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Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 251-260, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385582


SUMMARY: Skeletal muscle injury is an acute inflammatory condition caused by an inflammatory response. To reduce inflammatory cell infiltration and relieve skeletal muscle injury, efficient treatment is urgently needed. Nitric oxide is a free radical molecule reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we showed that NO could inhibit the inflammatory response of C2C12 cells in vitro and protect rat skeletal muscle injury from notexin in vivo. NO synthase inhibitor (L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Este?L-NAME) and NO donor (sodium nitroprusside dehydrate ?SNP) were used to explore the vital role of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in LPS-stimulated C2C12 myoblasts.The expression of IL-18 and IL-1b was upregulated by L-NAME and downregulated by SNP, as indicated by the ELISA results. NO can reduce ASC, Caspase-1, and NLRP3 mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, NO was detected in the rat model. The results of immunohistochemical staining showed that the production of DMD decreased. We conducted qRT-PCR and western blotting to detect the expression of Jo-1, Mi-2, TLR2, and TLR4 on day 6 post injury following treatment with L-NAME and SNP. The expression of Jo-1, Mi-2, TLR2, and TLR4 was upregulated by L-NAME and significantly reversed by SNP. NO can alleviate C2C12 cell inflammatory responses and protect rat skeletal muscle injury from notexin.

RESUMEN: La lesión del músculo esquelético es una afección inflamatoria aguda causada por una respuesta inflamatoria. Para reducir la infiltración de células inflamatorias y aliviar la lesión del músculo esquelético es necesario un tratamiento eficaz. El óxido nítrico es una molécula de radicales libres que tiene efectos antiinflamatorios. En este estudio, demostramos que el ON podría inhibir la respuesta inflamatoria de las células C2C12 in vitro y proteger la lesión del músculo esquelético de rata de la notexina in vivo. El inhibidor de ON sintasa (L-NG-nitroarginina metil este, L-NAME) y el donante de ON (nitroprusiato de sodio deshidratado, SNP) se utilizaron para explorar el papel vital de los lipopolisacáridos (LPS) en los mioblastos C2C12 estimulados por LPS. La expresión de IL- 18 e IL-1b fue regulada positivamente por L-NAME y regulada negativamente por SNP, como indican los resultados de ELISA. El ON puede reducir los niveles de proteína y ARNm de ASC, Caspasa-1 y NLRP3. Además, se detectó ON en el modelo de rata. Los resultados de la tinción inmunohistoquímica mostraron que disminuyó la producción de DMD. Realizamos qRT-PCR y transferencia Western para detectar la expresión de Jo-1, Mi-2, TLR2 y TLR4 el día 6 después de la lesión después del tratamiento con L-NAME y SNP. La expresión de Jo-1, Mi-2, TLR2 y TLR4 fue regulada positivamente por L- NAME y significativamente revertida por SNP. El ON puede aliviar las respuestas inflamatorias de las células C2C12 en ratas, y proteger la lesión del músculo esquelético de la notexina.

Animals , Male , Rats , Myoblasts/drug effects , Elapid Venoms/toxicity , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Muscular Diseases/chemically induced , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunohistochemistry , Cell Survival , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Caspases , Disease Models, Animal , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Inflammation
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 669-677, out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1131333


Resumo Fundamento: Diversos estudos têm mostrado que as classes de diterpenos exercem efeito significativo no sistema cardiovascular. Os diterpenos, em particular, estão entre os principais compostos associados às propriedades cardiovasculares, como a propriedade vasorrelaxante, inotrópica, diurética e a atividade hipotensora. Embora o mecanismo de vasorrelaxamento do manool seja visível, seu efeito sobre a pressão arterial (PA) ainda é desconhecido. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito hipotensor in vivo do manool e verificar o efeito de vasorrelaxamento ex vivo em anéis aórticos de ratos. Métodos: Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: normotensos e hipertensos. O grupo normotenso foi submetido à cirurgia sham e adotou-se o modelo 2R1C para o grupo hipertenso. Realizou-se monitoramento invasivo da PA para testes com manool em diferentes doses (10, 20 e 40 mg/kg). Foram obtidas curvas de concentração-resposta para o manool nos anéis aórticos, com endotélio pré-contraído com fenilefrina (Phe) após incubação com Nω-nitro-L-arginina metil éster (L-NAME) ou oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalina-1-ona (ODQ). Os níveis plasmáticos de óxido nítrico (NOx) foram medidos por ensaio de quimioluminescência. Resultados: Após a administração de manool, a PA se reduziu nos grupos normotenso e hipertenso, e esse efeito foi inibido pelo L-NAME em animais hipertensos apenas na dose de 10 mg/kg. O manool ex vivo promoveu vasorrelaxamento, inibido pela incubação de L-NAME e ODQ ou remoção do endotélio. Os níveis plasmáticos de NOx aumentaram no grupo hipertenso após a administração de manool. O manool induz o relaxamento vascular dependente do endotélio na aorta de ratos, mediado pela via de sinalização NO/cGMP e redução da PA, e também pelo aumento plasmático de NOx. Esses efeitos combinados podem estar envolvidos na modulação da resistência periférica, contribuindo para o efeito anti-hipertensivo do diterpeno. Conclusão: Esses efeitos em conjunto podem estar envolvidos na modulação da resistência periférica, contribuindo para o efeito anti-hipertensivo do diterpeno.

Abstract Background: Many studies have shown that the diterpenoid classes exert a significant effect on the cardiovascular system. Diterpenes, in particular, are among the main compound links to cardiovascular properties such as vasorelaxant, inotropic, diuretic and hypotensive activity. While the manool vasorelaxation mechanism is visible, its effect on blood pressure (BP) is still unknown. Objective: To evaluate the in vivo hypotensive effect of manool and check the ex vivo vasorelaxation effect in rat aortic rings. Methods: The animals were divided randomly into two groups: normotensive and hypertensive. The normotensive group was sham-operated, and the 2K1C model was adopted for the hypertensive group. Invasive BP monitoring was performed for manool tests at different doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg). Concentration-response curves for manool were obtained in the aorta rings, with endothelium, pre-contracted with phenylephrine (Phe) after incubation with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester(L-NAME) or oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). Nitric oxide (NOx) plasma levels were measured by chemiluminescence assay. Results: After manool administration, BP was reduced in normotensive and hypertensive groups, and this effect was inhibited by L-NAME in hypertensive animals only in 10 mg/kg dose. Ex vivo manool promoted vasorelaxation, which was inhibited by L-NAME and ODQ incubation or endothelium removal. NOx plasma levels increased in the hypertensive group after manool administration. Manool elicits endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in rat aorta mediated by the NO/cGMP signaling pathway and BP reduction, also by NOx plasma increase. These combined effects could be involved in modulating peripheral resistance, contributing to the antihypertensive effect of diterpene. Conclusion: These effects together could be involved in modulating peripheral resistance, contributing to the antihypertensive effect of diterpene.

Animals , Rats , Arterial Pressure , Hypertension/drug therapy , Aorta, Thoracic , Vasodilation , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Blood Pressure , Endothelium, Vascular , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology
Acta cir. bras ; 33(7): 577-587, July 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949362


Abstract Purpose: To investigate changes in the plasma concentrations of cardiac troponin I (CTnI), thromboxane A2 (TXA2), prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in rabbits with massive pulmonary embolism (AMPE) and the impact of nitric oxide inhalation (NOI) on these indices. Methods: A total of 30 Japanese rabbits were used to construct an MPE model and were divided into 3 groups equally (n=10), including an EXP group (undergoing modeling alone), an NOI group (receiving NOI 2 h post-modeling) and a CON group (receiving intravenous physiological saline). Results: In the model group, plasma concentration of CTnI peaked at 16 h following modeling (0.46±0.10 µg/ml) and significantly decreased following NOI. Plasma levels of TXB2, PGI2 and ET-1 peaked at 12, 16 and 8 h following modeling, respectively, and significantly decreased at different time points (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h) following NOI. A significant correlation was observed between the peak plasma CTnI concentration and peak TXB2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1α and ET-1 concentrations in the model and NOI groups. Conclusion: Increases in plasma TXA2, PGI2 and ET-1 levels causes myocardial damage in a rabbit model of AMPE; however, NOI effectively down regulates the plasma concentration of these molecules to produce a myocardial-protective effect.

Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Thromboxane A2/blood , Bronchodilator Agents/pharmacology , Epoprostenol/blood , Endothelin-1/blood , Troponin I/blood , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Administration, Inhalation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Random Allocation , Down-Regulation , Acute Disease , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(3): 395-403, July-Sep. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761966


Objective To describe and to characterize the relaxing effect of an extract of the bark of Combretum leprosum on isolated arterial rings from different animals.Methods Rings (3 to 4mm) from rabbit, rat, or porcine arteries rings were suspended in an organ bath (Krebs, 37°C, 95%O2/5%CO2) to record isometric contractions. After the stabilization period (2 to 3 hours) contractions were induced by the addition of phenylephrine (0.1 to 0.3µM) or U46619 (10 to 100nM), and Combretum leprosum extract was added on the plateau of the contractions. Experiments were performed to determine the potency, duration, reversibility, and to get insights on the potential mechanism involved in extract-induced relaxations.Results In all rings tested, Combretumleprosum extract (1.5μg/mL) was able to cause relaxations, which were strictly endothelium-dependent. In rabbit or rat thoracic aorta rings, the relaxations were reversed by vitamin B12a or L-NG-nitroarginine. In porcine right coronary arteries and rabbit abdominal aorta, extract caused both L-NG-nitroarginine-sensitive and L-NG-nitroarginine-resistant relaxations. In rabbit thoracic aorta, the extract was relatively potent (EC50=0.20µg/mL) and caused relaxations; intriguingly the endothelium continued to produce relaxing factors for a long period after removing the extract. The magnitude of extract-induced relaxations was significantly reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+; in addition, the TRPs channels blocker ruthenium red (10µM) was able to revert extract-induced relaxations. Phytochemical analyses indicated that the extract was rich in polyphenol-like reacting substances.ConclusionsCombretum leprosum extract contains bioactive compounds capable of promoting Ca2+-dependent stimulation of endothelial cells which results in a prolonged production of relaxing factors.

Objetivo Descrever e caracterizar os relaxamentos induzidos por um extrato das cascas de Combretum leprosum em anéis de artérias de diferentes espécies de animais.Métodos Anéis (3 a 4mm) de artérias de coelho, rato e porco foram montados em cubas para órgão isolado (Krebs, 37°C, 95%O2/5%CO2) para registro das contrações isométricas. Após um período de estabilização (2 a 3 horas), as contrações foram induzidas com fenilefrina (0,1 a 0,3µM) ou U46619 (10 a 100nM); no platô dessas contrações, adicionamos o extrato Combretum leprosum. Diferentes protocolos foram realizados para determinar potência, duração, reversibilidade e mecanismo dos relaxamentos induzidos pelo extrato.Resultados Em todas as preparações testadas, o extrato de Combretum leprosum (1,5µg/mL) provocou relaxamentos dependentes de endotélio. Em aorta torácica de coelho ou rato, os relaxamentos foram revertidos pela vitamina B12a ou L-NG-nitro-arginina. Em anéis de aorta abdominal de coelho e de artérias coronárias de porco, o extrato causou relaxamentos sensíveis e resistentes à L-NG-nitro-arginina. Em aorta torácica de coelho, o extrato foi relativamente muito potente (EC50=0,20μg/mL) e quando causou relaxamentos; intrigantemente o endotélio continuou a produzir fatores relaxantes por um longo período após remoção do extrato. A magnitude dos relaxamentos induzidos pelo extrato foi significativamente reduzida em ausência Ca2+ extracelular; ademais, o vermelho de rutênio (10μM), um bloqueador de canais TRPs, foi capaz de reverter os relaxamentos induzidos pelo extrato. Análises preliminares indicaram que o extrato continha compostos com reatividade química semelhante à polifenóis.Conclusão O extrato de Combretum leprosum contem compostos bioativos capazes de promover estimulação dependente de Ca2+ das células endoteliais a qual resulta numa produção prolongada de fatores relaxantes.

Animals , Female , Guinea Pigs , Male , Mice , Rabbits , Combretum/chemistry , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/pharmacology , Muscle Relaxation/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Aorta, Abdominal/drug effects , Aorta, Abdominal/physiology , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Aorta, Thoracic/physiology , Carotid Artery, Common/drug effects , Carotid Artery, Common/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/drug effects , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/physiology , Muscle Relaxation/physiology , Plant Bark/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Swine , Time Factors
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(4): 443-448, Oct-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731244


Eared doves (Zenaida auriculata), which are common in urban, rural and wild areas in many regions of Brazil, are frequently prey for domestic cats. Therefore Toxoplasma gondii isolates obtained from doves may reflect greater environmental diversity than those from other hosts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate T. gondii seroprevalence, isolate and genotype strains from Z. auriculata. Serum and tissue samples were collected from 206 doves for use in the modified agglutination test (MAT) and mouse bioassay. The prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in the doves was 22.3% (46/206), with titers ranging from 16 to 4096, and T. gondii strains were isolated from 12 of these doves. Five genotypes were detected by means of PCR-RFLP, including ToxoDB genotypes #1, #6, #17 and #65, and one genotype that had not previously been described (ToxoDB#182). This was the first report on isolation of T. gondii from Z. auriculata. This study confirmed the genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates and the existence of clonal type II (ToxoDB genotype #1) in Brazil.

Pombos silvestres (Zenaida auriculata), comuns em áreas urbanas, rurais e selvagens em muitas regiões do Brasil, são frequentemente predados por gatos domésticos. Sendo assim, os isolados de T. gondii obtidos de pombos podem refletir uma maior diversidade ambiental do que os outros hospedeiros. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a soroprevalência, isolar e genotipar T. gondii de Z. auriculata. Amostras de soro e tecido foram coletadas de 206 pombos para o teste de aglutinação modificado (MAT) e o bioensaio em camundongos. A prevalência de anticorpos contra T. gondii em pombos foi 22,3% (46/206), com títulos variando de 16 a 4096, e T. gondii foi isolado de 12 pombos. Cinco genótipos foram detectados por PCR-RFLP, incluindo os genótipos ToxoDB #1, #6, #17, #65 e um genótipo não descrito anteriormente (ToxoDB#182). Esse é o primeiro relato de isolamento de T. gondii de Z. auriculata. Este estudo também confirmou a diversidade dos isolados de T. gondii e a presença de tipo clonal II (ToxoDB #1) no Brasil.

Animals , Mice , Iron/metabolism , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Phagosomes/drug effects , Phagosomes/metabolism , Antigen-Antibody Complex/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Ferric Compounds/metabolism , Ferritins/metabolism , Mice, Knockout , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Nitric Oxide Synthase/deficiency , Nitric Oxide Synthase/genetics , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Transferrin/immunology , Transferrin/metabolism
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-8, 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950740


BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be important in sperm function, and the concentration of NO appears to determine these effects. Studies have demonstrated both positive and negative effects of NO on sperm function, but have not been able to provide a clear link between NO concentration and the extent of exposure to NO. To study the relationship between nitric oxide and sperm capacitationin vitro, and to provide a theoretical basis for the use of NO-related preparations in improving sperm motility for in vitro fertilization, we investigated the effects of NO concentration and time duration at these concentrations on in vitro sperm capacitation in both normal and abnormal sperm groups. We manipulated NO concentrations and the time duration of these concentrations using sodium nitroprusside (an NO donor) and NG-monomethyl-L-argenine (an NO synthase inhibitor). RESULTS: Compared to the normal sperm group, the abnormal sperm group had a longer basal time to reach the appropriate concentration of NO (p < 0.001), and the duration of time at this concentration was longer for the abnormal sperm group (p < 0.001). Both the basal time and the duration of time were significantly correlated with sperm viability and percentage of progressive sperm (p < 0.001). The experimental group had a significantly higher percentage of progressive sperm than the control group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that there is a certain regularity to both NO concentration and its duration of time in regards to sperm capacitation, and that an adequate duration of time at the appropriate NO concentration is beneficial to sperm motility.

Humans , Male , Adult , Sperm Capacitation/drug effects , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Time Factors , In Vitro Techniques , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Fertilization in Vitro/methods , Cell Survival , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , omega-N-Methylarginine/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/analysis
Salvador; s.n; 2013. 67 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-710713


A arginase é uma importante enzima envolvida no processo de desintoxicação, eliminando amônia via ciclo da ureia, hidrolisando a L-arginina à L-ornitina e ureia. L-ornitina pode ser metabolizada pela ornitina descarboxilase (ODC), dando origem a poliaminas, que são importantes para divisão e proliferação celular. A L. major usa esta via metabólica para proliferar dentro do macrófago durante a infecção. Por outro lado, a óxido nítrico sintase (NOS) oxida a L-arginina à citrulina e óxido nítrico, participando, desta forma, da eliminação do parasita. Estas enzimas podem ser moduladas na presença de citocinas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relação entre arginase e óxido nítrico durante a infecção experimental causada por L. braziliensis. No modelo cutâneo de infecção por L. braziliensis, camundongos BALB/c desenvolvem uma lesão que cura espontaneamente na décima semana após infecção. Os parasitas, no entanto, persistem no linfonodo de drenagem (LNd) até 6 meses após a infecção. Camundongos BALB/c foram infectados com L. braziliensis, na derme da orelha, e o desenvolvimento da lesão, a carga parasitária, a atividade da arginase e a produção de óxido nítrico (NO) foram avaliados, assim como a produção de citocinas. A atividade da arginase na orelha aumenta com o desenvolvimento da lesão e diminui com a cura da mesma. No LNd, a atividade da arginase foi detectada junto com a persistência do parasita. A presença de NO na orelha foi maior no pico de desenvolvimento da lesão, acompanhando a presença de IFN-g, no LNd. Com a cura da clínica, houve redução dos níveis de NO na orelha, acompanhado de aumento na produção de TGF-b no LNd. A inibição da arginase, utilizando Nor-NOHA, reduziu significativamente o tamanho da lesão e a carga parasitária na orelha e no LNd. Curiosamente, este efeito foi associado a uma maior produção de IL-4 e IL-10. Por outro lado, a suplementação com L-arginina, o substrato comum para as enzimas iNOS e arginase exacerbou o tamanho da lesão e elevou a carga parasitária. Nossos dados sugerem que a arginase está envolvida com a multiplicação de L. braziliensis, causando a lesão na orelha e, posteriormente, está envolvida com a persistência do parasita no LNd.

Animals , Mice , Arginase/toxicity , Arginase/therapeutic use , Infections/pathology , Leishmania braziliensis/parasitology , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology
Rev. mex. enferm. cardiol ; 20(1): 30-34, ene-abr.2012. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1035441


La instalación del equipo para terapia con óxido nítrico inhalado en paciente con asistencia mecánica ventilatoria es un conjunto de actividades que pretenden garantizar la administración segura y continua del óxido nítrico inhalado, con la finalidad de evitar o limitar los efectos secundarios derivados de esta terapia. Este procedimiento se encuentra dividido en tres etapas: la preparación del sistema de suministro del óxido nítrico, la conexión del sistema de inyección del gas y la instalación del monitoreo del suministro de gas; además es imprescindible tener presente las indicaciones, contraindicaciones, complicaciones y puntos importantes en todo el proceso de instalación del sistema.

Equipment installation for inhaled nitric oxide therapy in required mechanical ventilation patients is a set of activities that pretend to assure the safe and continual administration of inhaled nitric oxide in order to avoid or limit the secondary effects resulting from this therapy. This procedure is divided in three stages: the supply system preparation of the nitric oxide, the connection of the gas injection system and the monitoring gas supply installation; is essential, as well, keep in mind the indications, contraindications, complications and main points in all the system installation process

Humans , Critical Care , Therapeutics/nursing , Therapeutics , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/physiology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(4): 299-307, Apr. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622755


The anxiogenic and antinociceptive effects produced by glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation within the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) matter have been related to nitric oxide (NO) production, since injection of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors reverses these effects. dPAG corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRFr) activation also induces anxiety-like behavior and antinociception, which, in turn, are selectively blocked by local infusion of the CRF type 1 receptor (CRFr1) antagonist, NBI 27914 [5-chloro-4-(N-(cyclopropyl)methyl-N-propylamino)-2-methyl-6-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)aminopyridine]. Here, we determined whether i) the blockade of the dPAG by CRFr1 attenuates the anxiogenic/antinociceptive effects induced by local infusion of the NO donor, NOC-9 [6-(2-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-nitrosohydrazino)-N-methyl-1-hexanamine], and ii) the anxiogenic/antinociceptive effects induced by intra-dPAG CRF are prevented by local infusion of Nω-propyl-L-arginine (NPLA), a neuronal NOS inhibitor, in mice. Male Swiss mice (12 weeks old, 25-35 g, N = 8-14/group) were stereotaxically implanted with a 7-mm cannula aimed at the dPAG. Intra-dPAG NOC-9 (75 nmol) produced defensive-like behavior (jumping and running) and antinociception (assessed by the formalin test). Both effects were reversed by prior local infusion of NBI 27914 (2 nmol). Conversely, intra-dPAG NPLA (0.4 nmol) did not modify the anxiogenic/antinociceptive effects of CRF (150 pmol). These results suggest that CRFr1 plays an important role in the defensive behavior and antinociception produced by NO within the dPAG. In contrast, the anxiogenic and antinociceptive effects produced by intra-dPAG CRF are not related to NO synthesis in this limbic midbrain structure.

Animals , Male , Mice , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Nociception/drug effects , Periaqueductal Gray/drug effects , Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/antagonists & inhibitors , Triazenes/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Periaqueductal Gray/physiology , Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/drug effects , Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/physiology
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 48(1): 87-94, Jan.-Mar. 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622892


Dapsone use is frequently associated to hematological side effects such as methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia, which are related to N-hydroxylation mediated by the P450 enzyme system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of L-arginine supplementation, a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide, as single or multiple dose regimens on dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia. Male Wistar rats were treated with L-arginine at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 180 mg/kg doses (p.o., gavage) in single or multiple dose regimens 2 hours prior to dapsone administration (40 mg/kg, i.p.). The effect of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME was investigated by treatment with multiple doses of 30 mg/kg (p.o., gavage) 2 hours before dapsone administration. Blood samples were collected 2 hours after dapsone administration. Erythrocytic methemoglobin levels were assayed by spectrophotometry. The results showed that multiple dose supplementations with 5 and 15 mg/kg L-arginine reduced dapsone-induced methemoglobin levels. This effect is mediated by nitric oxide formation, since the reduction in methemoglobin levels by L-arginine is blocked by simultaneous administration with L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.

O uso da dapsona é frequentemente associado a efeitos adversos hematológicos, como a metemoglobinemia e anemia hemolítica, ambos relacionados com a N-hidroxilação mediada pelo sistema P450. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a influência da suplementação de L-arginina, um precursor da síntese de óxido nítrico, administrado em regime de dose única ou múltipla na metemoglobinemia induzida pela dapsona. Ratos machos Wistar foram tratados com L-arginina (po, gavagem) em dose única ou múltipla de 5, 15, 30, 60 e 180 mg/kg 2 horas antes da administração de dapsona (40 mg/kg, ip). O efeito do L-NAME, um inibidor de óxido nítrico sintase (NOS), foi avaliado através do tratamento com doses múltiplas de 30 mg/kg. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas duas horas após a administração de dapsona. A concentração de metemoglobina eritrocitária foi analisada por espectrofotometria. Os resultados mostraram que a suplementação em dose múltipla de 5 e 15 mg/kg de L-arginina reduziu os níveis de metemoglobina induzida pela dapsona. Este efeito é mediado pela formação de óxido nítrico, uma vez que a redução nos níveis de metemoglobina pela L-arginina é bloqueada pela administração simultânea de L-NAME, um inibidor da óxido nítrico sintase.

Rats , Arginine/analysis , Dapsone/adverse effects , Methemoglobinemia/classification , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Single Dose/classification
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(9): 947-957, Sept. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-599673


During three decades, an enormous number of studies have demonstrated the critical role of nitric oxide (NO) as a second messenger engaged in the activation of many systems including vascular smooth muscle relaxation. The underlying cellular mechanisms involved in vasodilatation are essentially due to soluble guanylyl-cyclase (sGC) modulation in the cytoplasm of vascular smooth cells. sGC activation culminates in cyclic GMP (cGMP) production, which in turn leads to protein kinase G (PKG) activation. NO binds to the sGC heme moiety, thereby activating this enzyme. Activation of the NO-sGC-cGMP-PKG pathway entails Ca2+ signaling reduction and vasodilatation. Endothelium dysfunction leads to decreased production or bioavailability of endogenous NO that could contribute to vascular diseases. Nitrosyl ruthenium complexes have been studied as a new class of NO donors with potential therapeutic use in order to supply the NO deficiency. In this context, this article shall provide a brief review of the effects exerted by the NO that is enzymatically produced via endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS) activation and by the NO released from NO donor compounds in the vascular smooth muscle cells on both conduit and resistance arteries, as well as veins. In addition, the involvement of the nitrite molecule as an endogenous NO reservoir engaged in vasodilatation will be described.

Animals , Humans , Rats , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Donors/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Ruthenium Compounds/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Hypertension/physiopathology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Vasodilation/physiology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(4): 332-336, Apr. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-581496


The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is the origin of ascending serotonergic projections and is considered to be an important component of the brain circuit that mediates anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. A large fraction of DRN serotonin-positive neurons contain nitric oxide (NO). Disruption of NO-mediated neurotransmission in the DRN by NO synthase inhibitors produces anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in rats and also induces nonspecific interference with locomotor activity. We investigated the involvement of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor in the locomotor effects induced by NO in the DRN of male Wistar rats (280-310 g, N = 9-10 per group). The NO donor 3-morpholinosylnomine hydrochloride (SIN-1, 150, and 300 nmol) and the NO scavenger S-3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycine (carboxy-PTIO, 0.1-3.0 nmol) were injected into the DRN of rats immediately before they were exposed to the open field for 10 min. To evaluate the involvement of the 5-HT1A receptor and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor in the locomotor effects of NO, animals were pretreated with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 8 nmol), the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist N-(2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl)-N-2-pyridinyl-cyclohexanecarboxamide maleate (WAY-100635, 0.37 nmol), and the NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP7, 1 nmol), followed by microinjection of SIN-1 into the DRN. SIN-1 increased the distance traveled (mean ± SEM) in the open-field test (4431 ± 306.1 cm; F7,63 = 2.44, P = 0.028) and this effect was blocked by previous 8-OH-DPAT (2885 ± 490.4 cm) or AP7 (3335 ± 283.5 cm) administration (P < 0.05, Duncan test). These results indicate that 5-HT1A receptor activation and/or facilitation of glutamate neurotransmission can modulate the locomotor effects induced by NO in the DRN.

Animals , Male , Rats , Molsidomine/analogs & derivatives , Motor Activity/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Raphe Nuclei/drug effects , /drug effects , /pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Glycine/pharmacology , Molsidomine/pharmacology , Motor Activity/physiology , Rats, Wistar
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2011; 35 (2): 106-113
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-117523


Anxiety is a psychological and physiological state characterized by somatic, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Anxiety is considered to be a normal reaction to stress, however excessive anxiety results in anxiety disorder. In this study, we investigated the possible interaction between nicotine and nitric oxide system of the dorsal hippocampus on anxiety-like behavior in mice. This experimental study was performed on 230 male NMRI mice. Mice were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride, plus xylazine and then placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. Two stainless-steel cannulae were placed in the CA1 region of hippocampus. Nicotine [0.5 mg/kg] was injected intraperitoneally; L-arginine [1 micro g/mouse] and L-NAME 50 ng/mouse was instilled in the cannulae; The elevated plus-maze test was used to test for anxiety-like behaviors. One-way analyses of variance [ANOVAs] followed by LSD test, were used for analysis of the data. Intraperitoneal injection of nicotine or bilateral intra-dorsal hippocampal injections of L-arginine and L-NAME induced anxiogenic effects, p<0.05, p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively. Intraperitoneal injection of lower dose of nicotine [0.1 mg/kg] before different doses of Larginine or L-NAME inhibited anxiogenic effects of L-arginine or L-NAME. It seems that both nitric oxide and nicotinic cholinergic systems play a part in the modulation of anxiety in the dorsal hippocampus of mouse; however the interaction between these two systems is complex

Animals, Laboratory , Nicotine/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Mice , Drug Interactions
Biol. Res ; 43(4): 467-473, 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-582862


Nitric oxide (NO*) is a gaseous mediator synthesized by Nitric oxide sinthases. NO* is involved in the modulation of inflammation, but its role in airway inflammation remains controversial. We investigated the role of NO* in the synthesis of the chemok Nes Interleukin-8 and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1, and of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 by human airway epithelial cells. normal human bronchial epithelial cells and the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B were used. Neterleukin-8 (IL-8) and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1) secretion and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression were measured by ELISA. mRNA was assessed by semiquantitative RTI-PCR. Neterleukin-8 secretion was significantly reduced after 24h incubation with the NO* donor, sodium nitroprusside. The effect was dose-dependent. Similar results were obta Ned with S-Nitroso-N-D,L-penicillam Ne and S-Nitroso-L-glutathione. Inhibition of endogenous NO* with the Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arg N Ne-methyl-esther caused an increase in IL-8 secretion by lypopolisaccharide- and cytok Ne-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. Sodium nitroprusside also caused a reduction in Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 secretion by both cell types. In contrast, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 expression was upregulated by sodium NItroprusside. RTI-PCR results indícate that the modulation of protein levels was paralleled by modification in mRNA levels. NO* has divergent effects on the synthesis of different inflammatory mediators in human bronchial epithelial cells.

Humans , /biosynthesis , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/biosynthesis , /biosynthesis , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Bronchi/cytology , Cells, Cultured , /analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/analysis , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , /analysis , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors
Benha Medical Journal. 2009; 26 (2): 187-206
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-112056


The aim of the present work was to study whether age alters the constrictor responses evoked by the sympathetic transmitter Noradrenaline in the carotid circulation in the rat. Another aim was to test whether age changes the influence of tonically synthetised nitric oxide [NO] on arterial blood pressure [ABP] and on carotid circulation. Further, to investigate the effect of NO synthesis inhibition on carotid vascular responses euoted by noradrenaline in three age groups of rats. In anaesthetised rats aged 4-5, 10-12 and 42-44 weeks [young, mature, middle-aged respectively], carotid blood flow [CBF] and carotid vascular conductance [CVC] were recorded during infusion of noradrenaline [2.5/micro[-1]], before and after a bolus dose of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME [[-1]]. In mature and middle-aged rats, noradrenaline infusion increased mean ABP to 180mmHg, but only to 150mmHg in young rats. Concomitantly, CVC decreased more in mature and middle-aged, than in young rats: CBF remained constant in young, but decreased in mature and middle-aged rats. NO synthase inhibition produced similar increases in baseline ABP in all groups, but decreased CVC and CBF more in mature and middle-aged rats. Following NO inhibition, noradrenaline infusion increased ABP to similar levels as before in young and mature rats, but to higher levels in middle-aged rats. Further, CVC fell in young and mature, but not in middle-aged rats, in whom CBF increased with ABP.Thus, in young rats there was a weak noradrenaline-evoked pressor response and decrease in CVC. By contrast, in mature and middle-aged rats, noradrenaline evoked a strong pressor response and decrease in CVC. In young and mature rats, NO seems not to limit the noradrenaline-evoked increases in ABP or decreases in CVC. However, by middle age NO limits noradrenaline-evoked pressor response and prevents breakthrough of CBF Autoregulation. The three age groups showed good autoregulatory response of carotid circulation during a pressor response induced by noradrenaline. However, the constrictor responses evoked by noradrenaline is weak in youngs before the age of sexual maturity. On the other hand, by middle-age and well before old age, the constrictor influences of noradrenaline in carotid circulation have begun to weaken. Moreover, by middle age, the dilator influence of NO helps to prevent breakthrough of Autoregulation of CBF at the upper end of the range

Animals, Laboratory , Blood Flow Velocity , Norepinephrine/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Arginine/pharmacology , Age Factors , Rats , Blood Pressure , Heart Rate , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 68(3): 243-250, mayo-jun. 2008. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-633547


La incidencia de la obesidad y de la resistencia a la insulina con sus complicaciones asociadas, como la hipertensión arterial y el aumento de la morbi-mortalidad cardiovascular, alcanzan hoy en día proporciones epidémicas y representan un problema mayor de salud pública. En los últimos años se ha demostrado que la administración de insulina, además de sus efectos metabólicos, posee efectos cardiovasculares importantes. El sistema nervioso simpático y el sistema L-arginina - óxido nítrico son los mediadores centrales de estas acciones cardiovasculares de la insulina. Mostramos, gracias a estudios realizados en animales y en humanos, que no sólo un déficit de la síntesis del óxido nítrico (NO), sino también un aumento exagerado en su producción representan un defecto subyacente central de las anomalías metabólicas, cardiovasculares y del sistema nervioso simpático que caracterizan a la insulino resistencia. Mostramos cómo estos resultados establecen el fundamento científico para la utilización de sustancias farmacológicas capaces de liberar de manera prolongada cantidades fisiológicas de NO o de inhibidores de su sobreproducción como futuros tratamientos para la resistencia a la insulina y sus complicaciones asociadas.

Obesity, insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular complications are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and represent a major public health problem. Over the past decade, evidence has accumulated indicating that insulin administration, in addition to its metabolic effects, also has important cardiovascular actions. The sympathetic nervous system and the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway are the central players in the mediation of insulin's cardiovascular actions. Based on recent animal and human research, we demonstrate that both defective and augmented NO synthesis represent a central defect triggering many of the metabolic, vascular and sympathetic abnormalities characteristic of insulin-resistant states. These observations provide the rationale for the use of pharmaceutical drugs releasing small and physiological amounts of NO and/or inhibitors of NO overproduction as a future treatment for insulin resistance and associated comorbidities.

Animals , Humans , Rats , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Insulin/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Sympathetic Nervous System/drug effects , Biological Availability , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Homeostasis , Hypertension/etiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Nitric Oxide Donors/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/deficiency , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiopathology
Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences. 2008; 10 (1): 5-11
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-87846


Many evidence indicated that action of glucocorticoid receptors can modulate anxiety behaviors and these effects probably mediated by nitric oxide [NO] system. Thus, in this study, we investigated interaction between corticosterone and NO on anxiety behaviors in mice in elevated plus maze [EPM]. In this experimental study male albino mice [25-30 g] were used. A standard EPM was used to determine anxiety behaviors. Two behavioral measures were used that include of the percentage of time spent in the open arms and the ratio of open arm entries to total entries during 5 min. Animals received IP injection of L-Name 30 mg/kg as an inhibitor or L-Arginine 50 mg/kg as a synthesis of NO or saline 60 min and corticosterone [1, 2.5, 5 mg/kg] 30 min before of evaluation. Analysis of data indicated that corticosterone at doses of 1 and 2.5, but not 5 mg/kg significantly reduced anxiety behavior in mice [P < 0.05]. Also pretreatment of L-Name potentiate but injection of L-Arginine had inhibition of corticosterone effects [P < 0.05]. This study revealed that glucocorticoid induces anxiolytic effects and these effects probably potentiate by NO inhibitor and reduced by NO synthesis. Therefore, it seems that there are interaction between of glucocorticoid and NO system for control of anxiety behaviors

Male , Animals, Laboratory , Anxiety/physiology , Mice , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-42700


BACKGROUND: A previous study demonstrated that supra-therapeutic concentration of sildenafil citrate attenuates defibrillation efficacy. However, the effect of combined sildenafil and NTG administration on defibrillation efficacy is not known. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated whether sildenafil administration at the therapeutic level increases the defibrillation threshold (DFT) when combined with NTG. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Twenty-four pigs (20-25 kg) were randomized into four groups. After the control DFT was obtained, a stock solution of 50-mg (group 1, therapeutic concentration) and 100-mg (group 2, supratherapeutic concentration) of sildenafil, and 100-mL of saline (groups 3 and 4) were infused at 2 mL/min. Then, NTG was administered in groups 1-3 at 5 microg/min, with an increment of 5 microg/min every 5 min. The DFT was determined again after NTG was infused for 20 minutes. RESULTS: In group 1, the DFT (402 +/- 33V, 11 +/- 2J) was not different from the control (404 +/- 28V, 11 +/- 2J). In group 2, the DFT (521 +/- 18V, 19 +/- 1J) was higher (p < 0.004) than that in the control group (444 +/- 31V, 14 +/- 2J). Saline did not alter the DFT either individually or in combination with NTG. CONCLUSION: Supratherapeutic dose of sildenafil-NTG combination significantly increased the DFT (17% of peak voltage, 37% of total energy). This effect on DFT appears to be driven by sildenafil and not NTG.

Animals , Electric Countershock , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Myocardium , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Nitroglycerin/pharmacology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Piperazines/pharmacology , Purines/pharmacology , Sulfones/pharmacology , Swine , Ventricular Fibrillation/physiopathology
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-87279


Insulin Resistance along with endothelial dysfunction give rise to a constellation of syndromes designated as IRS/MBS metabolic syndrome. Endothelial dysfunction starts early in life much before the development of structural atherosclerosis. Recent insights into vascular biology enable us to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction, and the scope and need for prevention of "pre-clinical" coronary atherosclerosis through lifestyle modification; diet, exercise and stress management. Diminished production of nitric oxide (NO) and/or increased inactivation of NO through oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are the basis of endothelial dysfunction hence increasing the bioavailability of NO and decreasing its inactivation is the aim of prevention and reversal of endothelial dysfunction. Insulin regulates constitutive NOS gene expression in endothelial cells in vivo; vasodilation is an important component of Insulin-stimulated whole body glucose uptake. Successful strategies are: PPAR alpha and gamma agonists which increase NO production in endothelium; anti-oxidants such as vit. E and C; supplementation with L-arginine, tetrahydrobiopterin-BH4 or sepiapterin (precursor of BH4), SOD mimetic tempol, statins which apart from lowering cholesterol improve NO production, selective beta1 adrenoreceptor antagonists such as nebivolol; suppression of angiotensin-mediated endothelin production by ACE inhibitors and ATR blockers; CB1 receptor blockers, PKCb inhibitors, nitric oxide donors (glyceryl trinitrate and isosorbide dinitrate), dietary supplements of EPA/DHA and regular physical exercise and control of mental stress.

Biological Availability , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Endothelium/physiopathology , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Life Style , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Stress, Psychological , Vascular Diseases/etiology
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 25(3): 259-266, oct.-dic. 2006. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-451689


Antecedentes: Uno de los efectos pleiotrópicos de las estatinas es su capacidad de inducir relajación vascular tanto in Vitro como in Vivo cuando son administradas crónicamente, pero el efecto agudo en los vasos no ha sido estudiado en detalle. Objetivos: Evaluar los efectos agudos de las estatinas en la relajación vascular in vitro mediada por acetilcolina (ACh) y nitroprusiato en vasos usados en revascularización coronaria. Método: Se analizaron segmentos de vasos obtenidos de pacientes programados para cirugía de revascularización coronaria. Cada segmento de arteria radial, mamaria y vena safena fue dividido en dos, uno de ellos incubado durante dos horas con estatinas y el otro con solución buffer. Luego, se contrajo cada vaso con 80 mM de KCl y posteriormente con 10-4 M de noradrenalina seguido de administración de dosis acumulativas de ACh para inducir la relajación del vaso. Después de lavados repetidos, se contrae con la misma dosis de noradrenalina y se relaja con dosis creciente de nitroprusiato (NP). Resultados: La administración de KCl produjo una mayor contracción, aunque no significativa, en arterias radiales en relacióna los otros vasos, tanto en los incubados con estatinas como el grupo control. La noradrenalina produjo una mayor contracción no significativa en venas safenas; sin embargo no hubo diferencias entre los segmentos incubados con y sin estatinas. La vasodilatación por acetilcolina no se vio afectada por estatinas. La vasodilatación inducida por nitroprusiato no se modificó en presencia de estatinas en arterias radiales o mamaria. Sin embargo el tratamiento con estatina disminuyó significativamente la relajación inducida por nitroprusiato en la vena safena (p<0,05). Conclusión: Los resultados de este trabajo demuestran una respuesta diferencial de los vasos usados en revascularización coronaria frente al efecto agudo de estatina.

Male , Adult , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Myocardial Revascularization , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Vasodilation , Saphenous Vein , Analysis of Variance , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Norepinephrine/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Saphenous Vein/physiology