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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879106

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen fertilizer has been the long-lasting crucial component in cultivation of Chinese materia medica(CMM) and crops for its profound effects on enhancing the productivity. In consideration of its role in better production, intensive and excessive application of N fertilizer is often found in CMM cultivation. Therefore, firstly, this review summarized various concentrations of N application with regards to different CMM and districts from the literatures published in the last two decades. The recommended concentration of nitrogen application of forty seven CMM species were covered in this review. We found that the optimum rates of nitrogen fertili-zer for different medicinal plants species were varied in the range between 0-1 035.55 kg·hm~(-2). Most of the optimum rates of nitrogen fertilizer for CMM in published researches fell between 100-199 kg·hm~(-2). The optimum rate of nitrogen fertilizer is not only related to amount of nitrogen required for different medicinal plants but also to soil fertilities of different fields. In addition, we outlined the diffe-rent effects of proper and excessive nitrogen deposition on yield of CMM. Proper nitrogen deposition benefits the yield of CMM, howe-ver, excessive nitrogen use accounts for a decrease in CMM yield. We elucidated that nutritional content, water use efficiencies, and photosynthesis capacity were major influencing factors. Researches showed that proper nitrogen fertilizer could promote the water use efficiencies of plants and boost photosynthesis. Consequently, the yield of CMM can be enhanced after nitrogen deposition. However, negative effects of nitrogen fertilizer were also found on plant including producing toxic substances to the soil and causing severe pest damages. Lastly we analyzed the impact of N fertilizer application on secondary metabolites which accounts for a large part of active pharmaceutical ingredients of CMM. It usually caused an increase in nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content and a decrease in non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content respectively. The potential underlying mechanisms are the different synthetic pathways of these metabolites and the plant nutritional status. Synthesis of non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites like phenols can be inhibited after nitrogen application because of the competition of the same precursor substances between metabolites synthesis and plant growth. To sum up, impacts and mechanisms of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality enhancement of CMM were discussed in this review. Negative effects of excessive nitrogen application on CMM should be paid special attention in CMM cultivation and prescription fertilization based on the field soil quality is strongly recommended. Overall, this review aims to provides insights on improving the proper application of N fertilizer in the cultivation of CMM.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Fertilizers , Materia Medica , Nitrogen/analysis , Soil
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190536, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142500

ABSTRACT

Abstract Swine manure is applied in agricultural fields as a source of nutrients for plant growth, however, excessive application over the years can promote soil phosphorus (P) accumulation. The objective of this study was to establish the environmental soil P threshold based on the degree of P saturation (DPS), as well, to evaluate the soil P storage capacity. The experiment was carried out in an Oxisol (sandy clay loam texture), under no-tillage and crop rotation. Treatments consisted of four annual doses of liquid swine manure (0, 100, 200, and 300 m3 ha-1 year-1), and three doses of mineral fertilizer (0, 50, and 100% of the crop nutrients requirement), in a randomized block with split-plot design (four replications). Soil P content was analyzed by PMehlich-1, PCaCl2, water-soluble P (WSP) and total P. The application of swine manure and mineral fertilizer increased soil P contents mainly at 0-10 cm depth. The DPS corresponding to the change point was 14.9% at depth 0-10 and 8.6% at depth 0-20 cm with WSP and 18.7% at 0-10 cm and 8.9% at 0-20 cm depth with PCaCl2. The lowest change point value was DPS 8.6% which corresponds to 43 mg kg-1 of PMehlich-1, so, in practical terms, we suggest this value as the environmental soil P threshold. The soil P storage capacity indicated negative values with the higher doses of swine manure and mineral fertilizer which increases the vulnerability of P loss by surface and subsurface hydrological transfer pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phosphorus/analysis , Soil/chemistry , Fertilizers/analysis , Manure/analysis , Potassium/analysis , Swine , Crop Rotation , Models, Theoretical , Nitrogen/analysis
3.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(1): 129-136, 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121037

ABSTRACT

El impacto antrópico cercano al lago de Amatitlán ha generado niveles altos de eutrofización que conllevan cambios en la dinámica del ecosistema. Uno de ellos es la proliferación de cianobacterias del género Microcystis que pueden llegar a ser perjudiciales para la fauna y flora de lugar e incluso para los seres humanos. Se presenta el caso de cultivo de un consorcio de fitoplancton, tomado directamente del lago y llevado al laboratorio en condiciones controladas, para medir su consumo y aporte de nitrógeno y fósforo, además de los cambios en los factores fisicoquímicos y la biomasa. Se observó la presencia de diatomeas del genero Nitszchia y cianobacterias como Dolichospermum, con una marcada dominancia de Microcystis sp. Se analizó el porcentaje de cambio en la concentración de nutrientes. Los resultados indican que hubo un aumento en las concentraciones de amonio, nitrato y nitrógeno inorgánico disuelto, mientras que disminuyó el nitrógeno total, el fósforo total y los ortofosfatos. Esto indica que hay aporte de nitrógeno inorgánico, consumo de fósforo y nitrógeno orgánico. El fósforo parece ser el nutriente limitante, ya que, al consumirse en un 90 % la biomasa empieza a decrecer.


The anthropic impact near lake Amatitlán has generated high levels of eutrophication that lead to changes in ecosystem dynamics. One of them is the proliferation of cyanobacteria of the genus Microcystis that can be harmful to the fauna and flora of the place and even to humans. The case of cultivation of a phytoplankton consortium, taken directly from the lake and taken to the laboratory under controlled conditions, to measure its consumption and contribution of nitrogen and phosphorus, in addition to changes in physicochemical factors and biomass is presented. The presence of diatoms of the genus Nitszchia and cyanobacteria such as Dolichospermum was detected, with a marked dominance of Microcystis sp. The percentage change in nutrient concentration was analyzed. The results indicated that there was an increase in the amounts of dissolved inorganic ammonium, nitrate and nitrogen, while total nitrogen, total phosphorus and orthophosphates decreased. This indicates that there is contribution of inorganic nitrogen, consumption of phosphorus and organic nitrogen. Phosphorus seems to be the limiting nutrient, since, when consumed by 90 %, biomass begins to decrease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lakes/analysis , Cyanobacteria , Microcystis , Phosphorus/analysis , Phytoplankton , Eutrophication , Nitrogen/analysis
4.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(2): 155-169, 2020. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1348112

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio sobre la composición y abundancia del fitoplancton en el lago de Amatitlán, y el efecto de la calidad de agua sobre su biodiversidad. Para ello, se colectaron muestras de agua en cuatro puntos específicos del lago, en la superficie del agua y a profundidades de 5, 10 y 20 m, de manera mensual durante el 2017. Se midieron parámetros fisicoquímicos in situ como temperatura y pH. Igualmente, se identificaron y contabilizaron cianobacterias y microalgas. El índice de estado trófico (IETP) catalogó al lago como eutrófico e hipertrófico (IETP = 63.80-88.18). Se reportan 34 géneros de fitoplancton distribuidos en 30 familias, 17 órdenes y 10 clases. Los indicadores biológicos, tales como, floraciones algales de Microcystis (38.41%), baja diversidad de diatomeas (Nitzschia, Aulacoseira y Cyclotella), presencia de microalgas Nitzschia y Scenedesmusresistentes a procesos de eutrofización, y alta concentración de coliformes fecales, de hasta 24,000 NMP/100 ml, evidenciaron la baja calidad de agua que se presenta en el lago de Amatitlán. En época seca se encontró más diversidad de microalgas debido a la mayor incidencia de radiación solar, el poco recambio de agua y la acumulación de materia orgánica. Aunque esto varía con los cambios en la concentración de nitrógeno total (NT) y fosforo total (PT), que potencian la proliferación de cianobacterias tóxicas. La biodiversidad del lago fue baja debido al estado hipereutrófico en que se encuentra. Se recomienda poner en funcionamiento plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales para evitar que esta problemática continúe.


A study was carried out on the composition and abundance of phytoplankton in Amatitlán lake, and the effect of water quality on its biodiversity. For this, water samples were collected at four specific points in the lake, on the water surface and at depths of 5, 10 and 20 m, in a monthly way during 2017. Physicochemical parameters were measured in situ such as temperature and pH. Likewise, cyanobacteria and microalgae were identified and accounted. The trophic state index (IETP) cataloged the lake as eutrophic and hypertrophic (IETP = 63.80-88.18). 34 genera of phytoplankton distributed in 30 families, 17 orders and 10 classes are reported. Biological indicators, such as Microcystis algal blooms (38.41%), low diatom diversity (Nitzschia, Aulacoseira and Cyclotella), presence of Nitzschia and Scenedesmus microalgae resistant to eutrophication processes, and high concentration of fecal coliforms, up to 24,000 NMP/100 ml, evidenced the low quality of water that occurs in lake Amatitlán. In the dry season, more microalgae diversity was found due to the higher incidence of solar radiation, little water change and the accumulation of organic matter. Even though this varies with changes in the concentration of total nitrogen (NT) and total phosphorus (PT), which enhance the proliferation of toxic cyanobacteria. The lake's biodiversity was low due to its hypereutrophic state. We recommend to put this wastewater treatment plants into operation to prevent this problem to continue.


Subject(s)
Phytoplankton/growth & development , Water Quality , Lakes/analysis , Phosphorus/analysis , Biodiversity , Microcystis/growth & development , Coliforms , Eutrophication , Microalgae , Waste Water/toxicity , Nitrogen/analysis
5.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190520, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142513

ABSTRACT

Abstract Conservation agriculture practices can contribute to changes in soil nutrient dynamics over time. This experiment evaluated the changes in total stocks and distribution of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur concentrations in soil, during 60 months, in an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) due to anticipated fertilization of sources and doses phosphates applied in soil surface. The experiment was conducted over a period of five years, under Typic Dystrudept, using a randomized block design, in an incomplete factorial scheme (3×3+1), with four replications. Treatments consisted of three sources of P [triple superphosphate (TSP), rock phosphate - Arad (RP) and magnesium thermophosphate (MTP)], along with four doses of P (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 P2O5 total). Samples of soil were collected in 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm layers at 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after beggining of experiment where the following chemical attributes were evaluated: (i) total organic carbon (TOC); (ii) total nitrogen Kjeldahl (TNK); (iii) available P by ion exchange resin method (P-IER); and (iv) available S-SO4 2-. The ICLS conditions provided increased total stocks and concentrations of TOC, TNK, P-IER and S-SO4 2- over time. The applications of different phosphates had no influence on soil TOC concentrations during the five years of experimentation. The concentrations of TNK, P-IER and S-SO4 2- showed an increase in different layers of soil, with the application of sources and doses of P. The P fertilization practice that was anticipated can consist of an efficient management of soil fertility, using properly managed conservation systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Phosphates/administration & dosage , Soil/chemistry , Agricultural Cultivation , Soil Analysis , Fertilizers , Animal Husbandry , Phosphorus/analysis , Sulfur/analysis , Carbon/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
6.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190651, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142512

ABSTRACT

Abstract To accelerate the recovery of degraded environments, it is necessary to use ecological restoration techniques, which require validation according to the ecosystem conditions where are implemented. This work aimed to evaluate soil microbiological attributes under different ecological restoration technologies in a subtropical forest. The study was conducted at UTFPR-DV, southwest of Paraná, in an ecotone between Mixed Ombrophilous Forest and Semideciduous Seasonal Forest and on an Oxisol. In December 2010, a tillage area of at least 17 years old was isolated and the passive restoration, tree planting and nucleation treatments were installed in 40x54 m plots and four replications. In November 2018 the soil was sampled in these plots and in a native forest area as a reference. There were calculated soil organic carbon content (OCC) and microbiological attributes such as microbial biomass N and C (NMIC and CMIC), basal respiration, fungal spore content and the metabolic (qCO2) and microbial quotient (MICq). It can be concluded that nucleation technology can restore soil microbiological attributes but has not yet reached the conditions of a natural environment. Passive restoration is not a good technology for restoring soil microbiological attributes. The higher contents of CMIC, NMIC, OCC, MICq and fungal spores in the soil under native forest compared to ecological restoration technologies indicate that eight years of adoption of these techniques have not yet been enough to fully recover soil microbiological activity.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Forests , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Spores, Fungal , Tropical Climate , Brazil , Carbazoles , Carbon/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190537, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142508

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main destination of manure is the application to croplands near livestock farms as nutrient source to enhance crop production. The aim of this study was to define the dairy liquid manure (DLM) dose, complementary to the mineral fertilizer, for higher crops yield, in rotation black oat-maize-wheat-soybean, and to identify the soil chemical variables improved by the manure that most affect the yield, in long-term. The experiment was conducted from 2006 to 2015, in no-tillage system, at Paraná State, Brazil. The soil was a Latossolo Bruno Distrófico típico, clayey texture. The treatments consisted by doses of DLM (0, 60, 120 and 180 m3 ha-1 year-1), complementary to the mineral fertilizer (applied in the same amount for all DLM doses). Crops yield and soil chemical variables were evaluated at six depths (0-10; 10-20; 20-30; 30-40; 40-50 and 50-60 cm). The DLM application increased the yield of all crops, but not in all harvests. The DLM even applied at soil surface improved the soil chemical variables in deep layers, resulting in high positive correlation between yield and exchange bases, P, Zn and Mn contents, and high negative correlation with Ca/Mg ratio and potential acidity at depth 0-10 cm. The DLM dose, complementary to the mineral fertilization, that provided higher soybean and wheat yield was about 130 m3 ha-1 year-1, while for maize this dose was equal to or greater than 180 m3 ha-1 year-1. This effect was not attributed to a single chemical variable but the improvement of all chemical variables evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Soil/chemistry , Fertilizers , Crop Production/methods , Manure , Phosphorus/analysis , Soybeans , Triticum , Carbon/analysis , Avena , Crops, Agricultural , Zea mays , Farms , Minerals/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190063, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142506

ABSTRACT

Abstract System fertilization is characterized by partial or total fertilizer application at the predecessor crop; and it can be a viable practice to soybean crop. This study aimed to determine the fertilizer management and fertilizer levels for black oat-soybean cropping system, in high fertility soils and no-tillage system. The field trial was conducted in a bifactorial scheme, consisting of six environments, by combination of locations (Bom Sucesso do Sul - Paraná, Itapejara d'Oeste - Paraná) and fertilization management (all fertilization in black oat; splitting with 50% in black oat and 50% in soybean, all fertilization in soybean), and four fertilizer levels (0, 100, 200 and 300%) defined according to soil analysis and production expected. The evaluated traits were dry mass production, N, P and K nutrient accumulation of straw, dry mass remaining of black oat crop; and plant height, number of pods per plant, thousand grain weight, grain yield for soybean crop. Higher black oat dry mass production was observed at higher fertilization level. The fertilizer anticipation in black oat crop had better performance. Phosphorus and potassium accumulation increased linearly with fertilizer level increase. For N, the highest accumulated value occurred at the 200%, decreasing at the 300% of fertilizer level. The soybean crop had no influence in grain yield considering fertilization management, anticipation or splitting, and fertilizer levels. Thus, the system fertilization can be a viable practice, and favor black oat dry mass production and soybean development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soybeans/growth & development , Soil Analysis , Avena/growth & development , Fertilizers , Phosphorus/analysis , Potassium/analysis , Crop Production/methods , Nitrogen/analysis
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 589-593, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001490

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability to degrade organic matter by edaphic macrofauna (worms), carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and hydrogenation potential (pH) during the vermicomposting process in different organic residues. The treatments were constituted by organic residues of animal origin (bovine, ovine and equine manure) and vegetable (herb-checkmate and coffee drag), which were conditioned in plastic pots with a capacity of 10 liters, comprising five treatments in a completely randomized experimental design, with five replications. Were inoculated 150 earthworms of the species Eisenia foetida, into each plot. After 87 days, the evaluation of the multiplication of the earthworms was carried out, through its manual count and its cocoons. At the beginning and at the end of the experiment, the samples were submitted to analysis of humidity at 60 °C, pH, volumetric density, chemical analysis of macronutrients and C/N ratio. There was a dominance of worms and cocoons in the process of vermicomposting in the residues of ovine manure and herb-checkmate. The macronutrients (P, K and Mg) and C/N ratio were higher in the vegetal residues, while for N higher values were found in ovine manure and coffee drag treatments, and for Ca higher value among treatments was observed in the coffee drag treatment at the end and the lowest value at initiation. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the importance of the edaphic macrofauna to the vermicomposting process, since it allows more information about its influence on the continuity of soil organic matter decomposition processes.


Resumo Este estudo objetivou avaliar a capacidade de degradar a matéria orgânica pela macrofauna edáfica (minhocas), a relação carbono/nitrogênio (C/N) e o potencial hidrogeniônico (pH), durante o processo da vermicompostagem em diferentes resíduos orgânicos. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por resíduos orgânicos de origem animal (esterco bovino, ovino e equino) e vegetal (resíduo de erva-mate e borra-de-café), os quais foram acondicionados em vasos plásticos com capacidade de 10 litros, compondo cinco tratamentos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualisado, com cinco repetições. Foram inoculadas 150 minhocas da espécie Eisenia foetida, em cada recipiente. Após 87 dias, foi realizada a avaliação da multiplicação das minhocas, através da sua contagem manual e seus casulos. Os resíduos foram submetidos, ao inicio e ao final do experimento, a análises de umidade a 60 °C, pH, densidade volumétrica, análise química de macronutrientes e relação C/N. Houve uma dominância de minhocas e casulos no processo da vermicompostagem nos resíduos de esterco ovino e erva-mate. Observou-se para os macronutrientes (P, K e Mg) e para a relação C/N uma maior quantidade nos resíduos vegetais, enquanto que para N valores maiores foram encontrados nos tratamentos esterco ovino e borra-de-café, e para Ca o maior valor entre os tratamentos foi observado no tratamento com borra de café ao final e o menor valor no inicio. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo demonstram a importância da macrofauna edáfica para o processo da vermicompostagem por possibilitar maiores informações sobre sua influência na continuidade dos processos de decomposição da matéria orgânica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oligochaeta/physiology , Soil/chemistry , Composting , Garbage , Manure/analysis , Biodegradation, Environmental , Brazil , Cattle , Carbon/analysis , Sheep, Domestic , Horses , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Nitrogen/analysis
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 15-21, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984006

ABSTRACT

Abstract Resource amendments commonly promote plant invasions, raising concerns over the potential consequences of nitrogen (N) deposition; however, it is unclear whether invaders will benefit from N deposition more than natives. Growth is among the most fundamental inherent traits of plants and thus good invaders may have superior growth advantages in response to resource amendments. We compared the growth and allocation between invasive and native plants in different N regimes including controls (ambient N concentrations). We found that invasive plants always grew much larger than native plants in varying N conditions, regardless of growth- or phylogeny-based analyses, and that the former allocated more biomass to shoots than the latter. Although N addition enhanced the growth of invasive plants, this enhancement did not increase with increasing N addition. Across invasive and native species, changes in shoot biomass allocation were positively correlated with changes in whole-plant biomass; and the slope of this relationship was greater in invasive plants than native plants. These findings suggest that enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants retain a growth advantage in high N conditions relative to natives, and also highlight that future N deposition may increase the risks of plant invasions.


Resumo As alterações de recursos geralmente promovem invasões de plantas, suscitando preocupações quanto às conseqüências potenciais da deposição de nitrogênio (N); No entanto, não está claro se os invasores se beneficiarão da deposição de N mais do que com os nativos. O crescimento é um dos traços inerentes mais fundamentais das plantas e, portanto, os bons invasores podem ter vantagens de crescimento superiores em resposta a alterações de recursos. Comparamos o crescimento e a alocação entre plantas invasivas e nativas em diferentes regimes de N, incluindo controles (concentrações ambientais de N). Descobrimos que as plantas invasivas sempre cresceram muito mais do que as plantas nativas em diferentes condições de N, independentemente das análises baseadas em crescimento ou filogenia, e que o primeiro atribuiu mais biomassa aos rebentos do que o segundo. Embora N aumentou o crescimento de plantas invasivas, esse aumento não aumentou com o aumento da adição de N. Através das espécies invasivas e nativas, as mudanças na alocação da biomassa do extrato foram correlacionadas positivamente com as mudanças na biomassa da planta inteira; e a inclinação desse relacionamento foi maior em plantas invasivas do que plantas nativas. Essas descobertas sugerem que o aumento do investimento em lançamentos faz com que as plantas invasivas mantenham uma vantagem de crescimento em altas condições de N em relação aos nativos, e também destacar que a futura deposição de N pode aumentar os riscos de invasões de plantas.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Magnoliopsida/growth & development , Introduced Species , Nitrogen/analysis , China , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Fertilizers/analysis
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180365, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055401

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, we aim to determine the shelf life of dried and ready to use-powdered soup samples obtained from different types of fish species such as Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), sea bream (Sparusaurata L.) and sea bass (Dicentrarchuc labrax). For this purpose, the chemical (moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate, ash, pH, Thiobarbituric acid (TBA), Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), microbiological (total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, total yeast and mold, total coliform, Staphylococcus spp. and Salmonella spp.) and sensory properties of fish soup samples were determined during 6-month storage period. The pH, TBA and TVB-N values of all samples increased during the storage period, but these values were within the consumption limits. Additionally, the microbiological properties of all fish soup samples were found within the consumption limits during storage. As a result, a product has been obtained with high nutritional value and rich with regard to protein, oil, and minerals by adding the fish meat to soup samples. It has been determined that the product quality and shelf life significantly increased by using the boiled product for the production of soup samples.


Subject(s)
Thiobarbiturates/analysis , Soups , Food Storage/standards , Fishes , Nitrogen/analysis
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 832-839, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974313

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam compound with potent inhibitory activity against β-lactamases. Studies have shown that certain amino acids play essential roles in CA biosynthesis. However, quantitative evaluations of the effects of these amino acids are still needed in order to improve CA production. Here, we report a study of the nutritional requirements of Streptomyces clavuligerus for CA production. Firstly, the influence of the primary nitrogen source and the salts composition was investigated. Subsequently, soybean protein isolate was supplemented with arginine (0.0-3.20 g L-1), threonine (0.0-1.44 g L-1), ornithine (0.0-4.08 g L-1), and glutamate (0.0-8.16 g L-1), according to a two-level central composite rotatable design. A medium containing ferrous sulfate yielded CA production of 437 mg L-1, while a formulation without this salt produced only 41 mg L-1 of CA. This substantial difference suggested that Fe2+ is important for CA biosynthesis. The experimental design showed that glutamate and ornithine negatively influenced CA production while arginine and threonine had no influence. The soybean protein isolate provided sufficient C5 precursor for CA biosynthesis, so that supplementation was unnecessary. Screening of medium components, together with experimental design tools, could be a valuable way of enhancing CA titers and reducing the process costs.


Subject(s)
Streptomyces/metabolism , Clavulanic Acid/biosynthesis , Culture Media/metabolism , Ornithine/analysis , Ornithine/metabolism , Streptomyces/genetics , Glutamic Acid/analysis , Glutamic Acid/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Nitrogen/analysis , Nitrogen/metabolism
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 443-451, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951793

ABSTRACT

Abstract As a glacier retreats, barren areas are exposed, and these barren areas are ideal sites to study microbial succession. In this study, we characterized the soil culturable bacterial communities and biochemical parameters of early successional soils from a receding glacier in the Tianshan Mountains. The total number of culturable bacteria ranged from 2.19 × 105 to 1.30 × 106 CFU g-1 dw and from 9.33 × 105 to 2.53 × 106 CFU g-1 dw at 4 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The number of culturable bacteria in the soil increased at 25 °C but decreased at 4 °C along the chronosequence. The total organic carbon, total nitrogen content, and enzymatic activity were relatively low in the glacier foreland. The number of culturable bacteria isolated at 25 °C was significantly positively correlated with the TOC and TN as well as the soil urease, protease, polyphenoloxidase, sucrase, catalase, and dehydrogenase activities. We obtained 358 isolates from the glacier foreland soils that clustered into 35 groups using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. These groups are affiliated with 20 genera that belong to six taxa, namely, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroides, and Deinococcus-Thermus, with a predominance of members of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in all of the samples. A redundancy analysis showed that the bacterial succession was divided into three periods, an early stage (10a), a middle stage (25-74a), and a late stage (100-130a), with the total number of culturable bacteria mainly being affected by the soil enzymatic activity, suggesting that the microbial succession correlated with the soil age along the foreland.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Ice Cover/microbiology , Ice Cover/chemistry , Phylogeny , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/growth & development , Bacteria/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , China , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Nitrogen/analysis , Nitrogen/metabolism
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(3): 1258-1271, jul.-sep. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977382

ABSTRACT

Abstract Amazonian fish assemblages are typically high in species diversity and trophic complexity. Stable isotopes are valuable tools to describe the trophic structure of such assemblages, providing useful information for conservation and ecological management. This study aimed at estimating the relative contribution of the different basal carbon sources to the diet of primary consumer fishes (herbivores and detritivores), and determining the trophic position (TP) of the dominant fishes from each trophic guild (herbivores, detritivores, invertivores and piscivores). For this purpose we analyzed stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) in potential food sources, and muscle tissue of fishes in five oxbow lakes located in the floodplain of River Ichilo, Bolivia. Terrestrial plants and C3 aquatic macrophytes were the major carbon source contributing to the diet of herbivorous fishes, whereas particulate organic matter (POM) contributed more to the diet of detritivore fishes. In general, C4 aquatic macrophytes contributed little to the diet of herbivores and detritivores. However, we found a relatively high contribution of C4 macrophytes (28 %) to the diet of the herbivores Mylossoma duriventre and Schizodon fasciatus. We found a good agreement between our estimated TP values and the trophic group assigned based on diet composition from literature. The herbivore M. duriventre was at the bottom of the food web, being the baseline organism (TP = 2). The remaining primary consumers (herbivores and algivore/detritivores) exhibited relatively high TP values (2.3-2.9), probably due to their opportunistic feeding behavior. Omnivore/invertivore species studied displayed TP values near the 3.0 value expected for secondary consumers. Piscivore fishes were at the top TP, with TP values varying from 3.3 (Serrasalmus spilopleura and Serrasalmus rhombeus) to 3.8 (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum). The fact that detritivore fishes, the most abundant food source for piscivores, occupy relatively high TPs determines that food chains in these particular Amazonian floodplains are longer than previously thought. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(3): 1258-1271. Epub 2018 September 01.


Resumen Los ensamblajes de peces amazónicos presentan alta diversidad y complejidad trófica. La descripción de su estructura trófica proporciona información útil para su manejo. Con el fin de estimar la contribución de las fuentes básicas de carbono en la dieta de los consumidores primarios, y determinar la posición trófica (PT) de las especies dominantes de peces de cada gremio, analizamos isótopos estables de carbono (δ13C) y nitrógeno (δ15N) en las fuentes de carbono y en músculo de peces, de la llanura de inundación del río Ichilo. Las plantas terrestres y las macrófitas C3 fueron las mayores fuentes de carbono en la dieta de los peces herbívoros, mientras que la materia orgánica particulada contribuyó más a la dieta de los detritívoros. Las macrófitas C4 contribuyeron poco a la dieta de herbívoros y detritívoros, excepto para Mylossoma duriventre y Schizodon fasciatus, en las que encontramos una contribución relativamente alta (28 %). Encontramos una buena relación entre los valores estimados de PT y el gremio trófico asignado en la literatura. El herbívoro M. duriventre estuvo en la base de la red trófica (PT = 2). Los restantes consumidores primarios mostraron valores de PT relativamente altos (2.3 - 2.9), probablemente debido a sus hábitos alimenticios oportunistas. Las especies omnívoras/invertívoras mostraron valores cercanos a 3. Los peces piscívoros estuvieron en la cima de la red trófica, con PT que variaron entre 3.3 (Serrasalmus spilopleura y Serrasalmus rhombeus) y 3.8 (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum). Estos datos sugieren que las cadenas tróficas en llanuras de inundación amazónicas, son más largas de lo que se suponía.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon , Ecological Systems, Closed , Food Chain , Fishes , Isotopes/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis , Bolivia , Fish Proteins, Dietary
15.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(2): 892-907, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977353

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los manglares son ecosistemas de importante productividad primaria, donde se establece un flujo de energía (nutrientes) con zonas adyacentes y su ambiente acuático, impulsado principalmente por los procesos de degradación. El objetivo del estudio fue estimar el coeficiente de degradación diario (k) de hoja de mangle por medio de bolsas de degradación, en relación con los factores físico químicos del suelo y el aporte de nutrientes (fósforo y nitrógeno) en sedimento del manglar de la Laguna Mecoacán, Golfo de México. El coeficiente de degradación se estimó por medio de bolsas de degradación de hojarasca en seis sitios de monitoreo mensual. Se identificó una rápida degradación durante el primer mes de hasta 51 % en Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn asociado a procesos de lixiviación por condiciones de inundación. La degradación (k) de Rhizophora mangle L. (k= 0.0052 ± 0.0002) (F= 12.2 p<0.05 n= 216) y Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn (k= 0.005 ± 0.0003) (F= 3.7 p= 0.02 n= 108) difieren significativamente de A. germinans (k= 0.009 ± 0.0003) (F= 1.2 p= 0.02 n= 216). En relación al T50 de R. mangle y L. racemosa presentaron mayor tiempo de degradación (133 y 138 días respectivamente) comparado con A. germinans (74 días). Se registró una correlación significativa entre la materia orgánica y la humedad del suelo con la constante de descomposición de A. germinans (r= 0.65 p< 0.05 y r= 0.55 p< 0.05 respectivamente). El más alto contenido de nitrógeno total se dio en Pajaral (2 683 mg.Kg) y presentó alta correlación con el contenido de materia orgánica (r= 0.9 p= 0.03); en relación al fósforo total, el nivel más alto se presentó en Boca (2 031 mg.Kg) correlacionado de forma negativa con el pH (r= -0.61 p< 0.05). En conclusión, las diferencias en la velocidad de degradación de las hojas de mangle dependen de la especie (composición foliar), tiempo de exposición o inmersión en agua (patrón de inundación) y heterogeneidad del sedimento (i.e., textura, pH, contenido de humedad y densidad aparente).


Abstract Mangroves are ecosystems with a high primary productivity that is mainly driven mainly by degradation processes. Energy (nutrients) flows from mangroves toward adjacent zones and the surrounding aquatic environment. The objective of the present study was to estimate the daily degradation coefficient (k) of mangrove leaves in relation to physical-chemical soil factors and in situ nutrient supply (phosphorus and nitrogen) in Mecoacán Lagoon, Gulf of Mexico. Leaf litter degradation bags were placed at six monthly monitoring sites to evaluate degradation and to calculate the corresponding degradation coefficients. A rapid degradation of up to 51 % was observed for Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn during the first month in association with leaching resulting from flood conditions. The degradation of Rhizophora mangle (L.) (k= 0.0052±0.0002) (F= 12.2 p< 0.05 n= 216) and Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn (k= 0.005±0.0003) (F= 3.7 p= 0.2 n= 108), differed significantly from that of A. germinans (k= 0.009 ± 0.0003) (F= 1.2 p= 0.2 n= 216) did not present significant differences. To reach T50 degradation, R. mangle and L. racemosa required more time (133 and 138 days, respectively) than A. germinans (74 days). Organic matter and soil humidity were significantly correlated with the decay constant of A. germinans (r= 0.65 p< 0.05 and r= 0.55 p< 0.05, respectively). Total nitrogen content was highest in the Pajaral site (2 683 mg.kg) and was also highly correlated with organic matter content (r= 0.9 p= 0.003). Total phosphorus content was highest in the Boca site (2 031 mg.kg) and was also negatively correlated with pH (r= -0.61 p= 0.004). In conclusion, differences in the rate of mangrove leaf degradation depend on the involved species (leaf composition), time of exposure or immersion in water (flooding patterns) and sediment heterogeneity (i.e., texture, pH, humidity content and bulk density). Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(2): 892-907. Epub 2018 June 01.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus/analysis , Biodegradation, Environmental , Nutrients/biosynthesis , Wetlands , Organic Matter/analysis , Mexico , Nitrogen/analysis , Leaching Fields/analysis , Percolation/analysis
16.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 333-341, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886880

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Fertilization in areas of forest plantations is needed to supplement plants´ nutritional needs until harvest. An experiment was performed to check the influence of fertilization on levels of ash, carbon and C/N relation in Schizolobium amazonicum. Soil liming was performed and fertilization occurred after 15 days of incubation. S. amazonicum seedlings were produced and submitted to fertilization with N, P and K: N = 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1; P2O5 = 0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha-1; K2O = 0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha-1. The plants were measured after 180 days. The seedlings of 20 treatments with the highest increase in height and diameter were transplanted to the field. Soil was fertilized and limestone was spread; seedlings were distributed into randomized blocks, with six replications. After 12 months, the plants were removed to determine ash, organic carbon, C/N relation contents. The ashes were submitted to digestion to determine nutrient concentrations. Fertilization influenced the levels of ash and organic carbon and C/N relation in S. amazonicum. Results indicate that the species has a potential for energy production.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Carbon/analysis , Fertilizers , Coal Ash/analysis , Fabaceae/drug effects , Fabaceae/chemistry , Nitrogen/analysis , Phosphorus/chemistry , Potassium/chemistry , Reference Values , Time Factors , Carbon/chemistry , Forests , Reproducibility of Results , Coal Ash/chemistry , Fabaceae/physiology , Nitrogen/chemistry
17.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 357-371, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886906

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provide several ecosystem services, including increase in plant growth and nutrition. The occurrence, richness, and structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities are influenced by human activities, which may affect the functional benefits of these components of the soil biota. In this study, 13 arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolates originating from soils with different land uses in the Alto Solimões-Amazon region were evaluated regarding their effect on growth, nutrition, and cowpea yield in controlled conditions using two soils. Comparisons with reference isolates and a mixture of isolates were also performed. Fungal isolates exhibited a wide variability associated with colonization, sporulation, production of aboveground biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake, and grain yield, indicating high functional diversity within and among fungal species. A generalized effect of isolates in promoting phosphorus uptake, increase in biomass, and cowpea yield was observed in both soils. The isolates of Glomus were the most efficient and are promising isolates for practical inoculation programs. No relationship was found between the origin of fungal isolate (i.e. land use) and their symbiotic performance in cowpea.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Symbiosis/physiology , Mycorrhizae/isolation & purification , Mycorrhizae/physiology , Vigna/growth & development , Phosphorus/analysis , Time Factors , Brazil , Plant Roots/microbiology , Biodiversity , Vigna/microbiology , Nitrogen/analysis
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 108-116, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888831

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although Planktothrix agardhii often produces toxic blooms in eutrophic water bodies around the world, little is known about the fate of the organic matter released by these abundant Cyanobacteria. Thus, this study focused in estimating the bacterial consumption of the DOC and DON (dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen, respectively) produced by axenic P. agardhii cultures and identifying some of the bacterial OTUs (operational taxonomic units) involved in the process. Both P. agardhii and bacterial inocula were sampled from the eutrophic Barra Bonita Reservoir (SP, Brazil). Two distinct carbon degradation phases were observed: during the first three days, higher degradation coefficients were calculated, which were followed by a slower degradation phase. The maximum value observed for particulate bacterial carbon (POC) was 11.9 mg L-1, which consisted of 62.5% of the total available DOC, and its mineralization coefficient was 0.477 day-1 (t½ = 1.45 days). A similar pattern of degradation was observed for DON, although the coefficients were slightly different. Changes in the OTUs patterns were observed during the different steps of the degradation. The main OTUs were related to the classes Alphaproteobacteria (8 OTUs), Betaproteobacteria (2 OTUs) and Gammaproteobacteria (3 OTUs). The genus Acinetobacter was the only identified organism that occurred during the whole process. Bacterial richness was higher at the slower degradation phase, which could be related to the small amounts of DOM (dissolved organic matter) available, particularly carbon. The kinetics of the bacterial degradation of P. agardhii-originated DOM suggests minimal loss of DOM from the Barra Bonita reservoir.


Resumo Embora Planktothrix agardhii frequentemente forme florações tóxicas em corpos d'água pelo mundo, pouco ainda se sabe sobre o destino da matéria orgânica liberada por essa abundante Cyanobacteria. Assim, este estudo foi focado na estimativa do consumo bacteriano do carbono orgânico dissolvido (DOC) e nitrogênio orgânico dissolvido (DON) produzido por culturas axênicas de P. agardhii e identificação de algumas das unidades taxonômicas operacionais (OTUs) bacterianas envolvidas no processo. Ambos a linhagem de P. agardhii e o inóculo bacteriano foram amostrados do reservatório eutrófico de Barra Bonita (SP, Brasil). Foram observadas duas fases distintas da degradação do DOC: durante os três primeiros dias, coeficientes mais altos de degradação foram calculados, que foram então seguidos por uma fase mais lenta da degradação do carbono. O valor máximo calculado para o carbono bacteriano particulado (POC) foi de 11,9 mgL-1, o que equivale a aproximadamente 62,5% do DOC disponível para consumo, e o seu coeficiente de mineralização foi de 0,477 dia-1 (t1/2 = 1,45 dias). Um padrão similar de degradação foi observado para DON, embora os coeficientes sejam ligeiramente diferentes. Foram observadas mudanças nos padrões de OTUs durante os diferentes passos da degradação. As principais OTUs foram relacionadas às classes Alphaproteobacteria (8 OTUs), Betaproteobacteria (2 OTUs) e Gammaproteobacteria (3 OTUs). O gênero Acinetobacter foi o único organismo identificado que ocorreu durante todo o processo. A maior riqueza bacteriana foi observada durante a fase lenta de degradação, o que pode estar relacionado às pequenas quantidades de matéria orgânica dissovida (DOM) disponíveis, particularmente o carbono. A cinética da degradação bacteriana da MOD de P. agardhii, quando comparada ao tempo de retenção do reservatório, sugere que existe uma perda mínima após sua liberação em Barra Bonita.


Subject(s)
Carbon/metabolism , Cyanobacteria/metabolism , Cyanobacteria/chemistry , Proteobacteria/metabolism , Humic Substances/analysis , Nitrogen/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Carbon/analysis , Eutrophication , Nitrogen/analysis
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 25-31, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888844

ABSTRACT

Abstract We aimed in this study utilize environmental indicators as a quantitative method to evaluate and discuss the nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) flux by a production stage grow-out (termination) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in fishpond. The TN and TP load, the mass balance, the input of TN and TP via feed and the converted nutrients in fish biomass are the environmental indicators applied in this study. During the production cycle (128 days), the system exported 15,931 g TN and 4,189 g TP that were related to the amount of feed supplied (r Pearson = 0.8825 and r = 0.8523, respectively), corroborated by the feed conversion ratio (1.61:1). The indicators showed that 26% TN and 45% TP were reversed into fish biomass, 62% TN and 40% TP were retained in the fishpond, and 12% TN and 15% TP were exported via effluent. The largest contribution of nutrients generated by the system and exported via effluent was observed in phase III and IV. This result is supported by the feed conversion ratio 2.14 and 2.21:1 obtained at this phase, a fact explained by the amount of feed offered and the fish metabolism. Application of environmental indicators showed to be an efficient tool to quantify flux of TN and TP produced during the grow-out period of Nile tilapia and therefore, guide management practices more sustainable. Concerning the environmental sustainability of the activity the implementation of best management practices such as the better control of the feed amount offered would lead to a smaller loss of TN and TP to the water. Furthermore, the use of better quality feeds would allow greater nutrient assimilation efficiency.


Resumo Nós objetivamos neste estudo, utilizar indicadores ambientais como método quantitativo para avaliar e discutir sobre o fluxo de nitrogênio (TN) e fósforo (TP) na etapa final de crescimento (terminação) de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) em viveiro escavado. A carga de TN e TP, o balanço de massa, a entrada de nutrientes via ração e o TN e TP convertido em biomassa de peixe foram os indicadores ambientais utilizados neste estudo. Durante o ciclo produtivo (128 dias), o sistema exportou 15.931 g NT e 4.189 g PT os quais foram relacionadas às quantidades de alimento fornecido (r Pearson = 0,8825 e r = 0,8523, respectivamente), corroborada pela conversão alimentar (1,61:1). Os indicadores evidenciaram que 26% NT e 45% PT foram revertidos em biomassa de peixe, 62% NT e 40% PT ficaram retidos no viveiro e 12% NT e 15% PT foram exportados via efluente. O maior aporte de nutrientes gerado pelo sistema e exportado via efluente foi verificado nas fases III e IV. Este resultado é corroborado pelas taxas de conversão alimentar de 2,14 e 2,21:1 obtida nestas fases, fato explicado pela quantidade de ração ofertada e pelo metabolismo dos peixes. A aplicação dos indicadores ambientais mostrou ser uma ferramenta eficiente para quantificar o fluxo de TN e TP produzidos durante a etapa final de crescimento de tilápia-do-nilo e com isso orientar práticas de manejo mais sustentáveis. Com vistas à sustentabilidade ambiental da atividade, a implantação de boas práticas de manejo tais como o melhor controle da quantidade de alimento ofertado levaria a menor perda de NT e PT para a água. Além disso, o uso de rações de melhor qualidade permitiria maior eficiência de assimilação desses nutrientes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phosphorus/analysis , Phosphorus/metabolism , Cichlids/metabolism , Nitrogen/analysis , Nitrogen/metabolism , Aquaculture , Biomass , Metabolic Flux Analysis
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(3): 469-475, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888793

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Llanquihue lake is included in the called Araucanian or Nord Patagonian lakes located between 38-41° S. These lakes are characterized by their oligo-mesotrophic status due to human intervention which takes to the increase in nutrients inputs from industries and towns. Effects on zooplankton assemblages are observed with marked increase of daphnids abundance. The aim of the present study is to analyze the trophic status and zooplankton relative abundance in different bays of Llanquihue lake. It was found direct associations between chlorophyll a with daphnids percentage, total dissolved nitrogen with reactive soluble phosphorus nitrogen/phosphorus molar radio with cyclopoids percentage, and an inverse relation between daphnids and calanoids percentages. The occurrence of three kinds of microcrustacean assemblages and environmental conditions was evidenced: the first one with high calanoids percentage, low species number and low chlorophyll and nutrients concentration, a second with moderate chlorophyll and nutrients concentration and moderate daphnids percentage; high species number and a third site with high chlorophyll and nutrients concentration, high daphnids percentage and high species number. Daphnids increase under mesotrophic status, agree with similar results observed for southern Argentinean and New Zealand lakes.


Resumo O lago Llanquihue está incluído nos chamados lagos araucana ou Nord Patagônia localizado entre 38-41° S. Estes lagos são caracterizados pela condicao oligo-mesotrofica debido a intervencao humana, com aumento da carga de nutrientes provenientes de industrias y areas urbanas com efeitos sobre as assembleias zooplantonicas sao observadas, com aumento acentuado de dafnideos. O objetivo do presente estudo é analisar o estado trófico a abundancia relative do zooplancton em diferentes compartimentos do lago Llanquihue. Foram encontradas associações diretas entre clorofila a com percentual de dafinídeos, nitrogênio total dissolvido com fósforo solúvel reativo molares razao molar nitrogênio / fósforo com percentual de ciclopóides, e uma relação inversa entre percentuais de dafinídeos e calanóides porcentagens. A ocorrência de três tipos de assembleias de microcrustáceos e as condições ambientais fora: a primeira com alta porcentais de calanóides, baixo número de espécies e baixa clorofila e a nutrientes, uma segunda com concentracoes moderadas de clorofila e nutrientes percentual moderado de daphnideos e alto número de espécies; e uma terceiro local com alta concentração de clorofila e nutrientes, alta abundância dafinídeos e número elevado de espécies. Resultados similares com aumento de dafnideos em condicoes mesotroficas também foram observados para lagos da Argentina e Nova Zelândia do sul.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plankton/isolation & purification , Lakes , Bays , Crustacea , Phosphorus/analysis , Chile , Chlorophyll , Environmental Monitoring , Chlorophyll A , Nitrogen/analysis
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