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1.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 239-245, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886915

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study evaluated the in vitro toxicity and motor activity changes in African-derived adult honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) exposed to lethal or sublethal doses of the insecticides fipronil and imidacloprid. Mortality of bees was assessed to determine the ingestion and contact lethal dose for 24 h using probit analysis. Motor activities in bees exposed to lethal (LD50) and sublethal doses (1/500th of the lethal dose) of both insecticides were evaluated in a behavioral observation box at 1 and 4 h. Ingestion and contact lethal doses of fipronil were 0.2316 ? 0.0626 and 0.0080 ? 0.0021 μg/bee, respectively. Ingestion and contact lethal doses of imidacloprid were 0.1079 ? 0.0375 and 0.0308 ? 0.0218 μg/bee, respectively. Motor function of bees exposed to lethal doses of fipronil and imidacloprid was impaired; exposure to sublethal doses of fipronil but not imidacloprid impaired motor function. The insecticides evaluated in this study were highly toxic to African-derived A. mellifera and caused impaired motor function in these pollinators.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pyrazoles/toxicity , Bees/drug effects , Neonicotinoids/toxicity , Insecticides/toxicity , Motor Activity/drug effects , Nitro Compounds/toxicity , Bees/physiology , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50
2.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(4): 1737-1745, oct.-dic. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-958247

ABSTRACT

Resumen:Los efectos de los insecticidas sobre las abejas han cobrado gran atención a nivel mundial, sin embargo, son pocos los estudios sobre el efecto de estos agroquímicos en abejas Neotropicales. Bombus atratus es una especie neotropical, distribuida ampliamente en los Andes y es considerado un polinizador importante de ecosistemas y agroecosistemas altoandinos. Sin embargo, al igual que muchas especies silvestres, se desconoce el efecto de los insecticidas en B. atratus. Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior, el presente trabajo determinó la dosis letal media aguda (DL50) por exposición tópica y oral de las formulaciones comerciales de los insecticidas con los ingredientes activos Imidacloprid, Spinosad y Thiocyclam hidrogenoxalato, ampliamente utilizados para el control de plagas de cultivos importantes en Colombia. Las pruebas DL50 se realizaron a partir de modificaciones de los lineamientos establecidos por la EPPO y OEDE para estas pruebas en Apis mellifera. Se evaluaron 5 dosis para cada insecticida y exposición. Se evaluaron 25 obreras de tamaño medio en cada dosis por duplicado. La mortalidad se registró a las 24, 48 y 72 horas después del experimento. Los datos fueron analizados con el modelo de regresión Probit. Para el Imidacloprid la DL50 tópica y oral fue de 0.048 µg/abeja y 0.010 µg/abeja respectivamente. Para el Thiocyclam hidrogenoxalato la DL50 tópica y oral fue de 0.244 µg/abeja y de 0.056 µg/abeja respectivamente. Para el Spinosad, la DL50 por exposición oral correspondió a 0.28 µg/abeja. No fue posible establecer la DL50 por exposición tópica. A partir del cálculo del Cociente de Riesgo (HQ) e Índice de Toxicidad Relativa, los tres ingredientes activos son altamente tóxicos. Se analiza y discute el riesgo debido al uso de los productos evaluados a partir de la naturaleza química de los insecticidas.


Abstract:The effect of insecticides on bees has gained great attention, however, there are few studies that explore this issue on Neotropical bees. Bombus atratus is a neotropical species broadly distributed in Colombia and is considered an important pollinator of both Andean ecosystems and agroecosystems. However, as for many wild bees species, the effect of insecticides on B. atratus is unknow. In this study we determined the acute median lethal dose (LD50) of commercial formulations of insecticides Imidacloprid, Spinosad and Thiocyclam hydrogen oxalate, widely used in Colombia to control several pests of important crops. The LD50 was carried out by oral and contact routes, following and modifying the EPPO and OECD guidelines to perform LD50 on A. mellifera. We evaluated five doses for each route and insecticide, in a total of 25 medium-size workers for each dose by duplicate. Mortality was registered at 24, 48 and 72 hours after the experiment; and data were analyzed with the Probit regression model. For Imidacloprid, contacts and oral LD50 were 0.048 µg/bee and 0.010 µg/bee, respectively. For Thiocyclam hydrogen oxalate, topical and oral LD50 were 0.244 µg/bee and 0.056 µg/bee, respectively. For Spinosad, the oral LD50 corresponded to 0.28 µg/bee; it was not possible to establish the LD50 for the contact route. The Hazard Quotient (HQ) and Index of Relative Toxicity indicated that all three active ingredients are highly toxic. We discussed the risk of the insecticides use on B. atratus, considering their chemical nature. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (4): 1737-1745. Epub 2016 December 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees/drug effects , Macrolides/toxicity , Neonicotinoids/toxicity , Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring/toxicity , Insecticides/toxicity , Nitro Compounds/toxicity , Reference Values , Time Factors , Risk Assessment , Drug Combinations , Lethal Dose 50
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-282985

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To detect the toxicity and teratogenicity of 2, 2-dinitroethene-1, 1-diamine (FOX-7) in rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>125 adult SD rats were randomly divided into five groups, which are negative control (0 mg/kg) , positive control (280 mg/kg aspirin) , and three dose groups (5, 15, and 45 mg/kg) . They were administrated by gavage once a day from the 5th days to 19th days after pregnancy. The weight changes and toxicity of pregnant rats are recorded within the study, and the skeleton and internal organs malformations are detected by the recommended methods.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After 5 or 6 days being poisoned, the pregnant rats appear significantly toxicity symptoms, such as exciting, irritability, and so on. The net weight raise in high dose group is less than the negative group, while the numbers of dead foetus in median and high dose groups are both more than that of negative group. Comparing with the negative group, the body weight and body lenghth of foetus rats in median and high dose groups, and the tail lenghth in high dose group are lower significantly. There are no external malformations in negative group and three dose groups. However, the foetus of high dose group appear significant skeleton and internal organs malformation prevalences that are significant more than negative group, including lateral cerebral ventricles enlarged, which accounts for 9.17%, occipital bone lost, which accounts for 2.59%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>FOX-7 can induced maternal reproductive toxicity, foetus toxicity and teratogenicity hazards to rats.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Female , Nitro Compounds , Toxicity , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Teratogens , Toxicity , Toxicity Tests
4.
EJB-Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology [The]. 2015; 33 (1-2): 1-15
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-177527

ABSTRACT

Imidacloprid may induce oxidative stress leading to generate free radicals and alternate oxygen free radical scavenging enzyme system. This study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of broccoli water extract and ferulic acid on imidacloprid induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in male albino rats. Rats were co-treated with broccoli water extract [200 mg/kg] or ferulic acid [20 mg/kg] with imidacloprid [80 mg/kg] orally for 28 days. The results revealed that imidacloprid induced high serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]. However, administration of broccoli and ferulic acid reduced these parameters. Broccoli and ferulic acid significantly [Pbroccoli and ferulic acid treated groups. The possible mechanism of broccoli and ferulic acid extract on imidacloprid might be due to decreasing oxidative stress [LPO, NO and DNA damage] and increasing GSH content. Thus, broccoli and ferulic acid was suggested to protected rat's liver against imidacloprid-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in liver


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Imidazoles , Nitro Compounds , Coumaric Acids , Plant Extracts , Oxidative Stress , Rats , DNA Damage
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237678

ABSTRACT

The paper is aimed to establish a method of residue analysis for thiamethoxam and to study its degradation dynamic and final residue and its standard of safe application of thiamethoxam on Lonicera japonica. Samples extracted with methanol by ultrasonication were purified with dichloromethane by liquid-liquid extraction and SPE column and analysed by HPLC-UV. The results showed that average rate was 84.91%-94.44% and RSD 1.74%-4.96% with addition of thiamethoxam in respectively diverse concentration, which meets inspection requirement of pesticide residue. Two kinds of dosages of thiamethoxam were treated- varying from recommended dosage (90 g x hm(-2)) to high dosage (135 g x hm(-2)), Results of two years test showed that thiamethoxam was degraded more than 90% seven days after application and the half - life period of thiamethoxam was 1.54-1.66 d. The digestion rate of thiamethoxam was fast in the L. japonica. The recommended MRL of thiamethoxam in the L. japonica is 0.1 mg x kg(-1), the dosage of 25% thiamethoxam WDG from 90-135 g x hm(-2) is sprayed less than three times a year on L. japonica and 14 days is proposed for the safety interval of the last pesticide application's and harvest's date.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Methods , Reference Standards , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flowers , Chemistry , Parasitology , Half-Life , Insect Control , Methods , Reference Standards , Insecticides , Chemistry , Lonicera , Chemistry , Parasitology , Neonicotinoids , Nitro Compounds , Chemistry , Oxazines , Chemistry , Pesticide Residues , Chemistry , Plant Diseases , Parasitology , Thiazoles , Chemistry
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(6): 761-766, 09/09/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723987

ABSTRACT

The prevention of Chagas disease is based primarily on the chemical control of Triatoma infestans (Klug) using pyrethroid insecticides. However, high resistance levels, correlated with control failures, have been detected in Argentina and Bolivia. A previous study at our laboratory found that imidacloprid could serve as an alternative to pyrethroid insecticides. We studied the delayed toxicity of imidacloprid and the influence of the blood feeding condition of the insect on the toxicity of this insecticide; we also studied the effectiveness of various commercial imidacloprid formulations against a pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans population from the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Variations in the toxic effects of imidacloprid were not observed up to 72 h after exposure and were not found to depend on the blood feeding condition of susceptible and resistant individuals. Of the three different studied formulations of imidacloprid on glass and filter paper, only the spot-on formulation was effective. This formulation was applied to pigeons at doses of 1, 5, 20 and 40 mg/bird. The nymphs that fed on pigeons treated with 20 mg or 40 mg of the formulation showed a higher mortality rate than the control group one day and seven days post-treatment (p < 0.01). A spot-on formulation of imidacloprid was effective against pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans populations at the laboratory level.


Subject(s)
Animals , Insect Vectors , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Insecticides/pharmacology , Nitro Compounds/pharmacology , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Triatoma/drug effects , Argentina , Bolivia , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Chagas Disease/transmission , Columbidae/parasitology , Feeding Behavior , Insecticide Resistance , Imidazoles/chemistry , Insect Vectors/metabolism , Insecticides/chemistry , Nitro Compounds/chemistry , Nymph/drug effects , Triatoma/classification , Triatoma/metabolism
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-306297

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To review the clinical features of acute toxicity of aromatic amino and nitro compounds.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 110 papers reporting 1240 cases of acute toxicity induced by aromatic amino and nitro compounds from 1979 to 2013 were collected from CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang database, and were analyzed in this study.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of all included cases, 939 were caused by occupational exposure, and 301 were caused by exposure in daily life. A total of 1044 cases were male, and 196 were female. Age ranged from 9 days to 75 years. There were 13 cases of contact reaction. The numbers of mild, moderate, and severe toxicities were 358, 348, and 139, respectively, and the other 382 cases were not graded for severity. The average incubation period was 4.50±5.71 h (M = 3 h). The average incubation period of aniline toxicity was significantly shorter than that of nitrobenzene toxicity. Methemoglobinemia was found in 1146 cases, while cases of poisonings with 5-nitro-o-toluidine, 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline, and 3-chloro-2-methyl aniline were not found to have methemoglobinemia. The detection rates of MHb and HzB were 83.73% (674/805) and 40.19% (129/321), respectively. Sixty-two (19.31%) out of 321 cases were complicated by intravascular hemolysis, 270 (30.93%) out of 873 cases suffered hepatic impairment, 50 (12.25%) out of 408 cases were accompanied by renal damage. Consciousness disorders were found in 66 cases, and chemical cystitis was found in 36 cases. Oral poisoning could immediately induce severe symptoms including cyanosis, unconsciousness, and hemolysis. In prognosis analysis, it was found that the cure rate was 98.71% (1224/1240), and 14 cases of death were caused by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, renal failure, uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Two cases were left with neurological sequelae.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The clinical manifestations of poisoning with aromatic amino and nitro compounds are methemoglobinemia, intravascular hemolysis, liver damage, and renal damage. Treatment with specific medicine methylene blue can produce ideal clinical prognosis, but severe poisoning may cause death from multiple organ failure.</p>


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Benzene Derivatives , Poisoning , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Nitro Compounds , Poisoning , Young Adult
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(9): 735-738, 19/set. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-686579

ABSTRACT

Nitro-fatty acids are formed and detected in human plasma, cell membranes, and tissue, modulating metabolic as well as inflammatory signaling pathways. Here we discuss the mechanisms of nitro-fatty acid formation as well as their key chemical and biochemical properties. The electrophilic properties of nitro-fatty acids to activate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways are discussed in detail. A critical issue is the influence of nitroarachidonic acid on prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases, redirecting arachidonic acid metabolism and signaling. We also analyze in vivo data supporting nitro-fatty acids as promising pharmacological tools to prevent inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Arachidonic Acid/metabolism , Fatty Acids/biosynthesis , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitro Compounds/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , NADPH Oxidases/metabolism , /metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nitro Compounds/chemistry , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/metabolism , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37235

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The primary prevention and proper initial treatment of childhood injuries is important, as it encompasses a bigger social and economic burden than cancer and ischemic heart disease. The Pediatric Risk of Mortality III (PRISM III) scoring system, used to evaluate the severity or mortality of pediatric patients in critical condition, was investigated for children with injuries in an emergency department (ED). METHODS: A retrospective analysis included data on 293 injured children (age<16) who visited the ED in two hospitals from March 2010 to February 2012. Physiologic and laboratory data were collected to calculate the PRISM III score and the Injury Severity Score (ISS). The correlation was analyzed between PRISM III scores, the Revised Trauma Scale (RTS), and ISS. The PRISM III score and ISS were assessed for their ability to predict mortality by comparing their receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: The median PRISM III score was 5.0 (Interquartile Range, 5.0-9.0) and correlated with RTS and ISS (the Spearman's rho were -0.19 (p=0.001) and 0.20 (p=0.001), respectively. Five children did not survive after ED admission. The area under the ROC (AUC) was 1.00 for PRISM III (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99-1.00), and the cutoff value was placed over 20 to predict mortality. The AUC of ISS and RTS was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98-1.00) and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98-1.00), respectively. CONCLUSION: The PRISM III score excellently predicts the mortality of injured children in the ED, and can be used to sort minor pediatric trauma patients in the ED. However, the PRISM III score had no great difference or advantage compared with RTS. The development of other tools for effective prognosis is needed to efficiently predict mortality and severity in the ED.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Child , Emergencies , Humans , Imidazoles , Injury Severity Score , Myocardial Ischemia , Nitro Compounds , Primary Prevention , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve
10.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 179-184, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30600

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Postoperative pancreatic fistula is a dreadful complication after gastric cancer surgery. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the actual incidence and risk factors of postoperative pancreatic fistula after curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 900 patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer (laparoscopic gastrectomy, 594 patients; open gastrectomy 306 patients) were enrolled between January 2009 and December 2010. Clinical outcomes, including postoperative pancreatic fistula grade based on the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula, were investigated. RESULTS: Overall, the postoperative pancreatic fistula rate was 3.3% (30/900) (1.5% in laparoscopic gastrectomy versus 6.9% in open gastrectomy, P<0.001). Patients who underwent D2 lymphadenectomy, total gastrectomy, splenectomy or distal pancreatectomy showed higher postoperative pancreatic fistula rates (4.7%, 13.8%, 13.6%, or 57.1%, respectively, P<0.001). Patients with postoperative pancreatic fistula had higher morbidity (46.7% versus 13.1%, P<0.001), delayed gas out (4.9 days versus 3.8 days, P<0.001), belated diet start (5.8 days versus 3.5 days, P<0.001) and longer postoperative hospital stay (13.7 days versus 6.8 days, P<0.001). On the multivariate analysis, total gastrectomy (odds ratio 9.751, 95% confidence interval: 3.348 to 28.397, P<0.001), distal pancreatectomy (odds ratio 7.637, 95% confidence interval: 1.668 to 34.961, P=0.009) and open gastrectomy (odds ratio 2.934, 95% confidence interval: 1.100 to 7.826, P=0.032) were the independent risk factors of postoperative pancreatic fistula. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic gastrectomy had an advantage over open gastrectomy in terms of the lower postoperative pancreatic fistula rate. Total gastrectomy and combined resection, such as distal pancreatectomy, should be performed carefully to minimize postoperative pancreatic fistula in gastric cancer surgery.


Subject(s)
Diet , Gastrectomy , Humans , Imidazoles , Incidence , Length of Stay , Lymph Node Excision , Multivariate Analysis , Nitro Compounds , Pancreatectomy , Pancreatic Fistula , Risk Factors , Splenectomy , Stomach Neoplasms , Sydnones
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120446

ABSTRACT

Surgical excision of keloids is generally not accepted as a first treatment option, but many reports have described specialized surgical methods, such as intralesional and intramarginal excision. This operation preserves the active peripheral portion of the keloid and excises the central bulky lesion. The suprakeloidal flap technique and keloid core excision involve intralesional excision. These methods are known to be associated with a low probability of recurrence or lesion exacerbation because the remaining keloidal lesion acts as a barrier. However, several complications, such as partial necrosis and flap congestion, have been reported, especially in large lesions. We describe cases of four patients with keloids on the chest or abdomen. All patients complained of pain or itching due to the keloids. Patient age ranged from 20 years to 54 years, and the number of lesions ranged from one to seven. The largest lesion measured 10x8 cm. We treated the lesions by the dermal shaving method using a suction-assisted cartilage shaver, and the lesions were markedly flattened in all cases. Because this surgery is performed through an incision for a cannula, it allows more rapid healing and causes less postoperative pain with fewer severe complications. It also has the advantage of requiring less effort and time due to the use of motorized curettage with suction. The suction-assisted cartilage shaver using dermal shaving method seems to be an effective alternative treatment modality for reducing the lesional size of keloids.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Cartilage , Catheters , Curettage , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Humans , Imidazoles , Keloid , Necrosis , Nitro Compounds , Pain, Postoperative , Pruritus , Recurrence , Suction , Thorax
12.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 394-398, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119223

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Ischemic priapism, a compartment syndrome, requires urgent treatment in order to nourish the corpora cavernosa. As the first step, aspiration of blood and irrigation of the cavernosal bodies is performed to prevent fibrotic activity and secure erectile capability. During aspiration, there are risks of cardiovascular side effects of adrenergic agonists. We aimed to evaluate a transient distal penile corporoglanular shunt technique in place of aspiration and irrigation techniques for treatment of early ischemic priapism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A transient distal penile shunt was applied to 15 patients with early ischemic priapism between January 2011 and May 2012. Priapism duration, history, causes, pain, and any prior management of priapism were assessed in all patients. A complete blood count and penile Doppler ultrasonography were performed, which showed attenuated blood flow in the cavernosal artery. A sterile closed system blood collection set, which has two needles and tubing, was used for the transient distal penile shunt. RESULTS: Ten of 15 patients with early ischemic priapism were successfully treated with this transient shunt technique. No additional procedures were needed after the resolution of rigidity in the 10 successfully treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: The transient nature of this technique is an advantage over aspiration and irrigation in the treatment of early ischemic priapism. Our results indicate that the technique can be offered for patients with an ischemic priapism episode of no more than 7 hours.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic Agonists , Arteries , Blood Cell Count , Compartment Syndromes , Humans , Hypogonadism , Imidazoles , Male , Mitochondrial Diseases , Needles , Nitro Compounds , Ophthalmoplegia , Penile Diseases , Penile Erection , Priapism , Resin Cements , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Urologic Surgical Procedures
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48542

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Preshaped Locking compression plate(LCP) has holes with fixed angle between screw and plate and have advantage firm fixation because it has stability of angular and axial deformity. We evaluated usefulness of LCP after open reduction and internal fixation in distal fibular fracture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between December 2011 and May 2012, 23 patients with fracture of distal fibula were followed up at least 12 months underwent open reduction and internal fixation with LCP. There were 15 males and 8 females with a mean age 39.8(20~69) years. According to Danis-Weber classification, there were 20 cases of type B and 3 cases of type C. There were 13 cases of isolated lateral malleolus fractures, 1 case of bimalleolar fracture, 6 cases of trimalleolar fractures and 3 cases of distal tibia fractures with proximal fibula fracture. Intraoperatively, we assessed whether preshaped LCP fit lateral margin of distal fibula or not and evaluated quality of reduction and postoperative complications. The cases were analyzed by radiological bone union time and clinical results according to the criteria of Meyer. RESULTS: Of all cases, complete bone union was achieved and average radiological bone union time was 7.3(6~12) weeks. The clinical results were excellent in 18 cases(78%), good in 5 cases(22%). There were 5 cases of plate with 3 holes, 13 cases of plate with 4 holes, 2 cases of plate with 5 holes, 1 case of plate with 6 holes and 2 cases of plate with 7 holes. The average number of screws at proximal fragement was 2.5 and at distal fragment was 3.5. In 14 cases (60.8%), we needed re-bending of plate because the distance between plate and lateral cortical margin of distal fibula was more than 5 mm at anteroposterior X-ray after reduction. All cases have anatomical reduction and there were no complications of wound infections. There were no complaint about hardware irritation. CONCLUSION: At fractures of distal fibula,preshaped LCP had a excellent stability although far cortex was not fixed with screw and bending of plate. And there are less complications of hardware irritation and wound problems. But, Some complement would be needed because there were no complete fitting between precontour of LCP and lateral cortical margin of distal fibula.


Subject(s)
Ankle Joint , Complement System Proteins , Congenital Abnormalities , Female , Fibula , Humans , Imidazoles , Male , Nitro Compounds , Postoperative Complications , Tibia , Wound Infection
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83176

ABSTRACT

Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is a prodrug which is activated by acid. Activated PPI binds covalently to the gastric H+, K+-ATPase via disulfide bond. Cys813 is the primary site responsible for the inhibition of acid pump enzyme, where PPIs bind. Omeprazole was the first PPI introduced in market, followed by pantoprazole, lansoprazole and rabeprazole. Though these PPIs share the core structures benzimidazole and pyridine, their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are a little different. Several factors must be considered in understanding the pharmacodynamics of PPIs, including: accumulation of PPI in the parietal cell, the proportion of the pump enzyme located at the canaliculus, de novo synthesis of new pump enzyme, metabolism of PPI, amounts of covalent binding of PPI in the parietal cell, and the stability of PPI binding. PPIs have about 1hour of elimination half-life. Area under the plasmic concentration curve and the intragastric pH profile are very good indicators for evaluating PPI efficacy. Though CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 polymorphism are major components of PPI metabolism, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of racemic mixture of PPIs depend on the CYP2C19 genotype status. S-omeprazole is relatively insensitive to CYP2C19, so better control of the intragastric pH is achieved. Similarly, R-lansoprazole was developed in order to increase the drug activity. Delayed-release formulation resulted in a longer duration of effective concentration of R-lansoprazole in blood, in addition to metabolic advantage. Thus, dexlansoprazole showed best control of the intragastric pH among the present PPIs. Overall, PPIs made significant progress in the management of acid-related diseases and improved health-related quality of life.


Subject(s)
2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles , Benzimidazoles , Gastric Acid , Genotype , Half-Life , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Imidazoles , Nitro Compounds , Omeprazole , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Proton Pumps , Protons , Pyridines , Quality of Life
15.
Immune Network ; : 157-162, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77565

ABSTRACT

Application of vaccine materials through oral mucosal route confers great economical advantage in animal farming industry due to much less vaccination cost compared with that of injection-based vaccination. In particular, oral administration of recombinant protein antigen against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an ideal strategy because it is safe from FMDV transmission during vaccine production and can induce antigen-specific immune response in mucosal compartments, where FMDV infection has been initiated, which is hardly achievable through parenteral immunization. Given that effective delivery of vaccine materials into immune inductive sites is prerequisite for effective oral mucosal vaccination, M cell-targeting strategy is crucial in successful vaccination since M cells are main gateway for luminal antigen influx into mucosal lymphoid tissue. Here, we applied previously identified M cell-targeting ligand Co1 to VP1 of FMDV in order to test the possible oral mucosal vaccination against FMDV infection. M cell-targeting ligand Co1-conjugated VP1 interacted efficiently with M cells of Peyer's patch. In addition, oral administration of ligand-conjugated VP1 enhanced the induction of VP1-specific IgG and IgA responses in systemic and mucosal compartments, respectively, in comparison with those from oral administration of VP1 alone. In addition, the enhanced VP1-specific immune response was found to be due to antigen-specific Th2-type cytokine production. Collectively, it is suggested that the M cell-targeting strategy could be applied to develop efficient oral mucosal vaccine against FMDV infection.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Imidazoles , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunization , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Lymphoid Tissue , Nitro Compounds , Phenobarbital , Vaccination
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72884

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of students, their parents, and nutrition teachers regarding environment-friendly foods (EFF) and the satisfaction with school meals at elementary schools. Questionnaires were sent to nutrition teachers at five elementary schools located in the Jindo area, Jeonnam province, and were distributed to students and their parents. A total of 351 questionnaires from students and 334 from parents were collected from March to April, 2013. In addition, 43 nutrition teachers/dietitians working at elementary schools in the Jindo area responded to questionnaires. Nutrition teachers primarily recognized the classification and certification standards of EFF, and verified the certification mark of EFF when they purchased foods. However, 13.4% of students and 38.6% of parents replied as 'know well' regarding the classification and certification standards of EFF and they verified the mark of EFF less often than the nutrition teachers (p < 0.001). Most of the nutrition teachers and parents indicated 'safety' as the main advantage of EFF. The students and parents were satisfied with EFF at home and school meals because of the safety and favorable effect on health. The results showed that EFF compromised 20~40% of monthly food costs for 51.1% of nutrition teachers. The overall score for satisfaction with school meals for students was 3.88 based on a 5-point Likert scale; however, that of the parents was 3.72. The nutrition teachers realized that the parents were more interested in EFF and satisfied with EFF than the students. The major barriers to using EFF in school meals were 'lack of information about EFF' and 'unstable supply.' Therefore, the above results suggested that there should be improvement in the supply of EFF to include more EFF in school meals and efforts should be made to provide students and parents with more information for understanding EFF.


Subject(s)
Certification , Humans , Imidazoles , Meals , Nitro Compounds , Parents , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177971

ABSTRACT

Until recently, since the Human Genome Project, the general view has been that the majority of the human genome is composed of junk DNA and has little or no selective advantage to the organism. Now we know that this conclusion is an oversimplification. In April 2003, the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) launched an international research consortium called Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) to uncover non-coding functional elements in the human genome. The result of this project has identified a set of new DNA regulatory elements, based on novel relationships among chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, DNA methylation, transcription, and the occupancy of sequence-specific factors. The project gives us new insights into the organization and regulation of the human genome and epigenome. Here, we sought to summarize particular aspects of the ENCODE project and highlight the features and data that have recently been released. At the end of this review, we have summarized a case study we conducted using the ENCODE epigenome data.


Subject(s)
Chromatin , DNA , DNA Methylation , DNA, Intergenic , Genome, Human , Histones , Human Genome Project , Humans , Imidazoles , Nitro Compounds , Nucleosomes
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36156

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to introduce a microvascular training model based on use of materials that can be easily obtained from the daily surroundings. METHODS: Simple microinstruments and a medical school laboratory microscope were used for anastomosis training. Chicken blood vessels were used as a material for this study. A long segment of blood vessel from the proximal brachial artery to the distal radial artery was used for training. End-to-side anastomosis was practiced first, and the training continued with end-to-end anastomosis of the appropriate segments. RESULTS: The instruments used for setting up this model were simple and easy to use; therefore, the time required for preparation of the materials and dissection of the chicken wings was only approximately five to ten minutes. The characteristics of 20 chicken wings were analyzed. The length of the brachial artery to the radial artery was 8 - 10 cm. The average diameter of the brachial artery was 1.3 mm +/- 0.2 mm and that of the radial artery was 1.0 mm +/- 0.2 mm. Taking advantage of these characteristics, the proximal brachial artery was grafted to the radial artery for practice of end-to-side anastomosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests an effective and feasible method for microvascular anastomosis training using chicken wing arteries and simple microinstruments. This model may simulate the conditions of a superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis surgery.


Subject(s)
Anastomosis, Surgical , Arteries , Blood Vessels , Brachial Artery , Chickens , Glycosaminoglycans , Imidazoles , Middle Cerebral Artery , Nitro Compounds , Radial Artery , Schools, Medical , Temporal Arteries , Transplants , Wings, Animal
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-33002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Beers criteria are used to identify the potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in elderly patients. However, the criteria have limitations such as lacking consideration of drug-drug and duplicated prescriptions. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of newly developed screening tool of older person's prescriptions (STOPP) with Beers criteria in identifying PIMs and adverse drug events (ADEs) in elderly patients. METHODS: We included 115 elderly patients older than 65 years who visited the outpatients' clinic or have been hospitalized for medical illness. Comprehensive geriatric assessments including medication review by the pharmacists were performed by the multidisciplinary team. Beers criteria and STOPP were used to find out PIMs. The association between PIMs defined by both criteria with ADEs was also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 59 patients (50.4%) by Beers criteria and 76 patients (65.0%) by STOPP had been prescribed with PIMs. Compared with Beers criteria, STOPP had advantage in identifying more PIMs. In addition, STOPP could identify more ADEs related medications than Beers criteria. STOPP was also useful to detect duplicate drug class prescription and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for renal impaired patients. CONCLUSION: STOPP criteria PIMs can detect more duplicated prescription and are significantly associated with avoidable ADEs in older individuals compared with that of Beers criteria PIMs.


Subject(s)
Aged , Beer , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Imidazoles , Mass Screening , Nitro Compounds , Pharmacists , Prescriptions
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57754

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Colorectal surgeries by single port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) are increasing. While recent studies have reported results that are similar with the idea of conventional laparoscopy, SPLS is considered superior to conventional laparoscopy with regard to cosmetic aspects. We investigated the question of whether length of incision and postoperative recovery are different depending on the method of anastomosis in patients who underw ent SPLS right hemicolectomy (RHC). METHODS: Data on patients who underwent SPLS RHC from May 2011 to April 2012 at Samsung Medical Center were retrospectively collected. Among 117 patients, 31 received functional end-to-end anastomosis (FEEA) while 86 received isoperistaltic side-to-side anastomosis (ISSA). RESULTS: Operation time was shorter in FEEA compared to ISSA (152+/-42 vs 172+/-35 min, p=0.01). Neither group required an additional port. Although wound extension for specimen delivery tended to be frequent in loop type specimen after FEEA, the result was statistically insignificant (58.1 vs 43.0%, p=0.15). No difference in wound length was observed (4.4+/-1.0 vs 4.5+/-1.5 cm). Length of stay was longer in ISSA compared to FEEA (6.3+/-2.1 vs 7.9+/-4.3 days, p=0.01), and there was no difference in first gas passage (2.5+/-0.9 vs 2.8+/-0.9 days, p=0.26). Although three patients (9.7%) with FEEA and 19 patients (22.1%) with ISSA had postoperative complications, the difference was insignificant. CONCLUSION: Theoretically, delivery of a tube shaped specimen after ISSA is expected to reduce unnecessary wound extension and possible tumor dissemination compared to loop shape specimen after FEEA. However, results of our study showed no advantage in recovery period and wound length. We suggest that future prospective study might reveal more valuable conclusions on the subject.


Subject(s)
Cosmetics , Humans , Imidazoles , Laparoscopy , Length of Stay , Nitro Compounds , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies
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