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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253948, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355909

ABSTRACT

Abstract The assessment of the comparative effect of biosal (phytopesticide), deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin (pyrethroids) were made against two fodder pests, Hermolaus modestus and Hermolaus ocimumi by filter paper impregnation method. The activity of total protein contents, GPT (glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) and GOT (glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase) were affected in Hermolaus modestus and Hermolaus ocimumi against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda cyhalothrin. The activity of total protein contents in H. modestus was 31.053%, 4.607%, and 24.575%, against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The activity of total protein contents was observed as 24.202%, 15.25%, and 56.036% against deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and biosal, respectively in H. ocimumi. The activity of GOT was observed as 98.675% for biosal 33.95% for deltamethrin and 83.619% for lambda-cyhalothrin in H. modestus. The GOT activity was estimated in H. ocimumi as 78.831%, 47.645%, and 71.287% against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The efficacy of GPT enzyme against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin was calculated as 89.26%, 73.07%, and 47.58%, respectively in H. modestus. The H. ocimumi showed GPT activity as 77.58% for biosal, 68.84% for deltamethrin, and 52.67% for lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively.


Resumo A avaliação do efeito comparativo do biosal (fitopesticida), deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina (piretróides) foi feita contra duas pragas forrageiras, Hermolaus modestus e Hermolaus ocimumi, pelo método de impregnação com papel de filtro. A atividade do conteúdo de proteína total, GPT (transaminase glutâmico-pirúvica) e GOT (oxaloacetato transaminase glutâmico) foram afetados em Hermolaus modestus e Hermolaus ocimumi contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda cialotrina. A atividade do conteúdo de proteína total em H. modestus foi 31.053%, 4.607% e 24.575%, contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina, respectivamente. A atividade do conteúdo de proteína total foi observada como 24.202%, 15.25% e 56,036% contra deltametrina, lambda-cialotrina e biosal, respectivamente em H. ocimumi. A atividade do GOT foi observada em 98.675% para o biosal, 33,95% para a deltametrina e 83.619% para a lambda-cialotrina em H. modestus. A atividade do GOT foi estimada em H. ocimumi como 78.831%, 47.645% e 71.287% contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina, respectivamente. A eficácia da enzima GPT contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina foi calculada como 89.26%, 73.07% e 47.58%, respectivamente em H. modestus. A H. ocimumi apresentou atividade GPT de 77.58% para biosal, 68.84% para deltametrina e 52.67% para lambda-cialotrina, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pyrethrins , Insecticides , Heteroptera , Alanine Transaminase , Animal Feed , Nitriles
2.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 1068-1079, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010829

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has stimulated tremendous efforts to develop therapeutic agents that target severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 to control viral infection. So far, a few small-molecule antiviral drugs, including nirmatrelvir-ritonavir (Paxlovid), remdesivir, and molnupiravir have been marketed for the treatment of COVID-19. Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir has been recommended by the World Health Organization as an early treatment for outpatients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. However, the existing treatment options have limitations, and effective treatment strategies that are cost-effective and convenient for tackling COVID-19 are still needed. To date, four domestically developed oral anti-COVID-19 drugs have been granted conditional market approval in China. These drugs include azvudine, simnotrelvir-ritonavir (Xiannuoxin), leritrelvir, and mindeudesivir (VV116). Preclinical and clinical studies have explored the efficacy and tolerability of mindeudesivir and supported its early use in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 cases at high risk for progression. In this review, we discuss the most recent findings regarding the pharmacological mechanism and therapeutic effects focusing on mindeudesivir and other small-molecule antiviral agents for COVID-19. These findings will expand our understanding and highlight the potential widespread application of China's homegrown anti-COVID-19 drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China , Nitriles , Lactams , Proline , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Leucine
3.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 687-694, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009793

ABSTRACT

Recent studies revealed the relationship among homologous recombination repair (HRR), androgen receptor (AR), and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP); however, the synergy between anti-androgen enzalutamide (ENZ) and PARP inhibitor olaparib (OLA) remains unclear. Here, we showed that the synergistic effect of ENZ and OLA significantly reduced proliferation and induced apoptosis in AR-positive prostate cancer cell lines. Next-generation sequencing followed by Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed the significant effects of ENZ plus OLA on nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and apoptosis pathways. ENZ combined with OLA synergistically inhibited the NHEJ pathway by repressing DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and X-ray repair cross complementing 4 (XRCC4). Moreover, our data showed that ENZ could enhance the response of prostate cancer cells to the combination therapy by reversing the anti-apoptotic effect of OLA through the downregulation of anti-apoptotic gene insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor ( IGF1R ) and the upregulation of pro-apoptotic gene death-associated protein kinase 1 ( DAPK1 ). Collectively, our results suggested that ENZ combined with OLA can promote prostate cancer cell apoptosis by multiple pathways other than inducing HRR defects, providing evidence for the combined use of ENZ and OLA in prostate cancer regardless of HRR gene mutation status.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/genetics , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Receptors, Androgen/genetics , Nitriles , Apoptosis
4.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 225-227, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970743

ABSTRACT

Esfenvalerate is a kind of commonly used highly effective pyrethroid insecticide. It is common for people who are poisoned by contact or misuse, but rarely reported for people who are poisoned by intramuscular injection. This paper reports a case of intramuscular injection of esfenvalerate in the Department of Infection, West China Hospital of Sichuan University in November 2021. The patient was intramuscularly injected with about 20 ml of esfenvalerate, inducing the sense of swelling and tingling, degeneration and necrosis of striated muscle tissue at the injection site, also liver function damage and other manifestations. The patient was discharged from hospital after rehydration, accelerating poison metabolism, anti-infection, liver protection and local puncture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insecticides , Injections, Intramuscular , Pyrethrins , Nitriles/metabolism
5.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 323-329, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935089

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the effect of gene mutations on the efficacy of ruxolitinib for treating myelofibrosis (MF) . Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 56 patients with MF treated with ruxolitinib from July 2017 to December 2020 and applied second-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to detect 127 hematologic tumor-related gene mutations. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship between mutated genes and the efficacy of ruxolitinib. Results: ①Among the 56 patients, there were 36 cases of primary bone marrow fibrosis (PMF) , 9 cases of bone marrow fibrosis (ppv-mf) after polycythemia vera, and 11 cases of bone marrow fibrosis (PET-MF) after primary thrombocytosis (ET) . ②Fifty-six patients with MF taking ruxolitinib underwent NGS, among whom, 50 (89.29%) carried driver mutations, 22 (39.29%) carried ≥3 mutations, and 29 (51.79%) carried high-risk mutations (HMR) . ③ For patients with MF carrying ≥ 3 mutations, ruxolitinib still had a better effect of improving somatic symptoms and shrinking the spleen (P=0.001, P<0.001) , but TTF and PFS were significantly shorter in patients carrying ≥ 3 mutations (P=0.007, P=0.042) . ④For patients carrying ≥ 2 HMR mutations, ruxolitinib was less effective in shrinking the spleen than in those who did not carry HMR (t= 10.471, P=0.034) , and the TTF and PFS were significantly shorter in patients carrying ≥2 HMR mutations (P<0.001, P=0.001) . ⑤Ruxolitinib had poorer effects on spleen reduction, symptom improvement, and stabilization of myelofibrosis in patients carrying additional mutations in ASXL1, EZH2, and SRSF2. Moreover, patients carrying ASXL1 and EZH2 mutations had significantly shorter TTF [ASXL1: 360 (55-1270) d vs 440 (55-1268) d, z=-3.115, P=0.002; EZH2: 327 (55-975) d vs 404 (50-1270) d, z=-3.219, P=0.001], and significantly shorter PFS compared to non-carriers [ASXL1: 457 (50-1331) d vs 574 (55-1437) d, z=-3.219, P=0.001) ; 428 (55-1331) d vs 505 (55-1437) d, z=-2.576, P=0.008]. Conclusion: The type and number of mutations carried by patients with myelofibrosis and HMR impact the efficacy of ruxolitinib.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mutation , Nitriles , Primary Myelofibrosis/genetics , Pyrazoles , Pyrimidines , Retrospective Studies , Technology , Transcription Factors/genetics
6.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 276-285, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928706

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the kinetic characteristics of lymphocyte subsets and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) in patients who newly diagnosed intermediate- to high-risk aGVHD and treated with steroids-ruxolitinib as the first line therapy from a single-arm, open clinical trial (NCT04061876).@*METHODS@#We prospectively observed the efficacy of 23 patients having intermediate- to high-risk aGVHD and treated with steroids-ruxolitinib as the first line therapy. The kinetic characteristics of lymphocyte subsets and MDSC were monitored, and then we compared them in steroids-ruxolitinib group (n=23), free-aGVHD group (n=20) and steroids group (n=23).@*RESULTS@#Of the 23 patients, the CR rate was 78.26% (18/23) on day 28 after first-line treatment with steroids-ruxolitinib. On day 28 after treatment, patients had lower level of CD4+CD29+ T cells (P=0.08) than that of pre-treatment, whereas levels of other lymphocyte subsets in this study were higher than that of pre-treatment; CD4+CD29+ T cells in CR patients decreased, compared with refractory aGVHD patients. On day 28 of treatment, CD8+CD28- T cells (P=0.03) significantly increased in patients with aGVHD than that in patients without aGVHD, so did CD8+CD28- T / CD8+CD28+ T cell ratio (P=0.03). Compared with patients without aGVHD, patients with aGVHD had lower level of G-MDSC, especially on day 14 after allo-HSCT (P=0.04). Compared with pre-treatment, M-MDSC was higher in CR patients on day 3 and 7 post-treatment (P3=0.01, P7=0.03), e-MDSC was higher on day 28 post-treatment (P=0.01). Moreover, compared with CR patients, M-MDSC was lower in refractory aGVHD patients on day 3 post-treatment (P=0.01) and e-MDSC was lower on day 28 post-treatment (P=0.01). Compared with steroids group, MDSC in steroids-ruxolitinib group was higher, with the most significant difference in M-MDSC (P3=0.0351; P7=0.0142; P14=0.0369).@*CONCLUSION@#We found that patients newly diagnosed intermediate- to high-risk aGVHD receiving first-line therapy with steroids-ruxolitinib achieved high response rate. Moreover, the novel first-line therapy has a small impact on the immune reconstitution of patients after allo-HSCT. Elevated MDSC might predict a better response in aGVHD patients receiving this novel first-line therapy. M-MDSC responded earlier to steroids-ruxolitinib than e-MDSC, G-MDSC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Kinetics , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells , Nitriles , Pyrazoles , Pyrimidines , Retrospective Studies , Steroids
7.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 296-299, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935796

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a method for the determination of butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile in the air of workplace by gas chromatography. Methods: In March 2020, butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile in the air of workplace was collected by silica gel, eluted with methanol, separated and determined by gas chromatogram with flame ionization detector, the characteristics of determination of nitrile and isobutyronitrile by gas chromatography were analyzed. Results: The limit of detection for butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile was 0.33 μg/ml. The linear range of butyronitrile determined by this method was 1.60-1600.00 μg/ml, y=2.295x-3.480, and the coefficient correlation was 0.99998, and the minimum detection concentration was 0.22 mg/m(3) (collected sample volume was 1.50 L) . The within-run precisions were 2.43%-4.12%, the between-run precisions were 1.72%-3.70%, and the desorption rates were 93.26%-98.41%. The linear range of isobutyronitrile determined by this method was 1.52-1520.00 μg/ml, y=2.208x-0.102, and the coefficient correlation was 0.99998, and the minimum detection concentration was 0.22 mg/m(3) (collected sample volume was 1.50 L) . The within-run precisions were 2.52%-3.22%, the between-run precisions were 1.20%-3.82%, and the desorption rates were 96.85%-102.50%. The sealed samples could be stored at least 10 days at room temperature without significant loss. Conclusion: The method has the advantages of good precision, high sensitivity and simple operation. It is suitable for the simultaneous determination of butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile in the air of workplace.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Nitriles , Workplace
8.
Salud pública Méx ; 62(4): 402-409, jul.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377331

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: The feasibility of the use of WHO impregnated paper and biochemical assays to determine lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC99) and insecticide metabolic enzyme levels of Triatoma dimidiata. Materials and methods: LC50 and LC99 were calculated with WHO papers impregnated at different concentrations of malathion, propoxur and deltamethrin; the percentage of insensitive acetylcholinesterase (iAChE); and the levels of esterases, glutathione S-transferases, and monooxygenases in laboratory nymphs of the first stage (5 to 7 days), were undertaken using the WHO biochemical assays. Results: Respectively the LC50 and LC99 µg/cm2 obtained for malathion were 43.83 and 114.38, propoxur 4.71 and 19.29, and deltamethrin 5.80 and 40.46. A 30% of the population had an iAChE, and only a few individuals had high P450 and β-eterase levels. Conclusion: Impregnated papers and biochemical tests developed by WHO for other insects, proved to be feasible methods in monitoring insecticide resistance and metabolic enzymes involved in T. dimidiata.


Resumen: Objetivo: La factibilidad de usar los papeles impregnados y ensayos bioquímicos según la OMS para determinar concentraciones letales (CL50 y CL99) y niveles enzimáticos en la resistencia a insecticidas en Triatoma dimidiata. Material y métodos: Se calcularon la CL50 y CL99 con papeles impregnados según la OMS a diferentes concentraciones de malatión, propoxur y deltametrina; el porcentaje de acetilcolinesterasa insensible (iAChE); y los niveles de esterasas, glutatión S-transferasas, y monooxigenasas en ninfas de laboratorio del estadio I (5-7 días) se determinaron usando los ensayos bioquímicos según la OMS. Resultados: Se obtuvieron las CL50 y CL99 µg / cm2 respectivamente para malatión 43.83 y 114.38, propoxur 4.71 y 19.29, y deltametrina 5.80 y 40.46. Un 30% de las chinches tuvo iAChE, y sólo pocos individuos tuvieron niveles superiores de P450 y β-eterasas. Conclusión: Los papeles impregnados y ensayos bioquímicos que describe la OMS para otros insectos demostraron ser métodos factibles para monitorear la resistencia a insecticidas y las enzimas metabólicas involucradas en T. dimidiata.


Subject(s)
Animals , Propoxur/toxicity , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Triatoma/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides/toxicity , Malathion/toxicity , Nitriles/toxicity , Acetylcholinesterase/analysis , Triatoma/enzymology , World Health Organization , Feasibility Studies , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/analysis , Esterases/analysis , Glutathione Transferase/analysis , Mixed Function Oxygenases/analysis , Lethal Dose 50 , Nymph/drug effects , Nymph/enzymology
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200680, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1143869

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The use of insecticide-impregnated dog collars is a potentially useful tool for the control of visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of the present study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of a program based on insecticide-impregnated collars compared to traditional visceral leishmaniasis control strategies used in Brazil. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the perspective of the Unified Health System, using data from the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control Program implemented in the municipality of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais. The direct costs of the three control strategies, which were 1) canine infection screening + sacrifice, 2) residual chemical control of the vector, and 3) insecticide-impregnated dog collars (Scalibor®), were evaluated over the two-year study period. RESULTS: The total cost of the program in the area subjected to the traditional control strategies (strategies 1 and 2; control area) was R$ 1,551,699.80, and in the area subjected to all three control strategies (intervention area), it was R$ 1,898,190.16. The collar program was considered highly cost-effective at preventing canine visceral leishmaniasis (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of approximately R$ 578 per avoided dog sacrifice). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide support for the decision by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2019 to provide insecticide-impregnated collars for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis in a pilot project.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Pyrethrins , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Insecticides , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil , Pilot Projects , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Nitriles
10.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 1003-1007, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012115

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effects and molecular mechanism of the selective JAK1inhibitor SHR0302 and Ruxolitinib on myeloproliterative neoplasms (MPN) cell line SET2 and primary cells in vitro. Methods: Cell proliferation was detected by CCK8 kit. Colony forming experiment was conducted to evaluate erythroid burst colony formation unit (BFU-E) of primary cells from MPN patients. Multi-factor kits were used to detect six inflammatory cytokines. Phosphorylated proteins of Jak-Stat signaling pathway were tested by Western blot. Results: At different time points after treated with SHR0302 and Ruxolitinib, the inhibition of cell proliferation was dose dependent by both drugs (P<0.01) . The inhibitory rates of 2.5 μmol/L SHR0302 and 0.1 μmol/L Ruxolitinib on SET2 cells for 72 h were comparable, i.e. (59.94±0.60) % and (64.00±0.66) %, respectively, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of SHR0302 was weaker than that of Ruxolitinib. Similarly, both SHR0302 and Ruxolitinib inhibited BFU-E in primary marrow cells from MPN patients in a dose-dependent manner. SHR0302 1.0 μmol/L produced similar degree of inhibition compared to Ruxolitinib 0.2 μmol/L. Except IL-12, the expression of other 5 cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-8) was significantly inhibited by 1.6 μmol/L SHR0302 in SET2 cells at 24 h (P<0.01) , while Ruxolitinib 1.0 μmol/L had the same effect. Several phosphorylated molecules of Jak-Stat signaling pathway were significantly inhibited by SHR0302 in SET2 cells only for 3 h. P-stat1 (Tyr701) , p-stat3 (Tyr705) were down-regulated when treated with SHR0302 1.0 μmol/L (P<0.05) , p-jak1 (tyr1022/1023) and p-stat5 (Tyr694) were inhibited at 5.0 μmol/L (P<0.05) . Ruxolitinib significantly inhibited the downstream STAT protein at 0.1 μmol/L. Again, the inhibitory effect of SHR0302 on protein expression was weaker than that of Ruxolitinib. Conclusion: SHR0302 can effectively inhibit the proliferation of MPN cell line and patients' primary cells, as well as the expression of inflammatory factors. The molecular mechanism is possibly related to the down-regulation of phosphorylated proteins of Jak-Stat signaling pathway. Overall, the anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of SHR0302 are weaker than those of Ruxolitinib.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase , Janus Kinase 1 , Nitriles , Pyrazoles , Pyrimidines , Sulfuric Acids
11.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 24-28, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011921

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of ruxolitinib combined with prednisone, thalidomide and danazol for treatment of in myelofibrosis (MF). Methods: Patients of MF according to the WHO 2016 criteria, received ruxolitinib (RUX) combined with prednisone, thalidomide and danazol (PTD). The response, changes of blood counts and adverse events were evaluated. Results: Six PMF and one post-ET MF patients were enrolled. Four patients presented JAK2V617F mutation, one CALR mutation, one MPL mutation, one triple-negative. Responses per IWG-MRT criteria were clinical improvement in 5 patients, stable disease in 2 ones, spleen response in 6 ones. All of 7 patients were symptomatic responses, four patients achieved at least 50% improvement from baseline on MPN-SAF TSS. Three patients initially treated with RUX alone, all of 3 patients experienced treatment-associated anemia and thrombocytopenia. Then these 3 patients received RUX combined with PTD, both hemoglobin and platelet increased significantly. Four patients initially treated with RUX combined with PTD. Increased levels of hemoglobin and platelet were seen in all of 7 patients received RUX combined with PTD with maximum increased hemoglobin of 30(18-54) g/L and maximum increased platelets of 116(13-369)×10(9)/L, respectively from baseline. The treatment dose of RUX increased due to improved platelet count in 3 patients. The frequent non-hematologic adverse events grade 1-2 were constipation, abdominal distension, crura edema and increased ALT. Conclusions: RUX combined with PTD for treatment of MF may modulate initial hematologic toxicity observed when RUX alone, and may increase response due to improved levels of hemoglobin or platelet.


Subject(s)
Humans , Danazol , Drug Combinations , Nitriles , Pilot Projects , Prednisone , Primary Myelofibrosis/drug therapy , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines , Thalidomide/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
12.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 39-39, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) testing is a strong tool that enables objective determination of balance functions in humans. However, it remains unknown whether cVEMP correctly expresses vestibular disorder in mice.@*OBJECTIVE@#In this study, correlations of cVEMP with scores for balance-related behavior tests including rotarod, beam, and air-righting reflex tests were determined in ICR mice with vestibular disorder induced by 3,3'-iminodipropiontrile (IDPN) as a mouse model of vestibular disorder.@*METHODS@#Male ICR mice at 4 weeks of age were orally administered IDPN in saline (28 mmol/kg body weight) once. Rotarod, beam crossing, and air-righting reflex tests were performed before and 3-4 days after oral exposure one time to IDPN to determine balance functions. The saccule and utricles were labeled with fluorescein phalloidin. cVEMP measurements were performed for mice in the control and IDPN groups. Finally, the correlations between the scores of behavior tests and the amplitude or latency of cVEMP were determined with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Two-tailed Student's t test and Welch's t test were used to determine a significant difference between the two groups. A difference with p < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.@*RESULTS@#After oral administration of IDPN at 28 mmol/kg, scores of the rotarod, beam, and air-righting reflex tests in the IDPN group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The numbers of hair cells in the saccule, utricle, and cupula were decreased in the IDPN group. cVEMP in the IDPN group was significantly decreased in amplitude and increased in latency compared to those in the control group. cVEMP amplitude had significant correlations with the numbers of hair cells as well as scores for all of the behavior tests in mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study demonstrated impaired cVEMP and correlations of cVEMP with imbalance determined by behavior tests in a mouse model of vestibular disorder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Behavior, Animal , Physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Hair Cells, Vestibular , Pathology , Mice, Inbred ICR , Nitriles , Postural Balance , Physiology , Saccule and Utricle , Pathology , Sensation Disorders , Vestibular Diseases , Diagnosis , Pathology , Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials , Physiology , Vestibular Function Tests
13.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 107-108, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009673

ABSTRACT

PROSPER is an international Phase III trial demonstrating the beneficial role of enzalutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist, in prolonging metastasis-free survival in men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The trial showed that the median metastasis-free survival was 21.9 months longer for those treated with enzalutamide (36.6 months) compared to those treated with placebo (14.7 months). Enzalutamide also showed prolonged time to PSA progression, PSA response, and time to initiating additional antineoplastic therapy although overall survival is not yet reached. Enzalutamide is the second antiandrogen (next to apalutamide) that has gained the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) label indication for use in the setting of nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzamides , Nitriles , Phenylthiohydantoin/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/drug therapy
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 345-357, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893233

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: An alternative superovulator to replace clomiphene citrate is needed as clomiphene citrate is associated with low pregnancy rates. Anastrozole is an effective superovulator, but it has not been well researched. In order to determine the effectiveness of anastrozole as a superovulator and to compare it with clomiphene citrate in similar situations, this study ascertained the effects of these drugs on the expression of the focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and integrin β5, which are uterine receptivity markers, in the uterine epithelial cells of day 1 and day 6 pregnant Wistar rats. The results show that vinculin and integrin β5 are co-localized at the base of the uterine epithelium at day 1 of pregnancy whereas at day 6, they disassemble from the basal focal adhesions and co-localize and significantly increase their expression apically (p≤0.0001). Moreover, there is a significant difference in the protein expression levels of vinculin and integrin b5 in uterine luminal epithelial cells between untreated (control) and chlomiphene citrate treated rats (p≤0.0001), anastrozole and chlomiphene citrate treated rats at day 6 (p≤0.0001) suggesting the interpretation that anastrozole seems to enhance their expression in order to perhaps assist in the implantation process of the blastocyst. The immunofluorescence experiments agree with the vinculin and integrin β5 gene expression findings in which at day 6 of pregnancy, vinculin and integrin β5 gene expression are significantly upregulated in uterine luminal epithelial cells in the anastrozole treated group relative to the calibrator sample (p≤0.0001). These findings suggest that anastrozole is implantation friendly.


RESUMEN: Es necesario un superovulador alternativo para reemplazar el citrato de clomifeno, debido a que está asociado con bajas tasas de preñez. El anastrozol es un superovulador eficaz, sin embargo es poca su investigación. Con el fin de determinar la efectividad del anastrozol como superovulador y compararlo con citrato de clomifeno en situaciones similares, se determinaron los efectos de estos fármacos sobre la expresión de las proteínas de adhesión focal, vinculina e integrina β5, en marcadores de receptividad uterina en días 1 y 6, en las células epiteliales uterinas de ratas Wistar preñadas. Los resultados muestran que la vinculina y la integrina β5 se co-localizan en la base del epitelio uterino al día 1 de la gravidez mientras que al día 6 se desmontan de las adherencias focales basales, co-localizan y aumentan significativamente su expresión apicalmente (p≤0.0001). Además, existe una diferencia significativa en los niveles de expresión de proteína de vinculina e integrina β5 en células epiteliales luminales uterinas entre ratas no tratadas (control) y tratadas con citrato declomifeno (p≤0.0001), ratas tratadas con anastrozol y citrato declomifeno al día 6 (p≤0,0001) sugiriendo la interpretación de que el anastrozol parece mejorar su expresión con el fin de ayudar en el proceso de implantación del blastocisto. Los experimentos de inmunofluorescencia coinciden con los resultados de la expresión de los genes vinculina e integrina β5 en los cuales al día 6 de la preñez, la vinculina y la integrina β5 están significativamente reguladas en células epiteliales luminales uterinas en el grupo tratado con anastrozol con respecto a la muestra del calibrador (p<0,0001). Estos hallazgos sugieren que el anastrozol es favorable para la implantación.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Integrins/drug effects , Nitriles/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Uterus/drug effects , Vinculin/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Focal Adhesions/drug effects , Integrins/genetics , Integrins/physiology , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vinculin/genetics , Vinculin/physiology
15.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 545-550, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009642

ABSTRACT

Even in the era of novel targeted agents, switching to a second-line nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) is still widely used in treating metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), especially in undeveloped countries. However, whether prior treatment with a second-line NSAA would impact the efficacy of abiraterone acetate (Abi) remains uncertain. In the current study, 87 mCRPC patients treated with Abi were analyzed. Among them, 21 were treated with a second-line NSAA (from bicalutamide to flutamide) before receiving abiraterone, while the remaining 66 received Abi directly. Therapeutic efficacy of Abi was compared between those with and without prior second-line NSAA using Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank test, and Cox regression models. The therapeutic efficacy of Abi was similar between those with or without the prior switching treatment of flutamide, in terms of either prostate-specific antigen progression-free survival (PSA-PFS, 5.5 vs 5.6 months, P = 0.967), radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS, 12.8 vs 13.4 months, P = 0.508), overall survival (OS, not reached vs 30.6 months, P = 0.606), or PSA-response rate (71.4% [15/21] vs 60.6% [40/66], P = 0.370). This is the first time that the impact of prior switching of treatment to a second-line NSAA on the efficacy of Abi in mCRPC patients has been addressed. Our data support that, use of prior sequential bicalutamide and flutamide does not seem to preclude response to abiraterone, although larger cohort studies and, ideally, a randomized controlled trial are needed. These findings will facilitate doctors' decision-making in the treatment of mCRPC patients, especially for those with previous experience of switching NSAA second-line treatments in the clinic.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Abiraterone Acetate/therapeutic use , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Anilides/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Disease-Free Survival , Flutamide/therapeutic use , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Nonsteroidal Anti-Androgens/therapeutic use , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Tosyl Compounds/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
16.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 253-259, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009596

ABSTRACT

Despite impressive survival benefits with immunotherapy in patients with various solid tumors, the full potential of these agents in prostate cancer has yet to be realized. Sipuleucel-T demonstrated a survival benefit in this population, indicating that prostate cancer is an immunoresponsive disease; however, these results have not been matched by other agents. A large trial with ipilimumab in prostate cancer failed to meet its primary objective, and small trials with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors did not yield a significant improvement in overall response. However, several late-stage clinical trials are underway with other vaccines in prostate cancer. Reports of clinical benefit with immunotherapies, particularly when used in combination or a select population, have provided the framework to develop sound clinical trials. Understanding immunogenic modulation, antigen spread, biomarkers, and DNA-repair defects will also help mold future strategies. Through rational patient selection and evidence-based combination approaches, patients with prostate cancer may soon derive durable survival benefits with immunotherapies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , B7-H1 Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , Benzamides , CTLA-4 Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Ipilimumab/therapeutic use , Nitriles , Phenylthiohydantoin/analogs & derivatives , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Tissue Extracts/administration & dosage
17.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 270-275, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009564

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to determine whether oncologic outcomes and adverse events associated with active on/off intermittent antiandrogen monotherapy (daily bicalutamide, 50 mg per day) are comparable with those of standard external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or combined androgen blockade (CAB) therapy in prostate cancers with positive surgical margins after radical prostatectomy. Two hundred twenty-three patients with positive surgical margins post-radical prostatectomy who underwent active surveillance (AS, n = 32), EBRT without hormone therapy (n = 55), intermittent antiandrogen monotherapy without EBRT (IAAM, n = 50), or CAB without EBRT (n = 86), between 2007 and 2014, were reviewed retrospectively. Pathologic outcomes, biochemical recurrence rates, radiological disease progression, and adverse events were collected from medical records. Biochemical recurrence rates, biochemical recurrence-free survival rates, and radiological recurrence were not different between the groups (P = 0.225, 0.896, and 0.284, respectively). Adverse event rates and severities were lower for IAAM compared with EBRT or CAB (both P < 0.05), but were comparable to those for AS (P = 0.591 and 0.990, respectively). Grade ≥3 adverse events were not reported in the IAAM or AS groups. Erectile dysfunction and loss of libido rates were lower in the IAAM group compared with the EBRT and CAB groups (P = 0.032). Gastrointestinal complications were more frequently reported in the EBRT group (P = 0.008). Active on/off IAAM treatment might be an appropriate treatment option for patients with positive surgical margins after radical prostatectomy. Furthermore, regarding oncologic outcomes, IAAM was comparable to standard EBRT but had a milder adverse event profile.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Anilides/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/adverse effects , Disease-Free Survival , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/blood , Neoplasm, Residual , Nitriles/adverse effects , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Tosyl Compounds/adverse effects
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(5): e170377, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND There is little information on the effect of using deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of 4% deltamethrin-impregnated collars (Scalibor®) in controlling visceral leishmaniasis in Lutzomyia longipalpis by comparing populations in intervention and non-intervention areas. METHODS Phlebotomine flies were captured over 30 months in four neighbourhoods with intense visceral leishmaniasis transmission in Fortaleza and Montes Claros. We calculated the rates of domicile infestation, relative abundance of Lu. longipalpis, and Lu. longipalpis distribution in each site, capture location (intra- and peridomestic locations) and area (intervention and non-intervention areas). FINDINGS In the control area in Fortaleza, the relative abundance of Lu. longipalpis was 415 specimens at each capture site, whereas in the intervention area it was 159.25; in Montes Claros, the relative abundance was 5,660 specimens per capture site in the control area, whereas in the intervention area it was 2,499.4. The use of dog collars was associated with a reduction in captured insects of 15% (p = 0.004) and 60% (p < 0.001) in Montes Claros and Fortaleza, respectively. MAIN CONCLUSIONS We observed a lower vector abundance in the intervention areas, suggesting an effect of the insecticide-impregnated collars.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Psychodidae , Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Insect Control/instrumentation , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Nitriles/administration & dosage
19.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(supl.2): 50-58, jul.-set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888524

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The alkaloid girgensohnine has been used as a natural model in the synthesis of new alkaloid-like alpha-aminonitriles with insecticidal effect against disease vectors. Objective: To evaluate the biocide activity of girgensohnine analogues and essential oils of Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis and Eucalyptus citriodora in stage I and stage V Rhodnius prolixus nymphs. Materials and methods: We used a topical application model in tergites and sternites, as well as exposure to treated surfaces with different exploratory doses of each of the molecules and essential oils to determine the lethal doses (LD50 and LD95). Results: Analogue 3 showed the highest insecticidal activity with 83.3±16.7% of mortality when applied on tergites, 38.9±4.8% on sternites and 16.7±0% on treated surfaces in stage I nymphs at 72 hours (h) and 500 mg.L-1. In stage V nymphs, the compounds induced mortality only in sternums (11.1±9.6% for analogue 6 and 5.5±4.7% for analogues 3 and 7 at 72 h and 1500 mg.L-1). The lethal doses for molecule 3 on tergites in stage I nymphs were LD50 225.60 mg.L-1 and LD95 955.90 mg.L-1. The insecticidal effect of essential oils was observed only in stage I nymphs, with 11.1±4.8% for C. flexuosus when applied in sternites, while using exposure to surfaces treated it was 5.6±4.8% for C. sinensis applied on tergites and 8.3±0% on sternites at 72 h and 1000 mg.L-1. Conclusion: Synthetic girgensohnine analogues, and C. flexuosus and C. sinensis essential oils showed insecticidal activity in R. prolixus. Analogue 3 showed the greatest insecticidal activity among all molecules and oils evaluated under our laboratory conditions.


RESUMEN Introducción. El alcaloide natural girgensohnina se ha usado como modelo en la síntesis de nuevos análogos de alcaloidales alfa-aminonitrílicos con efecto insecticida en vectores de enfermedades. Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad biocida de análogos de girgensohnina y de aceites esenciales de las plantas Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis y Eucalyptus citriodora en ninfas de estadios I y V de Rhodnius prolixus. Materiales y métodos. Se empleó la aplicación tópica en terguitos, esternitos y superficies tratadas con diferentes dosis exploratorias de cada una de las moléculas y aceites esenciales para determinar las dosis letales (LD50 y LD95). Resultados. El análogo 3 tuvo la mayor actividad insecticida, con una mortalidad de 83,3±16,7% en los terguitos, de 38,9±4,8 % en los esternitos y de 16,7±0 % a las 72 horas en ninfas de estadioI expuestas a superficies tratadas y 500 mg.L-1. En las ninfas de estadio V solo se presentó mortalidad en los esternitos (11,1±9,6 % con el análogo 6 y 5,5±4,7 % con los análogos 3 y 7 a las 72 h y 1.500 mg.L-1). Las dosis letales para la molécula 3 en los terguitos de ninfas de estadio I fueron las siguientes: DL50, 225,60 mg.L-1 y DL95, 955,90 mg.L-1. En cuanto a los aceites esenciales, el efecto insecticida solo se presentó con C. flexuosus (11,1±4,8%) en los esternitos de ninfas de estadio I expuestas a superficies tratadas; con C. sinensis (5,6±4,8%) en los terguitos y en los esternitos (8,3±0%) a las 72 horas y 1.000 mg.L-1. Conclusión. Los análogos sintéticos del alcaloide girgensohnina y los aceites esenciales de C. flexuosus y C. sinensis exhibieron actividad insecticida en R. prolixus. El análogo 3 exhibió la mayor actividad insecticida de todas las moléculas evaluadas bajo las condiciones de laboratorio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Rhodnius , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Insecticides , Nitriles/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/administration & dosage , Pyrrolidines/chemical synthesis , Rhodnius/growth & development , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Molecular Structure , Administration, Topical , Cymbopogon/chemistry , Citrus sinensis/chemistry , Eucalyptus/chemistry , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Eucalyptus Oil/pharmacology , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Insecticides/chemical synthesis , Lethal Dose 50 , Nitriles/administration & dosage , Nitriles/chemical synthesis , Nymph
20.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(supl.2): 180-186, jul.-set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-888536

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. El uso de mosquiteros tratados con insecticida en fórmulas de larga duración ha demostrado resultados prometedores en el control de Aedes aegypti. Objetivo. Evaluar la eficacia de mosquiteros impregnados con deltametrina en una fórmula de larga duración para el control de A. aegypti en Girardot, Colombia, después de tres lavados. Materiales y métodos. Se hicieron bioensayos de eficacia de los mosquiteros contra A. aegypti silvestres después de utilizar los siguientes tres productos de lavado, siguiendo la metodología de la Organización Mundial de la Salud: detergente en polvo, detergente en polvo y blanqueador, y jabón de barra, todos utilizados hasta en 20 lavados. Resultados. El tipo de producto de lavado y el número de lavados afectaron significativamente la eficacia de los mosquiteros impregnados con deltametrina. El lavado con jabón de barra presentó el mayor efecto, pues en tan solo seis lavados la mortalidad bajó a 50 % (25/50), en contraste con 66 % (33/50 de mortalidad después del lavado con detergente en polvo y de 84 % (42/50) después del lavado con detergente y blanqueador. En cuanto al número de lavados, el jabón en barra también causó una mayor reducción de la eficacia: a 68 % con solo tres lavados. Conclusión. La eficacia de los mosquiteros impregnados con deltametrina de larga duración en el control de A. aegypti varió con el tipo de producto de lavado y el número de lavados, siendo el jabón en barra el que redujo su eficacia en mayor medida. Se requieren nuevos estudios para establecer la disminución en la concentración del insecticida entre lavados.


Abstract Introduction: The use of long lasting insecticidal materials has shown promising results in the control of Aedes aegypti. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (PermaNet®) for Aedes aegypti control after three washing treatments in the city of Girardot, Colombia. Materials and methods: Standard bioassays were conducted with the nets following the World Health Organization protocols using wild A. aegypti after three washing treatments: (1) Detergent powder, (2)detergent powder and bleach, and (3) bar soap, until completing 20 washes. Results: The type and number of wash treatments had a significant effect on net efficacy. Greater effects in the insecticide bioavailability were seen for the bar soap treatment. After six washes, mortality decreased by 50% (25/50), vs 66% (33/50) for the detergent powder and 84% (42/50) for the detergent powder and bleach treatments. Regarding the number of washes, the bar soap treatment reduced the efficacy to 68% after only three washes. Conclusion: The effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets (PermaNet 2.0) for A. aegypti control varied in relation to the treatment and number of washes. The bar soap treatment resulted in the greatest reduction of mortality. Further studies on insecticidal reductions are needed under local conditions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pyrethrins , Mosquito Control/instrumentation , Aedes , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Mosquito Vectors , Insecticides , Laundering , Nitriles , Powders , Pyrethrins/analysis , Pyrethrins/chemistry , Soaps/pharmacology , Solubility , Colombia , Detergents/pharmacology , Bleaching Agents/pharmacology , Insecticides/analysis , Insecticides/chemistry , Nitriles/analysis , Nitriles/chemistry
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