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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 345-357, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893233

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: An alternative superovulator to replace clomiphene citrate is needed as clomiphene citrate is associated with low pregnancy rates. Anastrozole is an effective superovulator, but it has not been well researched. In order to determine the effectiveness of anastrozole as a superovulator and to compare it with clomiphene citrate in similar situations, this study ascertained the effects of these drugs on the expression of the focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and integrin β5, which are uterine receptivity markers, in the uterine epithelial cells of day 1 and day 6 pregnant Wistar rats. The results show that vinculin and integrin β5 are co-localized at the base of the uterine epithelium at day 1 of pregnancy whereas at day 6, they disassemble from the basal focal adhesions and co-localize and significantly increase their expression apically (p≤0.0001). Moreover, there is a significant difference in the protein expression levels of vinculin and integrin b5 in uterine luminal epithelial cells between untreated (control) and chlomiphene citrate treated rats (p≤0.0001), anastrozole and chlomiphene citrate treated rats at day 6 (p≤0.0001) suggesting the interpretation that anastrozole seems to enhance their expression in order to perhaps assist in the implantation process of the blastocyst. The immunofluorescence experiments agree with the vinculin and integrin β5 gene expression findings in which at day 6 of pregnancy, vinculin and integrin β5 gene expression are significantly upregulated in uterine luminal epithelial cells in the anastrozole treated group relative to the calibrator sample (p≤0.0001). These findings suggest that anastrozole is implantation friendly.


RESUMEN: Es necesario un superovulador alternativo para reemplazar el citrato de clomifeno, debido a que está asociado con bajas tasas de preñez. El anastrozol es un superovulador eficaz, sin embargo es poca su investigación. Con el fin de determinar la efectividad del anastrozol como superovulador y compararlo con citrato de clomifeno en situaciones similares, se determinaron los efectos de estos fármacos sobre la expresión de las proteínas de adhesión focal, vinculina e integrina β5, en marcadores de receptividad uterina en días 1 y 6, en las células epiteliales uterinas de ratas Wistar preñadas. Los resultados muestran que la vinculina y la integrina β5 se co-localizan en la base del epitelio uterino al día 1 de la gravidez mientras que al día 6 se desmontan de las adherencias focales basales, co-localizan y aumentan significativamente su expresión apicalmente (p≤0.0001). Además, existe una diferencia significativa en los niveles de expresión de proteína de vinculina e integrina β5 en células epiteliales luminales uterinas entre ratas no tratadas (control) y tratadas con citrato declomifeno (p≤0.0001), ratas tratadas con anastrozol y citrato declomifeno al día 6 (p≤0,0001) sugiriendo la interpretación de que el anastrozol parece mejorar su expresión con el fin de ayudar en el proceso de implantación del blastocisto. Los experimentos de inmunofluorescencia coinciden con los resultados de la expresión de los genes vinculina e integrina β5 en los cuales al día 6 de la preñez, la vinculina y la integrina β5 están significativamente reguladas en células epiteliales luminales uterinas en el grupo tratado con anastrozol con respecto a la muestra del calibrador (p<0,0001). Estos hallazgos sugieren que el anastrozol es favorable para la implantación.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Integrins/drug effects , Nitriles/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Uterus/drug effects , Vinculin/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Focal Adhesions/drug effects , Integrins/genetics , Integrins/physiology , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vinculin/genetics , Vinculin/physiology
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(4): 286-293, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781334

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of letrozole (Ltz) in carcinogen+estrogen-induced endometrial hyperplasia. METHODS: BALB/c female mice were divided into four groups of 12 animals each receiving an intrauterine dose of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and weekly subcutaneous injections of estradiol hexaidrobenzoate (EHB), except for group I(control). The groups were divided in I (control), II (ENU+EHB), III (ENU+EHB+MPA) and IV (ENU+EHB+Ltz). Group III also received intramuscular injections of MPA (medroxy progesterone acetate) every four weeks, while group IV received oral doses of Ltz daily. At the end of 16 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum estradiol and progesterone levels. Uterine histological sections were made to evaluate the presence of endometrial proliferative lesions. Differences between groups were evaluated with student's t test, ANOVA and chi-square test. RESULTS: Groups ENU+EHB, ENU+EHB+MPA and ENU+EHB+Ltz showed varying degrees of endometrial hyperplasia. The incidence of hyperplasia in groups ENU+EHB and ENU+EHB+Ltz was higher and more severe than in group ENU+EHB+MPA. Control group showed lower levels of serum estradiol than the other groups. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence that letrozole could act as an antiestrogenic drug in the development of endometrial proliferative lesions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Triazoles/pharmacology , Aromatase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Endometrial Hyperplasia/drug therapy , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Nitriles/pharmacology , Progesterone/blood , Time Factors , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Adenocarcinoma/etiology , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Endometrial Neoplasms/etiology , Endometrial Neoplasms/drug therapy , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/pharmacology , Aromatase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Endometrial Hyperplasia/chemically induced , Endometrial Hyperplasia/pathology , Endometrium/drug effects , Endometrium/pathology , Estradiol/blood , Ethylnitrosourea , Carcinogenesis/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nitriles/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 18(1): 234-247, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-736431

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de dor crônica e sua associação com a situação socioeconômica, demográfica e atividade física no lazer em idosos. MÉTODOS: Este estudo é parte do inquérito epidemiológico e transversal de base populacional e domiciliar EpiFloripa Idoso 2009-2010 realizado com 1.705 idosos (≥ 60 anos), residentes em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. A partir da resposta afirmativa de dor crônica, foram investigadas as associações com as variáveis obtidas por meio de entrevista estruturada. Realizou-se a estatística descritiva, incluindo cálculos de proporções e intervalos de confiança 95% (IC95%). Na análise bruta e ajustada, empregou-se regressão de Poisson, estimando-se as razões de prevalência, com intervalos de confiança de 95% e valores p ≤ 0,05. RESULTADOS: Dentre os idosos investigados, 29,3% (IC95% 26,5 - 32,2) relataram dor crônica. Na análise ajustada, observou-se que as variáveis sexo feminino, menor escolaridade e pior situação econômica ficaram associadas significativamente com maior prevalência de dor crônica; ser fisicamente ativo no lazer ficou associado significativamente com menor prevalência do desfecho. CONCLUSÕES: Percebe-se que a dor crônica é um agravo que acomete considerável parcela de idosos, havendo desigualdades sociais na sua frequência e sendo beneficamente afetada pela atividade física no lazer. É necessário que políticas públicas de saúde subsidiem programas multidisciplinares de controle da dor incluindo a prática regular de atividade física, voltada especificamente à promoção da saúde do idoso, evitando assim que a dor crônica comprometa a qualidade de vida desta população. .


OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of chronic pain and its association with socioeconomic and demographic status, and leisure physical activity in the elderly population. METHODS: This study is part of an epidemiological cross-sectional population-based household survey called EpiFloripa Elderly 2009-2010, which was conducted with 1,705 elderly individuals (≥ 60 years) residents of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. From the positive response to chronic pain, the associations with the variables were investigated through a structured interview. Descriptive statistics were conducted, including ratio calculation and 95% confidence intervals. In crude and adjusted analysis, Poisson regression was utilized, estimating prevalence ratios, with 95% confidence intervals and ≤ 0.05 p-values. RESULTS: Among the subjects, 29.3% (IC95% 26.5 - 32.2) reported chronic pain. Adjusted analysis showed that being female, having less years of schooling, and being in worse economic situation were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of chronic pain. Being physically active during leisure time was significantly associated with lower prevalence of the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, it is clear that chronic pain affects a considerable amount of elderly individuals. Social inequalities are a harmful influence in these individuals' quality of life, inasmuch as those inequalities increase the frequency with which chronic pain afflicts them. At the same time, physical activity during leisure time decreases chronic pain frequency. It is fundamental that public health policies subsidize multidisciplinary pain management programs, which should include health targeted physical activity for the elderly, thus preventing the decrease in quality of life that chronic pain brings to this population. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Early Growth Response Protein 1/genetics , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism , /metabolism , Sulindac/analogs & derivatives , Apoptosis/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Butadienes/pharmacology , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Early Growth Response Protein 1/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Intestines/cytology , Intestines/drug effects , Intestines/metabolism , Luciferases/genetics , Luciferases/metabolism , Microscopy, Confocal , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/antagonists & inhibitors , /antagonists & inhibitors , Nitriles/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sulindac/pharmacology , Transfection , Up-Regulation/drug effects , ets-Domain Protein Elk-1/genetics , ets-Domain Protein Elk-1/metabolism
4.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 143-151
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158399

ABSTRACT

In animals, long-term feeding with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed coats causes hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid gland. However, to date there have been no detailed studies. Here, we explored the thyroidal effects of dietary peanut seed coats (PSC) in rats. The PSC has high levels of pro-goitrogenic substances including phenolic and other cyanogenic constituents. The PSC was mixed with a standard diet and fed to rats for 30 and 60 days, respectively. Animals fed with the PSC-supplemented diet showed a significant increase in urinary excretion of thiocyanate and iodine, thyroid enlargement, and hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of thyroid follicles. In addition, there was inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity, 5’-deiodinase-I (DIO1) activity, and (Na+-K+)-ATPase activity in the experimental groups of rats as compared to controls. Furthermore, the PSC fed animals exhibited decreased serum circulating total T4 and T3 levels, severe in the group treated for longer duration. These data indicate that PSC could be a novel disruptor of thyroid function, due to synergistic actions of phenolic as well as cyanogenic constituents.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed/adverse effects , Animals , Antithyroid Agents/isolation & purification , Antithyroid Agents/toxicity , Arachis/chemistry , Drug Synergism , Glucosides/analysis , Glucosides/pharmacology , Glucosides/toxicity , Hyperplasia , Hypertrophy , Hyperthyroidism/blood , Hyperthyroidism/chemically induced , Iodide Peroxidase/antagonists & inhibitors , Iodine/urine , Male , Nitriles/analysis , Nitriles/pharmacology , Nitriles/toxicity , Ovule/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/antagonists & inhibitors , Thiocyanates/urine , Thyroid Gland/drug effects , Thyroid Gland/enzymology , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Hormones/blood
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(8): 1031-1036, 6/dez. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697150

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present work was to study the deltamethrin susceptibility of eggs from Triatoma infestans populations and the contribution of pyrethroid esterases to deltamethrin degradation. Insects were collected from sylvatic areas, including Veinte de Octubre and Kirus-Mayu (Bolivia) and from domiciliary areas, including El Palmar (Bolivia) and La Pista (Argentina). Deltamethrin susceptibility was determined by dose-response bioassays. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin (0.0005-1 mg/mL) were topically applied to 12-day-old eggs. Samples from El Palmar had the highest lethal dose ratio (LDR) value (44.90) compared to the susceptible reference strain (NFS), whereas the Veinte de Octubre samples had the lowest value (0.50). Pyrethroid esterases were evaluated using 7-coumaryl permethrate (7-CP) on individually homogenised eggs from each population and from NFS. The El Palmar and La Pista samples contained 40.11 and 36.64 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively, and these values were statistically similar to NFS (34.92 pmol/min/mg protein) and different from Kirus-Mayu and Veinte de Octubre (27.49 and 22.69 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively). The toxicological data indicate that the domestic populations were resistant to deltamethrin, but no statistical contribution of 7-CP esterases was observed. The sylvatic populations had similar LDR values to NFS, but lower 7-CP esterase activities. Moreover, this is the first study of the pyrethroid esterases on T. infestans eggs employing a specific substrate (7-CP).


Subject(s)
Animals , Esterases/analysis , Nitriles/pharmacology , Ovum/drug effects , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Triatoma/drug effects , Biological Assay , Ovum/enzymology , Triatoma/enzymology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192555

ABSTRACT

Overexpression of HER2 correlates with more aggressive tumors and increased resistance to cancer chemotherapy. However, a functional comparison between the HER2high/HER3 and the HER2low/HER3 dimers on tumor metastasis has not been conducted. Herein we examined the regulation mechanism of heregulin-beta1 (HRG)-induced MMP-1 and -9 expression in breast cancer cell lines. Our results showed that the basal levels of MMP-1 and -9 mRNA and protein expression were increased by HRG treatment. In addition, HRG-induced MMP-1 and -9 expression was significantly decreased by MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126 but not by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) inhibitor, LY294002. To confirm the role of MEK/ERK pathway on HRG-induced MMP-1 and -9 expression, MCF7 cells were transfected with constitutively active adenoviral-MEK (CA-MEK). The level of MMP-1 and -9 expressions was increased by CA-MEK. MMP-1 and -9 mRNA and protein expressions in response to HRG were higher in HER2 overexpressed cells than in vector alone. The phosphorylation of HER2, HER3, ERK, Akt, and JNK were also significantly increased in HER2 overexpressed MCF7 cells compared with vector alone. HRG-induced MMP-1 and -9 expressions were significantly decreased by lapatinib, which inhibits HER1 and HER2 activity, in both vector alone and HER2 overexpressed MCF7 cells. Finally, HRG-induced MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression was decreased by HER3 siRNA overexpression. Taken together, we suggested that HRG-induced MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression is mediated through HER3 dependent pathway and highly expressed HER2 may be associated with more aggressive metastasis than the low expressed HER2 in breast cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/enzymology , Butadienes/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Female , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System , MCF-7 Cells , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/genetics , Neuregulin-1/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Multimerization , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Quinazolines/pharmacology , Receptor, ErbB-2/genetics , Receptor, ErbB-3/metabolism
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57559

ABSTRACT

The localization of estrogen (E2) has been clearly shown in hippocampus, called local hippocampal E2. It enhanced neuronal synaptic plasticity and protected neuron form cerebral ischemia, similar to those effects of exogenous E2. However, the interactive function of hippocampal and exogenous E2 on synaptic plasticity activation and neuroprotection is still elusive. By using hippocampal H19-7 cells, we demonstrated the local hippocampal E2 that totally suppressed by aromatase inhibitor anastrozole. Anastrozole also suppressed estrogen receptor (ER)beta, but not ERalpha, expression. Specific agonist of ERalpha (PPT) and ERbeta (DPN) restored ERbeta expression in anastrozole-treated cells. In combinatorial treatment with anastrozole and phosphoinositide kinase-3 (PI-3K) signaling inhibitor wortmannin, PPT could not improve hippocampal ERbeta expression. On the other hand, DPN induced basal ERbeta translocalization into nucleus of anastrozole-treated cells. Exogenous E2 increased synaptic plasticity markers expression in H19-7 cells. However, exogenous E2 could not enhance synaptic plasticity in anastrozole-treated group. Exogenous E2 also increased cell viability and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) expression in H2O2-treated cells. In combined treatment of anastrozole and H2O2, exogenous E2 failed to enhance cell viability and Bcl2 expression in hippocampal H19-7 cells. Our results provided the evidence of the priming role of local hippocampal E2 on exogenous E2-enhanced synaptic plasticity and viability of hippocampal neurons.


Subject(s)
Androstadienes/pharmacology , Animals , Aromatase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Estrogen Receptor alpha/agonists , Estrogen Receptor beta/agonists , Estrogens/metabolism , Hippocampus/cytology , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Nervous System/drug effects , Neuronal Plasticity/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/biosynthesis , Rats , Triazoles/pharmacology
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 165-172, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136373

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Imbalances between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation leads to diseases such as osteoporosis. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the differences in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation during both adipogenesis and osteogenesis of human bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using troglitazone, GW9662 and U0126, we investigated their role in hBMSC differentiation to adipogenic and osteogenic fates. RESULTS: ERK1/2 inhibition by U0126 suppressed proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma expression and lipid accumulation, while it decreased the mRNA expression of adipogenic genes (lipoprotein lipase, PPARgamma, and adipocyte protein) and osteogenic genes (type I collagen and osteopontin). ERK phosphorylation was transient and decreased during adipogenesis, whereas it occurred steadily during osteogenesis. Troglitazone, a PPARgamma agonist, induced adipogenesis by inhibiting ERK phosphorylation even in an osteogenic medium, suggesting that ERK signaling needs to be shut off in order to proceed with adipose cell commitment. Cell proliferation was greatly increased in osteogenesis but was not changed during adipogenesis, indicating that ERK might play different roles in cellular proliferation and differentiation between the two committed cell types. CONCLUSION: The duration and magnitude of ERK activation might be a crucial factor for the balance between adipogenesis and osteogenesis in human bone marrow-derived stem cells.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis/drug effects , Adult , Anilides/pharmacology , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Butadienes/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Chromans/pharmacology , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nitriles/pharmacology , Osteogenesis/drug effects , PPAR gamma/agonists , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Stem Cells/cytology , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 165-172, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136372

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Imbalances between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation leads to diseases such as osteoporosis. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the differences in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation during both adipogenesis and osteogenesis of human bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using troglitazone, GW9662 and U0126, we investigated their role in hBMSC differentiation to adipogenic and osteogenic fates. RESULTS: ERK1/2 inhibition by U0126 suppressed proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma expression and lipid accumulation, while it decreased the mRNA expression of adipogenic genes (lipoprotein lipase, PPARgamma, and adipocyte protein) and osteogenic genes (type I collagen and osteopontin). ERK phosphorylation was transient and decreased during adipogenesis, whereas it occurred steadily during osteogenesis. Troglitazone, a PPARgamma agonist, induced adipogenesis by inhibiting ERK phosphorylation even in an osteogenic medium, suggesting that ERK signaling needs to be shut off in order to proceed with adipose cell commitment. Cell proliferation was greatly increased in osteogenesis but was not changed during adipogenesis, indicating that ERK might play different roles in cellular proliferation and differentiation between the two committed cell types. CONCLUSION: The duration and magnitude of ERK activation might be a crucial factor for the balance between adipogenesis and osteogenesis in human bone marrow-derived stem cells.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis/drug effects , Adult , Anilides/pharmacology , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Butadienes/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Chromans/pharmacology , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nitriles/pharmacology , Osteogenesis/drug effects , PPAR gamma/agonists , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Stem Cells/cytology , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104280

ABSTRACT

Cholesterol is one of major components of cell membrane and plays a role in vesicular trafficking and cellular signaling. We investigated the effects of cholesterol on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activation in human dermal fibroblasts. We found that tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) expression and active form MMP-2 (64 kD) were dose-dependently increased by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD), a cholesterol depletion agent. In contrast, cholesterol depletion-induced TIMP-2 expression and MMP-2 activation were suppressed by cholesterol repletion. Then we investigated the regulatory mechanism of TIMP-2 expression by cholesterol depletion. We found that the phosphorylation of JNK as well as ERK was significantly increased by cholesterol depletion. Moreover, cholesterol depletion-induced TIMP-2 expression and MMP-2 activation was significantly decreased by MEK inhibitor U0126, and JNK inhibitor SP600125, respectively. While a low dose of recombinant TIMP-2 (100 ng/ml) increased the level of active MMP-2 (64 kD), the high dose of TIMP-2 (> or = 200 ng/ml) decreased the level of active MMP-2 (64 kD). Taken together, we suggest that the induction of TIMP-2 by cholesterol depletion leads to the conversion of proMMP-2 (72 kD) into active MMP-2 (64 kD) in human dermal fibroblasts.


Subject(s)
Anthracenes/pharmacology , Butadienes/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Child , Child, Preschool , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cyclodextrins/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Humans , Immunoblotting , Immunoprecipitation , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nitriles/pharmacology , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2/metabolism
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(10): 912-917, Oct. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-526193

ABSTRACT

Cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, induces stress-like symptoms, increases c-fos immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and decreases innate immune responses in laboratory animals. Macrophages are key elements in cellular immune responses and operate at the tumor-host interface. This study investigated the relationship among cyhalothrin effects on Ehrlich tumor growth, serum corticosterone levels and peritoneal macrophage activity in mice. Three experiments were done with 10 experimental (single gavage administration of 3.0 mg/kg cyhalothrin daily for 7 days) and 10 control (single gavage administration of 1.0 mL/kg vehicle of cyhalothrin preparation daily for 7 days) isogenic BALB/c mice in each experiment. Cyhalothrin i) increased Ehrlich ascitic tumor growth after ip administration of 5.0 x 106 tumor cells, i.e., ascitic fluid volume (control = 1.97 ± 0.39 mL and experimental = 2.71 ± 0.92 mL; P < 0.05), concentration of tumor cells/mL in the ascitic fluid (control = 111.95 ± 16.73 x 106 and experimental = 144.60 ± 33.18 x 106; P < 0.05), and total number of tumor cells in the ascitic fluid (control = 226.91 ± 43.22 x 106 and experimental = 349.40 ± 106.38 x 106; P < 0.05); ii) increased serum corticosterone levels (control = 200.0 ± 48.3 ng/mL and experimental = 420.0 ± 75.5 ng/mL; P < 0.05), and iii) decreased the intensity of macrophage phagocytosis (control = 132.3 ± 19.7 and experimental = 116.2 ± 4.6; P < 0.05) and oxidative burst (control = 173.7 ± 40.8 and experimental= 99.58 ± 41.7; P < 0.05) in vitro in the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. These data provide evidence that cyhalothrin simultaneously alters host resistance to Ehrlich tumor growth, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis function, and peritoneal macrophage activity. The results are discussed in terms of data suggesting a link between stress, HPA axis activation and resistance to tumor growth.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor/pathology , Insecticides/pharmacology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phagocytosis/drug effects , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor/blood , Corticosterone/blood , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/drug effects , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Tumor Cells, Cultured
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135921

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Insecticide incorporated plastic sheeting is a new technology to control mosquitoes in emergency shelter places and also temporary habitations in different locations. Therefore, field studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of ZeroFly® plastic sheeting treated with deltamethrin on prevailing disease vectors Anopheles culicifacies and An. fluviatilis and its impact on malaria transmission in one of the highly endemic areas of Orissa. Methods: The study was conducted in Birkera block of Sundargarh district, Orissa state. The study area comprised 3 villages, which were randomized as ZeroFly plastic sheet, untreated plastic sheet and no sheet area. ZeroFly plastic sheets and untreated plastic sheets were fixed in study and control villages respectively covering all the rooms in each household. Longitudinal studies were conducted on the bioefficacy with the help of cone bioassays, monitoring of the mosquito density through hand catch, floor sheet and exit trap collections and fortnightly domiciliary active surveillance in all the study villages. Results: In ZeroFly plastic sheeting area, there was a significant reduction of 84.7 per cent in the entry rate of total mosquitoes in comparison to pre-intervention phase. There was 56.2 per cent immediate mortality in total mosquitoes in houses with ZeroFly sheeting. The overall feeding success rate of mosquitoes in the trial village was only 12.5 per cent in comparison to 49.7 and 51.1 per cent in villages with untreated plastic sheet and no sheet respectively. There was a significant reduction of 65.0 and 70.5 per cent in malaria incidence in ZeroFly plastic sheeting area as compared to untreated plastic sheet and no sheet area respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed that introduction of ZeroFly plastic sheets in a community-based intervention programme is operationally feasible to contain malaria especially in the high transmission difficult areas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/drug effects , Bedding and Linens , Humans , India , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/transmission , Mosquito Control/instrumentation , Mosquito Control/methods , Nitriles/chemistry , Nitriles/pharmacology , Plastics/chemistry , Protective Devices , Pyrethrins/chemistry , Pyrethrins/pharmacology
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(1): 18-26, Feb. 2009. graf, tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-507201

ABSTRACT

In order to establish the insecticide susceptibility status for Anopheles darlingi in Colombia, and as part of the National Network on Insecticide Resistance Surveillance, five populations of insects from three Colombian states were evaluated. Standardised WHO and CDC bottle bioassays, in addition to microplate biochemical assays, were conducted. Populations with mortality rates below 80 percent in the bioassays were considered resistant. All field populations were susceptible to deltamethrin, permethrin, malathion and fenitrothion. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT was detected in the Amé-Beté population using both bioassay methods with mortality rates of 65-75 percent. Enzyme levels related to insecticide resistance, including mixed function oxidases (MFO), non-specific esterases (NSE), glutathione S-transferases and modified acetylcholinesterase were evaluated in all populations and compared with a susceptible natural strain. Only mosquitoes from Amé-Beté presented significantly increased levels of both MFO and NSE, consistent with the low mortalities found in this population. The continued use of lambda-cyhalothrin for An. darlingi control in this locality has resulted in a natural resistance to this insecticide. In addition, DDT resistance is still present in this population, although this insecticide has not been used in Colombia since 1992. Increased metabolism through MFO and NSE may be involved in cross-resistance between lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT, although kdr-type nerve insensitivity cannot be discarded as a possible hypothesis. Additional research, including development of a kdr specific assay for An. darlingi should be conducted in future studies. Our data demonstrates the urgent need to develop local insecticide resistance management and surveillance programs throughout Colombia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Anopheles/enzymology , Esterases/metabolism , Insect Vectors/enzymology , Insecticides/pharmacology , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Anopheles/drug effects , Biological Assay , Colombia , DDT , Insecticide Resistance , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Nitriles/pharmacology , Pyrethrins/pharmacology
14.
Egyptian Journal of Chemistry. 2009; 52 (3): 349-360
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-135688

ABSTRACT

This work concerns with studying the reaction of cyanoacetyl hydrazide with cyclopentanone to give the hydrazide-hydrazone derivative 3. The reactivity of compound 3 towards different chemical reagents was studied to give coumarin, pyridine and thiazole derivatives. The antimicrobial evaluation of the synthesized products was studied where most of them showed interesting activities


Subject(s)
Pyridines/chemical synthesis , Thiazoles/chemical synthesis , Nitriles/pharmacology , Cyclopentanes/pharmacology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59827

ABSTRACT

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipids and involves in various cellular events, including tumor cell migration. In the present study, we investigated LPA receptor and its transactivation to EGFR for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and cell migration in CAOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. LPA induced COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner, and pretreatment of the cells with pharmacological inhibitors of Gi (pertussis toxin), Src (PP2), EGF receptor (EGFR) (AG1478), ERK (PD98059) significantly inhibited LPA- induced COX-2 expression. Consistent to these results, transfection of the cells with selective Src siRNA attenuated COX-2 expression by LPA. LPA stimulated CAOV-3 cell migration that was abrogated by pharmacological inhibitors and antibody of EP2. Higher expression of LPA2 mRNA was observed in CAOV-3 cells, and transfection of the cells with a selective LPA2 siRNA significantly inhibited LPA-induced activation of EGFR and ERK, as well as COX-2 expression. Importantly, LPA2 siRNA also blocked LPA-induced ovarian cancer cell migration. Collectively, our results clearly show the significance of LPA2 and Gi/Src pathway for LPA-induced COX-2 expression and cell migration that could be a promising drug target for ovarian cancer cell metastasis.


Subject(s)
Butadienes/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase 2/biosynthesis , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Female , Flavonoids/pharmacology , GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Lysophospholipids/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Ovarian Neoplasms/metabolism , Pertussis Toxin/pharmacology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Lysophosphatidic Acid/metabolism , Receptors, Prostaglandin E/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcriptional Activation , Tyrphostins/pharmacology
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-112683

ABSTRACT

Development of insecticide resistance has been a challenging problem for a long time and new solutions are yet to emerge. In this regard, the use of synergist with the insecticide is thought to play a key role in reducing the resistance levels. Present study demonstrates the efficacy of PBO with deltamethrin against the field collected mosquito larvae of five species of Aedes, Anopheles and Culexfrom in and around Mysore.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culicidae/drug effects , Insect Control , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Pesticide Synergists/pharmacology , Piperonyl Butoxide/pharmacology , Pyrethrins/pharmacology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18130

ABSTRACT

An environmental pollutant, tetrachloro dibenzo dioxin (TCDD) is known to illicit the cognitive disability and motor dysfunction in the developing brain. TCDD induced effects leading to neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral deficit may have been defined, however underlying molecular mechanism and possible intracellular targets remain to be elucidated. In this study, we attempted to analyze TCDD-induced neurotoxic effects in the granule cells from cerebellum where certain cognitive abilities and motor function command are known to be excuted. [3H]PDBu, (phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate) binding assay indicated that TCDD induced a dose-dependent increase of total PKC activity and its induction was the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) dependent and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) independent. TCDD also caused the translocation of both PKC-alpha and -epsilon in a dose-dependent manner but associated with different receptors; PKC-alpha via AhR but not PKC-epsilon indicating an isozyme-specific pattern of the induction. Increase of the ROS formation was also observed in the cells treated with TCDD in a dose-dependent and an AhR-dependent manner. The treatment of the cells with the diamino dicyano-bis(2-aminophenylthio) butadiene (U0126, MEK-1/2 inhibitor), dizocilpine maleate (MK-801, non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist) and vitamin E attenuated the TCDD-induced ROS production indicating that TCDD-induced ROS formation may be associated with activation of ERK-1/2 in the MAP kinase pathway or the NMDA receptor. TCDD also increased [Ca2+]i, which is associated with ROS formation and PKC activation in the cerebellar granule cells. It is suggested that TCDD activates the NMDA receptor, which may induce a sustained increase of [Ca2+]i in neurons followed by the ROS formation. Our findings may contribute to understanding the mechanism of TCDD-related neurotoxicity, thereby improving the health risk assessment of neurotoxic compounds in humans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Binding, Competitive , Butadienes/pharmacology , Carcinogens/pharmacology , Cerebellum/cytology , Dizocilpine Maleate/pharmacology , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate/pharmacology , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Protein Transport , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/toxicity
18.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1989 Jul; 27(7): 635-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-58188

ABSTRACT

Since cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food item of several million people in the tropics, its toxicity cannot be underestimated. Therefore an attempt has been made to understand the metabolic changes caused by the chronic administration of sublethal doses linamarin, the principal cyanoglucoside of cassava, to rabbits. A significant rise in lactic acid and total cholesterol in liver and brain and a highly significant depletion of phospholipids of brain tissue was observed. There were also significant variations in the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern of treated animals as compared with the control rabbits. The findings suggest that some of the biological effects of linamarin are similar to those of free cyanide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/metabolism , Cyanides/pharmacology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Lactates/blood , Lactic Acid , Male , Nitriles/pharmacology , Potassium Cyanide/pharmacology , Rabbits
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