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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4647-4654, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008631

ABSTRACT

To explore the suitable fertilizing pattern for Saposhnikovia divaricata in the genuine producing area, a field trial was carried out to investigate the changes in the yield and quality of medicinal materials and soil in different fertilization patterns, such as organic fertilizer substitution(organic fertilizer+NPK fertilizer) and chemical fertilizer reduction(organic fertilizer+NPK fertilizer decrement and organic fertilizer+NPK fertilizer decrement+soil conditioner). The comprehensive analysis of all treatments was based on the medicine quality evaluation data set and soil quality evaluation data set, respectively, by CRITIC weight method. The results showed that(1) the yield of S. divaricate increased by 4.93%-12.67% under the organic fertilizer substitution mode, and the yield increased by 44.43% under the treatment of chemical fertilizer reduction YHT15, which was higher than that of the organic fertilizer substitution mode.(2) The quality of S. divaricate under the two fertilization modes was superior to the standard in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and the application of biochar was helpful to improve the quality of S. divaricate quality, with an increase of 82.83%-181.54%. CRITIC method analysis showed that fertilization treatments with high comprehensive scores were YHT15, YH30, and YH15.(3) Soil quality under the two fertilization modes was higher than that under the control. The fertilization treatments with higher comprehensive scores of soil quality were YHT15, YHT30, and YHT. The fertilization mode of adding biochar as soil conditioner, applying an appropriate amount of organic fertilizer, and reducing part of chemical fertilizer is the appropriate way to develop ecological plantation of S. divaricata in the Baicheng area in the western Jilin province. The specific fertilization mode is as follows. The basic fertilizer was 361 kg·hm~(-2) superphosphate+110 kg·hm~(-2) potassium sulfate+82 kg·hm~(-2) organic fertilizer+10 000 kg·hm~(-2) rice husk biochar, and urea was applied as top fertilizer three times, 29, 29, and 20 kg·hm~(-2), respectively.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Fertilizers/analysis , Soil , Apiaceae , Nitrogen/analysis
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2743-2761, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981230

ABSTRACT

Nitrate is the main form of inorganic nitrogen that crop absorbs, and nitrate transporter 2 (NRT2) is a high affinity transporter using nitrate as a specific substrate. When the available nitrate is limited, the high affinity transport systems are activated and play an important role in the process of nitrate absorption and transport. Most NRT2 cannot transport nitrates alone and require the assistance of a helper protein belonging to nitrate assimilation related family (NAR2) to complete the absorption or transport of nitrates. Crop nitrogen utilization efficiency is affected by environmental conditions, and there are differences between varieties, so it is of great significance to develop varieties with high nitrogen utilization efficiency. Sorghum bicolor has high stress tolerance and is more efficient in soil nitrogen uptake and utilization. The S. bicolor genome database was scanned to systematically analyze the gene structure, chromosomal localization, physicochemical properties, secondary structure and transmembrane domain, signal peptide and subcellular localization, promoter region cis-acting elements, phylogenetic evolution, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) recognition and annotation, and selection pressure of the gene family members. Through bioinformatics analysis, 5 NRT2 gene members (designated as SbNRT2-1a, SbNRT2-1b, SbNRT2-2, SbNRT2-3, and SbNRT2-4) and 2 NAR2 gene members (designated as SbNRT3-1 and SbNRT3-2) were identified, the number of which was less than that of foxtail millet. SbNRT2/3 were distributed on 3 chromosomes, and could be divided into four subfamilies. The genetic structure of the same subfamilies was highly similar. The average value of SbNRT2/3 hydrophilicity was positive, indicating that they were all hydrophobic proteins, whereas α-helix and random coil accounted for more than 70% of the total secondary structure. Subcellular localization occurred on plasma membrane, where SbNRT2 proteins did not contain signal peptides, but SbNRT3 proteins contained signal peptides. Further analysis revealed that the number of transmembrane domains of the SbNRT2s family members was greater than 10, while that of the SbNRT3s were 2. There was a close collinearity between NRT2/3s of S. bicolor and Zea mays. Protein domains analysis showed the presence of MFS_1 and NAR2 protein domains, which supported executing high affinity nitrate transport. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that SbNRT2/3 were more closely related to those of Z. mays and Setaria italic. Analysis of gene promoter cis-acting elements indicated that the promoter region of SbNRT2/3 had several plant hormones and stress response elements, which might respond to growth and environmental cues. Gene expression heat map showed that SbNRT2-3 and SbNRT3-1 were induced by nitrate in the root and stem, respectively, and SbNRT2-4 and SbNRT2-3 were induced by low nitrogen in the root and stem. Non-synonymous SNP variants were found in SbNRT2-4 and SbNRT2-1a. Selection pressure analysis showed that the SbNRT2/3 were subject to purification and selection during evolution. The expression of SbNRT2/3 gene and the effect of aphid infection were consistent with the expression analysis results of genes in different tissues, and SbNRT2-1b and SbNRT3-1 were significantly expressed in the roots of aphid lines 5-27sug, and the expression levels of SbNRT2-3, SbNRT2-4 and SbNRT3-2 were significantly reduced in sorghum aphid infested leaves. Overall, genome-wide identification, expression and DNA variation analysis of NRT2/3 gene family of Sorghum bicolor provided a basis for elucidating the high efficiency of sorghum in nitrogen utilization.


Subject(s)
Nitrate Transporters , Nitrates/metabolism , Sorghum/metabolism , Anion Transport Proteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Protein Sorting Signals/genetics , Nitrogen/metabolism , DNA , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2719-2729, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981228

ABSTRACT

To investigate the bioelectrochemical enhanced anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) nitrogen removal process, a bioelectrochemical system with coupled anammox cathode was constructed using a dual-chamber microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Specifically, a dark incubation batch experiment was conducted at 30 ℃ with different influent total nitrogen concentrations under an applied voltage of 0.2 V, and the enhanced denitrification mechanism was investigated by combining various characterization methods such as cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and high-throughput sequencing methods. The results showed that the total nitrogen removal rates of 96.9%±0.3%, 97.3%±0.4% and 99.0%±0.3% were obtained when the initial total nitrogen concentration was 200, 300 and 400 mg/L, respectively. In addition, the cathode electrode biofilm showed good electrochemical activity. High-throughput sequencing results showed that the applied voltage enriched other denitrifying functional groups, including Denitratisoma, Limnobacter, and ammonia oxidizing bacteria SM1A02 and Anaerolineaceae, Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrospira, besides the anammox bacteria. These electrochemically active microorganisms comprised of ammonium oxidizing exoelectrogens (AOE) and denitrifying electrotrophs (DNE). Together with anammox bacteria Candidatus Brocadia, they constituted the microbial community structure of denitrification system. Enhanced direct interspecies electron transfer between AOE and DNE was the fundamental reason for the further improvement of the total nitrogen removal rate of the system.


Subject(s)
Denitrification , Wastewater , Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation , Nitrogen , Oxidation-Reduction , Bioreactors/microbiology , Ammonium Compounds , Bacteria/genetics , Microbiota , Sewage
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 45-51, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970500

ABSTRACT

Violet root rot is one of the main root diseases in the production process of Pseudostellaria heterophylla. To clarify the pathogenic species that cause the violet root rot of P. heterophylla in Fujian province, the roots and the sclerotia with violet root rot symptoms were collected from the main producing areas of P. heterophylla(Fujian province) from 2017 to 2021, and the pathogens were isolated by tissue separation method and identified by morphology and multi-gene phylogenetic analysis. Additionally, the biological characteristics of the pathogens were studied and the fungicides were determined. The results showed that 78 strains of violet root rot were isolated from the collected root samples, which belonged to one type after preliminary morphological identification. Two represen-tative strains were selected from the pathogens for multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, and they were clustered with Helicobasidium mompa together. The suitable culture conditions for the mycelium were OA medium, 25 ℃, pH 6, and ammonium oxalate as the nitrogen source. The lethal temperature of the mycelium was 50 ℃ for 10 minutes. Moreover, 99.1% propiconazole and 98.7% azoxystrobin had the optimal bacteriostatic effect, and the concentrations with the 50% bacteriostatic rate were 16.85 and 12.24 μg·mL~(-1), respectively. On the basis of the above results, the pathogen causing violet root rot of P. heterophylla in Fujian province was H. mompa. The medium type, growth temperature, pH value, nitrogen source, etc. had significant effect on the growth of mycelium.


Subject(s)
Plant Roots , Phylogeny , Temperature , Caryophyllaceae , Nitrogen
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1070-1082, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970423

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to develop a technical system for high-efficient production of fucoxanthin by photo-fermentation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum. In a 5 L photo-fermentation tank, the effects of initial light intensity, nitrogen source and concentration as well as light quality on biomass concentration and fucoxanthin accumulation in P. tricornutum were investigated systematically under mixotrophic condition. The results showed that the biomass concentration, fucoxanthin content and productivity reached the highest level of 3.80 g/L, 13.44 mg/g and 4.70 mg/(L·d) under the optimal conditions of initial light intensity of 100 μmol/(m2·s), 0.02 mol TN/L of tryptone: urea (1:1, N mol/N mol) as mixed nitrogen source, and a mixed red/blue (R: B=6:1) light, 1.41, 1.33 and 2.05-fold higher than that before optimization, respectively. This study developed a key technology for enhancing the production of fucoxanthin by photo-fermentation of P. tricornutum, facilitating the development of marine natural products.


Subject(s)
Fermentation , Xanthophylls , Light , Diatoms , Nitrogen
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1026-1039, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970420

ABSTRACT

The wide use of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in research, medicine, industry, and other fields has raised concerns about their biosafety. It is therefore unavoidable to be discharged into the sewage treatment system. Due to the unique physical and chemical properties of ZnO NPs and CuO NPs, it may be toxic to the members of the microbial community and their growth and metabolism, which in turn affects the stable operation of sewage nitrogen removal. This study summarizes the toxicity mechanism of two typical metal oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs and CuO NPs) to nitrogen removal microorganisms in sewage treatment systems. Furthermore, the factors affecting the cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are summarized. This review aims to provide a theoretical basis and support for the future mitigating and emergent treatment of the adverse effects of nanoparticles on sewage treatment systems.


Subject(s)
Wastewater/toxicity , Sewage/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nitrogen/metabolism , Water Purification
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1009-1025, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970419

ABSTRACT

Water eutrophication poses great threats to protection of water environment. Microbial remediation of water eutrophication has shown high efficiency, low consumption and no secondary pollution, thus becoming an important approach for ecological remediation. In recent years, researches on denitrifying phosphate accumulating organisms and their application in wastewater treatment processes have received increasing attention. Different from the traditional nitrogen and phosphorus removal process conducted by denitrifying bacteria and phosphate accumulating organisms, the denitrifying phosphate accumulating organisms can simultaneously remove nitrogen and phosphorus under alternated anaerobic and anoxic/aerobic conditions. It is worth noting that microorganisms capable of simultaneously removing nitrogen and phosphorus absolutely under aerobic conditions have been reported in recent years, but the mechanisms remain unclear. This review summarizes the species and characteristics of denitrifying phosphate accumulating organisms and the microorganisms capable of performing simultaneous nitrification-denitrification and phosphorous removal. Moreover, this review analyzes the relationship between nitrogen removal and phosphorus removal and the underlying mechanisms, discusses the challenges of denitrifying phosphorus removal, and prospects future research directions, with the aim to facilitate process improvement of denitrifying phosphate accumulating organisms.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus , Phosphates , Wastewater , Denitrification , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Nitrogen , Bioreactors/microbiology , Nitrification , Sewage
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 10-16, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970101

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to investigate whether Gasdermin D (GSDMD)-mediated pyroptosis participated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI), and to explore the role of caspase-1 and caspase-11 pyroptosis pathways in this process. The mice were divided into four groups: wild type (WT), WT-LPS, GSDMD knockout (KO) and KO-LPS. The sepsis-associated AKI was induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (40 mg/kg). Blood samples were taken to determine the concentration of creatinine and urea nitrogen. The pathological changes of renal tissue were observed via HE staining. Western blot was used to investigate the expression of pyroptosis-associated proteins. The results showed that the concentrations of serum creatinine and urea nitrogen in the WT-LPS group were significantly increased, compared with those in the WT group (P < 0.01); whereas serum creatinine and urea nitrogen in the KO-LPS group were significantly decreased, compared with those in the WT-LPS group (P < 0.01). HE staining results showed that LPS-induced renal tubular dilatation was mitigated in GSDMD KO mice. Western blot results showed that LPS up-regulated the protein expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), GSDMD and GSDMD-N in WT mice. GSDMD KO significantly down-regulated the protein levels of IL-1β, caspase-11, pro-caspase-1, caspase-1(p22) induced by LPS. These results suggest that GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis is involved in LPS-induced sepsis-associated AKI. Caspase-1 and caspase-11 may be involved in GSDMD cleavage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acute Kidney Injury , Caspase 1 , Caspases/metabolism , Creatinine , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice, Knockout , Nitrogen , Sepsis , Urea , Gasdermins/metabolism
9.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1241-1244, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010933

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of thrombocytopenia on the prognosis of patients with septic shock and its mechanism in leading to death.@*METHODS@#A retrospective case-control study was conducted. Patients with septic shock admitted to emergency intensive care unit (EICU) and intensive care unit (ICU) in Peking University People's Hospital from April 1, 2015 to January 31, 2023 were enrolled. Patients were divided into the thrombocytopenia group and the non-thrombocytopenia group, according to whether the minimum platelet count was less than 100×109/L within 24 hours after admission to ICU. The outcome index was the mortality during ICU stay. The baseline data, hospitalization information and laboratory test results of the two groups were compared, and the risk factors of in-hospital death were analyzed by Logistic regression, and the mediation effect was performed by Bootstrap method.@*RESULTS@#A total of 301 patients with septic shock were enrolled, of which 172 (57.1%) had thrombocytopenia and 129 (42.9%) did not. There were significant differences between the two groups in age, mortality, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), continuous renal replacement therapy, and level of creatinine, urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Univariate Logistic regression analysis showed thrombocytopenia [odds ratio (OR) = 4.478], continuous renal replacement therapy (OR = 4.601), DIC (OR = 6.248), serum creatinine (OR = 1.005), urea nitrogen (OR = 1.126), total bilirubin (OR = 1.006) and PT (OR = 1.126) were risk factors of death during hospitalization in patients with septic shock (all P < 0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that thrombocytopenia [OR = 3.338, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 1.910-5.834, P = 0.000], continuous renal replacement therapy (OR = 3.175, 95%CI was 1.576-6.395, P = 0.001) and PT (OR = 1.077, 95%CI was 1.011-1.147, P = 0.021) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality in patients with septic shock. Mediation analysis showed that 51% of the deaths due to thrombocytopenia in patients with septic shock were due to coagulopathy.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Thrombocytopenia is a powerful predictor of death in septic shock patients, and half of all thrombocytopenia-related deaths may be due to abnormal coagulation function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Shock, Septic , Retrospective Studies , Case-Control Studies , Hospital Mortality , Prognosis , Thrombocytopenia , Intensive Care Units , Bilirubin , Nitrogen , Urea , Sepsis
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4580-4592, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008043

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to promote fucoxanthin accumulation in Phaeodactylum tricornutum by photo-fermentation through optimizing the mode of multiple nitrogen supplementation and blue light enhancement. The results showed that the mixed nitrogen source (tryptone: urea=1:1, N mol/N mol; total nitrogen concentration at 0.02 mol/L) added to the culture system by six times was the best mode in shake flasks. Two-phase culture with light adjustment was then carried out in 5 L photo-fermenter with an enhanced blue light (R: G: B=67.1:16.7:16.3) in the second phase, leading to improved cell density (1.12×108 cells/mL), biomass productivity (330 mg/(d·L)), fucoxanthin content (19.62 mg/g), titer (69.71 mg/L) and productivity (6.97 mg/(d·L)). Compared with one-phase culture under red/blue (R: G: B=70.9:18.3:10.9) light and six-times nitrogen supplementation, the fucoxanthin content was significantly increased by 7.68% (P < 0.05) but the productivity did not change significantly (P > 0.05). Compared with one-phase culture under red/blue (R: G: B=70.9:18.3:10.9) light and one-time nitrogen supplementation, the content and productivity of fucoxanthin were significantly increased by 45.98% and 48.30% (P < 0.05), respectively. This study developed a two-phase culture mode with multiple nitrogen supplementation and blue light enhancement, which effectively promoted the accumulation of fucoxanthin and improved the efficiency of nitrogen source utilization, thus providing a new approach for fucoxanthin accumulation in P. tricornutum by photo-fermentation.


Subject(s)
Nitrogen , Light , Xanthophylls , Diatoms , Dietary Supplements
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-7, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468918

ABSTRACT

Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-¹ combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-¹ level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-¹ to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


A aplicação de diferentes fertilizantes para verificar a eficiência da expressão do gene Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) em uma das principais culturas comercializadas (algodão) contra espécies de lepidópteros é uma grande preocupação. A expressão do nível de proteína Cry pode ser controlada pela melhoria dos níveis de nutrientes. Portanto, o mito da resposta da toxina Cry a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes NP foi explorado em três cultivares de algodão Bt. As combinações incluem três níveis de nitrogênio e três níveis de fertilizantes de fósforo. A análise de PCR (reação em cadeia da polimerase) específica para o gene (s) Immunostrips e Cry (s) foi usada para a presença do gene Bt que revelou a presença do gene Cry1Ac apenas. Além disso, o kit ELISA (ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática) foi usado para quantificar a expressão da proteína Cry1Ac. Sob várias taxas de fertilizantes NP, o nível de proteína de toxina exibiu diferenças altamente significativas. A média do nível mais alto de toxina foi de 2,3740 e 2,1732 µg / g sob o tratamento da combinação N150P75 kg ha-¹, enquanto a média do nível mais baixo de toxina foi de 0,9158 e 0,7641 µg / g no nível de N50P25 kg ha-¹ em 80 e 120 DAS (dias após a semeadura), respectivamente. Concluiu-se com a pesquisa que o uso de fertilizantes NP tem relação positiva com a expressão da toxina Cry1Ac no algodão Bt. Recomendamos o uso do nível de N150P50 kg ha-¹ como o fertilizante mais econômico e praticável em vez da dose padrão N100P50 kg ha-¹ para obter o nível desejado de nível de Cry1Ac para resistência de planta de longa duração (<1,5). A dose revisada de fertilizante pode ajudar os agricultores a evitar o desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada em contradição com as pragas de insetos.


Subject(s)
Bacillus thuringiensis/genetics , Pest Control/methods , Fertilizers/analysis , Phosphorus/administration & dosage , Gossypium , Gossypium/genetics , Nitrogen/administration & dosage , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246436, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339391

ABSTRACT

Abstract Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Resumo A aplicação de diferentes fertilizantes para verificar a eficiência da expressão do gene Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) em uma das principais culturas comercializadas (algodão) contra espécies de lepidópteros é uma grande preocupação. A expressão do nível de proteína Cry pode ser controlada pela melhoria dos níveis de nutrientes. Portanto, o mito da resposta da toxina Cry a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes NP foi explorado em três cultivares de algodão Bt. As combinações incluem três níveis de nitrogênio e três níveis de fertilizantes de fósforo. A análise de PCR (reação em cadeia da polimerase) específica para o gene (s) Immunostrips e Cry (s) foi usada para a presença do gene Bt que revelou a presença do gene Cry1Ac apenas. Além disso, o kit ELISA (ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática) foi usado para quantificar a expressão da proteína Cry1Ac. Sob várias taxas de fertilizantes NP, o nível de proteína de toxina exibiu diferenças altamente significativas. A média do nível mais alto de toxina foi de 2,3740 e 2,1732 µg / g sob o tratamento da combinação N150P75 kg ha-1, enquanto a média do nível mais baixo de toxina foi de 0,9158 e 0,7641 µg / g no nível de N50P25 kg ha-1 em 80 e 120 DAS (dias após a semeadura), respectivamente. Concluiu-se com a pesquisa que o uso de fertilizantes NP tem relação positiva com a expressão da toxina Cry1Ac no algodão Bt. Recomendamos o uso do nível de N150P50 kg ha-1 como o fertilizante mais econômico e praticável em vez da dose padrão N100P50 kg ha-1 para obter o nível desejado de nível de Cry1Ac para resistência de planta de longa duração (<1,5). A dose revisada de fertilizante pode ajudar os agricultores a evitar o desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada em contradição com as pragas de insetos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Moths , Phosphorus , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Insecticide Resistance , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Fertilizers , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Larva , Nitrogen
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39005, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415869

ABSTRACT

The aim was to evaluate the agronomic and qualitative attributes of early-cycle common bean cultivars with different grains types grains in response to top-dressing nitrogen (N) doses. The experiment was carried out using a randomized block design, in a split-plot scheme, with 4 replicates. The plots consisted of the cultivars IAC Nuance, IAC 1849 Polaco and IAC Veloz, with speckled, Carioca and black grains, respectively. The subplots were formed by N doses applied as top-dressing: 0 kg ha-1, 60 kg ha-1 (applied in the stage of third trifoliate leaf), 120 kg ha-1 (1/2 applied at third trifoliate leaf stage + 1/2 applied at the floral bud stage) and 180 kg ha-1 (1/3 applied at the first trifoliate leaf stage + 1/3 applied at the third trifoliate leaf stage + 1/3 applied at the floral bud stage). IAC Veloz stood out for grain yield, showing the highest grain yield in the lowest N doses, being classified as efficient to the use of N. The cultivars IAC Nuance and IAC 1849 Polaco reached maximum yields with 155 and 163 kg ha-1 of N. The IAC Nuance was the most responsive, increasing grain yield by up to 25.3% due to nitrogen fertilization. Increasing N doses applied as top-dressing increased the sieve yield and crude protein content of the common bean cultivars, with IAC Nuance standing out. The cultivars showed good grain quality, and IAC 1849 Polaco and IAC Veloz had the shortest cooking time and IAC Veloz also had the fastest hydration.


Subject(s)
Phytohemagglutinins , Genotype , Nitrogen , Crops, Agricultural
14.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 69(1): 75-97, ene.-abr. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1389169

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La acuicultura tradicional se enfrenta a serios problemas medioambientales, particularmente por el uso de grandes volúmenes de agua, con las consecuentes descargas de efluentes ricos en nutrientes inorgánicos y partículas orgánicas. Un ejemplo claro de esto está en que del 20 al 30% del nitrógeno presente en la proteína del alimento suministrado es aprovechado por los peces, el restante 70-80% es desechado en el cuerpo de agua producto de la excreción y el alimento no consumido, lo que favorece la eutrofización de aguas receptoras y su entorno. Por lo anterior, se requiere el desarrollo de tecnologías y prácticas de producción innovadoras, responsables, sostenibles y rentables. Una de las alternativas que está generando interés, debido a sus implicaciones ambientales, económicas y sociales, es la producción en sistemas de acuicultura multitrófica integrada (IMTA). Este concepto se basa en la integración de diferentes niveles tróficos en un mismo sistema, lo que resulta en una conversión de los residuos de cultivo de unas especies en alimentos o fertilización para otras especies. Aplicada, la producción IMTA puede mejorar la sostenibilidad de la acuicultura al reducir el impacto de los efluentes y generar mayor rentabilidad económica, debido a la producción simultanea de dos o más productos finales y al uso mínimo de fertilizantes. El objetivo de la presente revisión es presentar los fundamentos básicos de los sistemas de IMTA, como una alternativa a los sistemas de producción en piscicultura.


ABSTRACT Traditional aquaculture faces serious environmental problems, particularly due to the use of large volumes of water, with the consequent discharge of effluents rich in inorganic nutrients and organic particles. A clear example of this is that only 20 to 30% of the nitrogen present in the protein of the supplied food is used by the fish. The remaining 70 to 80% is disposed of in the water body as a result of excretion and unconsumed food, favoring the eutrophication of receiving waters and their environment. Therefore, the development of innovative, responsible, sustainable, and profitable technologies and production practices is required. One of the alternatives that is generating interest due to its environmental, economic, and social implications is the production in integrated multitrophic aquaculture systems (IMTA). This concept is based on the integration of different trophic levels in the same system, which results in a conversion of the culture residues of some species into food or fertilization for other species. Applicated, the IMTA systems can improve the sustainability of aquaculture by reducing the impact of effluents, generating greater economic profitability due to the simultaneous production of two or more end products and minimal use of fertilizers. The objective of this review is to present fundamentals basic aspects of IMTA systems, as an alternative to fish farming production systems.


Subject(s)
Animals , Nutrients , Aquaculture , Economics , Eutrophication , Sustainable Development Indicators , Nitrogen , Schools, Veterinary , Water , Projects , Fertility Agents
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38077, Jan.-Dec. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397160

ABSTRACT

Interaction among nitrogen fertilization using bovine manure, poultry manure, Jatropha curcas seed cake and urea, and the diseases Ramularia leaf spot (RLS) and Boll rot (BR), caused by Ramulariopsis pseudoglycines and Diplodia gossypina, respectively, in cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L.), was studied under field conditions. Intensity (incidence and severity in percentage) of RLS and incidence (%) of BR were evaluated over time, starting in reproductive stage B1 (first visible flower bud). A randomized complete block design with a 4x4 factorial arrangement was used (fertilizers x doses), totaling 16 treatments with four replications. Disease progress was analyzed with the nonlinear Logistic and Gompertz models, obtaining the epidemiological parameters amount of initial disease (Y0) and progress rate (r). Plants fertilized with 50 kg N ha-1, presented an incidence twice greater than those obtained with other fertilizers. The Logistic model better fits RLS, but no model could represent BR. Only the epidemiological parameters of RLS were affected differently in this experiment compared to BR disease. The possible role of organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilization in the RLS and BR management is discussed.


Subject(s)
Gossypium/microbiology , Mycosphaerella/pathogenicity , Manure , Nitrogen/administration & dosage , Disease Progression
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38042, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395979

ABSTRACT

Irrigation and soil fertilization management are essential agricultural practices that improve the growth and development of sugarcane plants and, consequently, increase their production capacity, which is important for sugar and alcohol productions. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of water depths and nitrogen rates on the growth and dry biomass accumulation of sugarcane plants. The treatments consisted in four water depths (1,498; 1,614; 1,739; and 1,854 mm), five nitrogen rates (0; 20; 40; 80; and 120 kg ha-1) and five evaluation times. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with a split-split-plot arrangement and four replications, including the factors water depths, nitrogen rates, and days after planting. The dry biomasses of the plant pointer, leaves and culms, culm diameter, plant height, and number of plants were analyzed. The application of nitrogen increased the sugarcane biomass, mainly the pointer (with leaves) and dry culm biomass, and the number of plants. The highest dry culm biomass accumulation and dry leaf biomass were found at the end of the crop cycle for the treatment with the application of nitrogen rates of 80 and 120 kg ha-1. The increases in water depths applied increased the number of plants per linear meter, but the culm and dry leaf biomass did not happen.


Subject(s)
Saccharum/growth & development , Fertilizers , Agricultural Irrigation , Nitrogen
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1351-1359, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927785

ABSTRACT

Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) process is an efficient and low-cost biological nitrogen removal process. However, it still faces some challenges in mainstream applications due to the limitation of substrate types and nitrate accumulation. In recent years, the combined process of anammox has been widely studied to solve the above problems. In this paper, the combined processes of anammox developed in recent years are reviewed, and discussed from the process principle, advantages and disadvantages, influencing factors, process extensibility and the key bottlenecks existing in the promotion and application, as well as the relevant work of the subject group. Finally, we take an outlook on the development of the combined anaerobic ammonia oxidation process in municipal domestic wastewater treatment.


Subject(s)
Ammonium Compounds , Anaerobiosis , Bioreactors , Denitrification , Nitrogen , Oxidation-Reduction , Sewage , Wastewater
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1824-1830, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928178

ABSTRACT

Leaf blight outbroke in Rehmannia glutinosa plantation in Wenxian county, Henan province in 2019. R. glutinosa plants with diseased leaves were collected from the plantation, and three strains were isolated from the diseased leaf samples. Pathogenicity test, morphological observation, and phylogenetic analysis of ITS, EF1-α, and Tub suggested that they were respectively Fusarium proliferatum, F. oxysporum, and F.acuminatum. Among them, F. acuminatum, as a pathogen of R. glutinosa leaf disease, had never been reported. To clarify the biological characteristics of F. acuminatum, this study tested the influence of light, pH, temperature, medium, carbon source, and nitrogen source on the mycelial growth rate of the pathogen during a 5-day culture period, and explored the lethal temperature. The results showed that the mycelia grew well under the photoperiod of 12 h light/12 h darkness, at 5-40 ℃(optimal temperature: 25 ℃), at pH 4-11(optimal pH: 7.0), on a variety of media(optimal medium: oatmeal agar), and in the presence of diverse carbon and nitrogen sources(optimal carbon source: soluble starch; optimal nitrogen source: sodium nitrate). The lethal temperature was verified to be 51 ℃(10 min). The conclusion is expected to lay a scientific basis for diagnosis and control of R. glutinosa leaf diseases caused by F. acuminatum.


Subject(s)
Carbon , Nitrogen , Phylogeny , Rehmannia
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4536-4552, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970330

ABSTRACT

Heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification (HN-AD) bacteria are aerobic microorganisms that can remove nitrogen under high-salt conditions, but their performance in practical applications are not satisfactory. As a compatible solute, trehalose helps microorganisms to cope with high salt stress by participating in the regulation of cellular osmotic pressure, and plays an important role in promoting the nitrogen removal efficiency of microbial populations in the high-salt environment. We investigated the mechanism of exogenous-trehalose-enhanced metabolism of HN-AD community under high-salt stress by starting up a membrane aerobic biofilm reactor (MABR) to enrich HN-AD bacteria, and designed a C150 experimental group with 150 μmol/L trehalose addition and a C0 control group without trehalose. The reactor performance and the community structure showed that NH4+-N, total nitrogen (TN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency were increased by 29.7%, 28.0% and 29.1%, respectively. The total relative abundance of salt-tolerant HN-AD bacteria (with Acinetobacter and Pseudofulvimonas as the dominant genus) in the C150 group reached 66.8%, an 18.2% increase compared with that of the C0 group. This demonstrated that trehalose addition promoted the enrichment of salt-tolerant HN-AD bacteria in the high-salt environment to enhance the nitrogen removal performance of the system. In-depth metabolomics analysis showed that the exogenous trehalose was utilized by microorganisms to improve proline synthesis to increase resistance to high-salt stress. By regulating the activity of cell proliferation signaling pathways (cGMP-PKG, PI3K-Akt), phospholipid metabolism pathway and aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis pathway, the abundances of phosphoethanolamine, which was one of the glycerophospholipid metabolites, and purine and pyrimidine were up-regulated to stimulate bacterial aggregation and cell proliferation to promote the growth of HN-AD bacteria in the high-salt environment. Meanwhile, the addition of trehalose accelerated the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which might provide more electron donors and energy to the carbon and nitrogen metabolisms of HN-AD bacteria and promote the nitrogen removal performance of the system. These results may facilitate using HN-AD bacteria in the treatment of high-salt and high-nitrogen wastewater.


Subject(s)
Nitrification , Denitrification , Trehalose , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Heterotrophic Processes , Salt Stress , Nitrogen/metabolism , Aerobiosis , Bioreactors/microbiology
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e233567, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249220

ABSTRACT

This research was carried out aiming at evaluating the effects of nitrate and ammonium ions on nutrient accumulation, biochemical components and yield of Italian zucchini (cv. Caserta) grown in a hydroponic system under salt stress conditions. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse utilizing an experimental design in randomized blocks, arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, with 4 replications. The treatments consisted of two forms of nitrogen (nitrate - NO3 - and ammonium - NH4 + ) and 5 electrical conductivity levels of irrigation water (ECw) (0.5, 2.0, 3.5, 5.0 and 6.5 dS m-1). The analysis of the results indicated that supply of N exclusively in NH4 + form promotes greater damage to the leaf membrane and reduction in accumulation of macronutrients and higher Na+ /K+ , Na+ /Ca++ and Na+ /Mg++ ratios in the shoots of zucchini plants. Electrical conductivity of irrigation water above 2.0 dS m-1 reduces the accumulation of nutrients in shoot and yield of Italian zucchini plant. The toxicity of NH4 + under Italian zucchini plants overlap the toxicity of the salinity, since its fertilization exclusively with this form of nitrogen inhibits its production, being the NO3 - form the most suitable for the cultivation of the species.


Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos dos íons nitrato e amônio sobre o acúmulo de nutrientes e produção da abobrinha italiana (cv. Caserta) cultivada em sistema hidropônico sob estrese salino. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação utilizando o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, arranjados em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de duas formas de nitrogênio (nitrato - NO3 - e amônio - NH4 + ) e cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa ) (0,5; 2,0; 3,5; 5,0 e 6,5 dS m-1). As análises dos resultados indicaram que suprimento de N exclusivamente em forma de NH4 + promove maiores danos na membrana foliar e redução no acúmulo de macronutrientes e maiores relações Na+ /K+ , Na+ /Ca++ e Na+ /Mg++ na parte aérea das plantas de abobrinha. A irrigação com água a cima de 2,0 dS m-1 reduz o acúmulo de nutrientes na parte aérea das plantas e a produção de abobrinha. A toxicidade do NH4 + sob abobrinha italiana sobrepõe-se à toxicidade da salinidade, pois a fertilização exclusiva com esta forma de nitrogênio inibe sua produção, sendo a forma NO3 - a mais adequada para o cultivo da espécie.


Subject(s)
Ammonium Compounds , Nitrogen , Plant Roots/chemistry , Salt Stress , Homeostasis , Italy , Nitrates
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