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1.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(2): 356-366, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840829

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate the lower urinary tract changes in mice treated with L-NAME, a non-selective competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), or aminoguanidine, a competitive inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), after 5 weeks of partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), in order to evaluate the role of constitutive and non-constitutive NOS in the pathogenesis of this experimental condition. Materials and Methods C57BL6 male mice were partially obstructed and randomly allocated into 6 groups: Sham, Sham + L-NAME, Sham + aminoguanidine, BOO, BOO + L-NAME and BOO + aminoguanidine. After 5 weeks, bladder weight was obtained and cystometry and tissue bath contractile studies were performed. Results BOO animals showed increase of non-voiding contractions (NVC) and bladder capacity, and also less contractile response to Carbachol and Electric Field Stimulation. Inhibition of NOS isoforms improved bladder capacity and compliance in BOO animals. L-NAME caused more NVC, prevented bladder weight gain and leaded to augmented contractile responses at muscarinic and electric stimulation. Aminoguanidine diminished NVC, but did not avoid bladder weight gain in BOO animals and did not improve contractile responses. Conclusion It can be hypothesized that chronic inhibition of three NOS isoforms in BOO animals leaded to worsening of bladder function, while selective inhibition of iNOS did not improve responses, what suggests that, in BOO animals, alterations are related to constitutive NOS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/drug therapy , Guanidines/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Pressure , Time Factors , Urination/drug effects , Urination/physiology , Urinary Bladder/drug effects , Urinary Bladder/physiopathology , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/therapeutic use , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Muscle Contraction/drug effects
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(3): e5556, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839268

ABSTRACT

Muscular atrophy is a progressive degeneration characterized by muscular proteolysis, loss of mass and decrease in fiber area. Tendon rupture induces muscular atrophy due to an intrinsic functional connection. Local inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) accelerates tendon histological recovery and induces functional improvement. Here we evaluate the effects of such local nitrergic inhibition on the pattern of soleus muscle regeneration after tenotomy. Adult male Wistar rats (240 to 280 g) were divided into four experimental groups: control (n=4), tenotomized (n=6), vehicle (n=6), and L-NAME (n=6). Muscular atrophy was induced by calcaneal tendon rupture in rats. Changes in muscle wet weight and total protein levels were determined by the Bradford method, and muscle fiber area and central core lesion (CCL) occurrence were evaluated by histochemical assays. Compared to tenotomized (69.3±22%) and vehicle groups (68.1%±17%), L-NAME treatment induced an increase in total protein level (108.3±21%) after 21 days post-injury. A reduction in fiber areas was observed in tenotomized (56.3±1.3%) and vehicle groups (53.9±3.9%). However, L-NAME treatment caused an increase in this parameter (69.3±1.6%). Such events were preceded by a remarkable reduction in the number of fibers with CCL in L-NAME-treated animals (12±2%), but not in tenotomized (21±2.5%) and vehicle groups (19.6±2.8%). Altogether, our data reveal that inhibition of tendon NOS contributed to the attenuation of atrophy and acceleration of muscle regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Recovery of Function/drug effects , Regeneration/drug effects , Muscular Atrophy , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Recovery of Function/physiology , Regeneration/physiology , Tenotomy
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(9): 790-797, Sept. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-756401

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) is a soluble gas that participates in important functions of the central nervous system, such as cognitive function, maintenance of synaptic plasticity for the control of sleep, appetite, body temperature, neurosecretion, and antinociception. Furthermore, during exercise large amounts of NO are released that contribute to maintaining body homeostasis. Besides NO production, physical exercise has been shown to induce antinociception. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the central involvement of NO in exercise-induced antinociception. In both mechanical and thermal nociceptive tests, central [intrathecal (it) and intracerebroventricular (icv)] pretreatment with inhibitors of the NO/cGMP/KATP pathway (L-NOArg, ODQ, and glybenclamide) prevented the antinociceptive effect induced by aerobic exercise (AE). Furthermore, pretreatment (it, icv) with specific NO synthase inhibitors (L-NIO, aminoguanidine, and L-NPA) also prevented this effect. Supporting the hypothesis of the central involvement of NO in exercise-induced antinociception, nitrite levels in the cerebrospinal fluid increased immediately after AE. Therefore, the present study suggests that, during exercise, the NO released centrally induced antinociception.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nociception/drug effects , Nociception/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Nitric Oxide/cerebrospinal fluid , Pain Measurement , Rats, Wistar , Signal Transduction/drug effects
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(8): 691-696, 08/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753048

ABSTRACT

Heavy metals, such as methylmercury, are key environmental pollutants that easily reach human beings by bioaccumulation through the food chain. Several reports have demonstrated that endocrine organs, and especially the pituitary gland, are potential targets for mercury accumulation; however, the effects on the regulation of hormonal release are unclear. It has been suggested that serum prolactin could represent a biomarker of heavy metal exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methylmercury on prolactin release and the role of the nitrergic system using prolactin secretory cells (the mammosomatotroph cell line, GH3B6). Exposure to methylmercury (0-100 μM) was cytotoxic in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with an LC50 higher than described for cells of neuronal origin, suggesting GH3B6 cells have a relative resistance. Methylmercury (at exposures as low as 1 μM for 2 h) also decreased prolactin release. Interestingly, inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by N-nitro-L-arginine completely prevented the decrease in prolactin release without acute neurotoxic effects of methylmercury. These data indicate that the decrease in prolactin production occurs via activation of the nitrergic system and is an early effect of methylmercury in cells of pituitary origin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Rats , Methylmercury Compounds/toxicity , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitroarginine/toxicity , Pituitary Gland/drug effects , Prolactin/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Horses , Pituitary Gland/metabolism , Pituitary Neoplasms
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(12): 1068-1074, 12/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727656

ABSTRACT

Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Jejunum/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Myosins/metabolism , Taurine/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Atropine/pharmacology , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Cimetidine/pharmacology , Diphenhydramine/pharmacology , Enteric Nervous System/drug effects , Histamine H1 Antagonists/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Jejunum/physiology , Muscarinic Antagonists/pharmacology , Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Phentolamine/pharmacology , Propranolol/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Taurine/antagonists & inhibitors , Tetrodotoxin/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(10): 876-885, 10/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722165

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the relaxant effect of adrenomedullin (AM) in rat cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM) and the expression of AM system components in this tissue. Functional assays using standard muscle bath procedures were performed in CSM isolated from male Wistar rats. Protein and mRNA levels of pre-pro-AM, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), and Subtypes 1, 2 and 3 of the receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) family were assessed by Western immunoblotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Nitrate and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α; a stable product of prostacyclin) levels were determined using commercially available kits. Protein and mRNA of AM, CRLR, and RAMP 1, -2, and -3 were detected in rat CSM. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated that AM and CRLR were expressed in rat CSM. AM relaxed CSM strips in a concentration-dependent manner. AM22-52, a selective antagonist for AM receptors, reduced the relaxation induced by AM. Conversely, CGRP8-37, a selective antagonist for calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors, did not affect AM-induced relaxation. Preincubation of CSM strips with NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, quanylyl cyclase inhibitor), Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS (cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor), SC560 [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-trifluoromethyl pyrazole, selective cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor], and 4-aminopyridine (voltage-dependent K+ channel blocker) reduced AM-induced relaxation. On the other hand, 7-nitroindazole (selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor), H89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), SQ22536 [9-(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)-9H-purin-6-amine, adenylate cyclase inhibitor], glibenclamide (selective blocker of ATP-sensitive K+ channels), and apamin (Ca2+-activated channel blocker) did not affect AM-induced relaxation. AM increased nitrate levels and 6-keto-PGF1α in rat CSM. The major new contribution of this research is that it demonstrated expression of AM and its receptor in rat CSM. Moreover, we provided evidence that AM-induced relaxation in this tissue is mediated by AM receptors by a mechanism that involves the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, a vasodilator prostanoid, and the opening of voltage-dependent K+ channels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Adrenomedullin/pharmacology , Calcitonin Receptor-Like Protein/analysis , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Parasympatholytics/pharmacology , Penis/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , /pharmacology , /analysis , Adrenomedullin/genetics , Adrenomedullin/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Calcitonin Receptor-Like Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Indazoles/pharmacology , Muscle Relaxation , Muscle, Smooth/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Nitric Oxide/analogs & derivatives , Penis/metabolism , Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 1/genetics , Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 1/metabolism , /metabolism , /genetics , /metabolism , Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/metabolism
7.
Femina ; 42(4): 179-184, jul-ago. 2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-737134

ABSTRACT

O trabalho de parto pré-termo (TPPT) assim como as outras causas de prematuridade respondem pela maior parcela da mortalidade e morbidade neonatal no mundo. Várias vias metabólicas já foram estudadas e diversas alterações já foram encontradas em pacientes que desenvolve TPPT. A via metabólica do óxido nítrico (NO) é reconhecida como um dos possíveis mecanismos de desencadeamento fisiopatológico do TPPT. Níveis elevados de dimetil-arginina assimétrica (ADMA), substância endógena inibidora da NO sintetase, estão relacionados com o desencadeamento de TPPT e com maiores taxas de complicações neonatais. O presente estudo aborda as evidências sobre a relação do TPPT e ADMA e as possíveis aplicações clínicas dessa associação.(AU)


Pre-term labor (PTL), as well as the other causes of prematurity, account for the largest portion of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the world. Several metabolic pathways were studied and a significative number of impairments have already been found in patients who develop PTL. The metabolic pathway of nitric oxide (NO) is recognized as one of the possible mechanisms of pathophysiological PTL?s trigger. High levels of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), endogenous inhibitory substance of NO synthetase, are related to the triggering of PTL and with higher rates of neonatal complications. The present study addresses the evidence on the relationship of PTL and ADMA and possible clinical applications of this association.(AU)


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Arginine/analogs & derivatives , Arginine/physiology , Arginine/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Obstetric Labor, Premature/physiopathology , Nitric Oxide , Arginine/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Databases, Bibliographic , Oxidative Stress , Dietary Supplements
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(2): 90-100, 2/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699775

ABSTRACT

Physiological evidence indicates that the supraoptic nucleus (SON) is an important region for integrating information related to homeostasis of body fluids. Located bilaterally to the optic chiasm, this nucleus is composed of magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) responsible for the synthesis and release of vasopressin and oxytocin to the neurohypophysis. At the cellular level, the control of vasopressin and oxytocin release is directly linked to the firing frequency of MNCs. In general, we can say that the excitability of these cells can be controlled via two distinct mechanisms: 1) the intrinsic membrane properties of the MNCs themselves and 2) synaptic input from circumventricular organs that contain osmosensitive neurons. It has also been demonstrated that MNCs are sensitive to osmotic stimuli in the physiological range. Therefore, the study of their intrinsic membrane properties became imperative to explain the osmosensitivity of MNCs. In addition to this, the discovery that several neurotransmitters and neuropeptides can modulate their electrical activity greatly increased our knowledge about the role played by the MNCs in fluid homeostasis. In particular, nitric oxide (NO) may be an important player in fluid balance homeostasis, because it has been demonstrated that the enzyme responsible for its production has an increased activity following a hypertonic stimulation of the system. At the cellular level, NO has been shown to change the electrical excitability of MNCs. Therefore, in this review, we focus on some important points concerning nitrergic modulation of the neuroendocrine system, particularly the effects of NO on the SON.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Neurons/physiology , Neurosecretory Systems/physiology , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Oxytocin , Supraoptic Nucleus/physiology , Vasopressins , Action Potentials/physiology , Guanylate Cyclase/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Donors/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Water-Electrolyte Balance/physiology
9.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-8, 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be important in sperm function, and the concentration of NO appears to determine these effects. Studies have demonstrated both positive and negative effects of NO on sperm function, but have not been able to provide a clear link between NO concentration and the extent of exposure to NO. To study the relationship between nitric oxide and sperm capacitationin vitro, and to provide a theoretical basis for the use of NO-related preparations in improving sperm motility for in vitro fertilization, we investigated the effects of NO concentration and time duration at these concentrations on in vitro sperm capacitation in both normal and abnormal sperm groups. We manipulated NO concentrations and the time duration of these concentrations using sodium nitroprusside (an NO donor) and NG-monomethyl-L-argenine (an NO synthase inhibitor). RESULTS: Compared to the normal sperm group, the abnormal sperm group had a longer basal time to reach the appropriate concentration of NO (p < 0.001), and the duration of time at this concentration was longer for the abnormal sperm group (p < 0.001). Both the basal time and the duration of time were significantly correlated with sperm viability and percentage of progressive sperm (p < 0.001). The experimental group had a significantly higher percentage of progressive sperm than the control group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that there is a certain regularity to both NO concentration and its duration of time in regards to sperm capacitation, and that an adequate duration of time at the appropriate NO concentration is beneficial to sperm motility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Sperm Capacitation/drug effects , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Time Factors , In Vitro Techniques , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Fertilization in Vitro/methods , Cell Survival , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , omega-N-Methylarginine/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/analysis
10.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-9, 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950754

ABSTRACT

Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most important causes of blindness. The underlying mechanisms of this disease include inflammatory changes and remodeling processes of the extracellular-matrix (ECM) leading to pericyte and vascular endothelial cell damage that affects the retinal circulation. In turn, this causes hypoxia leading to release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to induce the angiogenesis process. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is the most important circulating inhibitor of serine proteases (SERPIN). Its targets include elastase, plasmin, thrombin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, proteinase 3 (PR-3) and plasminogen activator (PAI). AAT modulates the effect of protease-activated receptors (PARs) during inflammatory responses. Plasma levels of AAT can increase 4-fold during acute inflammation then is so-called acute phase protein (APPs). Individuals with low serum levels of AAT could develop disease in lung, liver and pancreas. AAT is involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and inflammation, particularly migration and chemotaxis of neutrophils. It can also suppress nitric oxide (NO) by nitric oxide sintase (NOS) inhibition. AAT binds their targets in an irreversible way resulting in product degradation. The aim of this review is to focus on the points of contact between multiple factors involved in diabetic retinopathy and AAT resembling pleiotropic effects that might be beneficial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/therapeutic use , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Cell Hypoxia , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Cell Movement/physiology , Chemotaxis/physiology , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Protective Agents/metabolism , Receptors, Proteinase-Activated/metabolism , Diabetic Retinopathy/physiopathology , Free Radicals , Inflammation/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Neutrophils/physiology
11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 39(2): 268-275, Mar-Apr/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676268

ABSTRACT

Purpose Recently, the effect of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE5i) in the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated to benign prostatic hyperplasia have been studied thoroughly. However, it remains unclear how the PDE5i improve LUTS. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of acute administration of the PDE5i sildenafil to improve detrusor overactivity (DO) induced by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), an nitric oxide sinthase (NOS) inhibitor, in rats. Materials and Methods Twenty-seven MALE adult Wistar Rats were divided into the following groups: (1) control, (2) L-NAME, (3) sildenafil alone, and (4) L-NAME + sildenafil. The NOS blocker L-NAME (20 mg/rat/day) was given in the drinking water. Sildenafil (100µg/kg) was administrated intravenously (i.v.) acutely, diluted in cremophor, propylene glycol and water. All animals underwent to anesthetized cystometograms. Results The chronic and systemic administration of L-NAME markedly increased the number of non voiding contractions (2.62 (± 0.89)), and frequency of micturition (1.97 (± 0.78)), as well increased volume threshold (2.83 mL (± 1.64)) compared with control group, the number of non voiding contractions (1.17 (± 0.75)), frequency of micturition (1.08 (± 0.65)) and volume threshold (1.16 mL (± 0.38)), p < 0.001, p = 0.01, and p = 0.04, respectively. Sildenafil infusion decreased the number of micturition cycles significantly from the baseline to end point (-0.93 (± 0.34)) in nitric oxide (NO) deficient animals compared with sildenafil infusion alone (control) in animals with normal NO level (0.13 (± 0.25)), p = 0.03. Conclusion Systemic reduction of nitric oxide causes detrusor overactivity and acute infusion of sildenafil reduces the number of micturition cycles in chronic NO-deficient rats. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Nitric Oxide/deficiency , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Piperazines/administration & dosage , Sulfones/administration & dosage , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/drug therapy , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Piperazines/pharmacology , Purines/administration & dosage , Purines/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Sulfones/pharmacology , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/etiology , Urination/drug effects
12.
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 12 (3): 377-385
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138295

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disorders continue to constitute major causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. In this study, the effect of chronic administration of sesame [Sesamum indicum L] seed feeding was studied on aortic reactivity of streptozotocin [STZ]-diabetic rats. Male diabetic rats received sesame seed-mixed food at weight ratios of 3% and 6% for 7 weeks, one week after diabetes induction. Contractile responses to KCl and phenylephrine [PE] and relaxation response to acetylcholine [ACh] and sodium nitroprusside [SNP] were obtained from aortic rings. Maximum contractile response of endothelium-intact rings to PE was significantly lower in sesame-treated diabetic rats [at a ratio of 6%] relative to untreated diabetics and endothelium removal abolished this difference. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh was also significantly higher in sesame-treated diabetic rats [at a ratio of 6%] as compared to diabetic rats and pretreatment of rings with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N[G]-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME] significantly attenuated the observed response. Two-month diabetes also resulted in an elevation of malondialdehyde [MDA] and decreased superoxide dismutase [SOD] activity and sesame treatment significantly reversed the increased MDA content and restored activity of SOD. We thus conclude that chronic treatment of diabetic rats with sesame seed could in a dose- manner prevent some abnormal changes in vascular reactivity through nitric oxide and via attenuation of oxidative stress in aortic tissue and endothelium integrity is necessary for this beneficial effect


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Endothelium , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors
13.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (5): 915-919
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138409

ABSTRACT

This study showed the effects of propolis on biochemical and hematological parameters in chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibited rats by N [omega] -Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME]. Rats are given L-NAME for 15 days and the propolis for the last 5 days with L-NAME together. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyltransferase in the L-NAME group compared to control group have increased [P<0.05]. The levels of these parameters in L-NAME+propolis group compared to the L-NAME group have decreased [P<0.05]. L-NAME caused increase [P<0.05] in levels of glucose, albumin, globulin, creatinine, urea, triglyceride and cholesterol. Erythrocyte number, total leukocyte, hemoglobin, hematocrit, neutrophil and monocyte decreased [P<0.05], platelets and lymphocyte increased [P<0.05] in L-NAME+propolis group compared to the L-NAME group. The study concluded that homeostasis is modulated in L-NAME administrated rats by adding propolis which causes increasing generation of vascular nitric oxide


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Blood Chemical Analysis , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Cells/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
14.
IBJ-Iranian Biomedical Journal. 2011; 15 (1,2): 22-30
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-129773

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide synthase [NOS] activity is increased during hypertension and cerebral ischemia. NOS inactivation reduces stroke-induced cerebral injuries, but little is known about its role in blood-brain barrier [BBB] disruption and cerebral edema formation during stroke in acute hypertension. Here, we investigated the role of NOS inhibition in progression of edema formation and BBB disruptions provoked by ischemia/reperfusion injuries in acute hypertensive rats. Rats were made acutely hypertensive by aortic coarctation. After 7 days, the rats were randomly selected for the recording of carotid artery pressure, or regional cerebral blood flow [rCBF] using laser Doppler. Ishcemia induced by 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion [MCAO], followed by 12-h reperfusion. A single i.p. dose of L-NAME [1 mg/kg] was injected before MCAO. After evaluation of neurological disabilities, rats were slaughtered under deep anesthesia to assess cerebral infarction volume, edema, or BBB disruption. A 75-85% reduction in rCBF was occurred during MCAO which returned to pre-occluded levels during reperfusion. Profound neurological disabilities were evidenced after MCAO alongside with severe cerebral infarctions [628 +/- 98 mm[3]], considerable edema [4.05 +/- 0.52%] and extensive BBB disruptions [Evans blue extravasation, 8.46 +/- 2.03 [microg/g]. L-NAME drastically improved neurological disabilities, diminished cerebral infarction [264 +/- 46 mm[3]], reduced edema [1.49 +/- 0.47%] and BBB disruption [2.93 +/- 0.66 microg/g]. The harmful actions of NOS activity on cerebral microvascular integrity are intensified by ischemia/reperfusion injuries during acute hypertension. NOS inactivation by L-NAME preserved this integrity and diminished cerebral edema


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Male , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain Edema/enzymology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Hypertension/complications , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Aortic Coarctation/complications , Cerebral Infarction/pathology , Brain Edema/complications , Permeability/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180901

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor on muscle weight and myofibrillar protein content of affected and unaffected hindlimb muscles in rats with neuropathic pain induced by unilateral peripheral nerve injury. METHODS: Neuropathic pain was induced by ligation and cutting of the left L5 spinal nerve. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: The NOSI group (n=19) had NOS inhibitor (L-NAME) injections daily for 14 days, and the Vehicle group (n=20) had vehicle injections daily for 14 days. Withdrawal threshold, body weight, food intake and activity were measured every day. At 15 days all rats were anesthetized and soleus, plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles were dissected from hindlimbs. Muscle weight and myofibrillar protein content of the dissected muscles were determined. RESULTS: The NOSI group showed significant increases as compared to the Vehicle group for body weight at 15 days, muscle weight and myofibrillar protein content of the unaffected soleus and gastrocnemius. The NOSI group demonstrated a higher pain threshold than the vehicle group. CONCLUSION: NOSI for 14 days attenuates unaffected soleus and gastrocnemius muscle atrophy in neuropathic pain model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Eating/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Hindlimb , Male , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/drug effects , Muscle Proteins/metabolism , Muscular Atrophy/drug therapy , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Neuralgia/etiology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
16.
Clinics ; 66(4): 673-679, 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-588921

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The role of ovarian hormones and nitric oxide in learning and memory has been widely investigated. OBJECTIVE: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), on the ability of estradiol to improve learning in OVX rats using the Morris water maze. METHODS: Forty rats were divided into five groups: (1) ovariectomized (OVX), (2) ovariectomized-estradiol (OVX-Est), (3) ovariectomized-L-NAME 10 (OVX-LN 10), (4) ovariectomized-L-NAME 50 (OVX-LN 50) and (5) ovariectomized-estradiol-L-NAME 50 (OVX-Est-LN 50). The animals in the OVX-Est group were treated with a weekly injection of estradiol valerate (2 mg/kg; i.m.). The OVX-LN 10 and OVX-LN 50 groups were treated with daily injections of 10 and 50 mg/kg L-NAME (i.p.), respectively. The animals in the OVX-Est-LN 50 group received a weekly injection of estradiol valerate and a daily injection of 50 mg/kg L-NAME. After 8 weeks, all animals were tested in the Morris water maze. RESULTS: The animals in the OVX-Est group had a significantly lower latency in the maze than the OVX group (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in latency between the OVX-LN 10 and OVX-LN 50 groups in comparison with the OVX group. The latency in the OVX-Est-LN 50 group was significantly higher than that in the OVX-Est group (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: These results show that L-NAME treatment attenuated estradiol-mediated enhancement of spatial learning and memory in OVX rats, but it had no significant effect in OVX rats without estrogen, suggesting an interaction of nitric oxide and estradiol in these specific brain functions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Estradiol/analogs & derivatives , Maze Learning/drug effects , Memory/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nandrolone/analogs & derivatives , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Estradiol/pharmacology , Estrogen Antagonists/pharmacology , Estrogens/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Nandrolone/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Ovariectomy , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reaction Time/drug effects , Spatial Behavior/drug effects
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(11): 1047-1053, Nov. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-564137

ABSTRACT

7-Nitroindazole (7-NI) inhibits neuronal nitric oxide synthase in vivo and reduces l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in a rat model of parkinsonism. The aim of the present study was to determine if the anti-dyskinetic effect of 7-NI was subject to tolerance after repeated treatment and if this drug could interfere with the priming effect of l-DOPA. Adult male Wistar rats (200-250 g) with unilateral depletion of dopamine in the substantia nigra compacta were treated with l-DOPA (30 mg/kg) for 34 days. On the 1st day, 6 rats received ip saline and 6 received ip 7-NI (30 mg/kg) before l-DOPA. From the 2nd to the 26th day, all rats received l-DOPA daily and, from the 27th to the 34th day, they also received 7-NI before l-DOPA. Animals were evaluated before the drug and 1 h after l-DOPA using an abnormal involuntary movement scale and a stepping test. All rats had a similar initial motor deficit. 7-NI decreased abnormal involuntary movement induced by l-DOPA and the effect was maintained during the experiment before 7-NI, median (interquartile interval), day 26: 16.75 (15.88-17.00); day 28: 0.00 (0.00-9.63); day 29: 13.75 (2.25-15.50); day 30: 0.5 (0.00-6.25); day 31: 4.00 (0.00-7.13), and day 34: 0.5 (0.00-14.63), Friedman followed by Wilcoxon test,vs day 26, P < 0.05;. The response to l-DOPA alone was not modified by the use of 7-NI before the first administration of the drug (l-DOPA vs time interaction, F1,10 = 1.5, NS). The data suggest that tolerance to the anti-dyskinetic effects of a neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor does not develop over a short-term period of repeated administration. These observations open a possible new therapeutic approach to motor complications of chronic l-DOPA therapy in patients with Parkinson’s disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Dyskinesia Agents/therapeutic use , Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced/drug therapy , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Indazoles/therapeutic use , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Corpus Striatum/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Levodopa/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Substantia Nigra/drug effects
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 62(3): 511-520, June 2010. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-554917

ABSTRACT

Avaliaram-se o papel do óxido nítrico (NO) por meio da inibição da enzima óxido nítrico sintase induzível (iNOS), após a adição da aminoguanidina (AG), na motilidade, no vigor e na integridade da membrana plasmática nos tempos de 15, 60, 120, 180, 240 e 300min e a atividade mitocondrial e a capacitação de espermatozoides bovinos após 300min de cultivo. Adicionaram-se diferentes concentrações (0,001, 0,01 e 0,1M) de AG durante a capacitação induzida pela heparina e 500μM de nitroprussiato de sódio (SNP, doador de NO) à concentração deletéria. A adição de 0,1M de AG diminuiu a motilidade e o vigor espermático e a integridade da membrana (P<0,05). A adição de SNP ao meio de cultivo com 0,1M de AG somente reverteu a integridade da membrana após 300min. A inibição da síntese de NO pela adição de AG não alterou a atividade mitocondrial. A percentagem de oócitos penetrados com espermatozoides tratados com 0,01 e 0,1M de AG diminuiu 20,3 e 100 por cento, respectivamente, em relação aos não tratados (controle) (P<0,05), contudo houve aumento de 15 por cento na percentagem de oócitos desnudados penetrados com espermatozoides capacitados em presença de 0,1M de AG. Conclui-se que a inibição da síntese de NO pela AG diminuiu a qualidade espermática durante a capacitação de espermatozoides bovinos in vitro, exceto a atividade mitocondrial. Somente a integridade da membrana foi revertida após adição de NO, sugerindo diferentes vias de ação do NO na qualidade espermática ao longo da capacitação in vitro de espermatozoides bovinos.


The role of nitric oxide (NO) was evaluated by inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), with aminoguanidine (AG) on motility, vigor, and plasmatic membrane integrity of bovine spermatozoa culture after 15, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300min and on mitochondrial activity and capacitation after 300min, respectively. Different concentrations, 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1M of AG were added during the heparin induced capacitation and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor-500μM) to the deleterious concentration. The addition of 0.1M of AG diminished progressive motility, spermatic vigor, and membrane integrity (P<0.05). SNP addition to the 0.1M of AG did revert only plasmatic membrane integrity after 300min. Mitochondrial activity was not influenced by addition of AG. Percentage of penetrated oocytes after addition of 0.01 and 0.1M of AG diminished, 20.3 and 100 percent, respectively, in relation to the control oocytes (P<0.05). However, an increase of 15 percent was observed when denuded oocytes were used with 0.1M AG treated sperm (P<0.05). It was concluded that the inhibition of NO synthesis with aminoguanidine diminished sperm quality during in vitro capacitation of bovine spermatozoa, except the mitochondrial activity. Only membrane integrity was reverted with the addition of NO to culture medium, suggesting different pathways of NO action on bovine sperm quality during in vitro capacitation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cattle , Sperm Capacitation , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Cattle , Spermatozoa
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112653

ABSTRACT

Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), a unique response of pulmonary circulation, is critical to prevent hypoxemia under local hypoventilation. Hypoxic inhibition of K+ channel is known as an important O2-sensing mechanism in HPV. Carbon monoxide (CO) is suggested as a positive regulator of Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BK(Ca)), a stimulator of guanylate cyclase, and an O2-mimetic agent in heme moiety-dependent O2 sensing mechanisms. Here we compared the effects of CO on the HPV (Po2, 3%) in isolated pulmonary artery (HPV(PA)) and in blood-perfused/ventilated lungs (HPV(lung)) of rats. A pretreatment with CO (3%) abolished the HPV(PA) in a reversible manner. The inhibition of HPV(PA) was completely reversed by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a guanylate cyclase inhibitor. In contrast, the HPV(lung) was only partly decreased by CO. Moreover, the partial inhibition of HPV(lung) by CO was affected neither by the pretreatment with ODQ nor by NO synthase inhibitor (L-NAME). The CO-induced inhibitions of HPV(PA) and HPV(lung) were commonly unaffected by tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM), a blocker of BK(Ca). As a whole, CO inhibits HPV(PA) via activating guanylate cyclase. The inconsistent effects of ODQ on HPV(PA) and HPV(lung) suggest that ODQ may lose its sGC inhibitory action when applied to the blood-containing perfusate.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Carbon Monoxide/pharmacology , Guanylate Cyclase/antagonists & inhibitors , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/chemistry , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxadiazoles/chemistry , Pulmonary Artery/physiopathology , Quinoxalines/chemistry , Rats , Tetraethylammonium/chemistry , Vasoconstriction/drug effects
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(12): 1196-1202, Dec. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-532292

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute intracerebroventricular (icv) insulin administration on central mechanisms regulating urinary sodium excretion in simultaneously centrally NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME)-injected unanesthetized rats. Male Wistar-Hannover rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups: a) icv 0.15 M NaCl-injected rats (control, N = 10), b) icv dose-response (1.26, 12.6 and 126 ng/3 µL) insulin-injected rats (N = 10), c) rats icv injected with 60 µg L-NAME in combination with NaCl (N = 10) or d) with insulin (N = 10), and e) subcutaneously insulin-injected rats (N = 5). Centrally administered insulin produced an increase in urinary output of sodium (NaCl: 855.6 ± 85.1 Ä percent/min; 126 ng insulin: 2055 ± 310.6 Ä percent/min; P = 0.005) and potassium (NaCl: 460.4 ± 100 Ä percent/min; 126 ng insulin: 669.2 ± 60.8 Ä percent/min; P = 0.025). The urinary sodium excretion response to icv 126 ng insulin microinjection was significantly attenuated by combined administration of L-NAME (126 ng insulin: 1935 ± 258.3 Ä percent/min; L-NAME + 126 ng insulin: 582.3 ± 69.6 Ä percent/min; P = 0.01). Insulin-induced natriuresis occurred by increasing post-proximal sodium excretion, despite an unchanged glomerular filtration rate. Although the rationale for decreased urinary sodium excretion induced by combined icv L-NAME and insulin administration is unknown, it is tempting to suggest that perhaps one of the efferent signals triggered by insulin in the CNS may be nitrergic in nature.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Brain/enzymology , Insulin/pharmacology , Natriuresis/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Injections, Intraventricular , Insulin/administration & dosage , Microinjections , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
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