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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 52-58, July. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis attacks approximately 10% of the population worldwide. Sika Deer (Cervus nippon), one of China's precious traditional medicinal animals, has been widely recorded in ancient Chinese medical books and claimed for centuries to have numerous medical benefits including bone strengthening. This study aimed to find the use of Sika Deer bone in treating osteoporosis according to traditional records and to investigate the protective effect of Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract on glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis (GIOP) in rats. RESULTS: Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract could increase serum Ca2+ and BGP, decrease serum P3+, ALP, PTH, and CT, but had no effect on serum NO in rats with GIOP. The immunohistochemical iNOS results of the rats' distal femur were negative in each group. Besides the model group, the eNOS color reaction in osteoblasts was strongly positive in the other three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract can improve pathological changes in the microstructure and stimulate the expression of eNOS in osteoblasts. The protective effect on bone might be mediated by eNOS-dependent NO generation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Peptides/pharmacology , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Deer , Osteoblasts , Dexamethasone , Rats, Wistar , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects
2.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(8): 1128-1133, Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136334

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY AIM The aim of this study was to examine the roles of nitric oxide (NOx), endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS), and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), which is the major endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases (NOS), in the pathophysiology of hemorrhoidal disease. METHODS This study included 54 patients with grades 3 and 4 internal hemorrhoidal disease and 54 patients without the disease who attended the General Surgery Clinic. NOx, eNOS, and ADMA levels were measured with the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) method. RESULTS The patients had higher NO and eNOS levels and lower ADMA levels than the control subjects (p<0.001). A significant highly positive correlation was found between NO and eNOS (p<0.001). Nevertheless, there was a highly negative correlation between ADMA and NO-eNOS(p<0.001, p<0.001). CONCLUSION This preliminary study reveals that higher NOx and eNOS activities and lower ADMA levels in the rectal mucosa are observed in patients with hemorrhoidal disease than in those with normal rectal tissue. The imbalance between endothelium-derived relaxing factors, such as NO and endogenous competitive inhibitor of NOS, ADMA, may cause hemorrhoidal disease. Our study proposes that hemorrhoids display apparent vascular dilatation and present with bleeding or swelling. ADMA is an effective NOS inhibitor and may be a promising therapeutic option for hemorrhoidal disease.


RESUMO OBJETIVO O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar os papéis do óxido nítrico (NOx), do óxido nítrico sintetase endotelial (eNOS) e da dimetilarginina assimétrica (ADMA), que é o principal inibidor endógeno das óxido nítrico sintase (NOS) na fisiopatologia da doença hemorróida. MÉTODOS Este estudo incluiu 54 pacientes com doença hemorróida interna de grau 3 e 4 e 54 pacientes sem a doença que se inscreveram na Clínica Geral de Cirurgia. Os níveis de NOx, eNOS e ADMA foram medidos com o método de Ensaio Imuno absorvente ligado a enzima (ELISA). RESULTADOS Os pacientes têm níveis mais altos de NO e eNOS e níveis mais baixos de ADMA do que os indivíduos controle (p <0,001). Uma correlação altamente positiva significativa foi encontrada entre o NO-eNOS (p <0,001). No entanto, houve uma correlação negativa muito séria entre ADMA e NO-eNOS (p <0,001, p <0,001). CONCLUSÃO Este estudo preliminar revela que os pacientes com doença hemorróida têm atividades mais altas de NOx e eNOS e níveis mais baixos de ADMA na mucosa retal do que os pacientes com tecido retal normal. Desequilíbrio entre o fator relaxante derivado do endotélio, como; O NO e o inibidor competitivo endógeno da NOS, ADMA, podem causar doenças hemorróidas. Nosso estudo propõe que as hemorróidas exibam aparente dilatação vascular e apresentam sangramento ou inchaço, a ADMA é um inibidor eficaz da NOS e pode ser uma opção terapêutica promissora para a doença hemorróida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hemorrhoids , Arginine/analogs & derivatives , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Nitric Oxide
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(6): e9113, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132518

ABSTRACT

Chemerin is an adipokine that has been associated with components of metabolic syndrome. It has been described to affect adipocyte metabolism and inflammatory responses in adipose tissue, as well as the systemic metabolism of lipids and glucose. Few epidemiological studies have evaluated classical and genetics cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in the mixed adult rural population in Brazil. Therefore, the present study explored possible associations between CVRFs and chemerin. This cross-sectional study included 508 adults from the rural localities of Lavras Novas, Chapada, and Santo Antônio do Salto in Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. Demographic, behavioral, clinical, biochemical, anthropometric variables, and 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked with metabolic syndrome phenotypes were evaluated for associations with chemerin level. There was a significant association of high triglyceride levels [odds ratio (OR)=1.91, 95%CI: 1.23−2.98], insulin resistance (OR=1.82, 95%CI: 1.03−3.22), age (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.08−2.49), and sex (OR=1.99, 95%CI: 1.35−2.95) with high levels of chemerin. High chemerin levels were significantly associated with the genetic polymorphisms rs693 in the APOB gene (OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.03−2.19) and rs1799983 in the NOS3 gene (OR=1.46, 95%CI: 1.01−2.12) for the AA and GT+TT genotypes, respectively. In the concomitant presence of genotypes AA of rs693 and GT+TT of rs1799983, the chance of presenting high levels of chemerin showed a 2.21-fold increase (95%CI: 1.25−3.88) compared to the reference genotype. The development of classical CVRFs in this population may be influenced by chemerin and by two risk genotypes characteristic of variants in well-studied genes for hypertension and dyslipidemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Apolipoproteins B/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Chemokines/blood , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , Rural Population , Brazil , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Chemokines/genetics , Genotype
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761801

ABSTRACT

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3-fatty acid, modulates multiple cellular functions. In this study, we addressed the effects of DHA on human umbilical vein endothelial cell calcium transient and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation under control and adenosine triphosphate (ATP, 100 µM) stimulated conditions. Cells were treated for 48 h with DHA concentrations from 3 to 50 µM. Calcium transient was measured using the fluorescent dye Fura-2-AM and eNOS phosphorylation was addressed by western blot. DHA dose-dependently reduced the ATP stimulated Ca²⁺-transient. This effect was preserved in the presence of BAPTA (10 and 20 µM) which chelated the intracellular calcium, but eliminated after withdrawal of extracellular calcium, application of 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborane (75 µM) to inhibit store-operated calcium channel or thapsigargin (2 µM) to delete calcium store. In addition, DHA (12 µM) increased ser1177/thr495 phosphorylation of eNOS under baseline conditions but had no significant effect on this ratio under conditions of ATP stimulation. In conclusion, DHA dose-dependently inhibited the ATP-induced calcium transient, probably via store-operated calcium channels. Furthermore, DHA changed eNOS phosphorylation suggesting activation of the enzyme. Hence, DHA may shift the regulation of eNOS away from a Ca²⁺ activated mode to a preferentially controlled phosphorylation mode.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Adenosine , Blotting, Western , Calcium Channels , Calcium , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Phosphorylation , Thapsigargin , Umbilical Veins
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742357

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the improving effects of diabetic erectile dysfunction with two anti-glycemic agents; phlorizin and insulin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n=15 in each group): normal control (C), untreated diabetic rats (D), and diabetic rats treated by phlorizin (P) or insulin (I). Ten weeks after the diabetic induction using an injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg), four weeks of diabetic control was conducted. Erectile response, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry were assessed. RESULTS: During the experiment, the C-group showed continuous weight gain, while the other groups suffered from weight loss. After start of diabetic control, the body weight of I-group was increased; whereas, there was no meaningful change in the P-group. Meanwhile, comparable blood glucose levels were achieved in the P- and I-groups. The erectile response was markedly decreased in the D-group, whereas the P- and I-groups were similar as good as the C-group. In addition, D-group showed the significant decrease in the cavernosal smooth muscle content and increased apoptosis. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 protein expression, phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 were significantly distorted in the D-group, while the P- and I-groups were comparable with the C-group. CONCLUSIONS: Phlorizin treatment resulted in the improvement of erectile function as same as insulin despite the lack of anabolic weight gains. These results suggest that control of blood glucose level rather than a type of anti-glycemic agents is more important for the prevention and treatment of diabetic erectile dysfunction


Subject(s)
Animals , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Apoptosis , Blood Glucose , Blotting, Western , Body Weight , Diabetes Complications , Erectile Dysfunction , Immunohistochemistry , Insulin , Male , Muscle, Smooth , Myosin-Light-Chain Phosphatase , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Phlorhizin , Phosphorylation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Weight Gain , Weight Loss
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Xiaotan Huayu Liqiao formula (the Chinese Medicine) on mesenteric artery function in rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), and to explore the related mechanism.@*METHODS@#Forty-eight male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups as Normoxia, CIH, Formula+CIH and formula group. Rats were exposed to normoxia in the Normoxia and Formula group, or intermittent hypoxia in CIH or Formula+CIH group. Xiaotan Huayu Liqiao formula was given at 24g/kg by intragastric administration before intermittent hypoxia exposure. The pathological changes of mesenteric artery were determined by HE staining, and the relaxation of mesenteric artery (induced by acetylcholine(ACh) and L-arginine(L-Arg)) was recorded by microvascular ring technique. Serums of all rats were collected (0 d and 21 d) and the content of NO was detected by ELISA. The levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and p-eNOS were measured by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared with Normoxia group, the mesenteric arterial endothelial injury and media thickening were observed and the relaxation of mesenteric artery was significantly reduced in rats exposed to CIH. The level of NO in serum and the ratio of p-eNOS/eNOS were also decreased in the CIH group. Xiaotan Huayu Liqiao formula administration improved the pathologic changes and dilatation function of mesenteric artery, increased the levels of NO and p-eNOS. Compared with Normoxia group,all the results were not observed significant difference in Formula group.@*CONCLUSION@#Xiaotan Huayu Liqiao formula increased the bioavailability of NO, and ameliorated the CIH induced mesenteric artery function injury.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Hypoxia , Pathology , Male , Mesenteric Arteries , Pathology , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776528

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of apple polyphenols on pulmonary vascular remodeling in rats with pulmonary arterial hypertension and its mechanism.@*METHODS@#Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups:control (Con) group, monocrotaline (MCT) group, apple polyphenol (APP) group,monocrotaline + apple polyphenol (MCT+APP) group. In Con group, rats received a subcutaneous injection of physical saline. In APP group, rats received intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg APP, every other day. In MCT group, rats received a single subcutaneous injection of MCT(60 mg/kg). In MCT+APP group, rats received subcutaneous injection of 60 mg/kg MCT followed by an intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg APP every other day. All the disposal lasted 3 weeks. Then the PAH-relevant indicators, such as mean pulmonary artery pressure(mPAP), pulmonary vascular resistance(PVR), right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) ,wall thickness (WT%) and wall area (WA%) were tested. After that, the inflammatory pathway related indicators, such as interleukin1(IL-1),interleukin1(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α), cyclooxygenase 2(COX-2) and myeloperoxidase(MPO) in pulmonary tissue and free intracellular Ca in pulmonary smooth muscle cell(PASMC), content of eNOS and NO in endothelial cells were determined.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the levels of mPAP, PVR, RVHI, WA%, WT%, and IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, MPO in tissue and the expression of Ca in PASMC of MCT group were increased significantly, while the contents of eNOS and NO in endothelial cells were decreased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with the MCT group, the apple polyphenol treatment could improve the above mentioned situation, and the COX-2 and Ca indicators of the apple polyphenol treatment group were decreased significantly (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#MCT can increase COX-2 expression and intracellular Ca in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, decrease the contents of eNOS and NO in endothelial cells, while apple polyphenols can significantly inhibit these effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Metabolism , Cytokines , Metabolism , Malus , Chemistry , Monocrotaline , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Metabolism , Polyphenols , Pharmacology , Pulmonary Artery , Pathology , Random Allocation , Rats , Vascular Remodeling
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Apart from its blood pressure-lowering effect by blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), exhibits various ancillary effects including cardiovascular protective effects in vitro. Nonetheless, the protective effects of telmisartan in cerebrocardiovascular diseases are somewhat variable in large-scale clinical trials. Dysregulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS)-derived NO contributes to the developments of various vascular diseases. Nevertheless, the direct effects of telmisartan on endothelial functions including NO production and vessel relaxation, and its action mechanism have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which telmisartan regulates NO production and vessel relaxation in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: We measured nitrite levels in culture medium and mouse serum, and performed inhibitor studies and western blot analyses using bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and a hyperglycemic mouse model. To assess vessel reactivity, we performed acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vessel relaxation assay on isolated rat aortas. RESULTS: Telmisartan decreased NO production in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic BAECs, which was accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser¹¹⁷⁹ (p-eNOS-Ser¹¹⁷⁹). Telmisartan increased the expression of protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) and co-treatment with okadaic acid completely restored telmisartan-inhibited NO production and p-eNOS-Ser¹¹⁷⁹ levels. Of the ARBs tested (including losartan and fimasartan), only telmisartan decreased NO production and p-eNOS-Ser¹¹⁷⁹ levels, and enhanced PP2Ac expression. Co-treatment with GW9662 had no effect on telmisartan-induced changes. In line with in vitro observations, telmisartan reduced serum nitrite and p-eNOS-Ser¹¹⁷⁹ levels, and increased PP2Ac expression in high fat diet-fed mice. Furthermore, telmisartan attenuated ACh-induced rat aorta relaxation. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that telmisartan inhibited NO production and vessel relaxation at least in part by PP2A-mediated eNOS-Ser¹¹⁷⁹ dephosphorylation in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-independent manner. These results may provide a mechanism that explains the inconsistent cerebrocardiovascular protective effects of telmisartan.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Animals , Aorta , Blotting, Western , Catalytic Domain , Endothelial Cells , In Vitro Techniques , Losartan , Mice , Mice, Obese , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Nitric Oxide , Okadaic Acid , Peroxisomes , Phosphorylation , Protein Phosphatase 2 , Rats , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Relaxation , Renin-Angiotensin System , Vascular Diseases
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763034

ABSTRACT

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in pathologic ocular neovascularization and vascular leakage via activation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). This study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic mechanisms and effects of the tetrapeptide Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu (RLYE), a VEGFR2 inhibitor, in the development of vascular permeability and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In cultured human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs), treatment with RLYE blocked VEGF-A-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2, Akt, ERK, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), leading to suppression of VEGF-A-mediated hyper-production of NO. Treatment with RLYE also inhibited VEGF-A-stimulated angiogenic processes (migration, proliferation, and tube formation) and the hyperpermeability of HRMECs, in addition to attenuating VEGF-A-induced angiogenesis and vascular permeability in mice. The anti-vascular permeability activity of RLYE was correlated with enhanced stability and positioning of the junction proteins VE-cadherin, β-catenin, claudin-5, and ZO-1, critical components of the cortical actin ring structure and retinal endothelial barrier, at the boundary between HRMECs stimulated with VEGF-A. Furthermore, intravitreally injected RLYE bound to retinal microvascular endothelium and inhibited laser-induced CNV in mice. These findings suggest that RLYE has potential as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of CNV by preventing VEGFR2-mediated vascular leakage and angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Actins , Animals , Capillary Permeability , Choroid , Choroidal Neovascularization , Claudin-5 , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium , Humans , Macular Degeneration , Mice , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Permeability , Phosphorylation , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Retinaldehyde , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
10.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 866-876, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Elevated endothelin (ET)-1 level is strongly correlated with the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Expression level of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) 4 is increased in the PAH patients. Ambrisentan, a selective endothelin receptor A (ERA) antagonist, is widely used in PAH therapy. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of ambrisentan treatment in the monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rat model. METHODS: Rats were categorized into control group (C), monocrotaline group (M) and ambrisentan group (Am). The M and Am were subcutaneously injected 60 mg/kg MCT at day 0, and in Am, ambrisentan was orally administered the day after MCT injection for 4 weeks. The right ventricle (RV) pressure was measured and pathological changes of the lung tissues were observed by Victoria blue staining. Protein expressions of ET-1, ERA, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and NOX4 were confirmed by western blot analysis. RESULTS: Ambrisentan treatment resulted in a recovery of the body weight and RV/left ventricle+septum at week 4. The RV pressure was lowered at weeks 2 and 4 after ambrisentan administration. Medial wall thickening of pulmonary arterioles and the number of intra-acinar arteries were also attenuated by ambrisentan at week 4. Protein expression levels of ET-1 and eNOS were recovered at weeks 2 and 4, and ERA levels recovered at week 4. CONCLUSIONS: Ambrisentan administration resulted in the recovery of ET-1, ERA and eNOS protein expression levels in the PAH model. However, the expression level of NOX4 remained unaffected after ambrisentan treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arteries , Arterioles , Blotting, Western , Body Weight , Endothelin Receptor Antagonists , Endothelins , Gene Expression , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Hypertension , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Lung , Models, Animal , Monocrotaline , NADP , NADPH Oxidases , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Oxidoreductases , Rats , Receptors, Endothelin , Victoria
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1063-1070, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Visual-spatial neglect (VSN) is a neuropsychological syndrome, and right-hemisphere stroke is the most common cause. The pathogenetic mechanism of VSN remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) changes in patients with or without VSN after right-hemisphere stroke.@*METHODS@#Eleven patients with VSN with right-hemisphere stroke (VSN group) and 11 patients with non-VSN with right-hemisphere stroke (non-VSN group) were recruited along with one control group of 11 age- and gender-matched healthy participants. The visual-spatial function was evaluated using behavioral tests, and ERP examinations were performed.@*RESULTS@#The response times in the VSN and non-VSN groups were both prolonged compared with those of normal controls (P  0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Visual-spatial attention function is impaired after right-hemisphere stroke, and clinicians should be aware of the subclinical VSN. Our findings provide neuroelectrophysiological evidence for the lateralization of VSN.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cerebral Infarction , Electrophysiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Genetics , PPAR gamma , Genetics , Perceptual Disorders , Genetics , Metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetics , Reaction Time , Genetics , Physiology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Stroke , Genetics , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase , Genetics
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774103

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of calcium-sensitive receptors (CaSR) on the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the concentration of nitric oxide (NO) in a neonatal mouse model of persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH).@*METHODS@#Eighty neonatal C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control, PPH, agonist and antagonist groups. The control group was exposed to air, and the other three groups were exposed to 12% oxygen. The agonist and antagonist groups were intraperitoneally injected with a CaSR agonist (GdCl 16 mg/kg) and a CaSR antagonist (NPS2390, 1 mg/kg), respectively, while the PPH and control groups were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline instead. All mice were treated for 14 days. Alveolar development and pulmonary vessels were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The protein and mRNA expression of eNOS and its localization in lung tissues were determined by Western blot, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and NO in lung homogenate were determined using ELISA.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the PPH and agonist groups showed significant increases in alveolar mean linear intercept, the percent wall thickness of pulmonary arterioles, right to left ventricular wall thickness ratio (RV/LV) and BNP concentration, but a significant reduction in radial alveolar count (P<0.05). The antagonist group had significant improvements in all the above indices except RV/LV compared with the PPH and agonist groups (P<0.05). Compared with those in the control group, the protein and mRNA expression of eNOS and NO concentration were significantly increased in the PPH group and increased more significantly in the agonist group, but were significantly reduced in the antagonist group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#CaSR plays an important role in the development of PPH in neonatal mice, possibly by increasing eNOS expression and NO concentration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Calcium , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Hypoxia , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Receptors, Calcium-Sensing
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stem cell engineering is appealing consideration for regenerating damaged endothelial cells (ECs) because stem cells can differentiate into EC-like cells. In this study, we demonstrate that tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) can differentiate into EC-like cells under optimal physiochemical microenvironments.METHODS: TMSCs were preconditioned with Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) or EC growth medium (EGM) for 4 days and then replating them on Matrigel to observe the formation of a capillary-like network under light microscope. Microarray, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses were used to evaluate the expression of gene and protein of EC-related markers.RESULTS: Preconditioning TMSCs in EGM for 4 days and then replating them on Matrigel induced the formation of a capillary-like network in 3 h, but TMSCs preconditioned with DMEM did not form such a network. Genome analyses confirmed that EGM preconditioning significantly affected the expression of genes related to angiogenesis, blood vessel morphogenesis and development, and vascular development. Western blot analyses revealed that EGM preconditioning with gelatin coating induced the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), a mature EC-specific marker, as well as phosphorylated Akt at serine 473, a signaling molecule related to eNOS activation. Gelatin-coating during EGM preconditioning further enhanced the stability of the capillary-like network, and also resulted in the network more closely resembled to those observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that under specific conditions, i.e., EGM preconditioning with gelatin coating for 4 days followed by Matrigel, TMSCs could be a source of generating endothelial cells for treating vascular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Blood Vessels , Blotting, Western , Eagles , Endothelial Cells , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gelatin , Genome , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Morphogenesis , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Palatine Tonsil , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serine , Stem Cells
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(8): e201900802, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038128

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To reveal the function of miR-134 in myocardial ischemia. Methods Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to measure the expression of miR-134, nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and apoptotic-associated proteins. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), Hoechst 33342/PI double staining and flow cytometry assay were implemented in H9c2 cells, respectively. MiR-134 mimic/inhibitor was used to regulate miR-134 expression. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay were utilized to identify the interrelation between miR-134 and NOS3. Rescue experiments exhibited the role of NOS3. The involvement of PI3K/AKT was assessed by western blot analysis. Results MiR-134 was high regulated in the myocardial ischemia model, and miR-134 mimic/inhibitor transfection accelerated/impaired the speed of cell apoptosis and attenuated/exerted the cell proliferative prosperity induced by H/R regulating active status of PI3K/AKT signaling. LDH activity was also changed due to the different treatments. Moreover, miR-134 could target NOS3 directly and simultaneously attenuated the expression of NOS3. Co-transfection miR-134 inhibitor and pcDNA3.1-NOS3 highlighted the inhibitory effects of miR-134 on myocardial H/R injury. Conclusion This present work puts insights into the crucial effects of the miR-134/NOS3 axis in myocardial H/R injury, delivering a potential therapeutic technology in future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/genetics , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/physiology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/therapeutic use , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1067-1077, Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973486

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of alprostadil on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Methods: Rats were subjected to myocardial ischemia for 30 min followed by 24h reperfusion. Alprostadil (4 or 8 μg/kg) was intravenously administered at the time of reperfusion and myocardial infarct size, levels of troponin T, and the activity of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the serum were measured. Antioxidative parameters, nitric oxide (NO) content and phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (p-eNOS) expression in the left ventricles were also measured. Histopathological examinations of the left ventricles were also performed. Results: Alprostadil treatment significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, serum troponin T levels, and CK-MB and LDH activity (P<0.05). Furthermore, treatment with alprostadil significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P<0.05) and markedly reduced myonecrosis, edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (P<0.05), NO level (P<0.01) and p-eNOS (P<0.05) were significantly increased in rats treated with alprostadil compared with control rats. Conclusion: These results indicate that alprostadil protects against myocardial I/R injury and that these protective effects are achieved, at least in part, via the promotion of antioxidant activity and activation of eNOS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Alprostadil/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Catalase/analysis , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Troponin T/drug effects , Troponin T/blood , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/drug effects , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/pathology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/drug effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Nitric Oxide/analysis
16.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(3): 273-277, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975910

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a multifactorial pathophysiologic irreversible process that often leads to a terminal state in which the patient requires renal replacement therapy. Most cases of CKD are due to chronic-degenerative diseases and endothelial dysfunction is one of the factors that contribute to its pathophysiology. One of the most important mechanisms for proper functioning of the endothelium is the regulation of the synthesis of nitric oxide. This compound is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase, which has 3 isoforms. Polymorphisms in the NOS3 gene have been implicated as factors that alter the homeostasis of this mechanism. The Glu298Asp polymorphisms 4 b/a and -786T>C of the NOS3 gene have been associated with a more rapid deterioration of kidney function in patients with CKD. These polymorphisms have been evaluated in patients with CKD of determined and undetermined etiology and related to a more rapid deterioration of kidney function.


RESUMO A insuficiência renal crônica (IRA) é um processo fisiopatológico multifatorial e irreversível que frequentemente conduz a um estado terminal no qual o paciente passa a necessitar de tratamento por transplante renal. A maioria dos casos de IRA são devidos a doenças crônicas degenerativas; a disfunção endotelial é um dos fatores contribuintes na fisiopatologia. Um dos mecanismos mais importantes para o funcionamento adequado do endotélio é a regulação da síntese de óxido nítrico. Este composto é sintetizado por meio da enzima sintase do óxido nítrico, que tem três isoformas. Os polimorfismos no gene NOS3 tem sido implicados como fatores que alteram a homeostase desse mecanismo. Os polimorfismos Glu298Asp 4 b/a e -786T>C do gene NOS3 têm sido associados a uma deterioração mais rápida da função renal nos pacientes com IRA. Estes polimorfismos têm sido avaliados em pacientes com IRA de causas determinadas ou não-determinadas e relacionados a uma perda mais rápida da função renal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691363

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of evodiamine (Evo), a component of Evodiaminedia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth, on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and further explore the potential mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Cardiomyocytes from neonatal Sprague Dawley rats were isolated and characterized, and then the cadiomyocyte cultures were randomly divided into control, model (Ang II 0.1 μmol/L), and Evo (0.03, 0.3, 3 μmol/L) groups. The cardiomyocyte surface area, protein level, intracellular free calcium ([Ca]) concentration, activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and content of nitric oxide (NO) were measured, respectively. The mRNA expressions of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), calcineurin (CaN), extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK-2), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) of cardiomyocytes were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. The protein expressions of calcineurin catalytic subunit (CnA) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) were detected by Western blot analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the control group, Ang II induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, as evidenced by increased cardiomyocyte surface area, protein content, and ANF mRNA expression; increased intracellular free calcium ([Ca]) concentration and expressions of CaN mRNA, CnA protein, and ERK-2 mRNA, but decreased MKP-1 protein expression (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with Ang II, Evo (0.3, 3 μmol/L) significantly attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, decreased the [Ca] concentration and expressions of CaN mRNA, CnA protein, and ERK-2 mRNA, but increased MKP-1 protein expression (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Most interestingly, Evo increased the NOS activity and NO production, and upregulated the eNOS mRNA expression (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Evo signifificantly attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and this effect was partly due to promotion of NO production, reduction of [Ca]i concentration, and inhibition of CaN and ERK-2 signal transduction pathways.</p>


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II , Animals , Atrial Natriuretic Factor , Metabolism , Calcineurin , Genetics , Metabolism , Calcium , Metabolism , Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Genetics , Metabolism , Hypertrophy , Myocytes, Cardiac , Metabolism , Pathology , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Metabolism , Quinazolines , Pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
18.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 483-490, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689704

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Objective</b>To investigate the protective effect of human urine-derived stem cells (USCs) on erectile function and cavernous structure in rats with cavernous nerve injury (CNI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty adult male SD rats with normal sexual function were randomly divided into four groups of equal number: sham operation, bilateral CNI (BCNI) model control, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and USC. The BCNI model was established in the latter three groups of rats by clamping the bilateral cavernous nerves. After modeling, the rats in the PBS and USC groups were treated by intracavernous injection of PBS at 200 μl and USCs at 1×106/200 μl PBS respectively for 28 days. Then, the maximum intracavernous pressure (mICP) and the ratio of mICP to mean arterial pressure (mICP/MAP) of the rats were calculated by electrical stimulation of the major pelvic ganglions, the proportion of nNOS- or NF200-positive nerve fibers in the total area of penile dorsal nerves determined by immunohistochemical staining, the levels of endothelial cell marker eNOS, smooth muscle marker α-SMA and collagen I detected by Western blot, and the smooth muscle to collagen ratio and the cell apoptosis rate in the corpus cavernosum measured by Masson staining and TUNEL, respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After 28 days of treatment, the rats in the USC group, as compared with those in the PBS and BCNI model control groups, showed significant increases in the mICP ([81 ± 9.9] vs [31 ± 8.3] and [33 ± 4.2] mmHg, P <0.05), mICP/MAP ratio (0.72 ± 0.05 vs 0.36 ± 0.03 and 0.35 ± 0.04, P <0.05), the proportions of nNOS-positive nerve fibers ([11.31 ± 4.22]% vs [6.86 ± 3.08]% and [7.29 ± 4.84]% , P <0.05) and NF200-positive nerve fibers in the total area of penile dorsal nerves ([27.31 ± 3.12]% vs [17.38 ± 2.87]% and [19.49 ± 4.92]%, P <0.05), the eNOS/GAPDH ratio (0.52 ± 0.08 vs 0.31 ± 0.06 and 0.33 ± 0.07, P <0.05), and the α-SMA/GAPDH ratio (1.01 ± 0.09 vs 0.36 ± 0.05 and 0.38 ± 0.04, P <0.05), but a remarkable decrease in the collagen I/GAPDH ratio (0.28 ± 0.06 vs 0.68 ± 0.04 and 0.70 ± 0.10, P <0.05). The ratio of smooth muscle to collagen in the corpus cavernosum was significantly higher in the USC than in the PBS and BCNI model control groups (17.91 ± 2.86 vs 7.70 ± 3.12 and 8.21 ± 3.83, P <0.05) while the rate of cell apoptosis markedly lower in the former than in the latter two (3.31 ± 0.83 vs 9.82 ± 0.76, P <0.01; 3.31 ± 0.83 vs 9.75 ± 0.91, P <0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Intracavernous injection of USCs can protect the erectile function of the rat with cavernous nerve injury by protecting the nerves, improving the endothelial function, alleviating fibrosis and inhibiting cell apoptosis in the cavernous tissue.</p>


Subject(s)
Actins , Animals , Arterial Pressure , Collagen , Disease Models, Animal , Erectile Dysfunction , Male , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Penile Erection , Physiology , Penis , Pudendal Nerve , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saline Solution , Stem Cell Transplantation , Methods , Stem Cells , Urine , Cell Biology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713262

ABSTRACT

Intestinal microbiota is involved in the atherosclerotic process by development of an atheromatous core with foam cells in carotid arteries. It has reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli localizes in human atherosclerotic plaque and causes inflammation via interaction with toll like receptor 4. However, there is no evidence that whether LPS-activated macrophages regulate endothelial cell (EC) function. We evaluated whether LPS-activated macrophage acts as one of the stimulants activating EC and its underlying signaling pathways. Using Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we confirmed that intraperitoneal injection with LPS increases iNOS protein and inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expressions. To determine whether LPS-mediated macrophage inflammatory condition affects EC activation and inflammation, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with isolated peritoneal macrophages from LPS-injected mice. Interestingly, p90RSK Serine 380 phosphorylation and protein expression were significantly increased by macrophage treatment in EC. Messenger RNA levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and p90RSK was increased, but endothelial nitric oxide synthase was decreased. In addition, NF-κB promoter activity, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation, was strongly enhanced by the macrophage treatment in EC. We further evaluated the effects of LPS on EC function in the mouse aorta using en face staining. In agreement with in vitro result, p90RSK expression was strongly increased in the steady laminar flow region of the mouse aorta in mice injected with LPS. Together, our study demonstrates that p90RSK might be a one of the major therapeutic candidates for the prevention of vascular diseases mediated by LPS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta , Atherosclerosis , Blotting, Western , Carotid Arteries , Endothelial Cells , Escherichia coli , Foam Cells , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Interleukin-6 , Macrophage Activation , Macrophages , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Mice , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Phosphorylation , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , RNA, Messenger , Serine , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Vascular Diseases
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1138-1142, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718025

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the impact of sleep deprivation (SD) on cardiac, hemodynamic, and endothelial parameters and to determine whether these are sustained with increased periods of SD. The study included 60 healthy men (mean: age 31.2±6.3 years; body mass index 24.6±2.6 kg/m2). Hemodynamic parameters, parameters of myocardial contractility, spectral analysis of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) variability, and the sensitivity of arterial baroreflex function were evaluated. Biochemical tests were performed to assess L-arginine (L-Arg) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels in reflection of endothelial nitric oxide synthase ability. Measurements of cardiovascular system parameters were obtained at 9 a.m. (baseline) on the first day of the study and 9 a.m. (24-h SD), 1 p.m. (28-h SD), and 5 p.m. (32-h SD) on the second day. Blood samples for evaluating biochemical parameters were obtained at baseline and after 24-h SD. ANOVA Friedman's test revealed a significant effect for time in relation to HR (χ²=26.04, df=5, p=0.000), systolic BP (χ²=35.98, df=5, p=0.000), diastolic BP (χ²=18.01, df=5, p=0.003), and mean BP (χ²=28.32, df=5, p=0.000). L-Arg and ADMA levels changed from 78.2±12.9 and 0.3±0.1 at baseline to 68.8±10.2 and 0.4±0.1 after 24-hr SD, respectively (p=0.001, p=0.004). SD in healthy men is associated with increases in BP, which appear to occur after 24 hours of SD and are maintained over increasing periods of SD. The observed hemodynamic changes may have resulted due to disordered vascular endothelial function, as reflected in alterations in L-Arg and ADMA levels.


Subject(s)
Arginine , Autonomic Nervous System , Baroreflex , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular System , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics , Humans , Male , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Sleep Deprivation
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