandibular Nerve , Nasal Mucosa , Nerve Fibers , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Skin , Sweat Glands , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-333601

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the difference between adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice in response to rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) deprivation in terms of anxiety behavior and hippocampal NO level.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Both adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice were divided into normal control (NC) group, wide platform (WP) group, and 24-hour REMS deprivation group, each group consisting of 15 mice. REMS deprivation models were established using a small platform in water tank, and the elevated plus maze test was used to examine anxiety behavior of the mice. After behavioral tests, the mice were sacrificed to examine hippocampal NO levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and hippocampal nNOS protein expression was detected with Western blotting.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The adolescent C57BL/6J mice showed no obvious differences in anxiety behaviors between the 3 groups, but NO level and nNOS expression in the hippocampus was significantly higher in REMSD group than in NC and WP groups (P<0.01). The adult mice in REMSD group, compared with those in the other two groups, exhibited significantly increased total number of arm entry (P<0.01), lowered number of open arm entry and reduced open arm time (P<0.01), increased number of close arm entry and prolonged close arm time (P<0.01 or 0.05); no obvious differences in NO level or nNOS expression in the hippocampus were found in the 3 groups of adult mice.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>REMS deprivation produces different effects on anxiety-related behaviors between adolescent and adult mice possibly in relation to their different responses in terms of NO levels and nNOS expression in the hippocampus.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Anxiety , Hippocampus , Chemistry , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nitric Oxide , Chemistry , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Metabolism , Sleep Deprivation , Sleep, REM
16.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 871-876, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-276005

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the expression of nNOS and ultrastructural changes in the penile tissue of rats with prolactinoma-induced erectile dysfunction (ED).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We established the model of prolactinoma in 20 male Westar rats by peritoneal injection of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and treated the control rats with normal saline (n = 10) or sterilized arachis oil (n = 10). After 8 weeks, we performed the apomorphine test and measured the weight of the pituitary gland and the levels of serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) to confirm the successful construction of the prolactinoma-induced ED model. Then we determined the expression of nNOS in the penile tissue by immunohistochemistry and examined the ultrastructural changes of the penile cavernosum under the transmission electron microscope.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The prolactinoma-induced ED model was successfully established in 15 rats. The weight of the pituitary gland was significantly increased in the rats treated with DES as compared with the normal saline and sterilized arachis oil controls ([46.7 ± 15.5] vs [11.7 ± 2.4] and [12.4 ± 2.3] mg, both P < 0.05). The level of serum PRL was markedly higher while that of T remarkably lower in the former than in the latter two groups ([1,744.9 ± 304.5] vs [11.5 ± 2.4] and [10.6 ± 1.9] ng/ml, both P < 0.0l; [1.54 ± 0.46] vs [3.11 ± 1.08] and [3.04 ± 1.11] ng/ml, both P < 0.05). The rate of penile erection was significantly reduced in the prolactinoma-induced ED model rats in comparison with the normal saline and arachis oil controls (16.7% vs 100% and 87.5%, both P < 0.05), and so was the expression of nNOS in the penile tissue (0.024 ± 0.011 vs 0.066 ± 0.019 and 0.058 ± 0.021, both P < 0.05). Transmission electron microscopy manifested significant ultrastructural changes in the endothelial and smooth muscle cells of the cavernous tissue in the prolactinoma-induced ED models.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The ultrastructural changes of the penile cavernous tissue and the reduced expression of nNOS in penile tissue may be the most important mechanisms of prolactinoma-induced ED in rats.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apomorphine , Carcinogens , Diethylstilbestrol , Erectile Dysfunction , Humans , Male , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Metabolism , Organ Size , Penile Erection , Penis , Pituitary Neoplasms , Prolactin , Blood , Prolactinoma , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Testosterone , Blood
17.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 114-123, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23345

ABSTRACT

To determine the proportion of nerve fibers in the hypogastric nerve (HGN) and pelvic splanchnic nerve (PSN), small tissue strips of the HGN and PSN from 12 donated elderly cadavers were examined histologically. Immunohistochemistry for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was performed. More than 70% of fibers per bundle in the HGN were positive for TH at the level of the sacral promontory. In addition, NOS- (negative) and/or VIP+ (positive) fibers were observed in small areas of each nerve bundle, although the proportion of each was usually less than 10%. In the PSN near the third sacral nerve root, the proportion of nerve fibers positive for NOS and/or VIP (or TH) was below 30%. In both the HGN and PSN, the number of VIP+ fibers was usually greater than that of NOS+ fibers, with frequent co-localization of NOS and VIP. More fibers in both nerves were positive for TH than for these other markers. In contrast to pelvic plexus branches, there were no differences in the proportions of NOS+ and VIP+ fibers between nerve bundles in each of the tissue strips. Thus, target-dependent sorting of nerve fibers was not apparent in the HGN at the level of the sacral promontory or in the PSN near the third sacral nerve root. The NOS+ and/or VIP+ fibers in the HGN were most likely ascending postganglionic fibers to the colon, while those in the PSN root may be preganglionic fibers from Onuf's nucleus.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cadaver , Colon , Humans , Hypogastric Plexus , Immunohistochemistry , Nerve Fibers , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Splanchnic Nerves , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms suggestive of obstruction such as abdominal pain, proximal distension with extremely suppressed motility in the absence of lumen-occluding lesion, whose etiology/pathophysiology is poorly understood. In this study we investigated a functionally obstructive lesion that could underlie symptoms of CIPO. METHODS: We studied colons surgically removed from 13 patients exhibiting clinical/pathological features of pseudo-obstruction but were unresponsive to standard medical treatments. The colons were characterized morphologically, functionally and molecularly, which were compared between regions and to 28 region-matched controls obtained from colon cancer patients. RESULTS: The colons with pseudo-obstruction exhibited persistent luminal distension proximally, where the smooth muscle was hypertrophied with changes in the cell phenotypes. Distinct luminal narrowing was observed near the distal end of the dilated region, close to the splenic flexure, previously referred to as the "transition zone (TZ)" between the dilated and non-dilated loops. Circular muscles from the TZ responded less to depolarization and cholinergic stimulation, which was associated with down-regulation of L-type calcium channel expression. Smooth muscle contractile protein was also downregulated. Myenteric ganglia and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) positive cells were deficient, more severely in the TZ region. Interstitial cells of Cajal was relatively less affected. CONCLUSIONS: The TZ may be the principal site of functional obstruction, leading to proximal distension and smooth muscle hypertrophy, in which partial nNOS depletion could play a key role. The neuromuscular abnormalities probably synergistically contributed to the extremely suppressed motility observed in the colonic pseudo-obstruction.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Calcium Channels, L-Type , Colon , Colon, Transverse , Colonic Neoplasms , Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction , Constipation , Down-Regulation , Ganglia , Humans , Hypertrophy , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction , Muscle, Smooth , Muscles , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Phenobarbital , Phenotype
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease is commonly accompanied by colonic dysmotility and causes changes in intestinal smooth muscle contractility. In this study, colonic smooth muscle contractility in a chronic inflammatory condition was investigated using smooth muscle tissues prepared from interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10(-/-)) mice. METHODS: Prepared smooth muscle sections were placed in an organ bath system. Cholinergic and nitrergic neuronal responses were observed using carbachol and electrical field stimulation with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). The expression of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) networks, muscarinic receptors, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was observed via immunofluorescent staining. RESULTS: The spontaneous contractility and expression of ICC networks in the proximal and distal colon was significantly decreased in IL-10(-/-) mice compared to IL-10(+/+) mice. The contractility in response to carbachol was significantly decreased in the proximal colon of IL-10(-/-) mice compared to IL-10(+/+) mice, but no significant difference was found in the distal colon. In addition, the expression of muscarinic receptor type 2 was reduced in the proximal colon of IL-10(-/-) mice. The nictric oxide-mediated relaxation after electrical field stimulation was significantly decreased in the proximal and distal colon of IL-10(-/-) mice. In inflamed colon, the expression of nNOS decreased, whereas the expression of iNOS increased. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that damage to the ICC network and NOS system in the proximal and distal colon, as well as damage to the smooth muscle cholinergic receptor in the proximal colon may play an important role in the dysmotility of the inflamed colon.


Subject(s)
Animals , Baths , Carbachol , Colon , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Interleukin-10 , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Muscle, Smooth , Nitrergic Neurons , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Receptors, Muscarinic , Relaxation
20.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 67(5): 730-736, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-731206

ABSTRACT

Avaliou-se o risco para desenvolvimento de eventos coronarianos agudos de acordo com os critérios de Framingham e com as ações de saúde realizadas em hipertensos de uma Unidade de Saúde da Família de Vitória-ES. Estudo observacional, de corte transversal, envolvendo 330 hipertensos. A amostra considerou prevalência do agravo de 50%. Os dados foram coletados dos prontuários e as variáveis constituíram o risco coronariano, a pressão arterial, o número de consultas, de atividades educativas e de medicamentos prescritos. Foi utilizada a ANOVA para comparar as variáveis e o teste t pareado para comparação da pressão no período estudado, com nível de significância de 5%. Respectivamente, 115 (34,8%) sujeitos apresentaram baixo risco de infarto ou morte por doença coronariana nos próximos 10 anos; 67 (20,4%) apresentaram médio risco; e 148 (44,8%) apresentaram alto risco. Somente o quantitativo de medicamentos prescritos mostrou relação significante com o risco coronariano elevado.


The risk of developing acute coronary events was evaluated according to Framingham criteria and health actions performed to hypertensive patients at a Health Unit Family of Vitória-ES. This is a observational, cross-sectional study, involving 330 hypertensive. The sample considered a 50% prevalence of the disease. Data were collected from medical records and the variables were the coronary risk, blood pressure, the number of visits, educational activities and prescribed drugs. ANOVA was used to compare variables and paired t-test for comparison of pressure during the study period, with significance level of 5%. Respectively, 115 (34.8%) subjects had low risk for myocardial infarction or death from coronary heart disease in the next 10 years; 67 (20.4%) had average risk; and 148 (44.8%) had high-risk. Only the amount of prescribed medications showed significant relationship with high coronary risk.


Se evaluó el riesgo de desarrollar eventos coronarios agudos según criterios de Framingham y acciones de salud realizadas en hipertensos de una Unidad de Salud de la Familia de Vitória-ES. Estudio observacional, transversal, envolviendo la participación de 330 hipertensos. La muestra considero la prevalencia del agravo en 50%. Los datos fueron recogidos de las historias clínicas y las variables fueron el riesgo coronario, presión arterial, el número de visitas, actividades educativas y los medicamentos recetados. Fue utilizada ANOVA para comparar las variables y el teste t para la comparación de la presión durante el período de estudio, con un nivel de significación del 5%. Respectivamente, 115 (34,8%) sujetos tenían bajo riesgo de infarto de miocardio o muerte por enfermedad coronaria en los próximos 10 años; 67 (20,4%) tenían un riesgo promedio; y 148 (44,8%) tenían alto riesgo. Sólo la cantidad de medicamentos prescritos mostraron asociación significativa con el riesgo coronario alto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Jejunum/enzymology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tissue Distribution
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL