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1.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 1-1, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010714

ABSTRACT

The reduction of nitrate to nitrite by the oral microbiota has been proposed to be important for oral health and results in nitric oxide formation that can improve cardiometabolic conditions. Studies of bacterial composition in subgingival plaque suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria are associated with periodontal health, but the impact of periodontitis on nitrate-reducing capacity (NRC) and, therefore, nitric oxide availability has not been evaluated. The current study aimed to evaluate how periodontitis affects the NRC of the oral microbiota. First, 16S rRNA sequencing data from five different countries were analyzed, revealing that nitrate-reducing bacteria were significantly lower in subgingival plaque of periodontitis patients compared with healthy individuals (P < 0.05 in all five datasets with n = 20-82 samples per dataset). Secondly, subgingival plaque, saliva, and plasma samples were obtained from 42 periodontitis patients before and after periodontal treatment. The oral NRC was determined in vitro by incubating saliva with 8 mmol/L nitrate (a concentration found in saliva after nitrate-rich vegetable intake) and compared with the NRC of 15 healthy individuals. Salivary NRC was found to be diminished in periodontal patients before treatment (P < 0.05) but recovered to healthy levels 90 days post-treatment. Additionally, the subgingival levels of nitrate-reducing bacteria increased after treatment and correlated negatively with periodontitis-associated bacteria (P < 0.01). No significant effect of periodontal treatment on the baseline saliva and plasma nitrate and nitrite levels was found, indicating that differences in the NRC may only be revealed after nitrate intake. Our results suggest that an impaired NRC in periodontitis could limit dietary nitrate-derived nitric oxide levels, and the effect on systemic health should be explored in future studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nitrates , Nitric Oxide , Nitrites , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Periodontitis/microbiology , Bacteria , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Saliva/microbiology , Microbiota/genetics
2.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 18: 76179, 2023. ^etab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532569

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Os consumidores têm inúmeras preocupações em relação à saúde, dentre as quais o consumo elevado de aditivos químicos, como os conservantes, que ao reagir com substâncias presentes nos alimentos podem produzir compostos cancerígenos. Alguns vegetais, como o espinafre, podem ser fontes naturais desses conservantes, e sua aplicação pode aumentar a saudabilidade dos produtos cárneos. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do extrato de espinafre como fonte de nitrito para conservação de linguiças frescais, armazenadas durante 35 dias sob refrigeração. Material e Método: Quatro formulações foram produzidas: controle positivo, com sal de cura comercial (CP), controle negativo, sem sal de cura (CN), extrato de espinafre (EE) e extrato de espinafre pré-convertido por bactérias nitrato-redutoras (EEPC). As linguiças foram avaliadas através da composição centesimal, cor, teor residual de nitrito, TBARS e avaliação microbiológica. Resultados: O sal de cura (CP) resultou em menores alterações na coloração das linguiças frescais. O TBARS aumentou aproximadamente 2,5 vezes (p<0,05) ao longo dos 35 dias, em todas as formulações, e os menores valores, ao final desse período, foram encontrados nas formulações CP e EEPC. Estas mesmas formulações apresentaram os maiores teores residuais de nitrito e menor contagem de BAL e enterobactérias (35 dias), o que comprova que o EEPC é tão eficiente quanto o sal de cura comercial como conservante em linguiça frescal armazenada sob refrigeração. Conclusão: O uso de EEPC pode ser uma alternativa promissora para a indústria cárnea, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de produtos clean label que atendam à demanda por produtos mais saudáveis.


Introduction: Consumers express concerns about chemical additives in the diet, including preservatives, which can produce carcinogenic compounds when interacting with substances present in food. Some vegetables, such as spinach, can be natural sources of preservatives, and their application can increase the healthiness of meat products. Objective: To evaluate the effects of spinach extract as a source of nitrite for the preservation of fresh sausages during 35 days of refrigerated storage. Material and Method: Four formulations were produced: positive control, with commercial curing salt (CP), negative control, without curing salt (CN), spinach extract (EE) and spinach extract pre-converted by nitrate-reducing bacteria (EEPC). The sausages were evaluated for proximate composition, color parameters, residual nitrite content, TBARS, and microbiological characterization. Results: The curing salt (CP) led to a few changes in the color of the fresh sausages. TBARS increased approximately 2.5 times (p<0.05) during the 35 days for all formulations, and the lowest values were found for the formulations CP and EEPC at the end of the storage. These formulations had the highest residual nitrite levels and the lowest LAB and enterobacteria count (35 days), which proves that EEPC is an effective preservative to replace commercial curing salt in fresh sausages subjected to refrigerated storage. Conclusion: The use of EEPC can be a promising alternative for the meat industry, enabling the development of clean-label products that meet the demand for healthier products.


Subject(s)
Spinacia oleracea , Meat Products , Nitrites , Whole Foods , Pork Meat
3.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 905-913, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Polygala sibirica L. var megalopha Fr. (EEP) on RAW264.7 mouse macrophages.@*METHODS@#RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with 0-200 µg/mL EEP or vehicle for 2 h prior to exposure to 1 µg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PGE2) production were determined by Griess reagent and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and IL-6 were determined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Western blot assay was used to determine the protein expressions of iNOS, COX-2, phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), inhibitory subunit of nuclear factor Kappa B alpha (Iκ B-α) and p38. Immunofluorescence was used to observe the nuclear expression of nuclear factor-κ B p65 (NF-κ B p65). Additionally, the anti-oxidant potential of EEP was evaluated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), superoxide anion (O2-) radical and nitrite scavenging activity were also measured.@*RESULTS@#The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of EEP were 23.50±2.16 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g and 43.78±3.81 mg rutin equivalent/100 g. With EEP treatment (100 and 150 µg/mL), there was a notable decrease in NO and PGE2 production induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells by downregulation of iNOS and COX-2 mRNA and protein expressions (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Furthermore, with EEP treatment (150 µg/mL), there was a decrease in the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, as well as in the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, P<0.01 or P<0.05), by blocking the nuclear translocation of NF-κ B p65 in LPS-stimulated cells. In addition, EEP (100 and 150 µg/mL) led to an increase in the anti-oxidant enzymes activity of SOD and CAT, with a concomitant decrease in ROS production (P<0.01 or P<0.05). EEP also indicated the DPPH, OH, O2- radical and nitrite scavenging activity.@*CONCLUSION@#EEP inhibited inflammatory responses in activated macrophages through blocking MAPK/NF-κ B pathway and protected against oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Polygala , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Ethanol/chemistry , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Nitrites/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism
4.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 109-117, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970763

ABSTRACT

Homeostasis is a dynamic balance process of self-regulating. Biological systems remain stable through adapting to changing external conditions to maintain normal life activities. Homeostatic medicine is the science of studying homeostasis of human molecules, cells, organs and the whole body. It is a comprehensive discipline based on maintaining homeostasis to keep human health and assist for diseases prevention and diagnoses. Homeostatic medicine focuses on the whole body and on the role of homeostasis in health and disease, which is expected to provide new ideas and strategies for maintaining health as well as diagnosing and treating diseases. Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the control of multisystem homeostasis. Nitrate is an important substance in regulating NO homeostasis through the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. Sialin, nitrate transporter which is located in the cell membrane and cytoplasm, mediates multiple cellular biological functions. The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway and sialin-mediated biological functions play an important role in the regulation of body homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nitrates/metabolism , Nitrites/metabolism , Homeostasis , Nitric Oxide
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e07038, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1487703

ABSTRACT

We report two outbreaks of nitrate and nitrite poisoning in Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. The first, due to Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass), and the second, due to P. purpureum and Brachiaria spp. (brachiaria grass), both occurred during a prolonged drought. In the first outbreak, the irrigation of the pastures with wastewater and sewage contributed to nitrate accumulation. The second outbreak occurred in pastures cultivated in the border of a dam, that had been submerged for long time accumulating large amounts of organic matter in the soil. Other probably risk factors for nitrate accumulation included the use of chemical fertilizers and herbicides and burning of the vegetation. In the first outbreak, four calves out of a total of 42 cattle died, and in the second outbreak 49 out of 243 cattle, including adults, yearlings, and a 2-day-old calf died. The clinical signs included dyspnea, cyanosis, ataxia, and falls, leading to death. The presence of nitrates was detected in both outbreaks using the diphenylamine test. Quantitative tests were performed in the second outbreak using a portable nitrate meter, and high nitrate concentrations were found. The characteristic macroscopic findings and absence of microscopic lesions and response to treatment with methylene blue were key to the diagnosis of poisoning by nitrates and nitrites. We conclude that poisoning by nitrates and nitrites in ruminants in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil is frequent due to the cultivation of grasses in the border of dams that had been covered by water for long periods or in areas irrigated by wastewater and/or sewage. In addition, the use of a portable measuring device is an effective alternative for the quantification of nitrates in pastures.


Relatamos dois surtos de intoxicação por nitrato e nitrito na Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil. O primeiro por Pennisetum purpureum (capim-elefante), e o segundo por P. purpureum e Brachiaria spp. (capim braquiária); ambos ocorreram durante uma estiagem prolongada. No primeiro surto, a irrigação das pastagens com água poluída e esgoto contribuiu para o acúmulo de nitrato. O segundo surto ocorreu em pastagens cultivadas na borda de uma barragem, que há muito tempo ficavam submersas, acumulando grande quantidade de matéria orgânica no solo. Outros prováveis fatores de risco para o acúmulo de nitrato incluíram o uso de fertilizantes químicos e herbicidas e a queima da vegetação. No primeiro surto, quatro bezerros de um total de 42 bovinos morreram, e no segundo surto 49 de 243 bovinos, incluindo adultos, jovens de um ano e um bezerro de 2 dias de idade morreram. Os sinais clínicos incluíram dispneia, cianose, ataxia e quedas, levando à morte. A presença de nitratos foi detectada em ambos os surtos pelo teste de difenilamina. Testes quantitativos foram realizados no segundo surto usando um medidor portátil de nitrato, e altas concentrações de nitrato foram encontradas. Os achados macroscópicos característicos e a ausência de lesões microscópicas e a resposta ao tratamento com azul de metileno foram fundamentais para o diagnóstico de intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos. Concluímos que a intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos em ruminantes na região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil é frequente devido ao cultivo de gramíneas nas bordas de barragens que estiveram cobertas por água por longos períodos ou em áreas irrigadas por água poluída e/ou esgoto. Além disso, o uso de medidor portátil é uma alternativa eficaz para a quantificação de nitratos em pastagens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Brachiaria/poisoning , Plant Poisoning/epidemiology , Plant Poisoning/etiology , Nitrates/poisoning , Nitrites/poisoning , Pennisetum/poisoning , Agricultural Irrigation , Pasture , Water Pollution, Chemical/adverse effects
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e07038, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360627

ABSTRACT

We report two outbreaks of nitrate and nitrite poisoning in Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. The first, due to Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass), and the second, due to P. purpureum and Brachiaria spp. (brachiaria grass), both occurred during a prolonged drought. In the first outbreak, the irrigation of the pastures with wastewater and sewage contributed to nitrate accumulation. The second outbreak occurred in pastures cultivated in the border of a dam, that had been submerged for long time accumulating large amounts of organic matter in the soil. Other probably risk factors for nitrate accumulation included the use of chemical fertilizers and herbicides and burning of the vegetation. In the first outbreak, four calves out of a total of 42 cattle died, and in the second outbreak 49 out of 243 cattle, including adults, yearlings, and a 2-day-old calf died. The clinical signs included dyspnea, cyanosis, ataxia, and falls, leading to death. The presence of nitrates was detected in both outbreaks using the diphenylamine test. Quantitative tests were performed in the second outbreak using a portable nitrate meter, and high nitrate concentrations were found. The characteristic macroscopic findings and absence of microscopic lesions and response to treatment with methylene blue were key to the diagnosis of poisoning by nitrates and nitrites. We conclude that poisoning by nitrates and nitrites in ruminants in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil is frequent due to the cultivation of grasses in the border of dams that had been covered by water for long periods or in areas irrigated by wastewater and/or sewage. In addition, the use of a portable measuring device is an effective alternative for the quantification of nitrates in pastures.(AU)


Relatamos dois surtos de intoxicação por nitrato e nitrito na Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil. O primeiro por Pennisetum purpureum (capim-elefante), e o segundo por P. purpureum e Brachiaria spp. (capim braquiária); ambos ocorreram durante uma estiagem prolongada. No primeiro surto, a irrigação das pastagens com água poluída e esgoto contribuiu para o acúmulo de nitrato. O segundo surto ocorreu em pastagens cultivadas na borda de uma barragem, que há muito tempo ficavam submersas, acumulando grande quantidade de matéria orgânica no solo. Outros prováveis fatores de risco para o acúmulo de nitrato incluíram o uso de fertilizantes químicos e herbicidas e a queima da vegetação. No primeiro surto, quatro bezerros de um total de 42 bovinos morreram, e no segundo surto 49 de 243 bovinos, incluindo adultos, jovens de um ano e um bezerro de 2 dias de idade morreram. Os sinais clínicos incluíram dispneia, cianose, ataxia e quedas, levando à morte. A presença de nitratos foi detectada em ambos os surtos pelo teste de difenilamina. Testes quantitativos foram realizados no segundo surto usando um medidor portátil de nitrato, e altas concentrações de nitrato foram encontradas. Os achados macroscópicos característicos e a ausência de lesões microscópicas e a resposta ao tratamento com azul de metileno foram fundamentais para o diagnóstico de intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos. Concluímos que a intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos em ruminantes na região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil é frequente devido ao cultivo de gramíneas nas bordas de barragens que estiveram cobertas por água por longos períodos ou em áreas irrigadas por água poluída e/ou esgoto. Além disso, o uso de medidor portátil é uma alternativa eficaz para a quantificação de nitratos em pastagens.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Plant Poisoning/etiology , Plant Poisoning/epidemiology , Brachiaria/poisoning , Pennisetum/poisoning , Nitrates/poisoning , Nitrites/poisoning , Water Pollution, Chemical/adverse effects , Pasture , Agricultural Irrigation
7.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(2): 27-36, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1339329

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this 9-month clinical study is to assess the impact of one-stage full-mouth disinfection (FMD) on salivary nitrite levels and systemic biomarkers and its correlation with total subgingival bacterial load in obese and non-obese patients with periodontitis. In total, 94 patients (55 obese and 39 non-obese) were initially evaluated, seven were lost during follow-up, resulting in 87 individuals at the end of the study. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months post periodontal treatment by FMD. Salivary nitrite levels were determined using Griess reagent. Blood samples were collected to determine C-Reactive Protein (CRP), alkaline phosphatase and fasting blood glucose. Real-time PCR was used to determine the total subgingival bacterial load. FMD protocol resulted in increased salivary nitrite levels at 6- and 9-months post-treatment in the non-obese group (p<0.05). In obese individuals, FMD treatment led to an increase in salivary nitrite levels at 6 months (p<0.05); however, at 9 months, the nitrite levels returned to baseline levels. For both groups, the highest nitrite values were observed at 6 months. In addition, in both groups, FMD was associated with a decrease in biomarkers related to systemic inflammation and cardiovascular diseases, such as CRP (p<0.05) and alkaline phosphatase (p<0.05), and had no impact on the fasting blood glucose. This study demonstrates that obese patients with periodontitis present similar salivary nitrite levels when compared with non-obese individuals. FMD protocol resulted in increases in salivary nitrite levels and was associated with a positive impact on systemic biomarkers, regardless of obesity status.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo clínico, é avaliar o impacto da desinfecção bucal completa (DBC) nos níveis de nitrito salivar e biomarcadores sistêmicos e sua correlação com a carga bacteriana subgengival total em pacientes obesos e não obesos com periodontite. No total, 94 pacientes (55 obesos e 39 não obesos) foram avaliados inicialmente, sete foram perdidos durante o estudo, resultando em 87 indivíduos ao final. Os resultados foram avaliados no início do estudo, 3, 6 e 9 meses após o tratamento periodontal por DBC. Os níveis de nitrito salivar foram determinados usando o reagente de Griess. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para determinação da Proteína C Reativa (PCR), fosfatase alcalina e glicemia de jejum. A PCR em tempo real foi usada para determinar a carga bacteriana subgengival total. O protocolo de DBC resultou em níveis aumentados de nitrito salivar em 6 e 9 meses após o tratamento no grupo de não obesos (p <0,05). Em indivíduos obesos, o tratamento da DBC levou a um aumento nos níveis de nitrito salivar em 6 meses (p <0,05); no entanto, aos 9 meses, os níveis de nitrito voltaram aos níveis basais. Para ambos os grupos, os maiores valores de nitrito foram observados aos 6 meses. Além disso, em ambos os grupos, a DBC foi associada à diminuição dos biomarcadores relacionados à inflamação sistêmica e doenças cardiovasculares, como PCR (p <0,05) e fosfatase alcalina (p <0,05), e não teve impacto na glicemia de jejum. Este estudo demonstra que pacientes obesos com periodontite apresentam níveis de nitrito salivar semelhantes quando comparados a indivíduos não obesos. O protocolo de DBC resultou em aumentos nos níveis de nitrito salivar e foi associado a um impacto positivo nos biomarcadores sistêmicos, independentemente do status de obesidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontitis , Nitrites , Biomarkers , Disinfection , Obesity/complications
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200106, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345494

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of the essential oils of cinnamon, cardamom, clove, oregano, and thyme and their synergism on vegetative cells and endospores of Clostridium perfringens type A inoculated in meat sausage (mortadella), as well as the influence of blends on the color, and lipid oxidation through the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS index). The anticlostridial action of the oil blends was established. The two added oil blends (Treat. 1: oregano, clove, and thyme; Treat. 2: oregano, clove, and cinnamon) in combination with reduced nitrite content (75 ppm) promoted a lower growth of C. perfringens in mortadella stored at 15 °C for 21 days in comparison to treatments containing only 75 ppm of nitrite. The essential oil blends showed antioxidant action and did not alter food color, thus possessing potential application as a preservative for the meat products industry.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Endospore-Forming Bacteria , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Nitrites , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Dianthus , Elettaria , Origanum , Thymus Plant
9.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 8(1): 67-76, 20200400. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178441

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: los Nitritos y Nitratos son aditivos alimentarios utilizados como con-servadores de productos cárnicos, los nitritos proporcionan un color característico rojizo en salchichas, pero también son reconocidos como un agente cancerígeno. Esta es la razón por la que el límite máximo de aceptación de Nitritos es de 125 mg NaNO2/Kg muestra. OBJETIVO: realizar una vigilancia de nitritos y nitratos presentes en las salchichas expendidas en los mercados Rodríguez y Villa Fátima de la ciudad de La Paz. MÉTODO: para la determinación de nitritos se usó el método de Espectrofotometría UV/Vis según los requisitos exigidos Norma Boliviana. RESULTADOS: en el estudio realizado de vigilancia se pudo observar que un 12% de las muestras no cumplen con el parámetro establecido de máximo 125 mg NaNO2/Kg muestra según Norma Boliviana y el Código Alimentario Argentino (C.A.A.) sin embargo el 88% de las muestras analizadas si cumplen con este pará-metro. El porcentaje promedio de humedad en las muestras fue de 60,34% y el promedio de pH fue de 5,92 aplicando la metodología de Norma Boliviana para productos cárnicos. CONCLUSIONES: en la determinación de Humedad y pH, la totalidad de las muestras cumplieron con los requisitos de aceptación para ambos parámetros. Sin embargo en el caso de la determinación de Nitritos, se encontraron muestras que contienen valores por encima de los valores de referencia por lo que es importante que los entes oficiales de control realicen vigilancias rutinarias a salchichas que son expendidas en ambos mercados, con el fin de que el aditivo Nitrito de sodio o Nitrito de potasio sean utilizados de acuerdo a lo establecido evitando de esta manera problemas de salud a los consumidores.


Introduction: nitrites and nitrates are food additives used as preservatives in meat pro-ducts, nitrites provide a characteristic reddish color in sausages, but they are also recognized as a carcinogenic agent. This is the reason why the maximum acceptance limit for nitrites is 125 mg NaNO2 / Kg sample. Objective: to carry out a surveillance of nitrites and nitrates present in the sausages sold in the Rodríguez and Villa Fatima markets of the city of La Paz. METHOD: for the determination of nitrites, the UV / Vis spectrophotometry method was used according to the requirements of the Bolivian Standard Results: In the surveillance study carried out it was observed that 12% of the samples do not comply with the established parameter of maximum 125 mg NaNO2 / Kg sample according to the Bolivian Norm and the Argentine Food Code (CAA), however 88% of the samples analyzed if they meet this parameter. The average percentage of moisture in the samples was 60.34% and the average pH was 5.92 applying the Bolivian Standard methodology for meat products. RESULTS: in the surveillance study carried out it was observed that 12% of the samples do not comply with the established parameter of maximum 125 mg NaNO2 / Kg sample according to the Bolivian Norm and the Argentine Food Code (CAA), however 88% of the samples analyzed if they meet this parameter. The average percentage of moisture in the samples was 60.34% and the average pH was 5.92 applying the Bolivian Standard methodology for meat products. CONCLUSIONS: in the determination of humidity and pH, all of the samples met the acceptance requirements for both parameters. However, in the case of Nitrite determination, samples were found that contain values above the reference values, so it is important that the official control entities carry out routine surveillance of sausages that are sold in both markets, in order to that the additive Sodium Nitrite or Potassium Nitrite are used according to what is established, thus avoiding health problems for consumers.


Subject(s)
Surveillance in Disasters , Food , Food Additives , Nitrites , Health , Reference Standards
10.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190118, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132178

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aquaponics is a system that integrates aquaculture with plant production in which two species are benefited, and there is water saving. In this study was carried out with an aquaponic system to verify the interaction between the growth of the halophytes Batis maritime, Sarcocornia neei, and Sporobolus virginicus associated with white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei rearing. We also investigated if there were different responses of physicochemical variables of the water in the experimental shrimp culture ponds integrated into the growth of plants and control ponds, without plants, throughout a 56-day period. The treatment experiment and control presented a statistically significant difference in total dissolved solids, salinity, total suspended solids, ammonia, orthophosphate, and nitrite. In the experimental treatment, with the presence of plants and recirculating water, a reduction of total suspended solids, ammonia and orthophosphate was observed. The rate of shrimp production was not significantly different between treatments, and the performance was similar to that of other studies. The biomass gain of the halophyte B. maritima was 876.6 grams in 0.5 m² and of S. neei was 48.8 grams in 0.16 m². All plants of the species S. virginicus died during the experiment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Water/chemistry , Chenopodiaceae/growth & development , Penaeidae/growth & development , Salt-Tolerant Plants/growth & development , Phosphates , Aquaculture , Hydroponics , Biomass , Chenopodiaceae/metabolism , Ammonia , Nitrites
11.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 238-244, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pyuria seems to be common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), irrespective of urinary tract infection (UTI). It has been hypothesized that sterile pyuria occurs in CKD because of chronic renal parenchymal inflammation. However, there are limited data on whether CKD increases the rate of pyuria or how pyuria in CKD should be interpreted. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of asymptomatic pyuria (ASP) in CKD via urinary white blood cell (WBC) analysis.METHODS: Urine examination was performed for all stable hemodialysis (HD) and non-dialysis CKD patients of the outpatient clinic (total N=298). Patients with infection symptoms or recent history of antibiotic use were excluded. Urine culture and WBC analysis were performed when urinalysis revealed pyuria.RESULTS: The prevalence of ASP was 30.5% (24.1% in non-dialysis CKD and 51.4% in HD patients). Over 70% of the pyuria cases were sterile. The majority of urinary WBCs were neutrophils, even in sterile pyuria. However, the percentage of neutrophils was significantly lower in sterile pyuria. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the degree of pyuria, percentage of neutrophils, and presence of urinary nitrites remained independently associated with sterile pyuria.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ASP was higher in CKD patients and increased according to CKD stage. Most ASP in CKD was sterile. Ascertaining the number and distribution of urinary WBCs may be helpful for interpreting ASP in CKD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Inflammation , Leukocytes , Logistic Models , Neutrophils , Nitrites , Prevalence , Pyuria , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Urinalysis , Urinary Tract Infections , Viperidae
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 428-437, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002239

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress and inflammation are the key players in the development of motor dysfunction post-spinal cord ischemic reperfusion injury (SC-IRI). This study investigated the protective effect of concomitant pre-administration of melatonin and alpha-tocopherol on the early complications (after 48 hours) of spinal cord IRI injury in rats. Melatonin or α-tocopherol were preadministered either individually or in combination for 2 weeks, then rats were exposed SC-IRI. Neurological examinations of the hind limbs and various biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in the SC tissue were assessed. Solely pre-administration of either melanin or α-tocopherol significantly but partially improved motor and sensory function of the hind limbs mediated by partial decreases in SC levels of MDA, AOPP and PGE2 levels and activities of SOD, partial significant decreases in plasma levels of total nitrate/nitrite and significant increases in AC activity of GSH-Px. However, combination therapy of both drugs resulted in the maximum improvements in all neurological assessments tested and biochemical endpoints. In conclusion, by their synergistic antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions, the combination therapy of melatonin and α-tocopherol alleviates SC-IRI induced paraplegia.


El estrés oxidativo y la inflamación son claves en el desarrollo de la disfunción motora posterior a lesión isquémica de la médula espinal (SC-IRI). Este estudio investigó acerca del efecto protector de la administración previa concomitante de la melatonina y alfa-tocoferol en las complicaciones tempranas (después de 48 horas) de la lesión de IRI de la médula espinal en ratas. La melatonina o el α-tocoferol se administraron individualmente o en combinación durante 2 semanas, luego las ratas fueron expuestas a SC-IRI. Se evaluaron los exámenes neurológicos de las miembros pélvicos y diversos marcadores bioquímicos de estrés oxidativo e inflamación en el tejido subcutáneo. Solo la administración previa de melatonina o α-tocoferol mejoró parcial y significativamente la función motora y sensorial de los miembros pélvicos mediadas por disminuciones parciales en los niveles de SC de los niveles de MDA, AOPP y PGE2 y las actividades de la SOD, disminuciones significativas parciales en los niveles plasmáticos del total nitrato / nitrito y aumentos significativos en la actividad de AC de GSH-Px. Sin embargo, se observaron los mejores resultados durante la combinación de ambos fármacos en todas las evaluaciones neurológicas y en los puntos finales bioquímicos. En conclusión, debido a sus acciones antioxidantes y antiinflamatorias sinérgicas, la terapia de melatonina y α-tocoferol alivia la paraplejía inducida por SC-IRI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Spinal Cord Ischemia/drug therapy , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Paraplegia , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Spinal Cord/pathology , Dinoprostone/blood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Tocopherols/pharmacology , Melatonin/pharmacology , Nitrites/blood , Antioxidants/pharmacology
13.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 2867-2871, abr.-maio 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482475

ABSTRACT

O trabalho objetivou estudar os efeitos da adição de diferentes concentrações de nitrito (0 a 300 mg/Kg) nos atributos de textura de apresuntados ao decorrer do tempo de armazenamento a vácuo (0 a 40 dias) utilizando um delineamento composto central rotacional. Maiores perdas de peso por cozimento foram observadas (P0,05) pelos fatores estudados, enquanto que maiores valores de flexibilidade foram observados nos produtos adicionados de maior quantidade de nitrito. Concluiu-se que o perfil de textura de produtos cárneos cozidos é ligeiramente alterado pela adição de nitrito de sódio.


Subject(s)
Food Additives , Nitrites/administration & dosage , Meat Products , Food Quality , Food Storage , Swine
14.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 3052-3056, abr.-maio 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482512

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar a cinética de redução das concentrações de nitrito adicionado (0 a 300 mg/kg) em apresuntados e seus efeitos na cor curada ao decorrer do tempo de armazenamento a vácuo (0 a 40 dias). O teor de nitrito residual aumentou (P0,05) por nenhum dos fatores. O comportamento para a tonalidade (h) foi o inverso do índice de cor curada, sendo que pequenas adições de nitrito implicaram em uma cor mais avermelhada (mais rosada), com ligeira perda (fading) no decorrer do tempo de armazenamento. Adições de 50 a 300 mg/kg de nitrito basicamente não alteraram a cor dos produtos, sendo pouco afetado pelo tempo de armazenamento à vácuo.


Subject(s)
Chemical Phenomena , Nitrites/administration & dosage , Nitrites/analysis , Meat Products/analysis , Food Preservation/methods
15.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 955-958, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482077

ABSTRACT

O objetivo com a realização deste estudo foi analisar as características físico-químicas de quatro marcas comerciais de salsichas de frango comercializadas na cidade de João Pessoa–PB. Foi adquirida uma amostra indicativa de cada marca (S1, S2, S3 e S4) e analisadas quanto à umidade, lipídios, proteínas, nitrito e amido. Todas as marcas estavam em conformidade com o regulamento técnico quanto aos teores de umidade, lipídios e nitrito. Por outro lado, em relação à proteína, as amostras S2 (11,80%) e S3 (11,33%) tiveram resultados abaixo do mínimo permitido pela legislação. Todas as amostras de salsicha tiveram resultado para amido (mín. 3,23g/100g e máx. 5,22g/100g) acima do permitido. Assim, deve ser intensificado o controle e a fiscalização na produção de tais produtos, para garantir que estes estejam de acordo com a legislação vigente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Starch , Chemical Phenomena , Nitrites , Meat Products/analysis , Meat Products/standards , Chickens , Food Quality
16.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 7(1): 93-101, abr. 2019. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178666

ABSTRACT

El examen general de orina (EGO) es una examen de rutina, rápido, de bajo costo y fácil acceso en los servicios de salud para la población. Además proporciona información importante para el diagnóstico de diversas enfermedades como infecciones del tracto urinario, diabetes y enfermedades renales. Este examen comprende de: el examen físico, el examen químico y el análisis microscópico del sedimento urinario. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte trasversal en el cual se procesaron 302 muestras de orina provenientes de mujeres aparentemente sanas de primer año de la Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Bioquímicas (FCFB) y su entorno familiar, además no se incluyó mujeres embarazadas y aquellas que cursaban su ciclo menstrual. El objetivo del estudio fue que los estudiantes de primer año de la Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Bioquímicas (FCFB) realicen correctamente el EGO analizar los resultados obtenidos, para relievar la importancia de este examen de laboratorio, en el diagnóstico de algunas enfermedades. Los resultados del EGO mostraron en algunas muestras, alteraciones en parámetros como: El aspecto, nitritos positivos, cantidad de bacterias y leucocitos, los cuales se ven asociados a infecciones del tracto urinario. Así también la presencia de glucosa en orina nos hace sospechar de diabetes. En ambos casos se recomendó a las participantes acudir a su médico, confirmar la sospecha con exámenes específicos y realizar el tratamiento adecuado. Por lo tanto el estudiante debe estar consciente de la importancia de realizar correctamente el EGO ya que los resultados del mismo ayudan al diagnóstico de algunas enfermedades.


The general urine test (EGO) is a routine test, fast, low cost and easy access in health services for the population. It also provides important information for the diagnosis of various diseases such as urinary tract infections, diabetes and kidney diseases. This test includes: physical examination, chemical examination and microscopic analysis of the urinary sediment. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in which 302 urine samples from apparently healthy first-year women of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biochemical Sciences (FCFB) and their family environment were processed, in addition to affected women who were not included. They were in their menstrual cycle. The objective of the study was that first-year students of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biochemical Sciences (FCFB) correctly perform the EGO to analyze the detected results, to highlight the importance of this laboratory test, in the diagnosis of some diseases. The results of the EGO detected in some samples, alterations in parameters such as: The appearance, positive nitrites, quantity of bacteria and leukocytes, which are associated with urinary tract infections. So also the presence of glucose in urine makes us suspect diabetes. In both cases, participants were advised to go to their doctor, confirm the suspicion with specific tests and perform the appropriate treatment. Therefore, the student must be aware of the importance of correctly performing the EGO and the results of the same help the diagnosis of some diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Urinary Tract Infections , Low Cost Technology , Diagnosis , Ego , Laboratory Test , Urinary Tract , Laboratories , Nitrites
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(4): e201900407, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001083

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the functional and structural response of tadalafil effects in the intestinal mucosa, using an experimental model of hypoxia and reoxygenation injury in rats. Methods: The animals were divided into 4 groups: CTL, H/R, H/R+Td and M+Td. The newborn rats allocated in groups H/R, H/R+Td and M+Td were submitted twice a day, to a gas chamber with CO2 at 100% for 10 minutes and afterward reoxygenation with O2 at 98% for 10 minutes, in the three first days of life. Tadalafil dose was given to newborn of group H/R+Td and to the pregnant rat of group M+Td. Histological analysis was made with hematoxylin-eosin technique and oxidative stress through nitrite and nitrate levels and lipid peroxidation. Results: The histological analysis showed a reduction of mucosa alterations in the groups that received tadalafil. In the oxidative stress evaluation, occurred an increase of NO levels and less lipidic peroxidation in the ileum segments that received tadalafil. Conclusion: Tadalafil provides tissue protection when administered independently to both, pregnant or newborns.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Oxygen/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Tadalafil/pharmacology , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Time Factors , Lipid Peroxidation , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Animals, Newborn , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Nitrates/analysis , Nitrites/analysis
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 942-955, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771832

ABSTRACT

Heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification (HN-AD) is an enrichment and breakthrough theory of traditional autotrophic nitrification heterotrophic denitrification. Heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrifiers with the feature of wide distribution, strong adaptability and unique metabolic mechanism have many special advantages, including fast-growing, rapid biodegradability and long lasting activity, which can rapidly remove ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen (NO₃⁻-N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO₂⁻-N) under aerobic conditions simultaneously. Therefore, HN-AD bacteria show the important potential for denitrification under extreme conditions with high-salt, low-temperature or high-ammonia nitrogen environment, and HN-AD bacteria attract extensive attention in the field of biological denitrification of wastewater. In this review, we first introduce the previously reported HN-AD bacterial species which have denitrification performance in the extreme environments and state their typical metabolic mechanism. Then, we systematically analyze the nitrogen removal characteristics and potential under extreme conditions. We also briefly describe the progress in the application of HN-AD bacterial. Finally, we outlook the application prospects and research directions of HN-AD denitrification technology.


Subject(s)
Aerobiosis , Bacteria , Denitrification , Heterotrophic Processes , Nitrification , Nitrites , Nitrogen
19.
Zagazig univ. med. j ; 25(6): 909-918, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1273875

ABSTRACT

Background: The most common bacterial infection among children is Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). Early diagnosis and good treatment of UTI is very important as the risk of renal damage is increased in children below the age of five years which result of morbidity. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children attending Pediatric outpatient clinic in Zagazig University Children's Hospital. Also to determine related risk factors, isolate the organisms that cause UTI in children and antibiotics susceptibility patterns. Methods: This Cross sectional descriptive study, was conducted on 600 children, (377 males and 223 females) from two to seven years old attending to pediatric outpatient clinic ZUH , All patient groups were exposed to full medical history, physical examination, Dipstick analysis by using both nitrite and leukocyte esterase detector, Microscopic examinations and urine culture for positive cases.Results: The prevalence of UTI between children included in the current study was (7%). LE positive were 56 (9.3%), Nitrite positive were 47 (7.8%) and both LE and Nitrite positive were 17 (2.8%). Conclusion: The prevalence of UTI was 7 % in our study, E - Coli was detected to be the most common organism, Cefotaxime and Amikacin were detected to be the most common antibiotic sensitive to the isolates


Subject(s)
Culture , Egypt , Nitrites , Urinary Tract Infections , Urine
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(9): 753-761, Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973501

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the oxidative stress, resulting from ischemia and hepatic reperfusion, in mice with non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis. Methods: C57BL/6 male mice were used. Part of them were ob/ob mice, and the other part was fed with standard or MCD diets - this last used to develop steatohepatitis. The animals - MCD-I/R, ob/ob-I/R and I/R groups - were submitted to 30 minutes of partial hepatic ischemia, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. The blood was collected, for biochemical analysis of AST, and the liver removed for assessment of TBARS and nitrite, and of histology. Results: After the I/R, the animal fed with MCD diet presented higher AST levels (MCD-I/R: 967±349U/L / ob/ob-I/R: 606±18 U/L / I/R: 311±172 U/L), TBARS (MCD-I/R: 7±1 nM/mg protein / ob/ob-I/R: 3±1 nM/mg protein / I/R: 3±1 nM/mg protein) and nitrite (MCD-I/R: 614±87 µg/mL / ob/ob-I/R: 512±81 µg/mL / I/R: 459±29 µg/mL) than the ob/ob mice, when both groups were compared to animals fed with standard diet. Regarding histology, the steatosis level (azonal macrovesicular steatosis of level 3 - >66%) and hepatic fibrosis (periportal and perisinusoidal of level 2) was also more intense, but both animal models presented lobular inflammation of level 3 (>66%). Conclusions: The murine model fed with MCD diet is suitable for the assessment of oxidative stress in hepatic I/R injury associated with the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although both murine models showed inflammatory infiltrate and macro and micro vesicular steatosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Nitrites/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
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