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1.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(2): 110-116, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-886264

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate thymoquinone, curcumin and a combination of these two drugs were effective or not at the growth of liver. Methods: Forty female Wistar-Albino rats distributed into five groups of eight rats each, control, thymoquinone, curcumin, and thymoquinone/curcumin groups. Pathological specimens were studied using the Ki-67 Proliferation Index(PI); and arginase(Arg), tissue plasminogen activator(tPA), ceruloplasmin(Cer) and nitric oxide(NO) were studied in biochemical analysis. Results: Our results showed that Ki-67 proliferation index was low in Groups 1. The proliferation coefficient was significantly higher in the Group 2 and Group 4 than in the Group 1 and Group 3.(P < 0.001 between Groups 1 and 2, 1 and 4, and 3 and 4). There was no difference between Groups 2 and 4 (P = 1). The results of the biochemical Arg, tPA and Cer test showed statistically between the Group 1 and Group 2. NO showed significant differences Group 1 and 3. Conclusions: Thymoquinone and curcumin both have known positive effects on the organism. Histological and biochemical tests showed that thymoquinone is more effective than curcumin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Liver Regeneration/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Arginase/blood , Ceruloplasmin/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Benzoquinones/pharmacology , Liver Transplantation , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/blood , Rats, Wistar , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Curcumin/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , Hepatectomy/methods , Liver/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/blood
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1342-1347, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-893139

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Morphine is one of the naturally occurring phenanthrene alkaloids of opium that induces adverse effects on male reproductive system. Resveratrol is a phytoestrogen and antioxidant of red grape. The main goal is to investigate whether resveratrol could inhibit adverse effects of morphine on sperm cell viability, count, motility as well as testis histology, testosterone hormone and nitric oxide levels in mice. In the present study, 48 male rats were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=6) and were treated intraperitoneally for 14 days with normal saline, resveratrol (2, 8, 20 mg/kg/day), morphine (20 mg/kg/day) and morphine (20 mg/kg/day) + resveratrol (2, 8, 20 mg/kg/day). At the end of experiments, sperm parameters (sperm cell viability, count, motility and morphology), testis weight, the diameter of seminiferous tubules, testosterone hormone level and nitric oxide were analyzed. The data were analyzed by SPSS software for windows (version 20) using one-way ANOVA test followed by Tukey's post hoc test, and P<0.05 was considered significant. The results indicated that morphine administration significantly decreased testosterone level, count, viability and motility of sperm cells and testis weight and increased nitric oxide compared to the saline group (P=0.000). Administration of resveratrol and resveratrol plus morphine significantly increased motility, count and viability of sperm cells, somniferous tubule diameter and testosterone, while it decreased nitric oxide level compared to morphine group (P=0.025). It seems that resveratrol administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and prevented morphine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters.


RESUMEN: La morfina es uno de los alcaloides fenantreno del opio que induce efectos adversos en el sistema reproductivo masculino. El resveratrol es un fitoestrógeno y antioxidante de la uva roja. El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue investigar si el resveratrol puede inhibir los efectos adversos de la morfina sobre la viabilidad celular de los espermatozoides, el recuento y la motilidad, así como la histología de los testículos, la hormona testosterona y los niveles de óxido nítrico en ratones. Se dividieron, aleatoriamente, 48 ratas machos en 8 grupos (n = 6) y se trataron de forma intraperitoneal durante 14 días con solución salina normal, resveratrol (2, 8, 20 mg / kg / día), morfina (20 mg / kg / día ) y morfina (20 mg / kg / día) + resveratrol (2, 8, 20 mg / kg / día). Al final de los experimentos, se analizaron los parámetros espermáticos (viabilidad celular, recuento, motilidad y morfología), el peso de los testículos, el diámetro de los túbulos seminíferos, el nivel de la hormona testosterona y el óxido nítrico. Los datos fueron analizados con el software de SPSS para Windows (versión 20) usando una prueba de ANOVA de una vía seguida de la prueba post hoc de Tukey, y P <0,05 se consideró significativo. Los resultados indicaron que la administración de morfina disminuyó significativamente el nivel de testosterona, el recuento, la viabilidad y la motilidad de los espermatozoides y el peso de los testículos, además del aumento de óxido nítrico en comparación con el grupo salino (p = 0,000). La administración de resveratrol y resveratrol más morfina aumentó significativamente la motilidad, el recuento y la viabilidad de los espermatozoides, el diámetro de los túbulos seminíferos y la testosterona, mientras que disminuyó el nivel de óxido nítrico comparado con el grupo morfina (p = 0,025). En conclusión, la administración de resveratrol podría aumentar la calidad de los espermatozoides y prevenir los efectos adversos inducidos por la morfina sobre los parámetros espermáticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Stilbenes/administration & dosage , Genitalia, Male/drug effects , Morphine/toxicity , Sperm Motility , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Testosterone/blood , Nitric Oxide/blood
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1409-1415, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-893150

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Morphine produces free radicals and cause apoptosis in some cell. Resveratrol (RSV) is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several plants in response to injury. 48 male mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups. In this study, various doses of RSV (2, 8 and 20 mg/kg) and RSV plus Morphine (2, 8 and 20 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to male mice for 20 consequent days and weight of kidneys, biochemical characteristics, morphometric markers and blood serum nitric oxide level were studied. The results indicated that morphine administration significantly increased the mean diameter of glomerulus and distal and proximal convoluted tubule, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and nitric oxide levels compared to the saline group (P<0.05). However, RSV and RSV plus morphine in all doses significantly decreased glomeruli number and LDH, BUN, creatinine and nitric oxide levels compared to morphine groups (p<0.05). Thus, it seems that resveratrol improved kidney damages induced by morphine in mice.


RESUMEN: La morfina produce radicales libres y causa apoptosis en algunas células. El resveratrol (RSV) es un tipo de fenol natural y una fitoalexina producida por varias plantas en respuesta a una lesión. Se asignaron al azar 48 ratones machos a 8 grupos. En este estudio se administraron varias dosis de RSV (2, 8 y 20 mg/kg) y RSV más morfina (2, 8 y 20 mg/kg) intraperitoneal en ratones machos durante 20 días consecutivos y se estudió el peso de los riñones, las características bioquímicas, los marcadores morfométricos y el nivel de óxido nítrico en suero sanguíneo. Los resultados indicaron que la administración de morfina aumentó significativamente el diámetro medio del glomérulo y de los túbulos distal y proximal, los niveles de lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH), nitrógeno ureico en sangre (BUN), la creatinina y el óxido nítrico en comparación con el grupo salino (p <0,05). Sin embargo, el RSV y el RSV más morfina en todas las dosis redujeron significativamente el número de glomérulos y LDH, BUN, la creatinina y el óxido nítrico en comparación con los grupos de morfina (p <0,05). Por lo tanto, los resultados podrían indicar que el resveratrol mejoró el daño renal inducido por la morfina en ratones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Stilbenes/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Morphine/toxicity , Creatinine/blood , Kidney Glomerulus/drug effects , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nitric Oxide/blood
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1437-1443, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-893154

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease. There are many natural agents available to control and treat diabetes. Crab shell extract has antioxidant properties. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of crab shell hydroalcoholic extract on blood glucose, liver enzymes, nitric oxide and antioxidant capacity of serum and histological structure of pancreas in diabetic rats. In this experimental study, thirty five male Wistar rats (180-220 g) were divided into control, diabetic and experimental groups (n=7). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Rats were treated for 14 days by crab shell extract with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg doses. Fasting blood glucose, serum levels of liver enzymes, nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Changes of pancreatic tissue were determined using a modified aldehyde fuchsin staining method. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Differences were considered statistically significant at P<0.05. Crab shell extract induced a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum levels of nitric oxide and ALT (P=0.033). Also, there were a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity (FRAP) (P=0.007), and insignificant decrease in serum levels of AST. The extract improved pancreatic tissue changes caused by diabetes. In conclusion, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects of crab shell increase total antioxidant capacity of serum and decreased blood glucose, serum nitric oxide and ALT levels.


RESUMEN: La diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad metabólica común. Hay muchos agentes naturales disponibles para controlar y tratar la diabetes. El extracto de cáscara de cangrejo tiene propiedades antioxidantes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto del extracto hidroalcohólico de la cáscara de cangrejo sobre la glucosa sérica, las enzimas hepáticas, el óxido nítrico y la capacidad antioxidante del suero y la estructura histológica del páncreas en ratas diabéticas. En este estudio experimental, treinta y cinco ratas Wistar machos (180220 g) se dividieron en cinco grupos: control, diabéticos y experimentales (n = 7). La diabetes se indujo por inyección intraperitoneal de estreptozotocina (60 mg / kg). Las ratas se trataron durante 14 días con extracto de cáscara de cangrejo con dosis de 100, 200 y 400 mg / kg. Se evaluaron la glucosa en sangre en ayunas, las enzimas hepáticas, el óxido nítrico sérico y la capacidad antioxidante total. Los cambios en el tejido pancreático se determinaron usando un método de tinción de aldehído fucsina modificado. Los datos se analizaron utilizando ANOVA unidireccional. Las diferencias se consideraron estadísticamente significativas a P <0,05. El extracto de cáscara de cangrejo indujo una reducción significativa en la glucosa en sangre, en los niveles séricos de óxido nítrico y ALT (P = 0,033). Además se observó un aumento significativo en la capacidad antioxidante total (FRAP) (P = 0.007), y una disminución insignificante en los niveles séricos de AST. El extracto mejoró los cambios en el tejido pancreático causados por la diabetes. En conclusión, los efectos antioxidantes y antidiabéticos de la cáscara de cangrejo aumentan la capacidad antioxidante total de suero y la disminución de la glucosa en la sangre, el óxido nítrico sérico y los niveles de ALT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Animal Shells/chemistry , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Complex Mixtures/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Pancreas/drug effects , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Brachyura , Nitric Oxide/blood , Rats, Wistar
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(8): 847-852, Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895509

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the amount of plasma nitric oxide in clinically stable dogs at different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Five groups of dogs were studied, aged from 4 to 18, comprising of a control group composed of healthy animals (control n=17), group CKD stage 1 (DRC-1, n=12), group CKD stage 2 (CKD-2, n=10) group, CKD stages 3 (CRD-3, n=13) and Group CKD stage 4 (DRC-4, n=10). Dogs with CKD were clinically stable and received no treatment. Two blood samples were collected at 24 hours intervals (repeated measures) to obtain serum and plasma. The serum creatinine values were used to classify dogs as CG, CKD-1, CKD-2, CKD-3 and CKD-4, and were (1.02±0.02mg/dL), (1.07±0.04mg/dL), (1.81±0.03mg/dL), (3.40±0.15mg/dL) and (6.00±0.20mg/dL) respectively. The determination of nitric oxide (NO) was performed by dosing nitrate/nitrite indirectly, and used for measurement of nitrate according to the NO/ozone chemiluminescence. The data were submitted to ANOVA for nonparametric analysis(Kruskal-Wallis) (P<0.05). The concentration of plasmatic NO did not differ significantly among GC (10.81±0.51µM), CKD-1 (15.49±1.97µM) and CKD-2 (19.83±3.31µM) groups. The plasma concentration of CKD-3 (17.02±1.73µM) and CKD-4 (83.56±13.63µM) was significantly higher compared with healthy dogs. In conclusion, the NO plasma concentration can increase in dogs with CKD and become significantly higher in stage 3 and 4 dogs.(AU)


A determinação de óxido nítrico no plasma em cães clinicamente estáveis em diferentes estágios da doença renal crônica (DRC) não foi estudada, constituindo este o objetivo do presente estudo. Foram estudados cinco grupos de cães, com idade variando entre quatro a 18 anos, compreendendo o grupo controle, composto por animais sadios (controle, n=17), grupo com DRC estágio 1 (DRC-1, n=12), grupo com DRC estágio 2 (DRC-2, n=10), grupo com DRC estágio 3 (DRC-3, n=13) e grupo com DRC estágio 4 (DRC-4, n=10). Os cães com DRC estavam com o quadro clínico estável e sem receber qualquer tipo de tratamento. Foram estudados cinco grupo de cães, com idade variando entre quatro a 18 anos, compreendendo o grupo controle, composto por animais sadios (controle, n=17), grupo com DRC estágio 1 (DRC-1, n=12), grupo com DRC estágio 2 (DRC-2, n=10), grupo com DRC estágio 3 (DRC-3, n=13) e grupo com DRC estágio 4 (DRC-4, n=10). Os animais sadios ou com DRC foram submetidos a duas coletas de sangue, com intervalo de 24 horas (amostras repetidas), para obtenção de soro e plasma. Os valores de creatinina sérica, que definiram a classificação dos pacientes do controle, DRC-1, DRC-2, DRC-3 e DRC-4, que foram 1,02±0,02mg/dL; 1,06±0,05mg/dL; 1,80±0,03mg/dL; 3,39±0,21mg/dL e 6,00±0,28mg/dL, respectivamente. A determinação plasmática indireta de óxido nítrico (NO) foi realizada por meio da dosagem de nitrato/nitrito, através da técnia de quimioluminescência NO / ozono. Os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA para análise não paramétrica (Kruskal-Wallis) (P <0,05). Os resultados das concentrações plasmáticas de NO não diferiram significativamente quando comparados os dados do controle (10,81±0,51µM), DRC-1 (15,49±1,97µM), DRC-2 (19,82±3,31µM). No entanto, o NO plasmático do grupo DRC-3 (17,01±1,73µM) e DRC-4 (83,55±13,63µM), foi significativamente maior, em relação às médias dos cães sadios. Concluímos que a concentração plasmática de NO pode aumentar em cães com DRC e torna-se significativamente mais elevada nos estágios 3 e 4 da doença.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/veterinary , Azotemia/veterinary , Nitric Oxide/blood , Proteinuria/veterinary , Creatinine/analysis , Hypertension/veterinary
6.
IJEM-Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2017; 19 (2): 91-98
in Fa | IMEMR (Eastern Mediterranean) | ID: emr-189247

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Diabetes, as a chronic disease, is the third leading cause of death in developing countries. Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress have been recognized as the main factors involved in pathogenesis of diabetes. On the other hand, the antioxidant system is the first defense mechanism of body against oxidative stress. Falcaria Vulgaris possesses hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects. This study surveyed the effects of different doses of Falcaria vulgaris extract [50,100,150 mg/kg] on histological changes of Langerhans islets andserum insulin, nitric oxide and glucose levels


Materials and Methods: A total of 64 male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups [control, diabetic with STZ, treatment with Falcaria Vulgaris [50,100,150 mg/kg] and diabetic treated with Falcaria Vulgaris] [50,100,150 mg/kg]. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, and p value<0.05 was considered significant


Results: Falcaria Vulgaris extract [100 and 150 mg/kg] significantly decreased serum glucose level [p<0.01] and improved the diameter of islets [p<0.05] in diabetic rats treated with Falcaria Vulgaris extract, compared with the diabetic group. Moreover, at dose of 150 mg/kg, the extract improvedserum insulin [p<0.01], decreased nitric oxide [p<0.01] and increased the weight [p<0.01] and number of islets of diabetic rats [p<0.05]. Histopathological studies also confirmed these changes


Conclusion: F. vulgaris can improve insulin secretion and serum glucose levels in an animal model of STZ induced diabetes, possibly by reducing nitric oxide production and preventing pancreatic tissue oxidative damage


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Plant Extracts , Streptozocin , Islets of Langerhans/drug effects , Insulin/blood , Nitric Oxide/blood , Blood Glucose , Rats, Wistar
7.
Clinics ; 70(11): 751-757, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-766151

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to determine whether the blood pressure-lowering effect of Nigella sativa might be mediated by its effects on nitric oxide, angiotensin-converting enzyme, heme oxygenase and oxidative stress markers. METHODS: Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into 4 groups. One group served as the control (group 1), whereas the other three groups (groups 2-4) were administered L-NAME (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Groups 3 and 4 were given oral nicardipine daily at a dose of 3 mg/kg and Nigella sativa oil at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg for 8 weeks, respectively, concomitantly with L-NAME administration. RESULTS: Nigella sativa oil prevented the increase in systolic blood pressure in the L-NAME-treated rats. The blood pressure reduction was associated with a reduction in cardiac lipid peroxidation product, NADPH oxidase, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and plasma nitric oxide, as well as with an increase in heme oxygenase-1 activity in the heart. The effects of Nigella sativa on blood pressure, lipid peroxidation product, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme were similar to those of nicardipine. In contrast, L-NAME had opposite effects on lipid peroxidation, angiotensin-converting enzyme and NO. CONCLUSION: The antihypertensive effect of Nigella sativa oil appears to be mediated by a reduction in cardiac oxidative stress and angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, an increase in cardiac heme oxygenase-1 activity and a prevention of plasma nitric oxide loss. Thus, Nigella sativa oil might be beneficial for controlling hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/metabolism , Hypertension/chemically induced , Models, Animal , Malondialdehyde/analysis , NADPH Oxidases/metabolism , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nicardipine/administration & dosage , Nicardipine/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/blood , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
8.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 85(2): 105-110, abr.-jun. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-754932

ABSTRACT

The I/D insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme has been related to hypertension. This polymorphism also seems to have gender related implications. Angiotensin II contributes to the production and release of oxygen reactive species that react with nitric oxide, inactivating its effects. Objective: To establish whether the ACE I/D polymorphism correlates with nitric oxide plasma metabolites in healthy men and women. Methods: Among 896 subjects between 18 and 30 years of age range, 138 fulfilled inclusion criteria. The polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction, and blood nitric oxide metabolites were analyzed following the method described by Bryan. Results: Both systolic and diastolic arterial pressures were higher in men than in women (107/67 vs. 101/65 mmHg, p < 0.001). In terms of the ACE gene, there were differences in the concentration of nitric oxide metabolites in men with the I/D and D/D genotypes when compared to carriers of the I/I genotype (33.55 and 29.23 vs. 53.74 pmol/ml; p = <0.05), while there were no significant differences in women when compared by genotype. Men with the D/D genotype had higher systolic blood pressure than I/D carriers (111 vs. 104 mmHg, p < 0.05). We observed no arterial blood pressure differences in women when grouped by ACE genotype. Conclusions: The ACE D/D genotype was associated with nitric oxide metabolite levels and systolic blood pressure in clinically healthy men while it had no effect in women.


El polimorfismo inserción/deleción del gen de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina (polimorfismo I/D de la ECA), se relaciona con hipertensión y sus efectos podrían estar asociados al género. La angiotensina II contribuye a la producción y liberación de especies reactivas de oxígeno, que reaccionan con el óxido nítrico (ON), inactivándolo. Objetivo: Conocer si existen diferencias en la concentración de metabolitos de ON en hombres y mujeres sanos que puedan estar influidas por el polimorfismo I/D de la ECA. Métodos: De 896 sujetos de entre 18 y 30 años, 138 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. El polimorfismo fue identificado usando reacción en cadena de la polimerasa y los metabolitos de ON fueron analizados en sangre usando el método de Bryan. Resultados: Las presiones sistólica y diastólica fueron más elevadas en hombres que en mujeres (107/67 vs. 101/65 mmHg p < 0.001). En relación con el genotipo, existieron diferencias significativas en la concentración de metabolitos de ON en los hombres con genotipos I/D, D/D comparados con los portadores del genotipo I/I (33.55 y 29.23 vs. 53.74 pmol/ml, respectivamente; p = <0.05). No hubo diferencias significativas en las mujeres portadoras de los diferentes genotipos. Respecto a la presión arterial, los hombres con genotipo D/D presentaron mayor presión arterial sistólica que aquellos portadores de I/D (111 vs. 104 mmHg, p < 0.05). En las mujeres no se observaron diferencias significativas comparándolas por genotipo. Conclusiones: El genotipo D/D de la ECA está asociado con el nivel de metabolitos de ON en plasma y la presión arterial sistólica en hombres clínicamente sanos; esta asociación no se observa en las mujeres.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Blood Pressure , Nitric Oxide/blood , Polymorphism, Genetic , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Genotype , Mexico , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
9.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(3): 245-250, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-752591

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In order to examine the effectiveness of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in combating the oxidative insult caused by Trypanosoma cruzi during the development of the chronic phase of Chagas disease, Swiss mice were infected intraperitoneally with 5.0 × 104 trypomastigotes of T. cruzi QM1strain. Methods: Mice were given supplements of two different doses of vitamin C for 180 days. Levels of lipid oxidation (as indicated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS), total peroxide, vitamin C, and reduced glutathione were measured in the plasma, TBARS, total peroxide and vitamin C were measured in the myocardium and histopathologic analysis was undertaken in heart, colon and skeletal muscle. Results: Animals that received a dose equivalent to 500 mg of vitamin C daily showed increased production of ROS in plasma and myocardium and a greater degree of inflammation and necrosis in skeletal muscles than those that received a lower dose or no vitamin C whatsoever. Conclusion: Although some research has shown the antioxidant effect of vitamin C, the results showed that animals subject to a 500 mg dose of vitamin C showed greater tissue damage in the chronic phase of Chagas disease, probably due to the paradoxical actions of the substance, which in this pathology, will have acted as a pro-oxidant or pro-inflammatory. .


Introdução: Para verificar a eficácia da vitamina C em combater o insulto oxidativo causado pelo Trypanosoma cruzi durante a evolução da fase crônica da doença de Chagas, camundongos Swiss foram previamente infectados via intraperitoneal com 5.0 × 104 tripomastigotas da cepa QM1 de T. cruzi. Métodos: Camundongos foram suplementados com duas diferentes doses de vitamina C por 180 dias. Foram mensurados os níveis de peroxidação lipídica (indicado por substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico-TBARS), peróxido total, vitamina C, e glutationa reduzida no plasma e TBARS, peróxido total e vitamina C no miocárdio, e foi realizado o estudo histopatológico em coração, cólon e músculo esquelético. Resultados: Animais que receberam diariamente uma dosagem equivalente a 500 mg de vitamina C apresentaram aumento na produção de ROS e RNS no plasma e no miocárdio e maior grau de inflamação e necrose em músculo esquelético em comparação àqueles que receberam doses menores ou nenhuma vitamina C. Conclusão: Embora muitas pesquisas tenham mostrado o efeito antioxidante da vitamina C, nossos resultados mostraram que os animais que foram expostos a 500 mg de vitamina C apresentaram maior dano tecidual na fase crônica da doença de Chagas, provavelmente devido a ações paradoxais desta substância, onde nesta patologia, poderá agir como pró-oxidante ou pró-inflamatória. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Biomarkers/blood , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chronic Disease , Chagas Disease/blood , Chagas Disease/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glutathione/blood , Lipid Peroxidation , Nitric Oxide/blood , Peroxidase/blood , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(4): 363-369, 4/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-744359

ABSTRACT

The objective of this prospective study was to determine the plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO) in women with chronic pelvic pain secondary to endometriosis (n=24) and abdominal myofascial pain syndrome (n=16). NO levels were measured in plasma collected before and 1 month after treatment. Pretreatment NO levels (μM) were lower in healthy volunteers (47.0±12.7) than in women with myofascial pain (64.2±5.0, P=0.01) or endometriosis (99.5±12.9, P<0.0001). After treatment, plasma NO levels were reduced only in the endometriosis group (99.5±12.9 vs 61.6±5.9, P=0.002). A correlation between reduction of pain intensity and reduction of NO level was observed in the endometriosis group [correlation = 0.67 (95%CI = 0.35 to 0.85), P<0.0001]. Reduction of NO levels was associated with an increase of pain threshold in this group [correlation = -0.53 (-0.78 to -0.14), P<0.0001]. NO levels appeared elevated in women with chronic pelvic pain diagnosed as secondary to endometriosis, and were directly associated with reduction in pain intensity and increase in pain threshold after treatment. Further studies are needed to investigate the role of NO in the pathophysiology of pain in women with endometriosis and its eventual association with central sensitization.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Chronic Pain/etiology , Endometriosis/complications , Nitric Oxide/blood , Pain Threshold/drug effects , Pelvic Pain/etiology , Chronic Pain/blood , Endometriosis/surgery , Laparoscopy , Myofascial Pain Syndromes/complications , Pain Measurement , Prospective Studies , Pelvic Pain/blood , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 49(1): 69-75, Jan-Feb/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-742066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of using antihypertensive classes of drugs of the calcium channel antagonists and inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme in plasma concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide in patients with hypertension. METHODS Cross-sectional study with quantitative approach conducted with hypertensive patients in use of antihypertensive classes of drugs: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or calcium channel antagonists. RESULTS It was found that the concentration of plasma nitric oxide was significantly higher in hypertensive patients that were in use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (p<0.03) and the hydrogen sulphide concentration was significantly higher in hypertensive plasma in use of calcium channel antagonists (p<0.002). CONCLUSION The findings suggest that these medications have as additional action mechanism the improvement of endothelial dysfunction by elevate plasma levels of vasodilatory substances. .


OBJETIVO Evaluar el efecto del uso de antihipertensivos pertenecientes a las clases medicamentosas antagonistas de canales de calcio e inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina en las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácido sulfhídrico y óxido nítrico en portadores de hipertensión arterial sistémica. MÉTODO Estudio transversal con abordaje cuantitativo realizado con hipertensos que toman antihipertensivos de las clases de inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina o antagonistas de los canales de calcio. RESULTADOS Se verificó que la concentración de óxido nítrico plasmático fue significativamente mayor en hipertensos que estaban usando inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (p<0.03) y que la concentración de ácido sulfhídrico plasmático fue significativamente mayor en hipertensos en uso de antagonistas de los canales de calcio (p<0.002). CONCLUSIÓN Los hallazgos sugieren que dichos fármacos tienen como mecanismo de acción adicional la mejora de la disfunción endotelial al elevar los niveles plasmáticos de sustancias vasodilatadoras. .


OBJETIVO Avaliar o efeito do uso de anti-hipertensivos pertencentes às classes medicamentosas antagonistas de canais de cálcio e inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina nas concentrações plasmáticas de ácido sulfídrico e óxido nítrico em portadores de hipertensão arterial sistêmica. MÉTODO Estudo transversal com abordagem quantitativa realizado com hipertensos em uso de anti-hipertensivos das classes inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina ou antagonistas dos canais de cálcio. RESULTADOS Verificou-se que a concentração de óxido nítrico plasmático foi significativamente maior em hipertensos que estavam em uso de inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (p<0.03) e que a concentração de ácido sulfídrico plasmático foi significativamente maior em hipertensos em uso de antagonistas dos canais de cálcio (p<0.002). CONCLUSÃO Os achados sugerem que essas medicações possuem como mecanismo de ação adicional a melhora da disfunção endotelial por elevar os níveis plasmáticos de substâncias vasodilatadoras. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Hydrogen Sulfide/blood , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies
12.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 54(6): 446-451, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-731268

ABSTRACT

Introdução O estresse oxidativo produzido no interior de articulações inflamadas pode produzir fenômenos autoimunes e destruição articular. As espécies radicais com atividade oxidativa, incluindo espécies reativas de nitrogênio, representam mediadores de inflamação e de lesão cartilaginosa. Objetivos Avaliar o óxido nítrico sérico como marcador de estresse oxidativo em pacientes egípcios com artrite reumatoide e sua relação com a atividade da doença. Métodos 80 com artrite reumatoide foram divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com a pontuação DAS28: Grupo I: 42 pacientes com doença ativa, e Grupo II: 38 pacientes com doença inativa. Quarenta indivíduos equiparados por idade e gênero foram incluídos como grupo controle (Grupo III). Foram realizados exames laboratoriais de rotina e o óxido nítrico foi medido usando Elisa. Radiografias simples das mãos foram feitas para a pontuação do estado radiológico utilizando o método de Sharpe. Resultados A comparação do nível sérico de óxido nítrico entre os três grupos mostrou uma diferença altamente significativa (p < 0,001). Obtiveram-se níveis significativamente mais elevados entre os pacientes com artrite reumatoide em comparação com os controles. Os níveis mais elevados foram obtidos em pacientes com a doença ativa (média±DP 82,38±20,46) em comparação com aqueles com a doença inativa (35,53±7,15). O óxido nítrico no Grupo I exibiu uma correlação positiva significativa com a rigidez matinal (r=0,45), artrite (r=0,43), contagem de plaquetas (r=0,46), velocidade de hemossedimentação (r=0,83), proteína C-reativa (r=0,76) e Índice de Atividade de Doença (r=0,85). O óxido ...


Background Oxidative stress generated within inflammatory joints can produce autoimmune phenomena and joint destruction. Radical species with oxidative activity, including reactive nitrogen species, represent mediators of inflammation and cartilage damage. Objectives To assess serum nitric oxide as a marker of oxidative stress in Egyptian patients with rheumatoid arthritis and its relation to disease activity. Methods Eighty patients with rheumatoid arthritis were divided into 2 groups, according to the DAS-28 score: Group I: 42 patients with disease activity, and Group II: 38 patients with no disease activity. Forty age- and sex-matched individuals were included as control group (Group III). Routine laboratory investigations were done, and nitric oxide was measured using Elisa. Hand plain radiographies were done for radiological status scoring using the Sharp method. Results A comparison between nitric oxide in all three groups showed a highly significant difference (p < 0.001), significantly higher levels were obtained among rheumatoid arthritis patients in comparison to controls, and higher levels were obtained in patients with active disease (mean±SD 82.38±20.46) in comparison to patients without active disease (35.53±7.15). Nitric oxide in Group I showed a significant positive correlation with morning stiffness (r=0.45), arthritis (r=0.43), platelet count (r=0.46), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r=0.83), C-reactive protein (r=0.76) and Disease Activity Score (r=0.85). Nitric oxide showed a significant positive correlation (r=0.43) with hand radiographies (Sharp score) in Group I. Conclusion There are increased levels of nitric oxide in the serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nitric oxide correlates significantly with disease activity, inflammatory markers and radiological joint status. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnosis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/blood , Nitric Oxide/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Egypt , Middle Aged
13.
Salud pública Méx ; 56(5): 473-491, sep.-oct. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-733321

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Evaluar las tendencias de mortalidad por cáncer en México entre 1980 y 2011. Material y métodos. Se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad ajustadas por edad y sexo para todos los cánceres y para las 15 localizaciones más frecuentes mediante el método directo y tomando como población estándar la población mundial de 2010. Las tendencias en las tasas de mortalidad y el cambio porcentual anual para cada tipo de cáncer se estimaron a través de un modelo de regresión joinpoint. Resultados. A partir de 2004 y como consecuencia de la reducción de la mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón (-3.2% en hombres y -1.8% en mujeres), estómago (-2.1% en hombres y -2.4% en mujeres) y cérvix (-4.7%), se observó una disminución significativa (~1% anual) en la mortalidad por cáncer en general tanto en el grupo de todas las edades como en el de 35 a 64 años para ambos sexos. La mortalidad por otros cánceres como el de mama y el de ovario, en las mujeres o el de próstata, en los hombres, mostró un aumento sostenido. Conclusiones. Algunas de las reducciones en la mortalidad por cáncer pueden ser parcialmente atribuidas a la efectividad de los programas de prevención establecidos. Sin embargo, se requiere implementar registros adecuados de cáncer con base poblacional para evaluar el impacto real de estos programas, así como diseñar y evaluar intervenciones innovadoras que permitan desarrollar políticas de prevención más costo-efectivas.


Objective. To evaluate trends in cancer mortality in Mexico between 1980-2011. Material and methods. Through direct method and using World Population 2010 as standard population, mortality rates for all cancers and the 15 most frequent locations, adjusted for age and sex were calculated. Trends in mortality rates and annual percentage change for each type of cancer were estimated by joinpoint regression model. Results. As a result of the reduction in mortality from lung cancer (-3.2% -1.8% in men and in women), stomach (-2.1% -2.4% in men and in women) and cervix (-4.7%); since 2004 a significant (~1% per year) decline was observed in cancer mortality in general, in all ages, and in the group of 35-64 years of both sexes. Other cancers such as breast and ovarian cancer in women; as well as for prostate cancer in men, showed a steady increase. Conclusions. Some of the reductions in cancer mortality may be partially attributed to the effectiveness of prevention programs. However, adequate records of population-based cancer are needed to assess the real impact of these programs; as well as designing and evaluating innovative interventions to develop more cost-effective prevention policies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Endotoxemia/metabolism , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Ditiocarb/chemistry , Ditiocarb/pharmacokinetics , Endotoxins/toxicity , Ferric Compounds/chemistry , Intestine, Small/drug effects , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/blood , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spin Labels , Spin Trapping/methods , Time Factors
14.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 64(4): 292-298, Jul-Aug/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-720472

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated interleukin-10 and nitric oxide plasma levels following surgery to determine whether there is a correlation between these two variables and if different desflurane anesthesia flow rates influence nitric oxide and interleukin-10 concentrations in circulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients between 18 and 70 years and ASA I-II physical status who were scheduled to undergo thyroidectomy were enrolled in the study. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were allocated into two groups to receive two different desflurane anesthesia flow rates: high flow (Group HF) and low flow (Group LF). MEASUREMENTS: Blood samples were drawn at the beginning (t 0) and end (t 1) of the operation and after 24 h (t 2). Plasma interleukin-10 and nitric oxide levels were measured using an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay and a Griess reagents kit, respectively. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were assessed. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with regard to interleukin-10 levels at the times of measurement. Interleukin-10 levels were increased equally in both groups at times t 1 and t 2 compared with preoperative concentrations. For both groups, nitric oxide circulating concentrations were significantly reduced at times t 1 and t 2 compared with preoperative concentrations. However, the nitric oxide value was lower for Group HF compared to Group LF at t 2. No correlation was found between the IL-10 and nitric oxide levels. CONCLUSION: Clinical usage of two different flow anesthesia forms with desflurane may increase interleukin-10 levels both in Group HF and Group LF; nitric oxide levels circulating concentrations were significantly reduced at times t 1 and t 2 compared with preoperative concentrations; however, at 24 h postoperatively they were higher in Group LF compared to Group HF. No correlation was detected between interleukin-10 and nitric oxide levels. .


OBJETIVO: este estudo investigou os níveis plasmáticos de interleucina-10 e óxido nítrico após cirurgia para determinar se há correlação entre essas duas variáveis e se diferentes taxas de fluxo de anestesia com desflurano influenciam as concentrações de interleucina-10 e óxido nítrico na circulação. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: quarenta pacientes, entre 18 e 70 anos de idade, estado físico ASA I-II, programados para tireoidectomia foram incluídos no estudo. INTERVENÇÕES: os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos para receber dois fluxos diferentes de anestesia com desflurano: fluxo alto (Grupo FA) e fluxo baixo (Grupo FB). MENSURAÇÕES: amostras de sangue foram colhidas no início (t 0 ) e final (t 1 ) da cirurgia e após 24 h (t 2 ). Os níveis plasmáticos de interleucina-10 e óxido nítrico foram medidos usando um ensaio imunossorvente ligado à enzima um estojo de reagentes de Griess, respectivamente. Os parâmetros hemodinâmicos e respiratórios foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos em relação aos níveis de interleucina-10 níveis nos tempos de medição. Os níveis de interleucina-10 aumentaram igualmente em ambos os grupos nos tempos t 1 e t 2 em comparação com as concentrações no pré-operatório. Em ambos os grupos, as concentrações circulantes de óxido nítrico estavam significativamente reduzidas nos tempos t 1 e t 2 em comparação com as concentrações no pré-operatório. No entanto, o valor de óxido nítrico foi menor no Grupo FA que no Grupo FB no t 2 . Não houve correlação entre os níveis de IL-10 e óxido nítrico. CONCLUSÃO: o ...


OBJETIVO: este estudio investigó los niveles plasmáticos de interleucina-10 y óxido nítrico después de la cirugía para determinar si hay alguna correlación entre esas 2 variables y si diferentes tasas de flujo de anestesia con desflurano influyen en las concentraciones de interleucina-10 y óxido nítrico en la circulación. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: cuarenta pacientes, entre 18 y 70 años de edad, estado físico ASA I-II, programados para tiroidectomía se incluyeron en el estudio. INTERVENCIONES: los pacientes se dividieron en 2 grupos para recibir 2 flujos diferentes de anestesia con desflurano: flujo alto (grupo FA) y flujo bajo (grupo FB). MEDICIONES: se extrajeron muestras de sangre al inicio (t 0 ) y al final (t 1 ) de la cirugía y después de 24 h (t 2 ). Los niveles plasmáticos de interleucina-10 y óxido nítrico fueron medidos usando un ensayo de inmunoabsorción conectando un kit de reactivos de Griess, respectivamente. Se evaluaron los parámetros hemodinámicos y respiratorios. RESULTADOS: no hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los 2 grupos con relación a los niveles de interleucina-10 en los tiempos de medición. Los niveles de interleucina-10 aumentaron igualmente en ambos grupos en los tiempos t 1 y t 2 en comparación con las concentraciones en el preoperatorio. En ambos grupos, las concentraciones circulantes de óxido nítrico estaban significativamente reducidas en los tiempos t 1 y t 2 en comparación con las concentraciones en el preoperatorio. Sin embargo, el valor de óxido nítrico fue menor en el grupo FA que en el grupo FB en el t 2 . No hubo correlación entre los niveles de interleucina-10 y óxido nítrico. CONCLUSIÓN: el uso clínico de 2 flujos diferentes en anestesia con desflurano puede aumentar los ...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage , /blood , Isoflurane/analogs & derivatives , Nitric Oxide/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Isoflurane/administration & dosage , Postoperative Period , Time Factors , Thyroidectomy/methods
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(3): 289-298, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-711734

ABSTRACT

Heart tissue inflammation, progressive fibrosis and electrocardiographic alterations occur in approximately 30% of patients infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, 10-30 years after infection. Further, plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and nitric oxide (NO) are associated with the degree of heart dysfunction in chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC). Thus, our aim was to establish experimental models that mimic a range of parasitological, pathological and cardiac alterations described in patients with chronic Chagas’ heart disease and evaluate whether heart disease severity was associated with increased TNF and NO levels in the serum. Our results show that C3H/He mice chronically infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain have more severe cardiac parasitism and inflammation than C57BL/6 mice. In addition, connexin 43 disorganisation and fibronectin deposition in the heart tissue, increased levels of creatine kinase cardiac MB isoenzyme activity in the serum and more severe electrical abnormalities were observed in T. cruzi-infected C3H/He mice compared to C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, T. cruzi-infected C3H/He and C57BL/6 mice represent severe and mild models of CCC, respectively. Moreover, the CCC severity paralleled the TNF and NO levels in the serum. Therefore, these models are appropriate for studying the pathophysiology and biomarkers of CCC progression, as well as for testing therapeutic agents for patients with Chagas’ heart disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/blood , Nitric Oxide/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factors/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Chronic Disease , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(5): 355-360, 02/05/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-709436

ABSTRACT

Recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) is an inflammatory condition of the oral mucosa characterized by painful, well-circumscribed, single or multiple round or ovoid ulcerations. The exact etiologic factor(s) of these ulcerations are not yet understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate inflammatory processes and free radical metabolism of 25 patients with RAUs compared to 25 healthy controls. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-10, and IL-12 were determined by ELISA. Nitric oxide (NO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), total antioxidant status (TAS), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were measured spectroscopically in serum. The levels of MDA, GSH, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-12, MPO, and TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were higher, and the levels of NO, IL-10, and TAS were lower in patients with RAU than in controls. Statistical analysis showed that GSH, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-10, and OSI differed significantly in patients with RAU compared to controls. These parameters have important roles in oxidant/antioxidant defense.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Glutathione/blood , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Malondialdehyde/blood , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Stomatitis, Aphthous/immunology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Free Radicals/metabolism , /blood , /blood , /blood , Nitric Oxide/blood , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Peroxidase/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
17.
Clinics ; 69(4): 247-252, 4/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-705777

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive obstruction of the upper airways, and it is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. There have been several studies demonstrating low levels of nitric oxide in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome compared with healthy controls. In this study, we hypothesized that reduced nitric oxide levels would result in high arginase activity. Arginase reacts with L-arginine and produces urea and L-ornithine, whereas L-arginine is a substrate for nitric oxide synthase, which produces nitric oxide. METHODS: The study group consisted of 51 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients (M/F: 43/8; mean age 49±10 years of age) and 15 healthy control subjects (M/F: 13/3; mean age 46±14 years of age). Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients were divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide levels and arginase activity were measured via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of serum samples. RESULTS: Serum nitric oxide levels in the control subjects were higher than in the obstructive sleep apnea patients with and without cardiovascular diseases (p<0.05). Arginase activity was significantly higher (p<0.01) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients without cardiovascular diseases compared with the control group. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients with cardiovascular diseases had higher arginase activity than the controls (p<0.001) and the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients without cardiovascular diseases (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Low nitric oxide levels are associated with high arginase activity. The mechanism of nitric oxide depletion in sleep apnea patients suggests that increased arginase activity might reduce the substrate availability of nitric oxide synthase and thus could reduce nitric oxide levels. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arginase/blood , Nitric Oxide Synthase/blood , Nitric Oxide/blood , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/blood , Analysis of Variance , Arginine/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/enzymology
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(2): 174-181, abr. 2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-705826

ABSTRACT

Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, represents an endemic among Latin America countries. The participation of free radicals, especially nitric oxide (NO), has been demonstrated in the pathophysiology of seropositive individuals with T. cruzi. In Chagas disease, increased NO contributes to the development of cardiomyopathy and megacolon. Metallothioneins (MTs) are efficient free radicals scavengers of NO in vitro and in vivo. Here, we developed a murine model of the chronic phase of Chagas disease using endemic T. cruzi RyCH1 in BALB/c mice, which were divided into four groups: infected non-treated (Inf), infected N-monomethyl-L-arginine treated (Inf L-NAME), non-infected L-NAME treated and non-infected vehicle-treated. We determined blood parasitaemia and NO levels, the extent of parasite nests in tissues and liver MT-I expression levels. It was observed that NO levels were increasing in Inf mice in a time-dependent manner. Inf L-NAME mice had fewer T. cruzi nests in cardiac and skeletal muscle with decreased blood NO levels at day 135 post infection. This affect was negatively correlated with an increase of MT-I expression (r = -0.8462, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, we determined that in Chagas disease, an unknown inhibitory mechanism reduces MT-I expression, allowing augmented NO levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Chagas Disease/blood , Metallothionein/blood , Nitric Oxide/blood , Antioxidants/analysis , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heart/parasitology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress , Parasitemia/blood , Parasitemia/physiopathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Trypanosoma cruzi
19.
J. vasc. bras ; 13(2): 108-115, Apr-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-720872

ABSTRACT

The need to study cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has become more and more relevant as their prevalence has increased over the years. An intact endothelial wall is essential to vascular health. Certain factors are responsible for maintaining this tissue intact, including nitric oxide (NO), which provokes dilation of blood vessels in response to shear stress. Expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme, which produces nitric oxide in response to increases in blood flow, is of fundamental importance to maintenance of the vascular system. When this enzyme is inhibited, nitric oxide production is reduced, causing endothelial dysfunction. Since C-reactive protein inhibits production of nitric oxide by the eNOS enzyme, it is one of the causes of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular events. The objective of the present study was to review scientific articles in the literature related to the subject 'inflammatory markers and endothelial function'. A wide-ranging review of the current literature was conducted, using systematic analysis of bibliographic references indexed in PubMed, Scielo, Medline and LILACS database, for the years 1992 to 2013. The studies reviewed show that increases in inflammation causes reductions in NO and increases in cardiovascular events. Increased inflammation is associated with higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases...


A necessidade de estudo das Doenças Cardiovasculares (DCV) vem à tona pelo aumento da sua prevalência ao longo dos anos. Uma parede endotelial íntegra é essencial para a saúde vascular. Alguns fatores são responsáveis pela integridade deste tecido, como o óxido nítrico (NO), que provoca a dilatação do vaso sanguíneo em resposta ao estresse de cisalhamento. A expressão da enzima óxido nítrico sintase endotelial (eNOS), que produz óxido nítrico em resposta ao incremento do fluxo sanguíneo, é fundamental para a manutenção do sistema vascular. Quando há inibição desta enzima, ocorre diminuição da produção de óxido nítrico, causando disfunção endotelial. A PCR inibe a produção de óxido nítrico pela enzima eNOS, sendo então uma causadora de disfunção endotelial e eventos cardiovasculares. O presente artigo tem como objetivo revisar artigos científicos na literatura relacionados ao tema 'marcadores inflamatórios e função endotelial'. Foi realizada uma ampla revisão de literatura atual, utilizando-se análise sistemática das referências bibliográficas nas bases de dados PubMed, Scielo, Medline e Lilacs, no período de 1992 a 2013. Os estudos revisados mostram que o aumento da inflamação causa uma diminuição de NO e aumento de eventos cardiovasculares. O aumento da inflamação está associado ao aumento da incidência de doenças cardiovasculares...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/chemistry , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/chemistry , C-Reactive Protein/chemistry , Endothelium/pathology , Inflammation/blood , Nitric Oxide/blood
20.
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 22(1): 123-128, Jan-Feb/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: lil-702050

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to investigate whether there is a relationship between plasmatic levels of nitrate, body temperature, and blood pressure values in patients with sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock. METHOD: prospective observational study performed in a Brazilian hospital; data were collected from July to December 2009. Thirty blood samples were obtained from a total of 29 patients. Blood samples (10ml) were collected for subsequent laboratory analysis to determine nitrate levels in the plasma. RESULTS: nitric oxide synthesis is increased in patients with septic shock, and is inversely correlated to the body temperature values. CONCLUSION: these data show that the measurement of body temperature and the observation of hypothermic conditions in septic patients could be important to guide the nursing regarding the evolution of individuals with sepsis to septic shock. .


OBJETIVO: pesquisar se há relação entre os níveis plasmáticos de nitrato e os valores da temperatura corporal e os da pressão arterial em pacientes com sepse, sepse grave e choque séptico. MÉTODO: estudo prospectivo observacional, desenvolvido em hospital brasileiro. Os dados foram coletados entre julho e dezembro de 2009. Vinte e nove pacientes foram incluídos na amostra. Foi realizada a coleta do sangue (10mL) para posterior análise dos níveis plasmáticos de nitrato, em laboratório. RESULTADOS: a síntese de óxido nítrico está aumentada em pacientes com choque séptico e está inversamente relacionada aos valores de temperatura corporal. CONCLUSÃO: esses dados mostram que a medição da temperatura corporal e a observação de quadros hipotérmicos em pacientes sépticos podem ser importantes para guiar a enfermagem, no que se refere à evolução de sujeitos com sepse, para o estado de choque séptico. .


OBJETIVO: investigar si existe una relación entre los niveles plasmáticos de nitrato y los valores de temperatura corporal y presión arterial en pacientes con sepsis, sepsis grave y choque séptico. MÉTODO: estudio prospectivo observacional, desarrollado en un hospital brasileño; los datos fueron recolectados entre julio y diciembre de 2009. El número de pacientes incluidos en el estudio fue de 29 y las muestras de sangre fueron 30. Se realizó la recolección de la sangre (10 ml) para posterior análisis, en laboratorio, de los valores de los niveles plasmáticos de nitrato. RESULTADOS: la síntesis de óxido nítrico está aumentada en pacientes con choque séptico y está inversamente relacionada a los valores de la temperatura corporal. CONCLUSIÓN: estos datos muestran que la medición de la temperatura corporal y la observación de cuadros hipotérmicos en pacientes sépticos pueden ser importantes para orientar a la enfermería en lo que se refiere a la evolución de individuos con sepsis para choque séptico. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Pressure , Body Temperature , Nitric Oxide/blood , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/physiopathology , Prospective Studies
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